Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes
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Cáceres Alejandro
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data 1, utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model 2. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU and Yoruba (YRI HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions
Fitness consequences of polymorphic inversions in the zebra finch genome.
Knief, Ulrich; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Griffith, Simon C; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang
2016-09-29
Inversion polymorphisms constitute an evolutionary puzzle: they should increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic individuals but still they are widespread in some taxa. Some insect species have evolved mechanisms to reduce the cost of embryo mortality but humans have not. In birds, a detailed analysis is missing although intraspecific inversion polymorphisms are regarded as common. In Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), two polymorphic inversions are known cytogenetically and we set out to detect these two and potentially additional inversions using genomic tools and study their effects on embryo mortality and other fitness-related and morphological traits. Using whole-genome SNP data, we screened 948 wild zebra finches for polymorphic inversions and describe four large (12-63 Mb) intraspecific inversion polymorphisms with allele frequencies close to 50 %. Using additional data from 5229 birds and 9764 eggs from wild and three captive zebra finch populations, we show that only the largest inversions increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic males, with surprisingly small effect sizes. We test for a heterozygote advantage on other fitness components but find no evidence for heterosis for any of the inversions. Yet, we find strong additive effects on several morphological traits. The mechanism that has carried the derived inversion haplotypes to such high allele frequencies remains elusive. It appears that selection has effectively minimized the costs associated with inversions in zebra finches. The highly skewed distribution of recombination events towards the chromosome ends in zebra finches and other estrildid species may function to minimize crossovers in the inverted regions.
Polytene chromosome map and inversion polymorphism in Drosophila mediopunctata
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Galina Ananina
2002-07-01
Full Text Available Drosophila mediopunctata belongs to the tripunctata group, and is one of the commonest Drosophila species collected in some places in Brazil, especially in the winter. A standard map of the polytene chromosomes is presented. The breakpoints of the naturally occurring chromosomal rearrangements are marked on the map. The distribution of breaking points through the chromosomes of D. mediopunctata is apparently non-random. Chromosomes X, II and IV show inversion polymorphisms. Chromosome II is the most polymorphic, with 17 inversions, 8 inversions in the distal region and 9 in the proximal region. Chromosome X has four different gene arrangements, while chromosome IV has only two.
Population Genomics of Inversion Polymorphisms in Drosophila melanogaster
Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Hartl, Daniel L.
2012-01-01
Chromosomal inversions have been an enduring interest of population geneticists since their discovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Numerous lines of evidence suggest powerful selective pressures govern the distributions of polymorphic inversions, and these observations have spurred the development of many explanatory models. However, due to a paucity of nucleotide data, little progress has been made towards investigating selective hypotheses or towards inferring the genealogical histories of inversions, which can inform models of inversion evolution and suggest selective mechanisms. Here, we utilize population genomic data to address persisting gaps in our knowledge of D. melanogaster's inversions. We develop a method, termed Reference-Assisted Reassembly, to assemble unbiased, highly accurate sequences near inversion breakpoints, which we use to estimate the age and the geographic origins of polymorphic inversions. We find that inversions are young, and most are African in origin, which is consistent with the demography of the species. The data suggest that inversions interact with polymorphism not only in breakpoint regions but also chromosome-wide. Inversions remain differentiated at low levels from standard haplotypes even in regions that are distant from breakpoints. Although genetic exchange appears fairly extensive, we identify numerous regions that are qualitatively consistent with selective hypotheses. Finally, we show that In(1)Be, which we estimate to be ∼60 years old (95% CI 5.9 to 372.8 years), has likely achieved high frequency via sex-ratio segregation distortion in males. With deeper sampling, it will be possible to build on our inferences of inversion histories to rigorously test selective models—particularly those that postulate that inversions achieve a selective advantage through the maintenance of co-adapted allele complexes. PMID:23284285
Investigation of inversion polymorphisms in the human genome using principal components analysis.
Ma, Jianzhong; Amos, Christopher I
2012-01-01
Despite the significant advances made over the last few years in mapping inversions with the advent of paired-end sequencing approaches, our understanding of the prevalence and spectrum of inversions in the human genome has lagged behind other types of structural variants, mainly due to the lack of a cost-efficient method applicable to large-scale samples. We propose a novel method based on principal components analysis (PCA) to characterize inversion polymorphisms using high-density SNP genotype data. Our method applies to non-recurrent inversions for which recombination between the inverted and non-inverted segments in inversion heterozygotes is suppressed due to the loss of unbalanced gametes. Inside such an inversion region, an effect similar to population substructure is thus created: two distinct "populations" of inversion homozygotes of different orientations and their 1:1 admixture, namely the inversion heterozygotes. This kind of substructure can be readily detected by performing PCA locally in the inversion regions. Using simulations, we demonstrated that the proposed method can be used to detect and genotype inversion polymorphisms using unphased genotype data. We applied our method to the phase III HapMap data and inferred the inversion genotypes of known inversion polymorphisms at 8p23.1 and 17q21.31. These inversion genotypes were validated by comparing with literature results and by checking Mendelian consistency using the family data whenever available. Based on the PCA-approach, we also performed a preliminary genome-wide scan for inversions using the HapMap data, which resulted in 2040 candidate inversions, 169 of which overlapped with previously reported inversions. Our method can be readily applied to the abundant SNP data, and is expected to play an important role in developing human genome maps of inversions and exploring associations between inversions and susceptibility of diseases.
Adaptive Role of Inversion Polymorphism of Drosophila subobscura in Lead Stressed Environment.
Kenig, Bojan; Kurbalija Novičić, Zorana; Patenković, Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak, Marina; Anđelković, Marko
2015-01-01
Local adaptation to environmental stress at different levels of genetic polymorphism in various plants and animals has been documented through evolution of heavy metal tolerance. We used samples of Drosophila subobscura populations from two differently polluted environments to analyze the change of chromosomal inversion polymorphism as genetic marker during laboratory exposure to lead. Exposure to environmental contamination can affect the genetic content within a particular inversion and produce targets for selection in populations from different environments. The aims were to discover whether the inversion polymorphism is shaped by the local natural environments, and if lead as a selection pressure would cause adaptive divergence of two populations during the multigenerational laboratory experiment. The results showed that populations retain signatures from past contamination events, and that heavy metal pollution can cause adaptive changes in population. Differences in inversion polymorphism between the two populations increased over generations under lead contamination in the laboratory. The inversion polymorphism of population originating from the more polluted natural environment was more stable during the experiment, both under conditions with and without lead. Therefore, results showed that inversion polymorphism as a genetic marker reflects a strong signature of adaptation to the local environment, and that historical demographic events and selection are important for both prediction of evolutionary potential and long-term viability of natural populations.
Megabase-Scale Inversion Polymorphism in the Wild Ancestor of Maize
Fang, Zhou; Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Weber, Allison L.; Dawe, R. Kelly; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C.; González, José de Jesus Sánchez; Ross-Ibarra, Claudia; Doebley, John; Morrell, Peter L.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
Chromosomal inversions are thought to play a special role in local adaptation, through dramatic suppression of recombination, which favors the maintenance of locally adapted alleles. However, relatively few inversions have been characterized in population genomic data. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across a large panel of Zea mays, we have identified an ∼50-Mb region on the short arm of chromosome 1 where patterns of polymorphism are highly consistent with a polymorphic paracentric inversion that captures >700 genes. Comparison to other taxa in Zea and Tripsacum suggests that the derived, inverted state is present only in the wild Z. mays subspecies parviglumis and mexicana and is completely absent in domesticated maize. Patterns of polymorphism suggest that the inversion is ancient and geographically widespread in parviglumis. Cytological screens find little evidence for inversion loops, suggesting that inversion heterozygotes may suffer few crossover-induced fitness consequences. The inversion polymorphism shows evidence of adaptive evolution, including a strong altitudinal cline, a statistical association with environmental variables and phenotypic traits, and a skewed haplotype frequency spectrum for inverted alleles. PMID:22542971
Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements
Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S.; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Arango, Celso; Armando, Marco; Bassett, Anne S.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Boot, Erik; Bravo-Sanchez, Marta; Breetvelt, Elemi; Busa, Tiffany; Butcher, Nancy J.; Campbell, Linda E.; Carmel, Miri; Chow, Eva W C; Crowley, T. Blaine; Cubells, Joseph; Cutler, David; Demaerel, Wolfram; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Duijff, Sasja; Eliez, Stephan; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Epstein, Michael P.; Evers, Rens; Fernandez Garcia-Moya, Luis; Fiksinski, Ania; Fraguas, David; Fremont, Wanda; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Golden, Aaron; Gothelf, Doron; Guo, Tingwei; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.; Heine-Suner, Damian; Hestand, Matthew; Hooper, Stephen R.; Kates, Wendy R.; Kushan, Leila; Laorden-Nieto, Alejandra; Maeder, Johanna; Marino, Bruno; Marshall, Christian R.; McCabe, Kathryn; McDonald-Mcginn, Donna M.; Michaelovosky, Elena; Morrow, Bernice E.; Moss, Edward; Mulle, Jennifer; Murphy, Declan; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Niarchou, Maria; Ornstein, Claudia; Owen, Michael J; Philip, Nicole; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Schneider, Maude; Shashi, Vandana; Simon, Tony J.; Swillen, Ann; Tassone, Flora; Unolt, Marta; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Van Duin, Esther; Vergaelen, Elfi; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Vicari, Stefano; Vingerhoets, Claudia; Vorstman, Jacob; Warren, Steve; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weisman, Omri; Weizman, Abraham; Zackai, Elaine; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zwick, Michael
2017-01-01
Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have
Polymorphism complexity and handedness inversion in serum albumin amyloid fibrils.
Usov, Ivan; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele
2013-12-23
Protein-based amyloid fibrils can show a great variety of polymorphic structures within the same protein precursor, although the origins of these structural homologues remain poorly understood. In this work we investigate the fibrillation of bovine serum albumin--a model globular protein--and we follow the polymorphic evolution by a statistical analysis of high-resolution atomic force microscopy images, complemented, at larger length scales, by concepts based on polymer physics formalism. We identify six distinct classes of coexisting amyloid fibrils, including flexible left-handed twisted ribbons, rigid right-handed helical ribbons and nanotubes. We show that the rigid fibrils originate from flexible fibrils through two diverse polymorphic transitions, first, via a single-fibril transformation when the flexible left-handed twisted ribbons turn into the helical left-handed ribbons, to finally evolve into nanotube-like structures, and second, via a double-fibril transformation when two flexible left-handed twisted ribbons wind together resulting in a right-handed twisted ribbon, followed by a rigid right-handed helical ribbon polymorphic conformation. Hence, the change in handedness occurs with an increase in the level of the fibril's structural organization.
The origin, global distribution, and functional impact of the human 8p23 inversion polymorphism.
Salm, Maximilian P A; Horswell, Stuart D; Hutchison, Claire E; Speedy, Helen E; Yang, Xia; Liang, Liming; Schadt, Eric E; Cookson, William O; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Naoumova, Rossi P; Shoulders, Carol C
2012-06-01
Genomic inversions are an increasingly recognized source of genetic variation. However, a lack of reliable high-throughput genotyping assays for these structures has precluded a full understanding of an inversion's phylogenetic, phenotypic, and population genetic properties. We characterize these properties for one of the largest polymorphic inversions in man (the ∼4.5-Mb 8p23.1 inversion), a structure that encompasses numerous signals of natural selection and disease association. We developed and validated a flexible bioinformatics tool that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion. This tool was applied retrospectively to diverse genome-wide data sets, revealing significant population stratification that largely follows a clinal "serial founder effect" distribution model. Phylogenetic analyses establish the inversion's ancestral origin within the Homo lineage, indicating that 8p23.1 inversion has occurred independently in the Pan lineage. The human inversion breakpoint was localized to an inverted pair of human endogenous retrovirus elements within the large, flanking low-copy repeats; experimental validation of this breakpoint confirmed these elements as the likely intermediary substrates that sponsored inversion formation. In five data sets, mRNA levels of disease-associated genes were robustly associated with inversion genotype. Moreover, a haplotype associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was restricted to the derived inversion state. We conclude that the 8p23.1 inversion is an evolutionarily dynamic structure that can now be accommodated into the understanding of human genetic and phenotypic diversity.
Papaceit, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen; Aguadé, Montserrat
2013-01-01
Drosophila subobscura is a paleartic species of the obscura group with a rich chromosomal polymorphism. To further our understanding on the origin of inversions and on how they regain variation, we have identified and sequenced the two breakpoints of a polymorphic inversion of D. subobscura--inversion 3 of the O chromosome--in a population sample. The breakpoints could be identified as two rather short fragments (∼300 bp and 60 bp long) with no similarity to any known transposable element family or repetitive sequence. The presence of the ∼300-bp fragment at the two breakpoints of inverted chromosomes implies its duplication, an indication of the inversion origin via staggered double-strand breaks. Present results and previous findings support that the mode of origin of inversions is neither related to the inversion age nor species-group specific. The breakpoint regions do not consistently exhibit the lower level of variation within and stronger genetic differentiation between arrangements than more internal regions that would be expected, even in moderately small inversions, if gene conversion were greatly restricted at inversion breakpoints. Comparison of the proximal breakpoint region in species of the obscura group shows that this breakpoint lies in a small high-turnover fragment within a long collinear region (∼300 kb). © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Orengo, D J; Puerma, E; Papaceit, M; Segarra, C; Aguadé, M
2015-06-01
Genome sequence comparison across the Drosophila genus revealed that some fixed inversion breakpoints had been multiply reused at this long timescale. Cytological studies of Drosophila inversion polymorphism had previously shown that, also at this shorter timescale, some breakpoints had been multiply reused. The paucity of molecularly characterized polymorphic inversion breakpoints has so far precluded contrasting whether cytologically shared breakpoints of these relatively young inversions are actually reused at the molecular level. The E chromosome of Drosophila subobscura stands out because it presents several inversion complexes. This is the case of the E1+2+9+3 arrangement that originated from the ancestral Est arrangement through the sequential accumulation of four inversions (E1, E2, E9 and E3) sharing some breakpoints. We recently identified the breakpoints of inversions E1 and E2, which allowed establishing reuse at the molecular level of the cytologically shared breakpoint of these inversions. Here, we identified and sequenced the breakpoints of inversions E9 and E3, because they share breakpoints at sections 58D and 64C with those of inversions E1 and E2. This has allowed establishing that E9 and E3 originated through the staggered-break mechanism. Most importantly, sequence comparison has revealed the multiple reuse at the molecular level of the proximal breakpoint (section 58D), which would have been used at least by inversions E2, E9 and E3. In contrast, the distal breakpoint (section 64C) might have been only reused once by inversions E1 and E2, because the distal E3 breakpoint is displaced >70 kb from the other breakpoint limits.
Human Xq28 Inversion Polymorphism: From Sex Linkage to Genomics--A Genetic Mother Lode
Kirby, Cait S.; Kolber, Natalie; Salih Almohaidi, Asmaa M.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Saunders, Lori; Williams, Steven; Merritt, Robert
2016-01-01
An inversion polymorphism of the filamin and emerin genes at the tip of the long arm of the human X-chromosome serves as the basis of an investigative laboratory in which students learn something new about their own genomes. Long, nearly identical inverted repeats flanking the filamin and emerin genes illustrate how repetitive elements can lead to…
Bridi, L C; Rafael, M S
2016-02-01
Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in humans in South America. In the Amazon basin, it lives along the banks of rivers and lakes, which responds to the annual hydrological cycle (dry season and rainy season). In these breeding sites, the larvae of this mosquito feed on decomposing organic and microorganisms, which can be pathogenic and trigger the activation of innate immune system pathways, such as proteins Gram-negative binding protein (GNBP). Such environmental changes affect the occurrence of polymorphic inversions especially at the heterozygote frequency, which confer adaptative advantage compared to homozygous inversions. We mapped the GNBP probe to the An. darlingi 2Rd inversion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), which was a good indicator of the GNBP immune response related to the chromosomal polymorphic inversions and adaptative evolution. To better understand the evolutionary relations and time of divergence of the GNBP of An. darlingi, we compared it with nine other mosquito GNBPs. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of the GNBP sequence between the species of mosquitoes demonstrated three clades. Clade I and II included the GNBPB5 sequence, and clade III the sequence of GNBPB1. Most of these sequences of GNBP analyzed were homologous with that of subfamily B, including that of An. gambiae (87 %), therefore suggesting that GNBP of An. darling belongs to subfamily B. This work helps us understand the role of inversion polymorphism in evolution of An. darlingi.
Chromosome 17: association of a large inversion polymorphism with corticosteroid response in asthma.
Tantisira, Kelan G; Lazarus, Ross; Litonjua, Augusto A; Klanderman, Barbara; Weiss, Scott T
2008-08-01
A 900-kb inversion exists within a large region of conserved linkage disequilibrium (LD) on chromosome 17. CRHR1 is located within the inversion region and associated with inhaled corticosteroid response in asthma. We hypothesized that CRHR1 variants are in LD with the inversion, supporting a potential role for natural selection in the genetic response to corticosteroids. We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning chromosome 17: 40,410,565-42,372,240, including four SNPs defining inversion status. Similar allele frequencies and strong LD were noted between the inversion and a CRHR1 SNP previously associated with lung function response to inhaled corticosteroids. Each inversion-defining SNP was strongly associated with inhaled corticosteroid response in adult asthma (P values 0.002-0.005). The CRHR1 response to inhaled corticosteroids may thus be explained by natural selection resulting from inversion status or by long-range LD with another gene. Additional pharmacogenetic investigations into regions of chromosomal diversity, including copy number variation and inversions, are warranted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2005-10-01
Full Text Available With a draft genome-sequence assembly for the chimpanzee available, it is now possible to perform genome-wide analyses to identify, at a submicroscopic level, structural rearrangements that have occurred between chimpanzees and humans. The goal of this study was to investigate chromosomal regions that are inverted between the chimpanzee and human genomes. Using the net alignments for the builds of the human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we identified a total of 1,576 putative regions of inverted orientation, covering more than 154 mega-bases of DNA. The DNA segments are distributed throughout the genome and range from 23 base pairs to 62 mega-bases in length. For the 66 inversions more than 25 kilobases (kb in length, 75% were flanked on one or both sides by (often unrelated segmental duplications. Using PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization we experimentally validated 23 of 27 (85% semi-randomly chosen regions; the largest novel inversion confirmed was 4.3 mega-bases at human Chromosome 7p14. Gorilla was used as an out-group to assign ancestral status to the variants. All experimentally validated inversion regions were then assayed against a panel of human samples and three of the 23 (13% regions were found to be polymorphic in the human genome. These polymorphic inversions include 730 kb (at 7p22, 13 kb (at 7q11, and 1 kb (at 16q24 fragments with a 5%, 30%, and 48% minor allele frequency, respectively. Our results suggest that inversions are an important source of variation in primate genome evolution. The finding of at least three novel inversion polymorphisms in humans indicates this type of structural variation may be a more common feature of our genome than previously realized.
An unusual haplotype structure on human chromosome 8p23 derived from the inversion polymorphism.
Deng, Libin; Zhang, Yuezheng; Kang, Jian; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Hongbin; Gao, Yang; Li, Chaohua; Pan, Hao; Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Dunmei; Niu, Tianhua; Yang, Huanming; Zeng, Changqing
2008-10-01
Chromosomal inversion is an important type of genomic variations involved in both evolution and disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe the refined genetic structure of a 3.8-Mb inversion polymorphism at chromosome 8p23. Using HapMap data of 1,073 SNPs generated from 209 unrelated samples from CEPH-Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe (CEU); Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI); and Asian (ASN) samples, which were comprised of Han Chinese from Beijing, China (CHB) and Japanese from Tokyo, Japan (JPT)-we successfully deduced the inversion orientations of all their 418 haplotypes. In particular, distinct haplotype subgroups were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA). Such genetic substructures were consistent with clustering patterns based on neighbor-joining tree reconstruction, which revealed a total of four haplotype clades across all samples. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a subset of 10 HapMap samples verified their inversion orientations predicted by PCA or phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Positioning of the outgroup haplotype within one of YRI clades suggested that Human NCBI Build 36-inverted order is most likely the ancestral orientation. Furthermore, the population differentiation test and the relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) analysis in this region discovered multiple selection signals, also in a population-specific manner. A positive selection signal was detected at XKR6 in the ASN population. These results revealed the correlation of inversion polymorphisms to population-specific genetic structures, and various selection patterns as possible mechanisms for the maintenance of a large chromosomal rearrangement at 8p23 region during evolution. In addition, our study also showed that haplotype-based clustering methods, such as PCA, can be applied in scanning for cryptic inversion polymorphisms at a genome-wide scale.
INVERSION POLYMORPHISM, LONGEVITY, AND BODY SIZE IN A NATURAL POPULATION OF DROSOPHILA BUZZATII.
Rodriguez, Constantina; Fanara, Juan J; Hasson, Esteban
1999-04-01
In this study we present the results of an analysis of differential longevity associated with Drosophila buzzatii second chromosome inversion karyotypes based on the assessment of more than 1000 individuals collected in a natural population. Comparisons of inversion frequencies between emerged and bait-collected flies showed not only that inversion arrangements were associated with differential longevity, but also that selection was sex specific. Because each individual fly was scored for thorax length and karyotype, we were able to show that longevity selection favoring larger flies coupled with the average effect of inversions on thorax length can account for the change of inversion frequencies due to longevity in females. The observed genotypic-by-sex interaction could be an important mechanism involved in the maintenance of the polymorphism. Arrangement 2Jz 3 , which was shown to impaired fecundity in two independent previous studies, exhibited a positive effect on longevity. This pattern of negative pleiotropy may be another plausible mechanism accounting for the maintenance of the polymorphism. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Alves, Joao M; Chikhi, Lounès; Amorim, António; Lopes, Alexandra M
2014-04-01
For decades, chromosomal inversions have been regarded as fascinating evolutionary elements as they are expected to suppress recombination between chromosomes with opposite orientations, leading to the accumulation of genetic differences between the two configurations over time. Here, making use of publicly available population genotype data for the largest polymorphic inversion in the human genome (8p23-inv), we assessed whether this inhibitory effect of inversion rearrangements led to significant differences in the recombination landscape of two homologous DNA segments, with opposite orientation. Our analysis revealed that the accumulation of genetic differentiation is positively correlated with the variation in recombination profiles. The observed recombination dissimilarity between inversion types is consistent across all populations analyzed and surpasses the effects of geographic structure, suggesting that both structures (orientations) have been evolving independently over an extended period of time, despite being subjected to the very same demographic history. Aside this mainly independent evolution, we also identified a short segment (350 kb, inversion) in the central region of the inversion where the genetic divergence between the two structural haplotypes is diminished. Although it is difficult to demonstrate it, this could be due to gene flow (possibly via double-crossing over events), which is consistent with the higher recombination rates surrounding this segment. This study demonstrates for the first time that chromosomal inversions influence the recombination landscape at a fine-scale and highlights the role of these rearrangements as drivers of genome evolution.
Nested Inversion Polymorphisms Predispose Chromosome 22q11.2 to Meiotic Rearrangements.
Demaerel, Wolfram; Hestand, Matthew S; Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; López-Sánchez, Marcos; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Morrow, Bernice E; Breckpot, Jeroen; Devriendt, Koenraad; Vermeesch, Joris R
2017-10-05
Inversion polymorphisms between low-copy repeats (LCRs) might predispose chromosomes to meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events and thus lead to genomic disorders. However, for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common genomic disorder, no such inversions have been uncovered as of yet. Using fiber-FISH, we demonstrate that parents transmitting the de novo 3 Mb LCR22A-D 22q11.2 deletion, the reciprocal duplication, and the smaller 1.5 Mb LCR22A-B 22q11.2 deletion carry inversions of LCR22B-D or LCR22C-D. Hence, the inversions predispose chromosome 22q11.2 to meiotic rearrangements and increase the individual risk for transmitting rearrangements. Interestingly, the inversions are nested or flanking rather than coinciding with the deletion or duplication sizes. This finding raises the possibility that inversions are a prerequisite not only for 22q11.2 rearrangements but also for all NAHR-mediated genomic disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nucleotide, cytogenetic and expression impact of the human chromosome 8p23.1 inversion polymorphism.
Bosch, Nina; Morell, Marta; Ponsa, Immaculada; Mercader, Josep Maria; Armengol, Lluís; Estivill, Xavier
2009-12-14
The human chromosome 8p23.1 region contains a 3.8-4.5 Mb segment which can be found in different orientations (defined as genomic inversion) among individuals. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tightly linked to the genomic orientation of a given region should be useful to indirectly evaluate the genotypes of large genomic orientations in the individuals. We have identified 16 SNPs, which are in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the 8p23.1 inversion as detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The variability of the 8p23.1 orientation in 150 HapMap samples was predicted using this set of SNPs and was verified by FISH in a subset of samples. Four genes (NEIL2, MSRA, CTSB and BLK) were found differentially expressed (pinversion occurred. Moreover, an impact of 8p23.1 inversion on gene expression levels cannot be ruled out, since four genes from this region have statistically significant different expression levels depending on the inversion status. FISH results in lymphoblastoid cell lines suggest the presence of mosaicism regarding the 8p23.1 inversion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David B Lowry
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and
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Cristina Aguado
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In recent years different types of structural variants (SVs have been discovered in the human genome and their functional impact has become increasingly clear. Inversions, however, are poorly characterized and more difficult to study, especially those mediated by inverted repeats or segmental duplications. Here, we describe the results of a simple and fast inverse PCR (iPCR protocol for high-throughput genotyping of a wide variety of inversions using a small amount of DNA. In particular, we analyzed 22 inversions predicted in humans ranging from 5.1 kb to 226 kb and mediated by inverted repeat sequences of 1.6-24 kb. First, we validated 17 of the 22 inversions in a panel of nine HapMap individuals from different populations, and we genotyped them in 68 additional individuals of European origin, with correct genetic transmission in ∼ 12 mother-father-child trios. Global inversion minor allele frequency varied between 1% and 49% and inversion genotypes were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. By analyzing the nucleotide variation and the haplotypes in these regions, we found that only four inversions have linked tag-SNPs and that in many cases there are multiple shared SNPs between standard and inverted chromosomes, suggesting an unexpected high degree of inversion recurrence during human evolution. iPCR was also used to check 16 of these inversions in four chimpanzees and two gorillas, and 10 showed both orientations either within or between species, providing additional support for their multiple origin. Finally, we have identified several inversions that include genes in the inverted or breakpoint regions, and at least one disrupts a potential coding gene. Thus, these results represent a significant advance in our understanding of inversion polymorphism in human populations and challenge the common view of a single origin of inversions, with important implications for inversion analysis in SNP-based studies.
Hobart, Holly H; Morris, Colleen A; Mervis, Carolyn B; Pani, Ariel M; Kistler, Doris J; Rios, Cecilia M; Kimberley, Kendra W; Gregg, Ronald G; Bray-Ward, Patricia
2010-05-15
Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem disorder caused by deletion of about 1.55 Mb of DNA (including 26 genes) on chromosome 7q11.23, a region predisposed to recombination due to its genomic structure. Deletion of the Williams syndrome chromosome region (WSCR) occurs sporadically. To better define chance for familial recurrence and to investigate the prevalence of genomic rearrangements of the region, 257 children with WS and their parents were studied. We determined deletion size in probands by metaphase FISH, parent-of-origin of the deleted chromosome by molecular genetic methods, and inversion status of the WSCR in both parents by interphase FISH. The frequency of WSCR inversion in the transmitting parent group was 24.9%. In contrast, the rate of inversion in the non-transmitting parent group (a reasonable estimate of the rate in the general population) was 5.8%. There were no significant gender differences with respect to parent-of-origin for the deleted chromosome or the incidence of the inversion polymorphism. There was no difference in the rate of spontaneous abortion for mothers heterozygous for the WSCR inversion relative to mothers without the inversion. We calculate that for a parent heterozygous for a WSCR inversion, the chance to have a child with WS is about 1 in 1,750, in contrast to the 1 in 9,500 chance for a parent without an inversion.
de Jong, Simone; Chepelev, Iouri; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Ophoff, Roel A
2012-09-06
Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner.
Brown, Malcolm
2009-01-01
Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…
Zhang, Zhengzhi; Zhu, Huilan; Gill, Bikram S; Li, Wanlong
2015-04-01
This work laid the foundation for cloning of shattering gene Br2 and provided first line of evidence that two major Aegilops tauschii lineages are differentiated by an inversion polymorphism. Chromosome inversions often accompany population differentiation and capture local adaptation during speciation. Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor species of hexaploid wheat, consists of two genetically isolated lineages, L1 and L2, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying the population differentiation in this diploid species. During fine mapping of the shattering gene Br2 using a large F2 population derived from a cross between TA1604 (an L1 accession) and AL8/78 (an L2 accession), we found contrasting patterns of crossover distribution in the Br2 interval and neighboring regions despite the high local gene synteny with Brachypodium distachyon and rice. Br2 was localized in a 0.08-cM interval, and 13 marker loci formed a block, where single-crossovers were completely suppressed, but double-crossovers were enriched with a recombination rate of ~11 cM/Mb. In contrast, in a neighboring region no double-crossover was recovered, but single-crossover rate reached 24 cM/Mb, which is much higher than the genome-wide average. This result suggests a putative inversion polymorphism between the parental lines in the Br2 region. Genotyping using the markers from the Br2 region divided a collection of 55 randomly sampled A. tauschii accessions into two major groups, and they are largely genetically isolated. The two groups correspond to the L1 and L2 lineages based on their geographic distribution patterns. This provides first evidence that inversions may underlie the evolution of A. tauschii lineages. The presence of inter-lineage inversions may complicate map-based cloning in A. tauschii and transfer of useful traits to wheat.
Vicente-Salvador, David; Puig, Marta; Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Pacheco, Sarai; Giner-Delgado, Carla; Noguera, Isaac; Izquierdo, David; Martínez-Fundichely, Alexander; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Estivill, Xavier; Aguado, Cristina; Lucas-Lledó, José Ignacio; Cáceres, Mario
2017-02-01
The growing catalogue of structural variants in humans often overlooks inversions as one of the most difficult types of variation to study, even though they affect phenotypic traits in diverse organisms. Here, we have analysed in detail 90 inversions predicted from the comparison of two independently assembled human genomes: the reference genome (NCBI36/HG18) and HuRef. Surprisingly, we found that two thirds of these predictions (62) represent errors either in assembly comparison or in one of the assemblies, including 27 misassembled regions in HG18. Next, we validated 22 of the remaining 28 potential polymorphic inversions using different PCR techniques and characterized their breakpoints and ancestral state. In addition, we determined experimentally the derived allele frequency in Europeans for 17 inversions (DAF = 0.01-0.80), as well as the distribution in 14 worldwide populations for 12 of them based on the 1000 Genomes Project data. Among the validated inversions, nine have inverted repeats (IRs) at their breakpoints, and two show nucleotide variation patterns consistent with a recurrent origin. Conversely, inversions without IRs have a unique origin and almost all of them show deletions or insertions at the breakpoints in the derived allele mediated by microhomology sequences, which highlights the importance of mechanisms like FoSTeS/MMBIR in the generation of complex rearrangements in the human genome. Finally, we found several inversions located within genes and at least one candidate to be positively selected in Africa. Thus, our study emphasizes the importance of careful analysis and validation of large-scale genomic predictions to extract reliable biological conclusions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aisha J L Munk
Full Text Available In event-related potentials, the N170 manifests itself especially in reaction to faces. In the healthy population, face-inversion leads to stronger negative amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the N170, effects not being present in patients with autism-spectrum-disorder (ASD. ASD has frequently been associated with differences in oxytocinergic neurotransmission. This ERP-study aimed to investigate the face-inversion effect in association with oxytocinergic candidate genes. It was expected that risk-allele-carriers of the oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism (rs53576 and of CD38 (rs379863 responded similar to upright and inverted faces as persons with ASD. Additionally, reactions to different facial emotional expressions were studied. As there have been difficulties with replications of those molecular genetic association studies, we aimed to replicate our findings in a second study.Seventy-two male subjects in the first-, and seventy-eight young male subjects in the replication-study conducted a face-inversion-paradigm, while recording EEG. DNA was extracted from buccal cells.Results revealed stronger N170-amplitudes and longer latencies in reaction to inverted faces in comparison to upright ones. Furthermore, effects of emotion on N170 were evident. Those effects were present in the first and in the second study. Whereas we found molecular-genetic associations of oxytocinergic polymorphisms with the N170 in the first study, we failed to do so in the replication sample.Results indicate that a deeper theoretical understanding of this research-field is needed, in order to generate possible explanations for these findings. Results, furthermore, support the hypotheses that success of reproducibility is correlated with strength of lower original p-values and larger effect sizes in the original study.
Brianti, Mitsue T; Ananina, Galina; Klaczko, Louis B
2013-01-01
Detailed chromosome maps with reliable homologies among chromosomes of different species are the first step to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species. Here, we present detailed photo maps of the polytene chromosomes of three closely related species of the tripunctata group (subgenus Drosophila): Drosophila mediopunctata, D. roehrae, and D. unipunctata. We identified Muller's elements in each species, using FISH, establishing reliable chromosome homologies among species and D. melanogaster. The simultaneous analysis of chromosome inversions revealed a distribution pattern for the inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in the three species. Element E is the most polymorphic, with many inversions in each species. Element C follows; while the least polymorphic elements are B and D. While interesting, it remains to be determined how general this pattern is among species of the tripunctata group. Despite previous studies showing that D. mediopunctata and D. unipunctata are phylogenetically closer to each other than to D. roehrae, D. unipunctata shows rare karyotypic changes. It has two chromosome fusions: an additional heterochromatic chromosome pair and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. This especial conformation suggests a fast chromosomal evolution that deserves further study.
Lavington, Erik; Kern, Andrew D
2017-11-06
Chromosomal inversions are a ubiquitous feature of genetic variation. Theoretical models describe several mechanisms by which inversions can drive adaptation and be maintained as polymorphisms. While inversions have been shown previously to be under selection, or contain genetic variation under selection, the specific phenotypic consequences of inversions leading to their maintenance remain unclear. Here we use genomic sequence and expression data from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to explore the effects of two cosmopolitan inversions, In ( 2L ) t and In ( 3R ) Mo , on patterns of transcriptional variation. We demonstrate that each inversion has a significant effect on transcript abundance for hundreds of genes across the genome. Inversion-affected loci (IAL) appear both within inversions as well as on unlinked chromosomes. Importantly, IAL do not appear to be influenced by the previously reported genome-wide expression correlation structure. We found that five genes involved with sterol uptake, four of which are Niemann-Pick Type 2 orthologs, are upregulated in flies with In ( 3R ) Mo but do not have SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the inversion. We speculate that this upregulation is driven by genetic variation in mod ( mdg4 ) that is in LD with In ( 3R ) Mo We find that there is little evidence for a regional or position effect of inversions on gene expression at the chromosomal level, but do find evidence for the distal breakpoint of In ( 3R ) Mo interrupting one gene and possibly disassociating the two flanking genes from regulatory elements. Copyright © 2017 Lavington and Kern.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Jang-Ming
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was observed in many types of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. One functional SNP, COX-2 -1195G/A, has been reported to mediate susceptibility of ESCC in Chinese populations. In our previous study, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori was found to play a protective role in development of ESCC. The interaction of COX-2 and H. pylori in gastric cancer was well investigated. However, literature on their interaction in ESCC risk is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction between COX-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, H. pylori infection and the risk of developing ESCC. Methods One hundred and eighty patients with ESCC and 194 controls were enrolled in this study. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking habits and betel quid chewing, were collected via questionnaire. Genotypes of the COX-2 -1195 polymorphism were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. H. pylori seropositivity was defined by immunochromatographic screening test. Data was analyzed by chi-squared tests and polytomous logistics regression. Results In analysis adjusting for the covariates and confounders, H. pylori seropositivity was found to be inversely association with the ESCC development (adjusted OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.9. COX-2 -1195 AA homozygous was associated with an increased risk of contracting ESCC in comparison with the non-AA group, especially among patients with H. pylori seronegative (adjusted OR ratio: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2 – 7.3. The effect was strengthened among patients with lower third ESCC (adjusted OR ratio: 6.9, 95% CI 2.1 – 22.5. Besides, H. pylori seropositivity conveyed a notably inverse effect among patients with COX-2 AA polymorphism (AOR ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 – 0.9, and the effect was observed to be enhanced for the lower third ESCC
Hu, Huang-Ming; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Lee, Chien-Hung; Wu, I-Chen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Lee, Jang-Ming; Goan, Yih-Gang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Kao, Ein-Long; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Deng-Chyang
2009-05-23
Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was observed in many types of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). One functional SNP, COX-2 -1195G/A, has been reported to mediate susceptibility of ESCC in Chinese populations. In our previous study, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was found to play a protective role in development of ESCC. The interaction of COX-2 and H. pylori in gastric cancer was well investigated. However, literature on their interaction in ESCC risk is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction between COX-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), H. pylori infection and the risk of developing ESCC. One hundred and eighty patients with ESCC and 194 controls were enrolled in this study. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking habits and betel quid chewing, were collected via questionnaire. Genotypes of the COX-2 -1195 polymorphism were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. H. pylori seropositivity was defined by immunochromatographic screening test. Data was analyzed by chi-squared tests and polytomous logistics regression. In analysis adjusting for the covariates and confounders, H. pylori seropositivity was found to be inversely association with the ESCC development (adjusted OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3 - 0.9). COX-2 -1195 AA homozygous was associated with an increased risk of contracting ESCC in comparison with the non-AA group, especially among patients with H. pylori seronegative (adjusted OR ratio: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2 - 7.3). The effect was strengthened among patients with lower third ESCC (adjusted OR ratio: 6.9, 95% CI 2.1 - 22.5). Besides, H. pylori seropositivity conveyed a notably inverse effect among patients with COX-2 AA polymorphism (AOR ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 - 0.9), and the effect was observed to be enhanced for the lower third ESCC patients (AOR ratio: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02 - 0.47, p for
Linander, Ida; Alm, Erika; Goicolea, Isabel; Harryson, Lisa
2017-05-01
The few previous studies investigating regulation of gender in trans-specific healthcare are mainly based on text material and interviews with care-providers or consist solely of theoretical analyses. There is a lack of studies analysing how the regulation of gender is expressed in the care-seeker's own experiences, especially in a Nordic context. The aim of this study is to analyse narratives of individuals with trans experiences (sometimes called transgender people) to examine how gender performances can be regulated in trans-specific care in Sweden. The conceptual framework is inspired by trans studies, a Foucauldian analysis of power, queer phenomenology and the concept of cisnormativity. Fourteen interviews with people with trans experiences are analysed with constructivist grounded theory. The participants' experiences indicate that gender is constructed as norm-conforming, binary and stable in trans-specific healthcare. This gendered position is resisted, negotiated and embraced by the care-seekers. Norms and discourses both inside and outside trans-specific care contribute to the regulation and limit the room for action for care-users. We conclude that a trans-specific care that has a confirming approach to its care-users, instead of the current focus on gender norm conformity, has the potential to increase the self-determination of gender performance and increase the quality of care.
Walfort, B; Pandey, S K; Stalke, D
2001-09-07
A single ethylene oxide anion derived from the ether cleavage reaction of thf with ButLi is stabilised by the inverse podant [Li3(NBut)3S)]+ to give a high- and a low-temperature polymorph with a considerable difference in conformation and packing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez, M; Fuentes, J L [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Rodriguez, N N; Cueto, J [Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung (MPIZ), Koln (Germany); Becker, D; Rohde, W [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT). C. Habana (Cuba)
2001-07-01
A survey of the genetic diversity among commercial Cuban avocado varieties was initiated using ISTR analysis. ISTR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms among the genotypes. The obtained dissimilarities values ranged from 0.24 between var. Suardia and Hass to 1.00 between Lula and Los Moros or CHI-3 with an average dissimilarity of 0.78. A cluster analysis was performed based on dissimilarity using UPGMA as the clustering method. The efficiency of UPGMA in estimating genetic relationships between varieties was corroborated by the cophenetic correlation coefficients, which indicated that the distortion degree in the relationship of the estimated dissimilarities was minimal. Ecological groups were not adequately represented in the dendrogram. Thus, West Indians, Guatemalan and Mexican genotypes were positioned across the dendrogram. The utility of ISTR for genotype identification and assessment of genetic diversity in commercial avocado varieties is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez, M; Fuentes, J. L.; Rodriguez, N.N.; Cueto, J.; Becker, D.; Rohde, W.
2001-01-01
A survey of the genetic diversity among commercial Cuban avocado varieties was initiated using ISTR analysis. ISTR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms among the genotypes. The obtained dissimilarities values ranged from 0.24 between var. Suardia and Hass to 1.00 between Lula and Los Moros or CHI-3 with an average dissimilarity of 0.78. A cluster analysis was performed based on dissimilarity using UPGMA as the clustering method. The efficiency of UPGMA in estimating genetic relationships between varieties was corroborated by the cophenetic correlation coefficients, which indicated that the distortion degree in the relationship of the estimated dissimilarities was minimal. Ecological groups were not adequately represented in the dendrogram. Thus, West Indians, Guatemalan and Mexican genotypes were positioned across the dendrogram. The utility of ISTR for genotype identification and assessment of genetic diversity in commercial avocado varieties is discussed
Trans-specific gene silencing of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in a root-parasitic plant.
Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C G; Yoder, John I
2013-05-01
Parasitic species of the family Orobanchaceae are devastating agricultural pests in many parts of the world. The control of weedy Orobanchaceae spp. is challenging, particularly due to the highly coordinated life cycles of the parasite and host plants. Although host genetic resistance often provides the foundation of plant pathogen management, few genes that confer resistance to root parasites have been identified and incorporated into crop species. Members of the family Orobanchaceae acquire water, nutrients, macromolecules, and oligonucleotides from host plants through haustoria that connect parasite and host plant roots. We are evaluating a resistance strategy based on using interfering RNA (RNAi) that is made in the host but inhibitory in the parasite as a parasite-derived oligonucleotide toxin. Sequences from the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) gene from Triphysaria versicolor were cloned in hairpin conformation and introduced into Medicago truncatula roots by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. Transgenic roots were recovered for four of five ACCase constructions and infected with T. versicolor against parasitic weeds. In all cases, Triphysaria root viability was reduced up to 80% when parasitizing a host root bearing the hairpin ACCase. Triphysaria root growth was recovered by exogenous application of malonate. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that ACCase transcript levels were dramatically decreased in Triphysaria spp. parasitizing transgenic Medicago roots. Northern blot analysis identified a 21-nucleotide, ACCase-specific RNA in transgenic M. truncatula and in T. versicolor attached to them. One hairpin ACCase construction was lethal to Medicago spp. unless grown in media supplemented with malonate. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Medicago ACCase was inhibited by the Triphysaria ACCase RNAi. This work shows that ACCase is an effective target for inactivation in parasitic plants by trans-specific gene
Polukonova, N V; Karmokov, M Kh; Shaternikov, A N
2015-02-01
The karyotype of Camptochironomus pallidivittatus Edwards, 1929 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from five populations of the Lower Volga region and Central Caucasus (the northern macroslope) has been studied. In populations of S. pallidivittatus from the Central Caucasus, 11 banding sequences (BS) were found; one sequence, pal B10, was new to the species. In the Saratov population, 11 BS were also found, three of which were new for the species-pal A3, pal B11, and pal B12. The banding sequences detected for the first time have not yet been found in other parts of the habitat of this species and may be endemic to these regions. In the studied populations ofS. pallidivittatus, banding sequences were found that were nonstandard but fixed in the karyotype. This is indicative of some degree of chromosomal divergence. These banding sequences include pal A2.2 in arm A and pal B10.10 in arm B in the Central Caucasus region, as well as pal B2.2 and pal G2.2 in the Lower Volga region. Arms A, B, D, and G in the Central Caucasian populations and A, B, and D in the Saratov oblast were polymorphic. The composition of heterozygous sequences between populations from different regions coincided only in arm D (pal D 1.2). In arms A and B, the set of heterozygous BS was different: pal A1.2 and pal B1.10 sequences were found in the Central Caucasian populations, and pal A1.3 and B11.12 were found in Saratov oblast. The number of genotypic combinations of S. pallidivittatus was higher in the Central Caucasus region, whereas the number of zygotic combinations was higher in the Saratov population. The percentage of heterozygous larvae in the Central Caucasian populations varied from 20 to 80, whereas all individuals in the Saratov population had heterozygous inversions. Zygotic combinations of larvae in all the studied populations were different.
Vaxillaire, Martine; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Dechaume, Aurélie; Tichet, Jean; Marre, Michel; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe
2008-08-01
Hepatic glucokinase (GCK) is a key regulator of glucose storage and disposal in the liver, where its activity is competitively modulated, with respect to glucose, by binding to glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. Genome-wide association studies for type 2 diabetes identified GCKR as a potential locus for modulating triglyceride levels. We evaluated, in a general French population, the contribution of the GCKR rs1260326-P446L polymorphism to quantitative metabolic parameters and to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia risk. Genotype effects of rs1260326 were studied in 4,833 participants from the prospective DESIR (Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome) cohort both at inclusion and using the measurements at follow-up. The minor T-allele of rs1260326 was strongly associated with lower fasting glucose (-1.43% per T-allele; P = 8 x 10(-13)) and fasting insulin levels (-4.23%; P = 3 x 10(-7)), lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (-5.69%; P = 1 x 10(-8)), and, conversely, higher triglyceride levels (3.41%; P = 1 x 10(-4)) during the 9-year study. These effects relate to a lower risk of hyperglycemia (odds ratio [OR] 0.79 [95% CI 0.70-0.88]; P = 4 x 10(-5)) and of incident cases during the study (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83 [0.74-0.95]; P = 0.005). Moreover, an additive effect of GCKR rs1260326(T) and GCK (-30G) alleles conferred lower fasting glycemia (P = 1 x 10(-13)), insulinemia (P = 5 x 10(-6)), and hyperglycemia risk (P = 1 x 10(-6)). GCKR-L446 carriers are protected against type 2 diabetes despite higher triglyceride levels and risk of dyslipidemia, which suggests a potential molecular mechanism by which these two components of the metabolic syndrome can be dissociated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki
1994-01-01
Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)
Ingram, WT
2012-01-01
Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2001-01-01
safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Sereno
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Inverse kinematics is the process of converting a Cartesian point in space into a set of joint angles to more efficiently move the end effector of a robot to a desired orientation. This project investigates the inverse kinematics of a robotic hand with fingers under various scenarios. Assuming the parameters of a provided robot, a general equation for the end effector point was calculated and used to plot the region of space that it can reach. Further, the benefits obtained from the addition of a prismatic joint versus an extra variable angle joint were considered. The results confirmed that having more movable parts, such as prismatic points and changing angles, increases the effective reach of a robotic hand.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desesquelles, P.
1997-01-01
Computer Monte Carlo simulations occupy an increasingly important place between theory and experiment. This paper introduces a global protocol for the comparison of model simulations with experimental results. The correlated distributions of the model parameters are determined using an original recursive inversion procedure. Multivariate analysis techniques are used in order to optimally synthesize the experimental information with a minimum number of variables. This protocol is relevant in all fields if physics dealing with event generators and multi-parametric experiments. (authors)
Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.
Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.
Inverse problems of geophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanovskaya, T.B.
2003-07-01
This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given
Acute puerperal uterine inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, M.; Liaquat, N.; Noorani, K.; Bhutta, S.Z; Jabeen, T.
2004-01-01
Objective: To determine the frequency, causes, clinical presentations, management and maternal mortality associated with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus. Materials and Methods: All the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion of the uterus either in or outside the JPMC were included in the study. Patients of chronic uterine inversion were not included in the present study. Abdominal and vaginal examination was done to confirm and classify inversion into first, second or third degrees. Results: 57036 deliveries and 36 acute uterine inversions occurred during the study period, so the frequency of uterine inversion was 1 in 1584 deliveries. Mismanagement of third stage of labour was responsible for uterine inversion in 75% of patients. Majority of the patients presented with shock, either hypovolemic (69%) or neurogenic (13%) in origin. Manual replacement of the uterus under general anaesthesia with 2% halothane was successfully done in 35 patients (97.5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was done in only one patient. There were three maternal deaths due to inversion. Conclusion: Proper education and training regarding placental delivery, diagnosis and management of uterine inversion must be imparted to the maternity care providers especially to traditional birth attendants and family physicians to prevent this potentially life-threatening condition. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofer, Christian; Ostermann, Klaus; Rendel, Tillmann
2008-01-01
propose polymorphic embedding of DSLs, where many different interpretations of a DSL can be provided as reusable components, and show how polymorphic embedding can be realized in the programming language Scala. With polymorphic embedding, the static type-safety, modularity, composability and rapid...
Inverse logarithmic potential problem
Cherednichenko, V G
1996-01-01
The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.
Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten
In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....
The genetic content of chromosomal inversions across a wide latitudinal gradient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Simões
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence regarding the role of chromosomal inversions in relevant biological processes such as local adaptation and speciation. A classic example of the adaptive role of chromosomal polymorphisms is given by the clines of inversion frequencies in Drosophila subobscura, repeatable across continents. Nevertheless, not much is known about the molecular variation associated with these polymorphisms. We characterized the genetic content of ca. 600 individuals from nine European populations following a latitudinal gradient by analysing 19 microsatellite loci from two autosomes (J and U and the sex chromosome (A, taking into account their chromosomal inversions. Our results clearly demonstrate the molecular genetic uniformity within a given chromosomal inversion across a large latitudinal gradient, particularly from Groningen (Netherlands in the north to Málaga (Spain in the south, experiencing highly diverse environmental conditions. This low genetic differentiation within the same gene arrangement across the nine European populations is consistent with the local adaptation hypothesis for th evolutionof chromosomal polymorphisms. We also show the effective role of chromosomal inversions in maintaining different genetic pools within these inverted genomic regions even in the presence of high gene flow. Inversions represent thus an important barrier to gene flux and can help maintain specific allelic combinations with positive effects on fitness. Consistent patterns of microsatellite allele-inversion linkage disequilibrium particularly in loci within inversions were also observed. Finally, we identified areas within inversions presenting clinal variation that might be under selection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhard, N.R.
1979-01-01
The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables
Sharp spatially constrained inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.
2013-01-01
We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenwald, J.-C.
2008-01-01
The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)
Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM
2011-01-18
Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.
Polymorphs and polymorphic cocrystals of temozolomide.
Babu, N Jagadeesh; Reddy, L Sreenivas; Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Nangia, Ashwini
2008-07-07
Crystal polymorphism in the antitumor drug temozolomide (TMZ), cocrystals of TMZ with 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (BPNO), and solid-state stability were studied. Apart from a known X-ray crystal structure of TMZ (form 1), two new crystalline modifications, forms 2 and 3, were obtained during attempted cocrystallization with carbamazepine and 3-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide. Conformers A and B of the drug molecule are stabilized by intramolecular amide N--HN(imidazole) and N--HN(tetrazine) interactions. The stable conformer A is present in forms 1 and 2, whereas both conformers crystallized in form 3. Preparation of polymorphic cocrystals I and II (TMZBPNO 1:0.5 and 2:1) were optimized by using solution crystallization and grinding methods. The metastable nature of polymorph 2 and cocrystal II is ascribed to unused hydrogen-bond donors/acceptors in the crystal structure. The intramolecularly bonded amide N-H donor in the less stable structure makes additional intermolecular bonds with the tetrazine C==O group and the imidazole N atom in stable polymorph 1 and cocrystal I, respectively. All available hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors are used to make intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the stable crystalline form. Synthon polymorphism and crystal stability are discussed in terms of hydrogen-bond reorganization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosegaard, Klaus
2012-01-01
For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...... pure meta-heuristics. We study problem-adapted inversion algorithms that exploit the knowledge of the smoothness of the misfit function of the problem. Optimal sampling strategies exist for such problems, but many of these problems remain hard. © 2012 Springer-Verlag....
Inverse scale space decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane
2018-01-01
We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...
Generalized inverses theory and computations
Wang, Guorong; Qiao, Sanzheng
2018-01-01
This book begins with the fundamentals of the generalized inverses, then moves to more advanced topics. It presents a theoretical study of the generalization of Cramer's rule, determinant representations of the generalized inverses, reverse order law of the generalized inverses of a matrix product, structures of the generalized inverses of structured matrices, parallel computation of the generalized inverses, perturbation analysis of the generalized inverses, an algorithmic study of the computational methods for the full-rank factorization of a generalized inverse, generalized singular value decomposition, imbedding method, finite method, generalized inverses of polynomial matrices, and generalized inverses of linear operators. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the area of the generalized inverses with an undergraduate-level understanding of linear algebra.
Some results on inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramm, A.G.
2008-01-01
A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)
Inversion assuming weak scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus
2013-01-01
due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...
Bayesian seismic AVO inversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buland, Arild
2002-07-01
A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S
Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion
Saragiotis, Christos
2011-01-01
The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.
Molecular population genetics of inversion breakpoint regions in Drosophila pseudoobscura.
Wallace, Andre G; Detweiler, Don; Schaeffer, Stephen W
2013-07-08
Paracentric inversions in populations can have a profound effect on the pattern and organization of nucleotide variability along a chromosome. Regions near inversion breakpoints are expected to have greater levels of differentiation because of reduced genetic exchange between different gene arrangements whereas central regions in the inverted segments are predicted to have lower levels of nucleotide differentiation due to greater levels of genetic flux among different karyotypes. We used the inversion polymorphism on the third chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura to test these predictions with an analysis of nucleotide diversity of 18 genetic markers near and away from inversion breakpoints. We tested hypotheses about how the presence of different chromosomal arrangements affects the pattern and organization of nucleotide variation. Overall, markers in the distal segment of the chromosome had greater levels of nucleotide heterozygosity than markers within the proximal segment of the chromosome. In addition, our results rejected the hypothesis that the breakpoints of derived inversions will have lower levels of nucleotide variability than breakpoints of ancestral inversions, even when strains with gene conversion events were removed. High levels of linkage disequilibrium were observed within all 11 breakpoint regions as well as between the ends of most proximal and distal breakpoints. The central region of the chromosome had the greatest levels of linkage disequilibrium compared with the proximal and distal regions because this is the region that experiences the highest level of recombination suppression. These data do not fully support the idea that genetic exchange is the sole force that influences genetic variation on inverted chromosomes.
Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion
Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti
2007-09-01
It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten
2013-01-01
Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....
Reactivity in inverse micelles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochette, Pascal
1987-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the use of micro-emulsions of water in oil as reaction support. Only the 'inverse micelles' domain of the ternary mixing (water/AOT/isooctane) has been studied. The main addressed issues have been: the micro-emulsion disturbance in presence of reactants, the determination of reactant distribution and the resulting kinetic theory, the effect of the interface on electron transfer reactions, and finally protein solubilization [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.
1997-01-01
A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Intersections, ideals, and inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasco, D.W.
1998-01-01
Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons
Intersections, ideals, and inversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasco, D.W.
1998-10-01
Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.
Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies
Page, Morgan T.; Mai, Paul Martin; Schorlemmer, Danijel
2011-01-01
Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data
Rane, Rahul V; Rako, Lea; Kapun, Martin; Lee, Siu F; Hoffmann, Ary A
2015-05-01
Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are common in animals and plants, and recent models suggest that alternative arrangements spread by capturing different combinations of alleles acting additively or epistatically to favour local adaptation. It is also thought that inversions typically maintain favoured combinations for a long time by suppressing recombination between alternative chromosomal arrangements. Here, we consider patterns of linkage disequilibrium and genetic divergence in an old inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster (In(3R)Payne) known to be associated with climate change adaptation and a recent invasion event into Australia. We extracted, karyotyped and sequenced whole chromosomes from two Australian populations, so that changes in the arrangement of the alleles between geographically separated tropical and temperate areas could be compared. Chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed strong LD within the region spanned by In(3R)Payne. This genomic region also showed strong differentiation between the tropical and the temperate populations, but no differentiation between different karyotypes from the same population, after controlling for chromosomal arrangement. Patterns of differentiation across the chromosome arm and in gene ontologies were enhanced by the presence of the inversion. These data support the notion that inversions are strongly selected by bringing together combinations of genes, but it is still not clear if such combinations act additively or epistatically. Our data suggest that climatic adaptation through inversions can be dynamic, reflecting changes in the relative abundance of different forms of an inversion and ongoing evolution of allelic content within an inversion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Introduction to Schroedinger inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, T.M.
1991-01-01
Schroedinger inverse scattering uses scattering coefficients and bound state data to compute underlying potentials. Inverse scattering has been studied extensively for isolated potentials q(x), which tend to zero as vertical strokexvertical stroke→∞. Inverse scattering for isolated impurities in backgrounds p(x) that are periodic, are Heaviside steps, are constant for x>0 and periodic for x<0, or that tend to zero as x→∞ and tend to ∞ as x→-∞, have also been studied. This paper identifies literature for the five inverse problems just mentioned, and for four other inverse problems. Heaviside-step backgrounds are discussed at length. (orig.)
Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited
Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.
2010-11-01
The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).
Polymorphs of Pridopidine Hydrochloride
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zimmermann, A.; Frostrup, B.; Bond, A. D.
2012-01-01
of both polymorphs contain N+-H center dot center dot center dot Cl-center dot center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot interactions, and the polymorphism can be viewed as alternative orientations (parallel or antiparallel) of comparable molecular columns while retaining the center dot...... center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot Cl-center dot center dot center dot N+-H center dot center dot center dot motif between columns. Forms I and II have melting points of 199 and 210 degrees C, respectively. Following melting of form I, a kinetically controlled crystallization...
Genomic Evidence for Adaptive Inversion Clines in Drosophila melanogaster.
Kapun, Martin; Fabian, Daniel K; Goudet, Jérôme; Flatt, Thomas
2016-05-01
Clines in chromosomal inversion polymorphisms-presumably driven by climatic gradients-are common but there is surprisingly little evidence for selection acting on them. Here we address this long-standing issue in Drosophila melanogaster by using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to estimate inversion frequencies from 28 whole-genome Pool-seq samples collected from 10 populations along the North American east coast. Inversions In(3L)P, In(3R)Mo, and In(3R)Payne showed clear latitudinal clines, and for In(2L)t, In(2R)NS, and In(3R)Payne the steepness of the clinal slopes changed between summer and fall. Consistent with an effect of seasonality on inversion frequencies, we detected small but stable seasonal fluctuations of In(2R)NS and In(3R)Payne in a temperate Pennsylvanian population over 4 years. In support of spatially varying selection, we observed that the cline in In(3R)Payne has remained stable for >40 years and that the frequencies of In(2L)t and In(3R)Payne are strongly correlated with climatic factors that vary latitudinally, independent of population structure. To test whether these patterns are adaptive, we compared the amount of genetic differentiation of inversions versus neutral SNPs and found that the clines in In(2L)t and In(3R)Payne are maintained nonneutrally and independent of admixture. We also identified numerous clinal inversion-associated SNPs, many of which exhibit parallel differentiation along the Australian cline and reside in genes known to affect fitness-related traits. Together, our results provide strong evidence that inversion clines are maintained by spatially-and perhaps also temporally-varying selection. We interpret our data in light of current hypotheses about how inversions are established and maintained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Spiliotis
Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.
1983-01-01
We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model
Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution
Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa
2013-01-01
A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2005-01-01
Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...
Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion
Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Dirk Jacob Eric
2011-01-01
The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from
Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.
Delprat, Alejandra; Negre, Bàrbara; Puig, Marta; Ruiz, Alfredo
2009-11-18
Transposable elements (TEs) are responsible for the generation of chromosomal inversions in several groups of organisms. However, in Drosophila and other Dipterans, where inversions are abundant both as intraspecific polymorphisms and interspecific fixed differences, the evidence for a role of TEs is scarce. Previous work revealed that the transposon Galileo was involved in the generation of two polymorphic inversions of Drosophila buzzatii. To assess the impact of TEs in Drosophila chromosomal evolution and shed light on the mechanism involved, we isolated and sequenced the two breakpoints of another widespread polymorphic inversion from D. buzzatii, 2z(3). In the non inverted chromosome, the 2z(3) distal breakpoint was located between genes CG2046 and CG10326 whereas the proximal breakpoint lies between two novel genes that we have named Dlh and Mdp. In the inverted chromosome, the analysis of the breakpoint sequences revealed relatively large insertions (2,870-bp and 4,786-bp long) including two copies of the transposon Galileo (subfamily Newton), one at each breakpoint, plus several other TEs. The two Galileo copies: (i) are inserted in opposite orientation; (ii) present exchanged target site duplications; and (iii) are both chimeric. Our observations provide the best evidence gathered so far for the role of TEs in the generation of Drosophila inversions. In addition, they show unequivocally that ectopic recombination is the causative mechanism. The fact that the three polymorphic D. buzzatii inversions investigated so far were generated by the same transposon family is remarkable and is conceivably due to Galileo's unusual structure and current (or recent) transpositional activity.
Micro-Evolution in Grasshoppers Mediated by Polymorphic Robertsonian Translocations
Colombo, Pablo C.
2013-01-01
This review focuses on grasshoppers that are polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations because in these organisms the clarity of meiotic figures allows the study of both chiasma distribution and the orientation of trivalents and multivalents in metaphase I. Only five species of such grasshoppers were found in the literature, and all of them were from the New World: Oedaleonotus enigma (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Leptysma argentina Bruner, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Sinipta dalmani Stål, and Cornops aquaticum Bruner. A general feature of these species (except O. enigma) is that fusion carriers suffer a marked reduction of proximal and interstitial (with respect to the centromere) chiasma frequency; this fact, along with the reduction in the number of linkage groups with the consequent loss of independent segregation, produces a marked decrease of recombination in fusion carriers. This reduction in recombination has led to the conclusion that Robertsonian polymorphic grasshopper species share some properties with inversion polymorphic species of Drosophila, such as the central-marginal pattern (marginal populations are monomorphic, central populations are highly polymorphic). This pattern might be present in D. pratensis, which is certainly the most complex Robertsonian polymorphism system in the present study. However, L. argentina and C. aquaticum do not display this pattern. This issue is open to further research. Since C. aquaticum is soon to be released in South Africa as a biological control, the latitudinal pattern found in South America may repeat there. This experiment's outcome is open and deserves to be followed. PMID:23909914
Face inversion increases attractiveness.
Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A
2017-07-01
Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inverse problem in hydrogeology
Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.
2005-03-01
The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le
Zhang, Dongliang
2013-01-01
To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.
An interpretation of signature inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onishi, Naoki; Tajima, Naoki
1988-01-01
An interpretation in terms of the cranking model is presented to explain why signature inversion occurs for positive γ of the axially asymmetric deformation parameter and emerges into specific orbitals. By introducing a continuous variable, the eigenvalue equation can be reduced to a one dimensional Schroedinger equation by means of which one can easily understand the cause of signature inversion. (author)
Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations
Romanov, V G
1994-01-01
The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.
Algebraic properties of generalized inverses
Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S
2017-01-01
This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...
Adaptive divergence in the monkey flower Mimulus guttatus is maintained by a chromosomal inversion.
Twyford, Alex D; Friedman, Jannice
2015-06-01
Organisms exhibit an incredible diversity of life history strategies as adaptive responses to environmental variation. The establishment of novel life history strategies involves multilocus polymorphisms, which will be challenging to establish in the face of gene flow and recombination. Theory predicts that adaptive allelic combinations may be maintained and spread if they occur in genomic regions of reduced recombination, such as chromosomal inversion polymorphisms, yet empirical support for this prediction is lacking. Here, we use genomic data to investigate the evolution of divergent adaptive ecotypes of the yellow monkey flower Mimulus guttatus. We show that a large chromosomal inversion polymorphism is the major region of divergence between geographically widespread annual and perennial ecotypes. In contrast, ∼40,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in collinear regions of the genome show no signal of life history, revealing genomic patterns of diversity have been shaped by localized homogenizing gene flow and large-scale Pleistocene range expansion. Our results provide evidence for an inversion capturing and protecting loci involved in local adaptation, while also explaining how adaptive divergence can occur with gene flow. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, W.D.
1993-01-01
The final report describes work performed to investigate inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) as a promising method for laser particle acceleration. In particular, an improved configuration of ICA is being tested in a experiment presently underway on the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). In the experiment, the high peak power (∼ 10 GW) linearly polarized ATF CO 2 laser beam is converted to a radially polarized beam. This is beam is focused with an axicon at the Cherenkov angle onto the ATF 50-MeV e-beam inside a hydrogen gas cell, where the gas acts as the phase matching medium of the interaction. An energy gain of ∼12 MeV is predicted assuming a delivered laser peak power of 5 GW. The experiment is divided into two phases. The Phase I experiments, which were completed in the spring of 1992, were conducted before the ATF e-beam was available and involved several successful tests of the optical systems. Phase II experiments are with the e-beam and laser beam, and are still in progress. The ATF demonstrated delivery of the e-beam to the experiment in Dec. 1992. A preliminary ''debugging'' run with the e-beam and laser beam occurred in May 1993. This revealed the need for some experimental modifications, which have been implemented. The second run is tentatively scheduled for October or November 1993. In parallel to the experimental efforts has been ongoing theoretical work to support the experiment and investigate improvement and/or offshoots. One exciting offshoot has been theoretical work showing that free-space laser acceleration of electrons is possible using a radially-polarized, axicon-focused laser beam, but without any phase-matching gas. The Monte Carlo code used to model the ICA process has been upgraded and expanded to handle different types of laser beam input profiles
A triclinic polymorph of hexanedioic acid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Hexanedioic acid (or adipic acid, C6H10O4, crystallizes with two crystallographically independent half-molecules in the asymmetric unit of the triclinic unit cell, space group Poverline{1}, as each molecule lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. A monoclinic polymorph has been reported previously, most recently by Ranganathan, Kulkarni & Rao [J. Phys. Chem. A, (2003, 107, 6073–6081]. The molecules adopt the expected zigzag structure and are linked via centrosymmetric pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming infinite one-dimensional chains along [011]. These chains are stacked along the a axis. The crystal is further stabilized by weak C—H...O interactions.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg
2014-01-01
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... of SNPs. This will allow acquisition of more information from the sample materials and open up for new possibilities as well as new challenges....
Nóbrega, Clévio; Khadem, Mahnaz; Aguadé, Montserrat; Segarra, Carmen
2008-08-01
Chromosomal inversion polymorphism affects nucleotide variation at loci associated with inversions. In Drosophila subobscura, a species with a rich chromosomal inversion polymorphism and the largest recombinational map so far reported in the Drosophila genus, extensive genetic structure of nucleotide variation was detected in the segment affected by the O(3) inversion, a moderately sized inversion at Muller's element E. Indeed, a strong genetic differentiation all over O(3) and no evidence of a higher genetic exchange in the center of the inversion than at breakpoints were detected. In order to ascertain, whether other polymorphic and differently sized inversions of D. subobscura also exhibited a strong genetic structure, nucleotide variation in 5 gene regions (P236, P275, P150, Sxl, and P125) located along the A(2) inversion was analyzed in A(st) and A(2) chromosomes of D. subobscura. A(2) is a medium-sized inversion at Muller's element A and forms a single inversion loop in heterokaryotypes. The lower level of variation in A(2) relative to A(st) and the significant excess of low-frequency variants at polymorphic sites indicate that nucleotide variation at A(2) is not at mutation-drift equilibrium. The closest region to an inversion breakpoint, P236, exhibits the highest level of genetic differentiation (F(ST)) and of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between arrangements and variants at nucleotide polymorphic sites. The remaining 4 regions show a higher level of genetic exchange between A(2) and A(st) chromosomes than P236, as revealed by F(ST) and LD estimates. However, significant genetic differentiation between the A(st) and A(2) arrangements was detected not only at P236 but also in the other 4 regions separated from the nearest breakpoint by 1.2-2.9 Mb. Therefore, the extent of genetic exchange between arrangements has not been high enough to homogenize nucleotide variation in the center of the A(2) inversion. A(2) can be considered a typical successful inversion
A Generalization of the Spherical Inversion
Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.
2017-01-01
In the present article, we introduce a generalization of the spherical inversion. In particular, we define an inversion with respect to an ellipsoid, and prove several properties of this new transformation. The inversion in an ellipsoid is the generalization of the elliptic inversion to the three-dimensional space. We also study the inverse images…
Statistical perspectives on inverse problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Kim Emil
of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation......Inverse problems arise in many scientific disciplines and pertain to situations where inference is to be made about a particular phenomenon from indirect measurements. A typical example, arising in diffusion tomography, is the inverse boundary value problem for non-invasive reconstruction...
Size Estimates in Inverse Problems
Di Cristo, Michele
2014-01-01
Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded
Wave-equation dispersion inversion
Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained
Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies
Page, Morgan T.
2011-01-01
Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.
Parameter estimation and inverse problems
Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H
2005-01-01
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...
Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?
Inversion therapy: Can it relieve back pain? Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back ...
Thermal measurements and inverse techniques
Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M
2011-01-01
With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe
Computation of inverse magnetic cascades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, D.
1981-10-01
Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed
EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems in Engineering
West, Robert M.; Lesnic, Daniel
2007-01-01
Presented here are 11 noteworthy papers selected from the Fifth International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice held in Cambridge, UK during 11-15 July 2005. The papers have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of this journal and the contributions of reviewers are much appreciated. The conference featured a good balance of the fundamental mathematical concepts of inverse problems with a diverse range of important and interesting applications, which are represented here by the selected papers. Aspects of finite-element modelling and the performance of inverse algorithms are investigated by Autrique et al and Leduc et al. Statistical aspects are considered by Emery et al and Watzenig et al with regard to Bayesian parameter estimation and inversion using particle filters. Electrostatic applications are demonstrated by van Berkel and Lionheart and also Nakatani et al. Contributions to the applications of electrical techniques and specifically electrical tomographies are provided by Wakatsuki and Kagawa, Kim et al and Kortschak et al. Aspects of inversion in optical tomography are investigated by Wright et al and Douiri et al. The authors are representative of the worldwide interest in inverse problems relating to engineering applications and their efforts in producing these excellent papers will be appreciated by many readers of this journal.
del Priore, Lucía; Pigozzi, María I
2015-01-01
In the zebra finch, 2 alternative morphs regarding centromere position were described for chromosome 6. This polymorphism was interpreted to be the result of a pericentric inversion, but other causes of the centromere repositioning were not ruled out. We used immunofluorescence localization to examine the distribution of MLH1 foci on synaptonemal complexes to test the prediction that pericentric inversions cause synaptic irregularities and/or crossover suppression in heterozygotes. We found complete suppression of crossing over in the region involved in the rearrangement in male and female heterozygotes. In contrast, the same region showed high levels of crossing over in homozygotes for the acrocentric form of this chromosome. No inversion loops or synaptic irregularities were detected along bivalent 6 in heterozygotes suggesting that heterologous pairing is achieved during zygotene or early pachytene. Altogether these findings strongly indicate that the polymorphic chromosome 6 originated by a pericentric inversion. Since inversions are common rearrangements in karyotypic evolution in birds, it seems likely that early heterologous pairing could help to fix these rearrangements, preventing crossing overs in heterozygotes and their deleterious effects on fertility. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lamborot, M
1998-06-01
A multiple Robertsonian fission chromosomal race of the Liolaemus monticola complex in Chile is described and is shown to be the most derived and the most complex among the Liolaemus examined thus far. The 29 karyotyped lizards analysed from the locality of Mina Hierro Viejo, Petorca, Provincia de Valparaiso, Chile, exhibited a diploid chromosomal number ranging from 42 to 44, and several polymorphisms. The polymorphisms included: a pair 1 fission; a pair 2 fission plus a pericentric inversion in one of the fission products, which moved the NOR and satellite from the tip of the long arm of the metacentric 2 to the short arm of the fission product; a fission in pair 3; a polymorphism for an enlarged chromosome pair 6; and a polymorphism for a pericentric inversion in pair 7. This population is fixed for a fission of chromosome pair 4. A total of 76% of the lizards analysed were polymorphic for one or more pairs of chromosomes. We have compared these data with other Liolaemus monticola chromosomal races and calculated the Hardy-Weinberg ratios for the polymorphic chromosome pairs in this Multiple-Fission race. Karyotypic differences between the Northern (2n = 38-40) and the Multiple-Fission (2n = 42-44) races were attributed mainly to Robertsonian fissions, an enlarged chromosome and pericentric inversions involving the macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair.
GGC and StuI polymorphism on the androgen receptor gene in endometrial cancer patients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Masahiro; Karube, Akihiro; Karube, Yuko; Watari, Michiko; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir
2005-01-01
Androgens have an anti-proliferative effect on endometrial cells. Human androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two polymorphic short tandem repeats of GGC and CAG, and a single-nucleotide polymorphism on exon 1 that is recognized by the restriction enzyme, StuI. Prior studies have shown that the lengths of the CAG repeat are inversely and linearly related to AR activity and associated with endometrial cancer. However, little is known about the GGC repeat and the StuI polymorphism of the AR gene. Thus, we investigated whether these AR polymorphisms are risk factors for endometrial cancer. To test this hypothesis, the genetic distributions of these polymorphisms were investigated in blood samples from endometrial cancer patients and healthy controls. The allelic and genotyping profiles were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and direct DNA sequencing, and analyzed statistically. The GGC repeat was significantly longer in endometrial cancer patients as compared to normal healthy controls. In general, an increased risk of endometrial cancer was found with increasing GGC repeat. The relative risk for the 17 GGC repeat was greater than 4, as compared to controls. However, the StuI polymorphism was not significantly different between patients and controls. The findings suggest that increased numbers of GGC repeat on the AR gene may be a risk factor for endometrial cancer
Inverse source problems in elastodynamics
Bao, Gang; Hu, Guanghui; Kian, Yavar; Yin, Tao
2018-04-01
We are concerned with time-dependent inverse source problems in elastodynamics. The source term is supposed to be the product of a spatial function and a temporal function with compact support. We present frequency-domain and time-domain approaches to show uniqueness in determining the spatial function from wave fields on a large sphere over a finite time interval. The stability estimate of the temporal function from the data of one receiver and the uniqueness result using partial boundary data are proved. Our arguments rely heavily on the use of the Fourier transform, which motivates inversion schemes that can be easily implemented. A Landweber iterative algorithm for recovering the spatial function and a non-iterative inversion scheme based on the uniqueness proof for recovering the temporal function are proposed. Numerical examples are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions.
Inversion of the star transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Fan; Schotland, John C; Markel, Vadim A
2014-01-01
We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of conventional x-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically. (paper)
Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.
1983-01-01
There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain
Inverse photoemission of uranium oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roussel, P.; Morrall, P.; Tull, S.J.
2009-01-01
Understanding the itinerant-localised bonding role of the 5f electrons in the light actinides will afford an insight into their unusual physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the combination of core and valance band electron spectroscopies with theoretic modelling have already made significant progress in this area. However, information of the unoccupied density of states is still scarce. When compared to the forward photoemission techniques, measurements of the unoccupied states suffer from significantly less sensitivity and lower resolution. In this paper, we report on our experimental apparatus, which is designed to measure the inverse photoemission spectra of the light actinides. Inverse photoemission spectra of UO 2 and UO 2.2 along with the corresponding core and valance electron spectra are presented in this paper. UO 2 has been reported previously, although through its inclusion here it allows us to compare and contrast results from our experimental apparatus to the previous Bremsstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy investigations
Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.
2007-06-01
The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)
Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions
Sung, Tae-Soo
2013-01-01
We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…
The Inverse of Banded Matrices
2013-01-01
indexed entries all zeros. In this paper, generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5], we give the LU factorization and the inverse of the matrix Br,n (if it...r ≤ i ≤ r, 1 ≤ j ≤ r, with the remaining un-indexed entries all zeros. In this paper generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5...matrices and applications to piecewise cubic approximation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 8 (4) (1982) 285–288. [5] R.K. Mallik , The inverse of a lower
Size Estimates in Inverse Problems
Di Cristo, Michele
2014-01-06
Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.
-Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. A. Abd El-Salam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.
Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".
Dennett, Daniel
2009-06-16
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.
Inverse transport theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume
2009-01-01
Inverse transport consists of reconstructing the optical properties of a domain from measurements performed at the domain's boundary. This review concerns several types of measurements: time-dependent, time-independent, angularly resolved and angularly averaged measurements. We review recent results on the reconstruction of the optical parameters from such measurements and the stability of such reconstructions. Inverse transport finds applications e.g. in medical imaging (optical tomography, optical molecular imaging) and in geophysical imaging (remote sensing in the Earth's atmosphere). (topical review)
Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.
2011-01-01
Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf
Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.
Fishman, Michael A
2016-06-07
In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karyotype and chromosomal polymorphism of Camptochironomous tentans (diptera, chironomidae)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sejsebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Rakhimbaeva, K.T.
2000-01-01
Particular features of chromosomal polymorphism and cytogenetic differentiations have been studied in three natural populations of Camptochironomous tentans affecting the Semipalatinsk test site. For the first time C. tentans population from water-bodies of the Degelen mountain massif was found to contain a unique rarely observed inverse sequence of chromosomal disks (p'ten B85, p'ten D3, p'ten Ck, p'ten FK) and a series of special homozygous (p'ten C1.1; p'ten D2.2) and heterozygous (p'ten B1.5; p'ten D1.2; p'ten D1.3; p'ten F1.3; p'ten F1K) inversions which could be the result of Chironomini adaptation to the radioactive environment. (author)
Superconductivity in Pb inverse opal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, Ali E.; Lee, Sergey B.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.
2007-01-01
Type-II superconducting behavior was observed in highly periodic three-dimensional lead inverse opal prepared by infiltration of melted Pb in blue (D = 160 nm), green (D = 220 nm) and red (D = 300 nm) opals and followed by the extraction of the SiO 2 spheres by chemical etching. The onset of a broad phase transition (ΔT = 0.3 K) was shifted from T c = 7.196 K for bulk Pb to T c = 7.325 K. The upper critical field H c2 (3150 Oe) measured from high-field hysteresis loops exceeds the critical field for bulk lead (803 Oe) fourfold. Two well resolved peaks observed in the hysteresis loops were ascribed to flux penetration into the cylindrical void space that can be found in inverse opal structure and into the periodic structure of Pb nanoparticles. The red inverse opal shows pronounced oscillations of magnetic moment in the mixed state at low temperatures, T 0.9T c has been observed for all of the samples studied. The magnetic field periodicity of resistivity modulation is in good agreement with the lattice parameter of the inverse opal structure. We attribute the failure to observe pronounced modulation in magneto-resistive measurement to difficulties in the precision orientation of the sample along the magnetic field
Inverse problem of solar oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.
1987-01-01
The authors present some preliminary results of numerical simulation to infer the sound velocity distribution in the solar interior from the oscillation data of the Sun as the inverse problem. They analyze the acoustic potential itself by taking account of some factors other than the sound velocity, and infer the sound velocity distribution in the deep interior of the Sun
Wave-equation dispersion inversion
Li, Jing
2016-12-08
We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.
Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions
Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas
2017-04-01
Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.
Venugopal, Priyanka; Lavu, Vamsi; RangaRao, Suresh; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi
2017-04-01
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial triggering of the host immune-inflammatory response, which in turn is regulated by microRNAs (miRNA). Polymorphisms in the miRNA pathways affect the expression of several target genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, which are associated with progression of disease. The objective of this study was to identify the association between the MiR-146a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382), the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) SNP and chronic periodontitis. Genotyping was performed for the MiR-146a (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382) and the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) polymorphisms in 180 healthy controls and 190 cases of chronic periodontitis by the direct Sanger sequencing technique. The strength of the association between the polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Haplotype and linkage analyses among the polymorphisms was performed. Multifactorial dimensionality reduction was performed to determine epistatic interaction among the polymorphisms. The MiR-196a2 polymorphism revealed a significant inverse association with chronic periodontitis. Haplotype analysis of MiR-146a and MiR-196a2 polymorphisms revealed 13 different combinations, of which 5 were found to have an inverse association with chronic periodontitis. The present study has demonstrated a significant inverse association of MiR-196a2 polymorphism with chronic periodontitis.
A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuo Zhang
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline, C7H8N4O2, has been obtained from a chloroform/methanol mixture by evaporation under ambient conditions. The new polymorph crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure features intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of dimers between two crystallographically different molecules; each molecule acts as both donor and acceptor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landa, L.M.; Nikolaeva, I.N.
1979-01-01
To defect phase interfaces and spasmodic properties change, the inhomogeneity and the second radiation effects in quartz glass, metamict phase and intermediate states have been investigated. When irradiating with fast neutrons the transformation of quartz glass - metamict phase occurs completely. The transformation is completed at 2x10 20 part./cm 2 dose. Thermal treatment not only increases the number of inhomogeneities but also results in increasing quartz glass density. Annealing transforms the metamict phase into common quartz glass at 1400 K. The fact, that thermal treatment results in the complete transformation of metamict phase into quartz glass, and the inverse transformation occurs only partially, is quite regular, as the metamict phase has a lesser entropy and is a more ordered state. It is shown that different amorphous phases of a chemical composition have different structures and properties, that there are interfaces between them, and the transformation from one state to another in microvolumes is realized spasmodically and requires expenditure of energy
Fernández Iriarte, P J; Norry, F M; Hasson, E R
2003-07-01
The cactophilic Drosophila buzzatii provides an excellent model for the study of reaction norms across discrete environments because it breeds on rotting tissues (rots) of very different cactus species. Here we test the possible effects of second chromosome inversions on body size and shape (wing loading) across suitable natural breeding substrates. Using homokaryotypic stocks derived from several lines homozygous for four naturally occurring chromosomal inversions, we show that arrangements significantly affect size-related traits and wing loading. In addition, karyotypes show differing effects, across natural breeding resources, for wing loading. The 2st and 2jz(3) arrangements decrease and the 2j arrangement increases wing loading. For thorax length and wing loading, karyotypic correlations across host plants are slightly lower in females than in males. These results support the hypothesis that these traits have a genetic basis associated with the inversion polymorphism.
A sex-chromosome inversion causes strong overdominance for sperm traits that affect siring success.
Knief, Ulrich; Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Pei, Yifan; Ihle, Malika; Wang, Daiping; Martin, Katrin; Opatová, Pavlína; Albrechtová, Jana; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, Bart
2017-08-01
Male reproductive success depends on the competitive ability of sperm to fertilize the ova, which should lead to strong selection on sperm characteristics. This raises the question of how heritable variation in sperm traits is maintained. Here we show that in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) nearly half of the variance in sperm morphology is explained by an inversion on the Z chromosome with a 40% allele frequency in the wild. The sperm of males that are heterozygous for the inversion had the longest midpieces and the highest velocity. Furthermore, such males achieved the highest fertility and the highest siring success, both within-pair and extra-pair. Males homozygous for the derived allele show detrimental sperm characteristics and the lowest siring success. Our results suggest heterozygote advantage as the mechanism that maintains the inversion polymorphism and hence variance in sperm design and in fitness.
Cordeiro, Juliana; De Toni, Daniela Cristina; da Silva, Gisele de Souza; Valente, Vera Lucia da Silva
2014-10-01
Detailed chromosome photomaps are the first step to develop further chromosomal analysis to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species, considering that chromosomal rearrangements, such as inversions, are common features of genome evolution. In this report, we analyzed inversion polymorphisms in 25 different populations belonging to six neotropical species in the cardini group: Drosophila cardini, D. cardinoides, D. neocardini, D. neomorpha, D. parthenogenetica and D. polymorpha. Furthermore, we present the first reference photomaps for the Neotropical D. cardini and D. parthenogenetica and improved photomaps for D. cardinoides, D. neocardini and D. polymorpha. We found 19 new inversions for these species. An exhaustive pairwise comparison of the polytene chromosomes was conducted for the six species in order to understand evolutionary patterns of their chromosomes.
Ayala, Diego; Guerrero, Rafael F; Kirkpatrick, Mark
2013-04-01
Chromosome inversions have long been thought to be involved in speciation and local adaptation. We have little quantitative information, however, about the effects that inversion polymorphisms have on reproductive isolation and viability. Here we provide the first estimates from any organism for the total amount of reproductive isolation associated with an inversion segregating in natural populations. We sampled chromosomes from 751 mosquitoes of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus along a 1421 km transect in Cameroon that traverses savannah, highland, and rainforest ecological zones. We then developed a series of population genetic models that account for selection, migration, and assortative mating, and fit the models to the data using likelihood. Results from the best-fit models suggest there is strong local adaptation, with relative viabilities of homozygotes ranging from 25% to 130% compared to heterozygotes. Viabilities vary qualitatively between regions: the inversion is underdominant in the savannah, whereas in the highlands it is overdominant. The inversion is also implicated in strong assortative mating. In the savannah, the two homozygote forms show 92% reproductive isolation, suggesting that this one inversion can generate most of the genetic barriers needed for speciation. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
New polymorphous computing fabric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolinski, Christophe; Gokhale, Maya; McCabe, Kevin P.
2002-01-01
This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.
Inverse photon-photon processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carimalo, C.; Crozon, M.; Kesler, P.; Parisi, J.
1981-12-01
We here consider inverse photon-photon processes, i.e. AB → γγX (where A, B are hadrons, in particular protons or antiprotons), at high energies. As regards the production of a γγ continuum, we show that, under specific conditions the study of such processes might provide some information on the subprocess gg γγ, involving a quark box. It is also suggested to use those processes in order to systematically look for heavy C = + structures (quarkonium states, gluonia, etc.) showing up in the γγ channel. Inverse photon-photon processes might thus become a new and fertile area of investigation in high-energy physics, provided the difficult problem of discriminating between direct photons and indirect ones can be handled in a satisfactory way
Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.
1974-01-01
The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.
Inverse problem in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakhariev, B.N.
1976-01-01
The method of reconstruction of interaction from the scattering data is formulated in the frame of the R-matrix theory in which the potential is determined by position of resonance Esub(lambda) and their reduced widths γ 2 lambda. In finite difference approximation for the Schroedinger equation this new approach allows to make the logics of the inverse problem IP more clear. A possibility of applications of IP formalism to various nuclear systems is discussed. (author)
Association of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphism with bulimia nervosa in a Japanese population.
Miyasaka, K; Hosoya, H; Sekime, A; Ohta, M; Amono, H; Matsushita, S; Suzuki, K; Higuchi, S; Funakoshi, A
2006-09-01
Eating disorders (EDs) have a highly heterogeneous etiology and multiple genetic factors might contribute to their pathogenesis. Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, enhances appetite and increases food intake, and human ghrelin plasma levels are inversely correlated with body mass index. In the present study, we examined the 171T/C polymorphism of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR) gene in patients diagnosed with EDs, because the subjects having ghrelin gene polymorphism (Leu72Met) was not detected in a Japanese population, previously. In addition, beta3 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism (Try64Arg) and cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor (R) gene polymorphism (-81A/G, -128G/T), which are both associated with obesity, were investigated. The subjects consisted of 228 Japanese patients with EDs [96 anorexia nervosa (AN), 116 bulimia nervosa (BN) and 16 not otherwise specified (NOS)]. The age- and gender-matched control group consisted of 284 unrelated Japanese subjects. The frequency of the CC type of the GHSR gene was significantly higher in BN subjects than in control subjects (chi(2) = 4.47, p = 0.035, odds ratio = 2.05, Bonferroni correction: p = 0.070), while the frequency in AN subjects was not different from that in controls. The distribution of neither beta3 adrenergic receptor gene nor CCK-AR polymorphism differed between EDs and control subjects. Therefore, the CC type of GHSR gene polymorphism (171T/C) is a risk factor for BN, but not for AN.
Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density
Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhenchun; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Guo, Qiang
2017-01-01
Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion
Asamizu, Erika; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shibata, Daisuke; Ezura, Hiroshi
2012-01-01
A total of 93,682 BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from a dwarf model tomato, cv. Micro-Tom. After removing repetitive sequences, the BESs were similarity searched against the reference tomato genome of a standard cultivar, “Heinz 1706.” By referring to the “Heinz 1706” physical map and by eliminating redundant or nonsignificant hits, 28,804 “unique pair ends” and 8,263 “unique ends” were selected to construct hypothetical BAC contigs. The total physical length of the BAC contigs was 495, 833, 423 bp, covering 65.3% of the entire genome. The average coverage of euchromatin and heterochromatin was 58.9% and 67.3%, respectively. From this analysis, two possible genome rearrangements were identified: one in chromosome 2 (inversion) and the other in chromosome 3 (inversion and translocation). Polymorphisms (SNPs and Indels) between the two cultivars were identified from the BLAST alignments. As a result, 171,792 polymorphisms were mapped on 12 chromosomes. Among these, 30,930 polymorphisms were found in euchromatin (1 per 3,565 bp) and 140,862 were found in heterochromatin (1 per 2,737 bp). The average polymorphism density in the genome was 1 polymorphism per 2,886 bp. To facilitate the use of these data in Micro-Tom research, the BAC contig and polymorphism information are available in the TOMATOMICS database. PMID:23227037
The effect of inversion at 8p23 on BLK association with lupus in Caucasian population.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahram Namjou
Full Text Available To explore the potential influence of the polymorphic 8p23.1 inversion on known autoimmune susceptibility risk at or near BLK locus, we validated a new bioinformatics method that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion in a Caucasian population.Principal components analysis (PCA was performed using markers inside the inversion territory followed by k-means cluster analyses on 7416 European derived and 267 HapMaP CEU and TSI samples. A logistic regression conditional analysis was performed.Three subgroups have been identified; inversion homozygous, heterozygous and non-inversion homozygous. The status of inversion was further validated using HapMap samples that had previously undergone Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays with a concordance rate of above 98%. Conditional analyses based on the status of inversion were performed. We found that overall association signals in the BLK region remain significant after controlling for inversion status. The proportion of lupus cases and controls (cases/controls in each subgroup was determined to be 0.97 for the inverted homozygous group (1067 cases and 1095 controls, 1.12 for the inverted heterozygous group (1935 cases 1717 controls and 1.36 for non-inverted subgroups (924 cases and 678 controls. After calculating the linkage disequilibrium between inversion status and lupus risk haplotype we found that the lupus risk haplotype tends to reside on non-inversion background. As a result, a new association effect between non-inversion status and lupus phenotype has been identified ((p = 8.18×10(-7, OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.10-1.26.Our results demonstrate that both known lupus risk haplotype and inversion status act additively in the pathogenesis of lupus. Since inversion regulates expression of many genes in its territory, altered expression of other genes might also be involved in the development of lupus.
On a complete topological inverse polycyclic monoid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. O. Bardyla
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We give sufficient conditions when a topological inverse $\\lambda$-polycyclic monoid $P_{\\lambda}$ is absolutely $H$-closed in the class of topological inverse semigroups. For every infinite cardinal $\\lambda$ we construct the coarsest semigroup inverse topology $\\tau_{mi}$ on $P_\\lambda$ and give an example of a topological inverse monoid $S$ which contains the polycyclic monoid $P_2$ as a dense discrete subsemigroup.
Inversion: A Most Useful Kind of Transformation.
Dubrovsky, Vladimir
1992-01-01
The transformation assigning to every point its inverse with respect to a circle with given radius and center is called an inversion. Discusses inversion with respect to points, circles, angles, distances, space, and the parallel postulate. Exercises related to these topics are included. (MDH)
Probabilistic Geoacoustic Inversion in Complex Environments
2015-09-30
Probabilistic Geoacoustic Inversion in Complex Environments Jan Dettmer School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria BC...long-range inversion methods can fail to provide sufficient resolution. For proper quantitative examination of variability, parameter uncertainty must...project aims to advance probabilistic geoacoustic inversion methods for complex ocean environments for a range of geoacoustic data types. The work is
Preparation and evaluation of famotidine polymorphs.
Nagaraju, Ravouru; Prathusha, Ande Penchala; Subhash Chandra Bose, Penjury; Kaza, Rajesh; Bharathi, Koganti
2010-06-01
The main objective of this study was to compare the behaviour of drug release among the famotidine polymorphs prepared by using various additives and solvents, by solvent evaporation method. The famotidine polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymorphs with different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were prepared by using solvent evaporation method. In these polymorphs of different concentrations 1% w/v polymorphs showed better release. Similarly, famotidine polymorphs of Tween 80 with different concentrations, polyethylene glycol 1% w/v and methanol was prepared. Famotidine polymorphs prepared the PVP (1% w/v) showed better drug release and solubility. DSC, FTIR, SEM and XRD studies were carried out. DSC studies revealed that PVP polymorphs were found to stable compared to other polymorphs. FTIR studies of the polymorphs prepared indicated that there was an interaction found in all polymorphs except PVP polymorphs indicating the absence of drug-additive interaction. SEM studies of PVP and methanol polymorphs revealed that they are tabular and prismatic and columnar respectively. These changes in morphology were due to variations in face dimensions and also properties of additives and solvent used in the preparation. XRD studies revealed that there is an increase in crystallinity in methanol polymorphs when compared to PVP polymorphs and pure drug. The mechanism of drug release was determined using zero order, first order and Hixon-Crowel equations. From the drug release kinetics these polymorphs followed first order and Hixon-Crowel release kinetics, exhibited fair linearity in their dissolution data. Further, in vivo studies were carried out for the evaluation of antiulcer activity. Based upon the drug release pattern and its kinetics only two of the prepared polymorphs of famotidine i.e. famotidine PVP polymorphs and famotidine methanol polymorphs were selected for animal studies. Antiulcer studies were carried out using pylorus ligation model and estimation of antioxidant
Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morini, M.
1983-01-01
A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)
Point-source inversion techniques
Langston, Charles A.; Barker, Jeffrey S.; Pavlin, Gregory B.
1982-11-01
A variety of approaches for obtaining source parameters from waveform data using moment-tensor or dislocation point source models have been investigated and applied to long-period body and surface waves from several earthquakes. Generalized inversion techniques have been applied to data for long-period teleseismic body waves to obtain the orientation, time function and depth of the 1978 Thessaloniki, Greece, event, of the 1971 San Fernando event, and of several events associated with the 1963 induced seismicity sequence at Kariba, Africa. The generalized inversion technique and a systematic grid testing technique have also been used to place meaningful constraints on mechanisms determined from very sparse data sets; a single station with high-quality three-component waveform data is often sufficient to discriminate faulting type (e.g., strike-slip, etc.). Sparse data sets for several recent California earthquakes, for a small regional event associated with the Koyna, India, reservoir, and for several events at the Kariba reservoir have been investigated in this way. Although linearized inversion techniques using the moment-tensor model are often robust, even for sparse data sets, there are instances where the simplifying assumption of a single point source is inadequate to model the data successfully. Numerical experiments utilizing synthetic data and actual data for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake graphically demonstrate that severe problems may be encountered if source finiteness effects are ignored. These techniques are generally applicable to on-line processing of high-quality digital data, but source complexity and inadequacy of the assumed Green's functions are major problems which are yet to be fully addressed.
Inversion of GPS meteorology data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Hocke
Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically
Factor VIII (F8) inversions in severe hemophilia A: Male germ cell origin and diagnosis with RT-PCR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antonarakis, S.E. [Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)]|[Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rossiter, J.P. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Young, M. [Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [and others
1994-09-01
The Factor VIII (F8) gene, which is defective in hemophilia A, is located in the most telomeric megabase of Xq. Inversions due to intrachromosomal homologous recombination between mispaired copies of gene A located within intron 22 of the gene and about 500 kb telomeric to it account for nearly half of the cases of severe hemophilia A. We hypothesized that pairing of Xq with its homolog inhibits the inversion process, and that therefore the event originates predominantly in male germ cells. In all 21 informative cases in which the inversion originated in a maternal grandparent, DNA polymorphism analysis using markers within or very closely linked to F8, determined that it occurred in the male germline. In addition, all but one of 56 mothers of sporadic cases due to inversions were carriers. The data indicate that the F8 gene inversions leading to severe hemophilia A occur almost exclusively in male germ cells. The mean age of maternal grandfathers at the birth of their carrier daughters was 29.9 years (13 cases), i.e. not different from the mean paternal age in the general population, supporting the hypothesis that the inversions occur in meiosis. The inversions can be diagnosed by Southern blot analysis. For more rapid diagnosis we have used RT-PCR of RNA ectopically expressed in blood. Oligonucleotides were used to PCR amplify, after the initial RT reaction of RNA samples using random hexamers, either the normal transcript (F8 exons 21 to 24;312 bp product) or the novel abnormal transcript that is generated after the inversion. Both type 1 and 2 inversions can be recognized in affecteds and carriers by the presence of the diagnostic PcR product of 248 bp. Correct diagnoses were made in samples from 6 patients and 2 carriers with type 1 inversions, 2 patients and 2 carriers with type 2 inversions and 5 normal controls.
Inverse problems in systems biology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engl, Heinz W; Lu, James; Müller, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Schuster, Peter; Kügler, Philipp
2009-01-01
Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior. (topical review)
The seismic reflection inverse problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symes, W W
2009-01-01
The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)
Inversion theory and conformal mapping
Blair, David E
2000-01-01
It is rarely taught in an undergraduate or even graduate curriculum that the only conformal maps in Euclidean space of dimension greater than two are those generated by similarities and inversions in spheres. This is in stark contrast to the wealth of conformal maps in the plane. The principal aim of this text is to give a treatment of this paucity of conformal maps in higher dimensions. The exposition includes both an analytic proof in general dimension and a differential-geometric proof in dimension three. For completeness, enough complex analysis is developed to prove the abundance of conformal maps in the plane. In addition, the book develops inversion theory as a subject, along with the auxiliary theme of circle-preserving maps. A particular feature is the inclusion of a paper by Carath�odory with the remarkable result that any circle-preserving transformation is necessarily a M�bius transformation, not even the continuity of the transformation is assumed. The text is at the level of advanced undergr...
LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!
Mike Lamont for the LHC Team
2011-01-01
The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total. In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...
Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies
Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.
2018-03-01
Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.
Instrument developments for inverse photoemission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenac, A.
1987-02-01
Experimental developments principally concerning electron sources for inverse photoemission are presented. The specifications of the electron beam are derived from experiment requirements, taking into account the limitations encountered (space charge divergence). For a wave vector resolution of 0.2 A -1 , the maximum current is 25 microA at 20 eV. The design of a gun providing such a beam in the range 5 to 50 eV is presented. Angle-resolved inverse photoemission experiments show angular effects at 30 eV. For an energy of 10 eV, angular effects should be stronger, but the low efficiency of the spectrometer in this range makes the experiments difficult. The total energy resolution of 0.3 eV is the result mainly of electron energy spread, as expected. The electron sources are based on field effect electron emission from a cathode consisting of a large number of microtips. The emission arises from a few atomic cells for each tip. The ultimate theoretical energy spread is 0.1 eV. This value is not attained because of an interface resistance problem. A partial solution of this problem allows measurement of an energy spread of 0.9 eV for a current of 100 microA emitted at 60 eV. These cathodes have a further advantage in that emission can occur at a low temperature [fr
Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.
2011-12-01
As aragonite is the metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate, it lends itself to monotropic inversion to the more stable polymorph, calcite. This inversion is possible through an increase in the temperature and pressure conditions to which the sample is exposed and, although first noted nearly a century ago, has been primarily discussed in the context of sample roasting prior to analyses in paleoclimatological studies. Over the last several decades, however, researchers have found evidence to suggest that the friction associated with the sampling of biogenic carbonates via milling/drilling also induces inversion. Furthermore, this inversion may be associated with a shift in measured oxygen isotopic values and ultimately have significant implications for the interpretation of paleoclimatic reconstructions. Despite this, the isotopic heterogeneity of biogenic aragonite skeletons makes the effects of inversion challenging to test and the subject remains underrepresented in the literature. Here we present a first order study into the effects of milling on both the mineralogy and isotopic compositions measured in sclerosponges, corals, and molluscs. X-Ray diffraction analysis of samples hand ground with a mortar and pestle reveal 100% aragonitic skeletons. Conversely, samples milled with a computerized micromill show measurable inversion to calcite. On average, percent inversion of aragonite to calcite for individual specimens was 15% for sclerosponges, 16% for corals, and 9% for molluscs. Isotopic data from these specimens show that the higher the percentage of aragonite inverted to calcite, the more depleted the measured oxygen isotopic values. In the largest of the datasets (sclerosponges), it is evident that the range of oxygen isotope values from milled samples (-0.02 to +0.84%) exceeds the range in values for those samples which were hand ground and showed no inversion (+0.53 to +0.90%). This, coupled with the strong correlation between the two variables
Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves
Ghosh Roy, Dilip N
2001-01-01
The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.
Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.
1988-01-01
NiSO 4 .6H 2 O, M r =262.85; data collections with Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, β=98.38(2) 0 , V=1704.7(6) A 3 , Z=8, D x =2.05 g cm -3 , μ=25.54 cm -1 , F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4 1 2 1 2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A 3 , Z=4, D x =2.07 g cm -3 , μ=25.81 cm -1 , F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO 4 .6D 2 O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO 4 .6H 2 O. Both structures contain isolated [Ni(H 2 O 6 ] octahedra and [SO 4 ] tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding. (orig.)
Gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis
Laine, M.L.; Loos, B.G.; Crielaard, W.
2010-01-01
We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or
Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide
Lai, David; Delisi, Donald
2008-01-01
NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input
Inverse diffusion theory of photoacoustics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume; Uhlmann, Gunther
2010-01-01
This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photoacoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schrödinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when 2n internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where n is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Allinson, P.S. [Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [and others
1996-06-01
It has been demonstrated in animal studies that, in animals heterozygous for pericentric chromosomal inversions, loop formation is greatly reduced during meiosis. This results in absence of recombination within the inverted segment, with recombination seen only outside the inversion. A recent study in yeast has shown that telomeres, rather than centromeres, lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may be involved in promoting recombination. We studied by cytogenetic analysis and DNA polymorphisms the nature of meiotic recombination in a three-generation family with a large pericentric X chromosome inversion, inv(X)(p21.1q26), in which Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was cosegregating with the inversion. On DNA analysis there was no evidence of meiotic recombination between the inverted and normal X chromosomes in the inverted segment. Recombination was seen at the telomeric regions, Xp22 and Xq27-28. No deletion or point mutation was found on analysis of the DMD gene. On the basis of the FISH results, we believe that the X inversion is the mutation responsible for DMD in this family. Our results indicate that (1) pericentric X chromosome inversions result in reduction of recombination between the normal and inverted X chromosomes; (2) meiotic X chromosome pairing in these individuals is likely initiated at the telomeres; and (3) in this family DMD is caused by the pericentric inversion. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Action understanding as inverse planning.
Baker, Chris L; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
2009-12-01
Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. The mental states that caused an agent's behavior are inferred by inverting this model of rational planning using Bayesian inference, integrating the likelihood of the observed actions with the prior over mental states. This approach formalizes in precise probabilistic terms the essence of previous qualitative approaches to action understanding based on an "intentional stance" [Dennett, D. C. (1987). The intentional stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] or a "teleological stance" [Gergely, G., Nádasdy, Z., Csibra, G., & Biró, S. (1995). Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition, 56, 165-193]. In three psychophysical experiments using animated stimuli of agents moving in simple mazes, we assess how well different inverse planning models based on different goal priors can predict human goal inferences. The results provide quantitative evidence for an approximately rational inference mechanism in human goal inference within our simplified stimulus paradigm, and for the flexible nature of goal representations that human observers can adopt. We discuss the implications of our experimental results for human action understanding in real-world contexts, and suggest how our framework might be extended to capture other kinds of mental state inferences, such as inferences about beliefs, or inferring whether an entity is an intentional agent.
Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism
Wiak, Sławomir
2003-01-01
From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...
Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Thomas
2012-01-01
Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new...... variant of the Universal Resolving Algorithm for inverse interpretation. The new variant outperforms the original algorithm in several cases, e.g., when unpacking a list using inverse interpretation of a pack program. It uses inverse driving as its main technique, which has not been described in detail...... before. Inverse driving may find application with, e.g., supercompilation, thus suggesting a new kind of program inverter....
Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm
DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ
2015-01-01
The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...
Automatic Flight Controller With Model Inversion
Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan
1992-01-01
Automatic digital electronic control system based on inverse-model-follower concept being developed for proposed vertical-attitude-takeoff-and-landing airplane. Inverse-model-follower control places inverse mathematical model of dynamics of controlled plant in series with control actuators of controlled plant so response of combination of model and plant to command is unity. System includes feedback to compensate for uncertainties in mathematical model and disturbances imposed from without.
Lectures on the inverse scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, V.E.
1983-06-01
In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)
Bayesian approach to inverse statistical mechanics
Habeck, Michael
2014-05-01
Inverse statistical mechanics aims to determine particle interactions from ensemble properties. This article looks at this inverse problem from a Bayesian perspective and discusses several statistical estimators to solve it. In addition, a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed that draws the interaction parameters from their posterior probability distribution. The posterior probability involves an intractable partition function that is estimated along with the interactions. The method is illustrated for inverse problems of varying complexity, including the estimation of a temperature, the inverse Ising problem, maximum entropy fitting, and the reconstruction of molecular interaction potentials.
Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion
Debski, Wojciech
2017-04-01
Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.
Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amici Cinzia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.
Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation
Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun
2015-10-01
Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.
Inverse problem in radionuclide transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, C.
1988-01-01
The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab
Inversion based on computational simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.
1998-01-01
A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal
MODEL SELECTION FOR SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC INVERSIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martínez González, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Viticchié, B.; Orozco Suárez, D.
2012-01-01
Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.
Inverse transport theory of photoacoustics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre; Jugnon, Vincent
2010-01-01
We consider the reconstruction of optical parameters in a domain of interest from photoacoustic data. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) radiates high-frequency electromagnetic waves into the domain and measures acoustic signals emitted by the resulting thermal expansion. Acoustic signals are then used to construct the deposited thermal energy map. The latter depends on the constitutive optical parameters in a nontrivial manner. In this paper, we develop and use an inverse transport theory with internal measurements to extract information on the optical coefficients from knowledge of the deposited thermal energy map. We consider the multi-measurement setting in which many electromagnetic radiation patterns are used to probe the domain of interest. By developing an expansion of the measurement operator into singular components, we show that the spatial variations of the intrinsic attenuation and the scattering coefficients may be reconstructed. We also reconstruct coefficients describing anisotropic scattering of photons, such as the anisotropy coefficient g(x) in a Henyey–Greenstein phase function model. Finally, we derive stability estimates for the reconstructions
Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander
2014-01-06
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.
2014-01-01
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Sandweiss, J.
1992-09-01
The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e - beam and the 10 11 Watt CO 2 laser beam of BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP) and a wiggler. The latter element is designed as a fast excitation unit making use of alternating stacks of Vanadium Permendur (VaP) ferromagnetic laminations, periodically interspersed with conductive, nonmagnetic laminations, which act as eddy current induced field reflectors. Wiggler parameters and field distribution data will be presented for a prototype wiggler in a constant period and in a ∼ 1.5 %/cm tapered period configuration. The CO 2 laser beam will be transported through the IFEL interaction region by means of a low loss, dielectric coated, rectangular waveguide. Short waveguide test sections have been constructed and have been tested using a low power cw CO 2 laser. Preliminary results of guide attenuation and mode selectivity will be given, together with a discussion of the optical issues for the IFEL accelerator. The IFEL design is supported by the development and use of 1D and 3D simulation programs. The results of simulation computations, including also wiggler errors, for a single module accelerator and for a multi-module accelerator will be presented
Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification
Litvinenko, Alexander
2013-12-18
In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.
Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...
Resolution analysis in full waveform inversion
Fichtner, A.; Trampert, J.
2011-01-01
We propose a new method for the quantitative resolution analysis in full seismic waveform inversion that overcomes the limitations of classical synthetic inversions while being computationally more efficient and applicable to any misfit measure. The method rests on (1) the local quadratic
Abel inverse transformation applied to plasma diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shiyao
1987-01-01
Two methods of Abel inverse transformation are applied to two different test profiles. The effects of random errors of input data, position uncertainty and number of points of input data on the accuracy of inverse transformation have been studied. The two methods are compared in each other
Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.
Powell, J R
1971-12-03
Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.
Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.
1988-11-15
NiSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O, M/sub r/=262.85; data collections with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation, lambda=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, ..beta..=98.38(2)/sup 0/, V=1704.7(6) A/sup 3/, Z=8, D/sub x/=2.05 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.54 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=2.07 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.81 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO/sub 4/.6D/sub 2/O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O. Both structures contain isolated (Ni(H/sub 2/O/sub 6/) octahedra and (SO/sub 4/) tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding.
Electrostatic control of phospholipid polymorphism.
Tarahovsky, Y S; Arsenault, A L; MacDonald, R C; McIntosh, T J; Epand, R M
2000-12-01
A regular progression of polymorphic phase behavior was observed for mixtures of the anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin, and the cationic phospholipid derivative, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray diffraction, whereas the two lipids separately assume only lamellar phases, their mixtures exhibit a symmetrical (depending on charge ratio and not polarity) sequence of nonlamellar phases. The inverted hexagonal phase, H(II,) formed from equimolar mixtures of the two lipids, i.e., at net charge neutrality (charge ratio (CR((+/-))) = 1:1). When one type of lipid was in significant excess (CR((+/-)) = 2:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:2), a bicontinuous cubic structure was observed. These cubic phases were very similar to those sometimes present in cellular organelles that contain cardiolipin. Increasing the excess of cationic or anionic charge to CR((+/-)) = 4:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:4 led to the appearance of membrane bilayers with numerous interlamellar contacts, i.e., sponge structures. It is evident that interactions between cationic and anionic moieties can influence the packing of polar heads and hence control polymorphic phase transitions. The facile isothermal, polymorphic interconversion of these lipids may have important biological and technical implications.
Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groom, R; Walker, P [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)
1996-05-01
Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Stochastic Gabor reflectivity and acoustic impedance inversion
Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith; Ferguson, Angus John
2018-02-01
To delineate subsurface lithology to estimate petrophysical properties of a reservoir, it is possible to use acoustic impedance (AI) which is the result of seismic inversion. To change amplitude to AI, removal of wavelet effects from the seismic signal in order to get a reflection series, and subsequently transforming those reflections to AI, is vital. To carry out seismic inversion correctly it is important to not assume that the seismic signal is stationary. However, all stationary deconvolution methods are designed following that assumption. To increase temporal resolution and interpretation ability, amplitude compensation and phase correction are inevitable. Those are pitfalls of stationary reflectivity inversion. Although stationary reflectivity inversion methods are trying to estimate reflectivity series, because of incorrect assumptions their estimations will not be correct, but may be useful. Trying to convert those reflection series to AI, also merging with the low frequency initial model, can help us. The aim of this study was to apply non-stationary deconvolution to eliminate time variant wavelet effects from the signal and to convert the estimated reflection series to the absolute AI by getting bias from well logs. To carry out this aim, stochastic Gabor inversion in the time domain was used. The Gabor transform derived the signal’s time-frequency analysis and estimated wavelet properties from different windows. Dealing with different time windows gave an ability to create a time-variant kernel matrix, which was used to remove matrix effects from seismic data. The result was a reflection series that does not follow the stationary assumption. The subsequent step was to convert those reflections to AI using well information. Synthetic and real data sets were used to show the ability of the introduced method. The results highlight that the time cost to get seismic inversion is negligible related to general Gabor inversion in the frequency domain. Also
Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices
Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime
2014-01-01
The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.
Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.
Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin
2016-05-01
Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.
Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.
Developments in inverse photoemission spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheils, W.; Leckey, R.C.G.; Riley, J.D.
1996-01-01
In the 1950's and 1960's, Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES) established itself as the major technique for the study of the occupied electronic energy levels of solids. During this period the field divided into two branches: X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) for photon energies greater than ∼l000eV, and Ultra-violet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) for photon energies below ∼100eV. By the 1970's XPS and UPS had become mature techniques. Like XPS, BIS (at x-ray energies) does not have the momentum-resolving ability of UPS that has contributed much to the understanding of the occupied band structures of solids. BIS moved into a new energy regime in 1977 when Dose employed a Geiger-Mueller tube to obtain density of unoccupied states data from a tantalum sample at a photon energy of ∼9.7eV. At similar energies, the technique has since become known as Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPS), in acknowledgment of its complementary relationship to UPS and to distinguish it from the higher energy BIS. Drawing on decades of UPS expertise, IPS has quickly moved into areas of interest where UPS has been applied; metals, semiconductors, layer compounds, adsorbates, ferromagnets, and superconductors. At La Trobe University an IPS facility has been constructed. This presentation reports on developments in the experimental and analytical techniques of IPS that have been made there. The results of a study of the unoccupied bulk and surface bands of GaAs are presented
Cukier, Holly N; Skaar, David A; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Konidari, Ioanna; Whitehead, Patrice L; Jaworski, James M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R
2009-10-01
Chromosomal breaks and rearrangements have been observed in conjunction with autism and autistic spectrum disorders. A chromosomal inversion has been previously reported in autistic siblings, spanning the region from approximately 7q22.1 to 7q31. This family is distinguished by having multiple individuals with autism and associated disabilities. The region containing the inversion has been strongly implicated in autism by multiple linkage studies, and has been particularly associated with language defects in autism as well as in other disorders with language components. Mapping of the inversion breakpoints by FISH has localized the inversion to the region spanning approximately 99-108.75 Mb of chromosome 7. The proximal breakpoint has the potential to disrupt either the coding sequence or regulatory regions of a number of cytochrome P450 genes while the distal region falls in a relative gene desert. Copy number variant analysis of the breakpoint regions detected no duplication or deletion that could clearly be associated with disease status. Association analysis in our autism data set using single nucleotide polymorphisms located near the breakpoints showed no significant association with proximal breakpoint markers, but has identified markers near the distal breakpoint ( approximately 108-110 Mb) with significant associations to autism. The chromosomal abnormality in this family strengthens the case for an autism susceptibility gene in the chromosome 7q22-31 region and targets a candidate region for further investigation.
A Joint Method of Envelope Inversion Combined with Hybrid-domain Full Waveform Inversion
CUI, C.; Hou, W.
2017-12-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims to construct high-precision subsurface models by fully using the information in seismic records, including amplitude, travel time, phase and so on. However, high non-linearity and the absence of low frequency information in seismic data lead to the well-known cycle skipping problem and make inversion easily fall into local minima. In addition, those 3D inversion methods that are based on acoustic approximation ignore the elastic effects in real seismic field, and make inversion harder. As a result, the accuracy of final inversion results highly relies on the quality of initial model. In order to improve stability and quality of inversion results, multi-scale inversion that reconstructs subsurface model from low to high frequency are applied. But, the absence of very low frequencies (time domain and inversion in the frequency domain. To accelerate the inversion, we adopt CPU/GPU heterogeneous computing techniques. There were two levels of parallelism. In the first level, the inversion tasks are decomposed and assigned to each computation node by shot number. In the second level, GPU multithreaded programming is used for the computation tasks in each node, including forward modeling, envelope extraction, DFT (discrete Fourier transform) calculation and gradients calculation. Numerical tests demonstrated that the combined envelope inversion + hybrid-domain FWI could obtain much faithful and accurate result than conventional hybrid-domain FWI. The CPU/GPU heterogeneous parallel computation could improve the performance speed.
Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik
2003-01-01
There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....
Convex blind image deconvolution with inverse filtering
Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong
2018-03-01
Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.
Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safaeinili, A.
1994-01-01
This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion
3rd Annual Workshop on Inverse Problem
2015-01-01
This proceeding volume is based on papers presented on the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems which was organized by the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, and took place in May 2013 in Stockholm. The purpose of this workshop was to present new analytical developments and numerical techniques for solution of inverse problems for a wide range of applications in acoustics, electromagnetics, optical fibers, medical imaging, geophysics, etc. The contributions in this volume reflect these themes and will be beneficial to researchers who are working in the area of applied inverse problems.
Inverse problems in the Bayesian framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvetti, Daniela; Somersalo, Erkki; Kaipio, Jari P
2014-01-01
The history of Bayesian methods dates back to the original works of Reverend Thomas Bayes and Pierre-Simon Laplace: the former laid down some of the basic principles on inverse probability in his classic article ‘An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances’ that was read posthumously in the Royal Society in 1763. Laplace, on the other hand, in his ‘Memoirs on inverse probability’ of 1774 developed the idea of updating beliefs and wrote down the celebrated Bayes’ formula in the form we know today. Although not identified yet as a framework for investigating inverse problems, Laplace used the formalism very much in the spirit it is used today in the context of inverse problems, e.g., in his study of the distribution of comets. With the evolution of computational tools, Bayesian methods have become increasingly popular in all fields of human knowledge in which conclusions need to be drawn based on incomplete and noisy data. Needless to say, inverse problems, almost by definition, fall into this category. Systematic work for developing a Bayesian inverse problem framework can arguably be traced back to the 1980s, (the original first edition being published by Elsevier in 1987), although articles on Bayesian methodology applied to inverse problems, in particular in geophysics, had appeared much earlier. Today, as testified by the articles in this special issue, the Bayesian methodology as a framework for considering inverse problems has gained a lot of popularity, and it has integrated very successfully with many traditional inverse problems ideas and techniques, providing novel ways to interpret and implement traditional procedures in numerical analysis, computational statistics, signal analysis and data assimilation. The range of applications where the Bayesian framework has been fundamental goes from geophysics, engineering and imaging to astronomy, life sciences and economy, and continues to grow. There is no question that Bayesian
NLSE: Parameter-Based Inversion Algorithm
Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Aldrin, John C.; Knopp, Jeremy S.
Chapter 11 introduced us to the notion of an inverse problem and gave us some examples of the value of this idea to the solution of realistic industrial problems. The basic inversion algorithm described in Chap. 11 was based upon the Gauss-Newton theory of nonlinear least-squares estimation and is called NLSE in this book. In this chapter we will develop the mathematical background of this theory more fully, because this algorithm will be the foundation of inverse methods and their applications during the remainder of this book. We hope, thereby, to introduce the reader to the application of sophisticated mathematical concepts to engineering practice without introducing excessive mathematical sophistication.
Inverse problems for the Boussinesq system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Jishan; Jiang, Yu; Nakamura, Gen
2009-01-01
We obtain two results on inverse problems for a 2D Boussinesq system. One is that we prove the Lipschitz stability for the inverse source problem of identifying a time-independent external force in the system with observation data in an arbitrary sub-domain over a time interval of the velocity and the data of velocity and temperature at a fixed positive time t 0 > 0 over the whole spatial domain. The other one is that we prove a conditional stability estimate for an inverse problem of identifying the two initial conditions with a single observation on a sub-domain
Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otsuka, M.
1980-01-01
Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model
Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, L.J. Jr.
1980-08-01
The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented
Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, L.J. Jr.
1980-08-01
The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.
Multiparameter Optimization for Electromagnetic Inversion Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Elkattan
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM methods have been extensively used in geophysical investigations such as mineral and hydrocarbon exploration as well as in geological mapping and structural studies. In this paper, we developed an inversion methodology for Electromagnetic data to determine physical parameters of a set of horizontal layers. We conducted Forward model using transmission line method. In the inversion part, we solved multi parameter optimization problem where, the parameters are conductivity, dielectric constant, and permeability of each layer. The optimization problem was solved by simulated annealing approach. The inversion methodology was tested using a set of models representing common geological formations.
BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates
Yamamoto, Masahiro
2003-06-01
This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight
Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...
An inverse method for radiation transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Favorite, J. A. (Jeffrey A.); Sanchez, R. (Richard)
2004-01-01
Adjoint functions have been used with forward functions to compute gradients in implicit (iterative) solution methods for inverse problems in optical tomography, geoscience, thermal science, and other fields, but only once has this approach been used for inverse solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. In this paper, this approach is used to develop an inverse method that requires only angle-independent flux measurements, rather than angle-dependent measurements as was done previously. The method is applied to a simplified form of the transport equation that does not include scattering. The resulting procedure uses measured values of gamma-ray fluxes of discrete, characteristic energies to determine interface locations in a multilayer shield. The method was implemented with a Newton-Raphson optimization algorithm, and it worked very well in numerical one-dimensional spherical test cases. A more sophisticated optimization method would better exploit the potential of the inverse method.
The Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faton Merovci
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution the so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull distribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking the generalized inverseWeibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expressions for the moments, quantiles, and moment generating function of the new distribution are derived. We propose the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the flexibility of the transmuted version versus the generalized inverse Weibull distribution.
Parameterization analysis and inversion for orthorhombic media
Masmoudi, Nabil
2018-01-01
Accounting for azimuthal anisotropy is necessary for the processing and inversion of wide-azimuth and wide-aperture seismic data because wave speeds naturally depend on the wave propagation direction. Orthorhombic anisotropy is considered the most
Wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion
Zhang, Sanzong; Schuster, Gerard T.; Luo, Yi
2011-01-01
The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion using a gradient optimization method is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated within the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear
Voxel inversion of airborne EM data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.
2013-01-01
We present a geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which allows for straightforward integration of different data types in joint inversion, for informing geological/hydrogeological models directly and for easier incorporation...... of prior information. Inversion of geophysical data usually refers to a model space being linked to the actual observation points. For airborne surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. Often airborne surveys are carried out in areas where other ground......-based geophysical data are available. The model space of geophysical inversions is usually referred to the positions of the measurements, and ground-based model positions do not generally coincide with the airborne model positions. Consequently, a model space based on the measuring points is not well suited...
Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian
2014-01-01
Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon....... It is known that inversion of these basins occurred in two phases: an initial one of transpressional shortening involving reverse activation of former normal faults and a subsequent one of uplift of the earlier developed inversion axis and a shift of sedimentary depocentres, and that this is a response...... to changes in the regional intraplate stress field. This European intraplate deformation is considered in thecontext of a new model of the present-day stress field of Europe (and the North Atlantic) caused by lithospheric potential energy variations. Stresses causingbasin inversion of Europe must have been...
Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong
2016-01-01
A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low
Full traveltime inversion in source domain
Liu, Lu; Guo, Bowen; Luo, Yi
2017-01-01
This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity
On two-spectra inverse problems
Guliyev, Namig J.
2018-01-01
We consider a two-spectra inverse problem for the one-dimensional Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with boundary conditions containing rational Herglotz--Nevanlinna functions of the eigenvalue parameter and provide a complete solution of this problem.
An inverse problem for evolution inclusions
Ton, Bui An
2002-01-01
An inverse problem, the determination of the shape and a convective coefficient on a part of the boundary from partial measurements of the solution, is studied using 2-person optimal control techniques.
Hopping absorption edge in silicon inversion layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, I.Z.
1983-09-01
The low frequency gap observed in the absorption spectrum of silicon inversion layers is related to the AC variable range hopping. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient is calculated. (author)
Full traveltime inversion in source domain
Liu, Lu
2017-06-01
This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).
The inverse square law of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, A.H.
1987-01-01
The inverse square law of gravitation is very well established over the distances of celestial mechanics, while in electrostatics the law has been shown to be followed to very high precision. However, it is only within the last century that any laboratory experiments have been made to test the inverse square law for gravitation, and all but one has been carried out in the last ten years. At the same time, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of deviations from the inverse square law, either because of a possible bearing on unified theories of forces, including gravitation or, most recently, because of a possible additional fifth force of nature. In this article the various lines of evidence for the inverse square law are summarized, with emphasis upon the recent laboratory experiments. (author)
Neglected puerperal inversion of the uterus
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2012-07-27
Jul 27, 2012 ... managed surgically with Haultain's operation and discharged after 5 ... Acute inversion generally occurs during or immediately after childbirth, while chronic ... is difficult unless the fundal depression can be palpated on rectal.
n-Colour self-inverse compositions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations ...
Variability in surface inversion characteristics over India in winter ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
inversion depth at most of the other stations show that shallow and moderate inversions occur more frequently than deep ..... processed and several checks were applied to ensure homogeneity ... simply inversions) is defined as the layer from ...
Population inversion in recombining hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furukane, Utaro; Yokota, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu.
1978-11-01
The collisional-radiative model is applied to a recombining hydrogen plasma in order to investigate the plasma condition in which the population inversion between the energy levels of hydrogen can be generated. The population inversion is expected in a plasma where the three body recombination has a large contribution to the recombining processes and the effective recombination rate is beyond a certain value for a given electron density and temperature. Calculated results are presented in figures and tables. (author)
Inverse kinematic control of LDUA and TWRMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yih, T.C.; Burks, B.L.; Kwon, Dong-Soo
1995-01-01
A general inverse kinematic analysis is formulated particularly for the redundant Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) and Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS). The developed approach is applicable to the inverse kinematic simulation and control of LDUA, TWRMS, and other general robot manipulators. The 4 x 4 homogeneous Cylindrical coordinates-Bryant angles (C-B) notation is adopted to model LDUA, TWRMS, and any robot composed of R (revolute), P (prismatic), and/or S (spherical) joints
Approximation of Bayesian Inverse Problems for PDEs
Cotter, S. L.; Dashti, M.; Stuart, A. M.
2010-01-01
Inverse problems are often ill posed, with solutions that depend sensitively on data.n any numerical approach to the solution of such problems, regularization of some form is needed to counteract the resulting instability. This paper is based on an approach to regularization, employing a Bayesian formulation of the problem, which leads to a notion of well posedness for inverse problems, at the level of probability measures. The stability which results from this well posedness may be used as t...
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment
Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-01-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...
Bayesian inversion of refraction seismic traveltime data
Ryberg, T.; Haberland, Ch
2018-03-01
We apply a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) formalism to the inversion of refraction seismic, traveltime data sets to derive 2-D velocity models below linear arrays (i.e. profiles) of sources and seismic receivers. Typical refraction data sets, especially when using the far-offset observations, are known as having experimental geometries which are very poor, highly ill-posed and far from being ideal. As a consequence, the structural resolution quickly degrades with depth. Conventional inversion techniques, based on regularization, potentially suffer from the choice of appropriate inversion parameters (i.e. number and distribution of cells, starting velocity models, damping and smoothing constraints, data noise level, etc.) and only local model space exploration. McMC techniques are used for exhaustive sampling of the model space without the need of prior knowledge (or assumptions) of inversion parameters, resulting in a large number of models fitting the observations. Statistical analysis of these models allows to derive an average (reference) solution and its standard deviation, thus providing uncertainty estimates of the inversion result. The highly non-linear character of the inversion problem, mainly caused by the experiment geometry, does not allow to derive a reference solution and error map by a simply averaging procedure. We present a modified averaging technique, which excludes parts of the prior distribution in the posterior values due to poor ray coverage, thus providing reliable estimates of inversion model properties even in those parts of the models. The model is discretized by a set of Voronoi polygons (with constant slowness cells) or a triangulated mesh (with interpolation within the triangles). Forward traveltime calculations are performed by a fast, finite-difference-based eikonal solver. The method is applied to a data set from a refraction seismic survey from Northern Namibia and compared to conventional tomography. An inversion test
Inverse semigroups the theory of partial symmetries
Lawson, Mark V
1998-01-01
Symmetry is one of the most important organising principles in the natural sciences. The mathematical theory of symmetry has long been associated with group theory, but it is a basic premise of this book that there are aspects of symmetry which are more faithfully represented by a generalization of groups called inverse semigroups. The theory of inverse semigroups is described from its origins in the foundations of differential geometry through to its most recent applications in combinatorial group theory, and the theory tilings.
Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Rafiei, Alireza; Khajavi, Rezvan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Mokhberi, Vahid; Moradzadeh, Kambiz
2014-02-01
Research shows that ghrelin gene polymorphism has some association with coronary artery diseases (CAD). Due to genetic differences among nations and the high prevalence of CAD, we conducted this study to examine the possible association between the polymorphism of ghrelin gene Leu72Met and CAD among an Iranian population. This case-control study was undertaken with patients who were referred to referral heart center, in 2011, with chest pain or a positive exercise test. Patients with risk factors for heart disease or who were surgery candidates, who underwent angiography and echocardiography, were also included. DNA extractions were performed using a modified salting out method, and the ghrelin region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The presence of the Leu72Met polymorphism and the serum levels of ghrelin were determined using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The results indicated that in CAD patients, the incidence of heart failure was significantly different between the groups with genotypes CC or AA+CA (p=0.041). Mean serum level of ghrelin in the CAD group was significantly higher than that in the control group (pghrelin genotypes and serum levels of ghrelin in both the CAD and control groups (ppolymorphism, as well as an increase in serum levels of ghrelin associated with genotype distribution such that ghrelin levels have an inverse relationship with the frequency of the CC genotype.
Plasma ghrelin levels and polymorphisms of ghrelin gene in Chinese obese children and adolescents.
Zhu, J F; Liang, L; Zou, C C; Fu, J F
2010-09-01
To evaluate the role of fasting plasma ghrelin levels [ln(ghrelin)] and polymorphisms of ghrelin gene in Chinese obese children. Genotyping for ghrelin polymorphism was performed in 230 obese and 100 normal weight children. Among them, plasma ghrelin levels were measured in 91 obese and 23 health subjects. (1) Bivariate correlation analysis showed the ln(ghrelin) was inversely correlated with abnormality of glucose metabolism (r = -0.240, P = 0.023). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that abnormality of glucose metabolism was an independent determinant of plasma ghrelin levels (P = 0.023). (2) There was no difference in frequency of Leu72Met polymorphisms between obese and control groups (36.09 vs. 41.00%). Ghrelin is associated with obesity in childhood, especially associated with the glucose homeostasis. Lower ghrelin levels might be a result of obesity, but not a cause of obesity. The Leu72Met polymorphism of ghrelin gene is not associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Chinese children.
Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction
Hase, Nils; Miller, Scot M.; Maaß, Peter; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten
2017-10-01
Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4) emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.
Inverse scattering problems with multi-frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun; Lin, Junshan; Triki, Faouzi
2015-01-01
This paper is concerned with computational approaches and mathematical analysis for solving inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain. The problems arise in a diverse set of scientific areas with significant industrial, medical, and military applications. In addition to nonlinearity, there are two common difficulties associated with the inverse problems: ill-posedness and limited resolution (diffraction limit). Due to the diffraction limit, for a given frequency, only a low spatial frequency part of the desired parameter can be observed from measurements in the far field. The main idea developed here is that if the reconstruction is restricted to only the observable part, then the inversion will become stable. The challenging task is how to design stable numerical methods for solving these inverse scattering problems inspired by the diffraction limit. Recently, novel recursive linearization based algorithms have been presented in an attempt to answer the above question. These methods require multi-frequency scattering data and proceed via a continuation procedure with respect to the frequency from low to high. The objective of this paper is to give a brief review of these methods, their error estimates, and the related mathematical analysis. More attention is paid to the inverse medium and inverse source problems. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods. (topical review)
An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data
Saragiotis, Christos
2011-07-01
Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.
gene polymorphism and its serum lev
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Navya
polymorphisms and its serum level with the risk of MetS as well as their ... population for quantifying insulin resistance and β-cell function (Matthews et al. 1985). .... of IL-10 -819 C >T gene polymorphism (Co-dominant model) was significantly.
using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
To study the pattern of genetic diversity in 45 genotypes of common bean, 19 RAPD primers were used. Of 253 bands produced, 236 bands (94.22%) were polymorphic in which maximum number (20 polymorphic bands) were observed in the profiles of the primer OPB-07. Highest PIC value (0.79) was observed for the ...
gene polymorphism and its serum lev
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Navya
Association of Interleukin-10 (-1082 A>G, -819 C >T and -592 C >A) gene polymorphism and its ... Th2 induced component of anti-β cell immunity is mediated principally by IL-10 (Lee et al. ..... promoter polymorphisms influence the clinical outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ... Bone Marrow Transplant 36, 1089-1095.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in type 1 ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In patients with type-I diabetes mellitus folate deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction. So, polymorphism in genes involved in folate metabolism may have a role in vascular disease. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
crumbled to dirty grey and the soldiers believed that it is the wrath of God; their .... more molecules of water leave the beaker progressively concentrating the solution ..... spectrum antibacterial fluoroquinolone for the treatment of prostate and ...
Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...
Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Horton, B M; McKee, C D; Michaud, J M; Tharp, G K; Thomas, J W; Tuttle, E M; Yi, S; Maney, D L
2015-11-01
The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2(m) ), may therefore advance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To identify genes that are differentially expressed between the two morphs and correlated with behavior, we quantified gene expression and terrirorial aggression, including song, in a population of free-living white-throated sparrows. We analyzed gene expression in two brain regions, the medial amygdala (MeA) and hypothalamus. Both regions are part of a 'social behavior network', which is rich in steroid hormone receptors and previously linked with territorial behavior. Using weighted gene co-expression network analyses, we identified modules of genes that were correlated with both morph and singing behavior. The majority of these genes were located within the inversion, showing the profound effect of the inversion on the expression of genes captured by the rearrangement. These modules were enriched with genes related to retinoic acid signaling and basic cellular functioning. In the MeA, the most prominent pathways were those related to steroid hormone receptor activity. Within these pathways, the only gene encoding such a receptor was ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1), a gene previously shown to predict song rate in this species. The set of candidate genes we identified may mediate the effects of a chromosomal inversion on territorial behavior. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
PCR-based karyotyping of Anopheles gambiae inversion 2Rj identifies the BAMAKO chromosomal form
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Conway David J
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is polymorphic for chromosomal inversions on the right arm of chromosome 2 that segregate nonrandomly between assortatively mating populations in West Africa. One such inversion, 2Rj, is associated with the BAMAKO chromosomal form endemic to southern Mali and northern Guinea Conakry near the Niger River. Although it exploits a unique ecology and both molecular and chromosomal data suggest reduced gene flow between BAMAKO and other A. gambiae populations, no molecular markers exist to identify this form. Methods To facilitate study of the BAMAKO form, a PCR assay for molecular karyotyping of 2Rj was developed based on sequences at the breakpoint junctions. The assay was extensively validated using more than 700 field specimens whose karyotypes were determined in parallel by cytogenetic and molecular methods. As inversion 2Rj also occurs in SAVANNA populations outside the geographic range of BAMAKO, samples were tested from Senegal, Cameroon and western Guinea Conakry as well as from Mali. Results In southern Mali, where 2Rj polymorphism in SAVANNA populations was very low and most of the 2Rj homozygotes were found in BAMAKO karyotypes, the molecular and cytogenetic methods were almost perfectly congruent. Elsewhere agreement between the methods was much poorer, as the molecular assay frequently misclassified 2Rj heterozygotes as 2R+j standard homozygotes. Conclusion Molecular karyotyping of 2Rj is robust and accurate on 2R+j standard and 2Rj inverted homozygotes. Therefore, the proposed approach overcomes the lack of a rapid tool for identifying the BAMAKO form across developmental stages and sexes, and opens new perspectives for the study of BAMAKO ecology and behaviour. On the other hand, the method should not be applied for molecular karyotyping of j-carriers within the SAVANNA chromosomal form.
Wallace, Andre G; Detweiler, Don; Schaeffer, Stephen W
2011-08-01
The third chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura is polymorphic for numerous gene arrangements that form classical clines in North America. The polytene salivary chromosomes isolated from natural populations revealed changes in gene order that allowed the different gene arrangements to be linked together by paracentric inversions representing one of the first cases where genetic data were used to construct a phylogeny. Although the inversion phylogeny can be used to determine the relationships among the gene arrangements, the cytogenetic data are unable to infer the ancestral arrangement or the age of the different chromosome types. These are both important properties if one is to infer the evolutionary forces responsible for the spread and maintenance of the chromosomes. Here, we employ the nucleotide sequences of 18 regions distributed across the third chromosome in 80-100 D. pseudoobscura strains to test whether five gene arrangements are of unique or multiple origin, what the ancestral arrangement was, and what are the ages of the different arrangements. Each strain carried one of six commonly found gene arrangements and the sequences were used to infer their evolutionary relationships. Breakpoint regions in the center of the chromosome supported monophyly of the gene arrangements, whereas regions at the ends of the chromosome gave phylogenies that provided less support for monophyly of the chromosomes either because the individual markers did not have enough phylogenetically informative sites or genetic exchange scrambled information among the gene arrangements. A data set where the genetic markers were concatenated strongly supported a unique origin of the different gene arrangements. The inversion polymorphism of D. pseudoobscura is estimated to be about a million years old. We have also shown that the generated phylogeny is consistent with the cytological phylogeny of this species. In addition, the data presented here support hypothetical as the ancestral
Betrán, E; Quezada-Díaz, J E; Ruiz, A; Santos, M; Fontdevila, A
1995-02-01
Chromosome polymorphism in Drosophila buzzatii is under selection but the genes responsible for the effect of the inversions of fitness are unknown. On the other hand, there is evidence for selection on several allozyme loci but the presence of paracentric inversions on the second chromosome, where most of the polymorphic loci are located, complicates the interpretation. Studies of the associations between allozymes and inversions are thus necessary to help understand the effect of selection at both the chromosomal and allozymic level. Until now this kind of information has only been available in D. buzzatii for two loci, Est-1 and Est-2, in Australian populations. Here we describe the genetic constitution of two Old World populations, Carboneras and Colera. Emphasis has been placed on the analysis of the linkage disequilibria between the second chromosome arrangements and three allozyme loci, Est-2, Pept-2 and Aldox, located on this chromosome. In addition, the recombination frequencies between the loci, and between the loci and the inversion breakpoints, have been estimated and a genetic map of the three loci has been produced. The two populations differ in allele and arrangement frequencies, as well as in the pattern of one-locus disequilibria. Est-2 and Aldox are associated with the second chromosome arrangements in both populations. On the other hand, Pept-2 is associated with the inversions in Colera but not in Carboneras. The gametic associations among the three loci are discussed taking into account the position of these loci on the chromosome map and the lack of recombination in the heterokaryotypes.
Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-09-21
A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Inverse kinematic-based robot control
Wolovich, W. A.; Flueckiger, K. F.
1987-01-01
A fundamental problem which must be resolved in virtually all non-trivial robotic operations is the well-known inverse kinematic question. More specifically, most of the tasks which robots are called upon to perform are specified in Cartesian (x,y,z) space, such as simple tracking along one or more straight line paths or following a specified surfacer with compliant force sensors and/or visual feedback. In all cases, control is actually implemented through coordinated motion of the various links which comprise the manipulator; i.e., in link space. As a consequence, the control computer of every sophisticated anthropomorphic robot must contain provisions for solving the inverse kinematic problem which, in the case of simple, non-redundant position control, involves the determination of the first three link angles, theta sub 1, theta sub 2, and theta sub 3, which produce a desired wrist origin position P sub xw, P sub yw, and P sub zw at the end of link 3 relative to some fixed base frame. Researchers outline a new inverse kinematic solution and demonstrate its potential via some recent computer simulations. They also compare it to current inverse kinematic methods and outline some of the remaining problems which will be addressed in order to render it fully operational. Also discussed are a number of practical consequences of this technique beyond its obvious use in solving the inverse kinematic question.
QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klammer, D.
2006-07-01
Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)
QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klammer, D.
2006-07-15
Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)
Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew
2014-01-01
Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)
Alternating minimisation for glottal inverse filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleyer, Ismael Rodrigo; Lybeck, Lasse; Auvinen, Harri; Siltanen, Samuli; Airaksinen, Manu; Alku, Paavo
2017-01-01
A new method is proposed for solving the glottal inverse filtering (GIF) problem. The goal of GIF is to separate an acoustical speech signal into two parts: the glottal airflow excitation and the vocal tract filter. To recover such information one has to deal with a blind deconvolution problem. This ill-posed inverse problem is solved under a deterministic setting, considering unknowns on both sides of the underlying operator equation. A stable reconstruction is obtained using a double regularization strategy, alternating between fixing either the glottal source signal or the vocal tract filter. This enables not only splitting the nonlinear and nonconvex problem into two linear and convex problems, but also allows the use of the best parameters and constraints to recover each variable at a time. This new technique, called alternating minimization glottal inverse filtering (AM-GIF), is compared with two other approaches: Markov chain Monte Carlo glottal inverse filtering (MCMC-GIF), and iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF), using synthetic speech signals. The recent MCMC-GIF has good reconstruction quality but high computational cost. The state-of-the-art IAIF method is computationally fast but its accuracy deteriorates, particularly for speech signals of high fundamental frequency ( F 0). The results show the competitive performance of the new method: With high F 0, the reconstruction quality is better than that of IAIF and close to MCMC-GIF while reducing the computational complexity by two orders of magnitude. (paper)
Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping
Choi, Yun Seok
2015-07-28
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.
On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry
2015-07-01
For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl{sub 3} over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm{sup -1}) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl{sub 3} type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A{sub 1g}), 201 (E{sub g}), 112 (E{sub g}), 88 (A{sub 1g}), and 63 (E{sub g}). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl{sub 3} C{sub 2h}{sup 3} symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.
On polymorphism of dysprosium trichloride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Khokhlov, Vladimir A.; Salyulev, Alexander B.; Korzun, Iraida V.
2015-01-01
For the first time, the structure of crystalline DyCl 3 over a wide temperature range from room temperature to melting point was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon modes (cm -1 ) of dysprosium trichloride (monoclinic crystal lattice of AlCl 3 type, Z = 4, CN = 6) at room temperature are 257 (A 1g ), 201 (E g ), 112 (E g ), 88 (A 1g ), and 63 (E g ). The monoclinic structure of the crystalline DyCl 3 C 2h 3 symmetry was found to remain constant over the studied temperature range. No polymorphic transformation in the solid state was detected. Gravimetry, calorimetry, and mass spectrometry have been used in addition to support the conclusions made on the basis of Raman spectroscopic data.
Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M
2016-04-15
A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.
Single-tube tetradecaplex panel of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers hemophilia A.
Zhao, M; Chen, M; Tan, A S C; Cheah, F S H; Mathew, J; Wong, P C; Chong, S S
2017-07-01
Essentials Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of severe hemophilia A relies on linkage analysis. Simultaneous multi-marker screening can simplify selection of informative markers in a couple. We developed a single-tube tetradecaplex panel of polymorphic markers for hemophilia A PGD use. Informative markers can be used for linkage analysis alone or combined with mutation detection. Background It is currently not possible to perform single-cell preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to directly detect the common inversion mutations of the factor VIII (F8) gene responsible for severe hemophilia A (HEMA). As such, PGD for such inversion carriers relies on indirect analysis of linked polymorphic markers. Objectives To simplify linkage-based PGD of HEMA, we aimed to develop a panel of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located near the F8 gene that could be simultaneously genotyped in a multiplex-PCR reaction. Methods We assessed the polymorphism of various microsatellite markers located ≤ 1 Mb from F8 in 177 female subjects. Highly polymorphic markers were selected for co-amplification with the AMELX/Y indel dimorphism in a single-tube reaction. Results Thirteen microsatellite markers located within 0.6 Mb of F8 were successfully co-amplified with AMELX/Y in a single-tube reaction. Observed heterozygosities of component markers ranged from 0.43 to 0.84, and ∼70-80% of individuals were heterozygous for ≥ 5 markers. The tetradecaplex panel successfully identified fully informative markers in a couple interested in PGD for HEMA because of an intragenic F8 point mutation, with haplotype phasing established through a carrier daughter. In-vitro fertilization (IVF)-PGD involved single-tube co-amplification of fully informative markers with AMELX/Y and the mutation-containing F8 amplicon, followed by microsatellite analysis and amplicon mutation-site minisequencing analysis. Conclusions The single-tube multiplex-PCR format of this highly polymorphic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ching-Hung Lin
Full Text Available A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians.Female healthy volunteers (n = 307, patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692 and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189 were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs.Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort. In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14% in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71 in the consecutive cohort.BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians.
TGFB1 and TGFBR1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, David G; Penney, Kathryn; Guo, Qun; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J
2007-01-01
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) forms a signaling complex with transforming growth factor beta receptors 1 and 2 and has been described as both a tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TGFB1 and a microsatellite in TGFBR1 have been investigated for association with risk of breast cancer, with conflicting results. We examined polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TGFB1 gene as well as the TGFBR1*6A microsatellite in the Nurses' Health Study cohort. No overall associations between the L10P polymorphism of TGFB1 or the TGFBR1 microsatellite were detected. However, we observed an inverse association between the -509 C/T polymorphism of TGFB1 (p-trend = 0.04), which was stronger and more significant among women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of TGFB1 are not likely to be associated with large increases in breast cancer risk overall among Caucasian women
Drabova, Jana; Trkova, Marie; Hancarova, Miroslava; Novotna, Drahuse; Hejtmankova, Michaela; Havlovicova, Marketa; Sedlacek, Zdenek
2014-01-01
Inversions are balanced structural chromosome rearrangements, which can influence gene expression and the risk of unbalanced chromosome constitution in offspring. Many examples of inversion polymorphisms exist in human, affecting both heterochromatic regions and euchromatin. We describe a novel, 15 Mb long paracentric inversion, inv(21)(q21.1q22.11), affecting more than a third of human 21q. Despite of its length, the inversion cannot be detected using karyotyping due to similar band patterns on the normal and inverted chromosomes, and is therefore likely to escape attention. Its identification was aided by the repeated observation of the same pair of 150 kb long duplications present in cis on chromosome 21 in three Czech families subjected to microarray analysis. The finding prompted us to hypothesise that this co-occurrence of two remote duplications could be associated with an inversion of the intervening segment, and this speculation turned out to be right. The inversion was confirmed in a series of FISH experiments which also showed that the second copy of each of the duplications was always located at the opposite end of the inversion. The presence of the same pair of duplications in additional individuals reported in public databases indicates that the inversion may also be present in other populations. Three out of the total of about 4000 chromosomes 21 examined in our sample carried the duplications and were inverted, corresponding to carrier frequency of about 1/660. Although the breakpoints affect protein-coding genes, the occurrence of the inversion in normal parents and siblings of our patients and the occurrence of the duplications in unaffected controls in databases indicate that this rare variant is rather non-pathogenic. The inverted segment carried an identical shared haplotype in the three families studied. The haplotypes, however, diverged very rapidly in the flanking regions, possibly pointing to an ancient founder event at the origin of the
Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebara, K; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Hyakutake, H
1977-01-07
Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount.
Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammed Arif Sen
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.
FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.
2015-01-01
We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively
Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooke, Roger M.; Nauta, Maarten; Havelaar, Arie H.; Fels, Ine van der
2006-01-01
We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism
Enzymatic Inverse Opal Hydrogel Particles for Biocatalyst.
Wang, Huan; Gu, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhuoyue; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Ze; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin
2017-04-19
Enzymatic carriers have a demonstrated value for chemical reactions and industrial applications. Here, we present a novel kind of inverse opal hydrogel particles as the enzymatic carriers. The particles were negatively replicated from spherical colloidal crystal templates by using magnetic nanoparticles tagged acrylamide hydrogel. Thus, they were endowed with the features of monodispersity, small volume, complete penetrating structure, and controllable motion, which are all beneficial for improving the efficiency of biocatalysis. In addition, due to the ordered porous nanostructure, the inverse opal hydrogel particles were imparted with unique photonic band gaps (PBGs) and vivid structural colors for encoding varieties of immobilized enzymes and for constructing a multienzymes biocatalysis system. These features of the inverse opal hydrogel particles indicate that they are ideal enzymatic carriers for biocatalysis.
Inverse problems in linear transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dressler, K.
1988-01-01
Inverse problems for a class of linear kinetic equations are investigated. The aim is to identify the scattering kernel of a transport equation (corresponding to the structure of a background medium) by observing the 'albedo' part of the solution operator for the corresponding direct initial boundary value problem. This means to get information on some integral operator in an integrodifferential equation through on overdetermined boundary value problem. We first derive a constructive method for solving direct halfspace problems and prove a new factorization theorem for the solutions. Using this result we investigate stationary inverse problems with respect to well posedness (e.g. reduce them to classical ill-posed problems, such as integral equations of first kind). In the time-dependent case we show that a quite general inverse problem is well posed and solve it constructively. (orig.)
Optimization and Inverse Design of Pump Impeller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyauchi, S; Matsumoto, H; Sano, M; Kassai, N; Zhu, B; Luo, X; Piao, B
2012-01-01
As for pump impellers, the meridional flow channel and blade-to-blade flow channel, which are relatively independent of each other but greatly affect performance, are designed in parallel. And the optimization design is used for the former and the inverse design is used for the latter. To verify this new design method, a mixed-flow impeller was made. Next, we use Tani's inverse design method for the blade loading of inverse design. It is useful enough to change a deceleration rate freely and greatly. And it can integrally express the rear blade loading of various methods by NACA, Zangeneh and Stratford. We controlled the deceleration rate by shape parameter m, and its value became almost same with Tani's recommended value of the laminar airfoil.
Fuzzy logic guided inverse treatment planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Hui; Yin Fangfang; Guan Huaiqun; Kim, Jae Ho
2003-01-01
A fuzzy logic technique was applied to optimize the weighting factors in the objective function of an inverse treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Based on this technique, the optimization of weighting factors is guided by the fuzzy rules while the intensity spectrum is optimized by a fast-monotonic-descent method. The resultant fuzzy logic guided inverse planning system is capable of finding the optimal combination of weighting factors for different anatomical structures involved in treatment planning. This system was tested using one simulated (but clinically relevant) case and one clinical case. The results indicate that the optimal balance between the target dose and the critical organ dose is achieved by a refined combination of weighting factors. With the help of fuzzy inference, the efficiency and effectiveness of inverse planning for IMRT are substantially improved
Applications of inverse and algebraic scattering theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amos, K. [Qinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
Inverse scattering theories, algebraic scattering theory and exactly solvable scattering potentials are diverse ways by which scattering potentials can be defined from S-functions specified by fits to fixed energy, quantal scattering data. Applications have been made in nuclear (heavy ion and nucleon-nucleus scattering), atomic and molecular (electron scattering from simple molecules) systems. Three inverse scattering approaches are considered in detail; the semiclassical WKB and fully quantal Lipperheide-Fiedeldey method, than algebraic scattering theory is applied to heavy ion scattering and finally the exactly solvable Ginocchio potentials. Some nuclear results are ambiguous but the atomic and molecular inversion potentials are in good agreement with postulated forms. 21 refs., 12 figs.
Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebara, Katsuya; Takahashi, Sankichi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Hyakutake, Hiroshi.
1977-01-01
Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount. (Furukawa, Y.)
Mesoscale inversion of carbon sources and sinks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lauvaux, T.
2008-01-01
Inverse methods at large scales are used to infer the spatial variability of carbon sources and sinks over the continents but their uncertainties remain large. Atmospheric concentrations integrate the surface flux variability but atmospheric transport models at low resolution are not able to simulate properly the local atmospheric dynamics at the measurement sites. However, the inverse estimates are more representative of the large spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystems compared to direct flux measurements. Top-down and bottom-up methods that aim at quantifying the carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere correspond to different scales and are not easily comparable. During this phD, a mesoscale inverse system was developed to correct carbon fluxes at 8 km resolution. The high resolution transport model MesoNH was used to simulate accurately the variability of the atmospheric concentrations, which allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved fluxes. All the measurements used here were observed during the intensive regional campaign CERES of May and June 2005, during which several instrumented towers measured CO 2 concentrations and fluxes in the South West of France. Airborne measurements allowed us to observe concentrations at high altitude but also CO 2 surface fluxes over large parts of the domain. First, the capacity of the inverse system to correct the CO 2 fluxes was estimated using pseudo-data experiments. The largest fraction of the concentration variability was attributed to regional surface fluxes over an area of about 300 km around the site locations depending on the meteorological conditions. Second, an ensemble of simulations allowed us to define the spatial and temporal structures of the transport errors. Finally, the inverse fluxes at 8 km resolution were compared to direct flux measurements. The inverse system has been validated in space and time and showed an improvement of the first guess fluxes from a vegetation model
Ensemble Kalman methods for inverse problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iglesias, Marco A; Law, Kody J H; Stuart, Andrew M
2013-01-01
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) was introduced by Evensen in 1994 (Evensen 1994 J. Geophys. Res. 99 10143–62) as a novel method for data assimilation: state estimation for noisily observed time-dependent problems. Since that time it has had enormous impact in many application domains because of its robustness and ease of implementation, and numerical evidence of its accuracy. In this paper we propose the application of an iterative ensemble Kalman method for the solution of a wide class of inverse problems. In this context we show that the estimate of the unknown function that we obtain with the ensemble Kalman method lies in a subspace A spanned by the initial ensemble. Hence the resulting error may be bounded above by the error found from the best approximation in this subspace. We provide numerical experiments which compare the error incurred by the ensemble Kalman method for inverse problems with the error of the best approximation in A, and with variants on traditional least-squares approaches, restricted to the subspace A. In so doing we demonstrate that the ensemble Kalman method for inverse problems provides a derivative-free optimization method with comparable accuracy to that achieved by traditional least-squares approaches. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the accuracy is of the same order of magnitude as that achieved by the best approximation. Three examples are used to demonstrate these assertions: inversion of a compact linear operator; inversion of piezometric head to determine hydraulic conductivity in a Darcy model of groundwater flow; and inversion of Eulerian velocity measurements at positive times to determine the initial condition in an incompressible fluid. (paper)
Inversion variants in human and primate genomes.
Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Maggiolini, Flavia Angela Maria; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Bitonto, Miriana; Capozzi, Oronzo; Signorile, Martina Lepore; Miroballo, Mattia; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario; Antonacci, Francesca
2018-05-18
For many years, inversions have been proposed to be a direct driving force in speciation since they suppress recombination when heterozygous. Inversions are the most common large-scale differences among humans and great apes. Nevertheless, they represent large events easily distinguishable by classical cytogenetics, whose resolution, however, is limited. Here, we performed a genome-wide comparison between human, great ape, and macaque genomes using the net alignments for the most recent releases of genome assemblies. We identified a total of 156 putative inversions, between 103 kb and 91 Mb, corresponding to 136 human loci. Combining literature, sequence, and experimental analyses, we analyzed 109 of these loci and found 67 regions inverted in one or multiple primates, including 28 newly identified inversions. These events overlap with 81 human genes at their breakpoints, and seven correspond to sites of recurrent rearrangements associated with human disease. This work doubles the number of validated primate inversions larger than 100 kb, beyond what was previously documented. We identified 74 sites of errors, where the sequence has been assembled in the wrong orientation, in the reference genomes analyzed. Our data serve two purposes: First, we generated a map of evolutionary inversions in these genomes representing a resource for interrogating differences among these species at a functional level; second, we provide a list of misassembled regions in these primate genomes, involving over 300 Mb of DNA and 1978 human genes. Accurately annotating these regions in the genome references has immediate applications for evolutionary and biomedical studies on primates. © 2018 Catacchio et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques
Backus, George E.
1996-12-01
By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.
López-Flores, I; Lacasaña, M; Blanco-Muñoz, J; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Sanchez-Villegas, P; Pérez-Méndez, O A; Gamboa-Avila, R
2009-07-24
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a serum enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of organophosphate pesticides. In this study we conducted a cross-sectional study and reported on the distribution of three common genetic polymorphisms of the PON1 gene in a population of floriculture workers from Mexico as well as the association between those polymorphisms and other predictors with serum PON1 activity on paraoxon, diazoxon and phenylacetate. The genotype frequencies at position PON1(55) were 89% (LL), 10% (LM) and 0.6% (MM), at position PON1(192) they were 16% (QQ), 47% (QR) and 37% (RR), and 26% (TT), 42% (TC) and 32% (CC) at position PON1(-108). Thus, the frequencies of alleles L, Q and T were 0.94, 0.40 and 0.47, respectively. The PON1(55) polymorphism had no significant effect on serum PON1 activity on any substrate. We found a significant association between the PON1(192) polymorphism and PON1 activity towards paraoxon and diazoxon, which increased in genotypes as follows: 192RR>192QR>192QQ for paraoxonase activity and, inversely, 192QQ>192QR>192RR for diazoxonase activity. The PON1(-108) polymorphism also had a significant effect on PON1 activity level towards paraoxon in the following order among the genotype groups: -108CC>-108TC>-108TT. Serum PON1 activity towards diazoxon was not associated with the PON1(-108) polymorphism but it was influenced by the intensity exposure to pesticides at the floriculture industry and the years of the occupational exposure to pesticides. No polymorphism significantly influenced serum PON1 activity on phenylacetate.
Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haydock, Roger; Nex, C M M; Wexler, Geoffrey
2004-01-01
A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically
3D geophysical inversion for contact surfaces
Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin
2014-05-01
Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure volumetric inversions (performed on meshes of space-filling cells) recover smooth models inconsistent with such interpretations. There are several approaches through which geophysical inversion can help recover models with the desired characteristics. Some authors have developed iterative strategies in which several volumetric inversions are performed with regularization parameters changing to achieve sharper interfaces at automatically determined locations. Another approach is to redesign the regularization to be consistent with the desired model characteristics, e.g. L1-like norms or compactness measures. A few researchers have taken approaches that limit the recovered values to lie within particular ranges, resulting in sharp discontinuities; these include binary inversion, level set methods and clustering strategies. In most of the approaches mentioned above, the model parameterization considers the physical properties in each of the many space-filling cells within the volume of interest. The exception are level set methods, in which a higher dimensional function is parameterized and the contact surface is determined from the zero-level of that function. However, even level-set methods rely on an underlying volumetric mesh. We are researching a fundamentally different type of inversion that parameterizes the Earth in terms of the contact surfaces between rock units. 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. This wireframe representation allows for flexible and efficient generation of complicated geological structures. Therefore, a natural approach for representing a geophysical model in an inversion is to parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The geological and
Inverse source problems for eddy current equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodríguez, Ana Alonso; Valli, Alberto; Camaño, Jessika
2012-01-01
We study the inverse source problem for the eddy current approximation of Maxwell equations. As for the full system of Maxwell equations, we show that a volume current source cannot be uniquely identified by knowledge of the tangential components of the electromagnetic fields on the boundary, and we characterize the space of non-radiating sources. On the other hand, we prove that the inverse source problem has a unique solution if the source is supported on the boundary of a subdomain or if it is the sum of a finite number of dipoles. We address the applicability of this result for the localization of brain activity from electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography measurements. (paper)
Inverse Higgs effect in nonlinear realizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetskij, V.I.
1975-01-01
In theories with nonlinearly realized symmetry it is possible in a number of cases to eliminate some initial Goldstone and gauge fields by means of putting appropriate Cartan forms equal to zero. This is called the inverse Higgs phenomenon. We give a general treatment of the inverse Higgs phenomenon for gauge and space-time symmetries and consider four instructive examples which are the elimination of unessential gauge fields in chiral symmetry and in non-linearly realized supersymmetry and also the elimination of unessential Goldstone fields in the spontaneously broken conformal and projective symmetries
Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salas, G.
1983-01-01
We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance
Direct and inverse scattering for viscoelastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ammicht, E.; Corones, J.P.; Krueger, R.J.
1987-01-01
A time domain approach to direct and inverse scattering problems for one-dimensional viscoelastic media is presented. Such media can be characterized as having a constitutive relation between stress and strain which involves the past history of the strain through a memory function, the relaxation modulus. In the approach in this article, the relaxation modulus of a material is shown to be related to the reflection properties of the material. This relation provides a constructive algorithm for direct and inverse scattering problems. A numerical implementation of this algorithm is tested on several problems involving realistic relaxation moduli
Inverse statistical approach in heartbeat time series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebadi, H; Shirazi, A H; Mani, Ali R; Jafari, G R
2011-01-01
We present an investigation on heart cycle time series, using inverse statistical analysis, a concept borrowed from studying turbulence. Using this approach, we studied the distribution of the exit times needed to achieve a predefined level of heart rate alteration. Such analysis uncovers the most likely waiting time needed to reach a certain change in the rate of heart beat. This analysis showed a significant difference between the raw data and shuffled data, when the heart rate accelerates or decelerates to a rare event. We also report that inverse statistical analysis can distinguish between the electrocardiograms taken from healthy volunteers and patients with heart failure
Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome
2009-01-01
We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....
Association of interleukin-1 beta (-511C/T) polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tai-Hung Chao; Hsing-Ning Yu; Chi-Chuan Huang; Wen-Shen Liu; Ya-Wen Tsai; Wen-Tung Wu
2010-01-01
Osteoporosis is a common disease of the elderly, in which genetic and clinical factors contribute to the disease phenotype. Since the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the bone mass and skeletal disorders, we investigated whether IL-1 system gene polymorphisms are associated with the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Taiwanese women.Osteoporosis is diagnosed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, which measures bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple skeletal sites. We studied the IL-1a (-889C/T), IL-1 (-511C/T) and the 86 base pair variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in intron 2 of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene in 117 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 135 control subjects without a history of symptomatic osteoporosis. These gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymerase. Blood sugar and other risk factors were also determined.The frequencies of IL-1 (-511C/T) genotypes (P=.022, odds ratio=1.972) and alleles (P=.02, odds ratio=2.909) showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups. However, we did not find any statistically significant difference in IL-1 and IL-1ra polymorphisms (P>.05). We also observed a positive relationship between osteoporosis and cholesterol and a weak inverse relationship between blood sugar and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.These experimental results suggest that the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is associated with IL-1 (-511C/T) polymorphism in postmenopausal women. This polymorphism is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (Author).
Polymorphism Sequence - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available List Contact us JSNP Polymorphism Sequence Data detail Data name Polymorphism Sequence DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nb...dc00114-001 Description of data contents Information on polymorphisms (SNPs and insertions/deletions) and th...se Name database name JSNP_SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism JSNP_InsDel_IND: insertion/deletion JSNP_InsD...ved allele observed 3' Flanking Sequence 3' flanking sequence Offset in Flanking Sequence position of the polymorphism...uence Accession No. accession No. of the sequence for polymorphism screening Offset in Record position of the polymorphism
Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion
Feng, Shihang
2016-09-06
The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.
Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator
Ikhsan Eka Prasetia; Trihastuti Agustinah
2015-01-01
In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...
Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications
Kabanikhin, S I
2011-01-01
The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.
Polymorphism at codon 36 of the p53 gene.
Felix, C A; Brown, D L; Mitsudomi, T; Ikagaki, N; Wong, A; Wasserman, R; Womer, R B; Biegel, J A
1994-01-01
A polymorphism at codon 36 in exon 4 of the p53 gene was identified by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing of genomic DNA PCR products. The polymorphic allele, present in the heterozygous state in genomic DNAs of four of 100 individuals (4%), changes the codon 36 CCG to CCA, eliminates a FinI restriction site and creates a BccI site. Including this polymorphism there are four known polymorphisms in the p53 coding sequence.
DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.
Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces and polymorphism ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
breeding program through marker-assisted selection. ... Keywords: Sorghum, diversity, stay-green trait, marker, polymorphism. ..... Na: Number of different alleles; Na Freq: Frequency of different alleles; Ne: Number of effective alleles; ...
Polymorphous light eruption - some interesting aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corrales-Padilla, H.; Dominguez-Soto, L.; Hojyo-Tomoka, M.T.; Londono, F.; Vargas-Ocampo, F.
1979-01-01
A study of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is Latin America is reported. The clinical lesions, the course, histopathology, differential diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment and systemic photoprotection are discussed. Treatment with ultraviolet radiation is included. (C.F.)
An association study between polymorphism of alcohol ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Jane
2011-09-28
Sep 28, 2011 ... factors which include alcohol metabolizing genes and ... Association research proves that c2 allele is a risk factor for ..... polymorphism in alcohol liver cirrhosis and alcohol chronic pancreatitis among Polish individuals.S cand ...
Eighteen polymorphic microsatellites for domestic pigeon Columba ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
certain parasites which cause health problems in humans and domestic animals ... The genomic DNA was isolated using standard protocol as described by ..... panel of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Himalayan monal. Lophophorus ...
General inverse problems for regular variation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan
2014-01-01
Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...
Inverse scattering with supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baye, Daniel; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc
2004-01-01
The application of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverse scattering problem is reviewed. The main difference with standard treatments of the inverse problem lies in the simple and natural extension to potentials with singularities at the origin and with a Coulomb behaviour at infinity. The most general form of potentials which are phase-equivalent to a given potential is discussed. The use of singular potentials allows adding or removing states from the bound spectrum without contradicting the Levinson theorem. Physical applications of phase-equivalent potentials in nuclear reactions and in three-body systems are described. Derivation of a potential from the phase shift at fixed orbital momentum can also be performed with the supersymmetric inversion by using a Bargmann-type approximation of the scattering matrix or phase shift. A unique singular potential without bound states can be obtained from any phase shift. A limited number of bound states depending on the singularity can then be added. This inversion procedure is illustrated with nucleon-nucleon scattering
Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils
In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain...
On inverse problem of calculus of variations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tao, Z-L [College of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)], E-mail: zaolingt@nuist.edu.cn
2008-02-15
Using the semi-inverse method proposed by Ji-Huan He, variational principles are established for some nonlinear equations arising in physics, including the (p, 2p)-mZK equation, Klein-Gordon equation, sine-Gordon equation, Liouville equation, Dodd- Bullough-Mikhailov equation, and Tzitzeica-Dodd-Bullough equation.
Introduction to inverse problems for differential equations
Hasanov Hasanoğlu, Alemdar
2017-01-01
This book presents a systematic exposition of the main ideas and methods in treating inverse problems for PDEs arising in basic mathematical models, though it makes no claim to being exhaustive. Mathematical models of most physical phenomena are governed by initial and boundary value problems for PDEs, and inverse problems governed by these equations arise naturally in nearly all branches of science and engineering. The book’s content, especially in the Introduction and Part I, is self-contained and is intended to also be accessible for beginning graduate students, whose mathematical background includes only basic courses in advanced calculus, PDEs and functional analysis. Further, the book can be used as the backbone for a lecture course on inverse and ill-posed problems for partial differential equations. In turn, the second part of the book consists of six nearly-independent chapters. The choice of these chapters was motivated by the fact that the inverse coefficient and source problems considered here a...
An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment
Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping
2011-01-01
A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…
Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping
Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a
Elastic versus acoustic inversion for marine surveys
Mora, Peter; Wu, Zedong
2018-01-01
Full Wavefield Inversion (FWI) is a powerful and elegant approach for seismic imaging that is on the way to becoming the method of choice when processing exploration or global seismic data. In the case of processing marine survey data, one may
A Face Inversion Effect without a Face
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
2012-01-01
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars
2016-01-01
Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor...
Asymptotic inversion of the Erlang B formula
Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.; Temme, N.M.
2008-01-01
The Erlang B formula represents the steady-state blocking probability in the Erlang loss model or M=M=s=s queue. We derive asymptotic expansions for the offered load that matches, for a given number of servers, a certain blocking probability. In addressing this inversion problem we make use of
Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame
Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.
2014-01-01
This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary
Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame
Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.
2014-01-01
This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a
Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend
2002-01-01
The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...
Direct and inverse problems of infrared tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sizikov, Valery S.; Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander
2016-01-01
The problems of infrared tomography-direct (the modeling of measured functions) and inverse (the reconstruction of gaseous medium parameters)-are considered with a laboratory burner flame as an example of an application. The two measurement modes are used: active (ON) with an external IR source...
On the inverse windowed Fourier transform
Rebollo Neira, Laura; Fernández Rubio, Juan Antonio
1999-01-01
The inversion problem concerning the windowed Fourier transform is considered. It is shown that, out of the infinite solutions that the problem admits, the windowed Fourier transform is the "optimal" solution according to a maximum-entropy selection criterion. Peer Reviewed
Modelling and inversion of local magnetic anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quesnel, Y; Langlais, B; Sotin, C; Galdéano, A
2008-01-01
We present a method—named as MILMA for modelling and inversion of local magnetic anomalies—that combines forward and inverse modelling of aeromagnetic data to characterize both magnetization properties and location of unconstrained local sources. Parameters of simple-shape magnetized bodies (cylinder, prism or sphere) are first adjusted by trial and error to predict the signal. Their parameters provide a priori information for inversion of the measurements. Here, a generalized nonlinear approach with a least-squares criterion is adopted to seek the best parameters of the sphere (dipole). This inversion step allows the model to be more objectively adjusted to fit the magnetic signal. The validity of the MILMA method is demonstrated through synthetic and real cases using aeromagnetic measurements. Tests with synthetic data reveal accurate results in terms of depth source, whatever be the number of sources. The MILMA method is then used with real measurements to constrain the properties of the magnetized units of the Champtoceaux complex (France). The resulting parameters correlate with the crustal structure and properties revealed by other geological and geophysical surveys in the same area. The MILMA method can therefore be used to investigate the properties of poorly constrained lithospheric magnetized sources
Multiscale Phase Inversion of Seismic Data
Fu, Lei
2017-12-02
We present a scheme for multiscale phase inversion (MPI) of seismic data that is less sensitive to the unmodeled physics of wave propagation and a poor starting model than standard full waveform inversion (FWI). To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. The input data are also filtered into different narrow frequency bands for the MPI implementation. At low frequencies, we show that MPI with windowed reflections approximates wave equation inversion of the reflection traveltimes, except no traveltime picking is needed. Numerical results with synthetic acoustic data show that MPI is more robust than conventional multiscale FWI when the initial model is far from the true model. Results from synthetic viscoacoustic and elastic data show that MPI is less sensitive than FWI to some of the unmodeled physics. Inversion of marine data shows that MPI is more robust and produces modestly more accurate results than FWI for this data set.
Eliashberg Inversion of superconducting state thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junod, A.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the inversion of the Eliashberg equations currently used in tunneling spectroscopy may be applied to calorimetric data in the superconducting state. This method yields integrals of the spectral function of the electron-phonon interaction α 2 F(ω). Experimental results in pure Nb are presented
Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps
Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi
Handling of impact forces in inverse dynamics
Bisseling, Rob W.; Hof, At L.
2006-01-01
In the standard inverse dynamic method, joint moments are assessed from ground reaction force data and position data, where segmental accelerations are calculated by numerical differentiation of position data after low-pass filtering. This method falls short in analyzing the impact phase, e.g.
Semi-Inversion of Functional Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Torben Ægidius
2008-01-01
Semi-invertering er en generalisering af invertering: Et programs semi-inverse tager nogle af dets inddata og nogen af dets uddata og returnerer de resterende ind- og uddata. Tidligere arbejder har beskrevet semi-invertering af et førsteordens funktionssprog. Vi udvider nu med funktionelle...
Improving Inversions of the Overlap Operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieg, S.; Cundy, N.; Eshof, J. van den; Frommer, A.; Lippert, Th.; Schaefer, K.
2005-01-01
We present relaxation and preconditioning techniques which accelerate the inversion of the overlap operator by a factor of four on small lattices, with larger gains as the lattice size increases. These improvements can be used in both propagator calculations and dynamical simulations
Angle-domain inverse scattering migration/inversion in isotropic media
Li, Wuqun; Mao, Weijian; Li, Xuelei; Ouyang, Wei; Liang, Quan
2018-07-01
The classical seismic asymptotic inversion can be transformed into a problem of inversion of generalized Radon transform (GRT). In such methods, the combined parameters are linearly attached to the scattered wave-field by Born approximation and recovered by applying an inverse GRT operator to the scattered wave-field data. Typical GRT-style true-amplitude inversion procedure contains an amplitude compensation process after the weighted migration via dividing an illumination associated matrix whose elements are integrals of scattering angles. It is intuitional to some extent that performs the generalized linear inversion and the inversion of GRT together by this process for direct inversion. However, it is imprecise to carry out such operation when the illumination at the image point is limited, which easily leads to the inaccuracy and instability of the matrix. This paper formulates the GRT true-amplitude inversion framework in an angle-domain version, which naturally degrades the external integral term related to the illumination in the conventional case. We solve the linearized integral equation for combined parameters of different fixed scattering angle values. With this step, we obtain high-quality angle-domain common-image gathers (CIGs) in the migration loop which provide correct amplitude-versus-angle (AVA) behavior and reasonable illumination range for subsurface image points. Then we deal with the over-determined problem to solve each parameter in the combination by a standard optimization operation. The angle-domain GRT inversion method keeps away from calculating the inaccurate and unstable illumination matrix. Compared with the conventional method, the angle-domain method can obtain more accurate amplitude information and wider amplitude-preserved range. Several model tests demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability.
Tectonic forward modelling of positive inversion structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandes, C. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Schmidt, C. [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)
2013-08-01
Positive tectonic inversion structures are common features that were recognized in many deformed sedimentary basins (Lowell, 1995). They are characterized by a two phase fault evolution, where initial normal faulting was followed by reverse faulting along the same fault, accompanied by the development of hanging wall deformation. Analysing the evolution of such inversion structures is important for understanding the tectonics of sedimentary basins and the formation of hydrocarbon traps. We used a 2D tectonic forward modelling approach to simulate the stepwise structural evolution of inversion structures in cross-section. The modelling was performed with the software FaultFold Forward v. 6, which is based on trishear kinematics (Zehnder and Allmendinger, 2000). Key aspect of the study was to derive the controlling factors for the geometry of inversion structures. The simulation results show, that the trishear approach is able to reproduce the geometry of tectonic inversion structures in a realistic way. This implies that inversion structures are simply fault-related folds that initiated as extensional fault-propagation folds, which were subsequently transformed into compressional fault-propagation folds when the stress field changed. The hanging wall deformation is a consequence of the decrease in slip towards the tip line of the fault. Trishear angle and propagation-to-slip ratio are the key controlling factors for the geometry of the fault-related deformation. We tested trishear angles in the range of 30 - 60 and propagation-to-slip ratios between 1 and 2 in increments of 0.1. Small trishear angles and low propagation-to-slip ratios produced tight folds, whereas large trishear angles and high propagation-to-slip ratios led to more open folds with concentric shapes. This has a direct effect on the size and geometry of potential hydrocarbon traps. The 2D simulations can be extended to a pseudo 3D approach, where a set of parallel cross-sections is used to describe
Inverse vs. forward breast IMRT planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihai, Alina; Rakovitch, Eileen; Sixel, Katharina; Woo, Tony; Cardoso, Marlene; Bell, Chris; Ruschin, Mark; Pignol, Jean-Philippe
2005-01-01
Breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves dose distribution homogeneity within the whole breast. Previous publications report the use of inverse or forward dose optimization algorithms. Because the inverse technique is not widely available in commercial treatment planning systems, it is important to compare the 2 algorithms. The goal of this work is to compare them on a prospective cohort of 30 patients. Dose distributions were evaluated on differential dose-volume histograms using the volumes receiving more than 105% (V 105 ) and 110% (V 110 ) of the prescribed dose, and on the maximum dose (D max ) or hot spot and the sagittal dose gradient (SDG) being the gradient between the dose on inframammary crease and the dose prescribed. The data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The inverse planning significantly improves the V 105 (mean value 9.7% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.002), and the V 110 (mean value 1.4% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.006). However, the SDG is not statistically significantly different for either algorithm. Looking at the potential impact on skin acute reaction, although there is a significant reduction of V 110 using an inverse algorithm, it is unlikely this 1.6% volume reduction will present a significant clinical advantage over a forward algorithm. Both algorithms are equivalent in removing the hot spots on the inframammary fold, where acute skin reactions occur more frequently using a conventional wedge technique. Based on these results, we recommend that both forward and inverse algorithms should be considered for breast IMRT planning
Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions
Schwenger, Walter J.
Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.
Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...
SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory
Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas
2016-04-01
In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with
An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data
Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Eric
2011-01-01
Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples
Simultaneous inversion of the background velocity and the perturbation in full-waveform inversion
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
The gradient of standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) attempts to map the residuals in the data to perturbations in the model. Such perturbations may include smooth background updates from the transmission components and high wavenumber updates
Mai, P. M.; Schorlemmer, D.; Page, M.
2012-04-01
Earthquake source inversions image the spatio-temporal rupture evolution on one or more fault planes using seismic and/or geodetic data. Such studies are critically important for earthquake seismology in general, and for advancing seismic hazard analysis in particular, as they reveal earthquake source complexity and help (i) to investigate earthquake mechanics; (ii) to develop spontaneous dynamic rupture models; (iii) to build models for generating rupture realizations for ground-motion simulations. In applications (i - iii), the underlying finite-fault source models are regarded as "data" (input information), but their uncertainties are essentially unknown. After all, source models are obtained from solving an inherently ill-posed inverse problem to which many a priori assumptions and uncertain observations are applied. The Source Inversion Validation (SIV) project is a collaborative effort to better understand the variability between rupture models for a single earthquake (as manifested in the finite-source rupture model database) and to develop robust uncertainty quantification for earthquake source inversions. The SIV project highlights the need to develop a long-standing and rigorous testing platform to examine the current state-of-the-art in earthquake source inversion, and to develop and test novel source inversion approaches. We will review the current status of the SIV project, and report the findings and conclusions of the recent workshops. We will briefly discuss several source-inversion methods, how they treat uncertainties in data, and assess the posterior model uncertainty. Case studies include initial forward-modeling tests on Green's function calculations, and inversion results for synthetic data from spontaneous dynamic crack-like strike-slip earthquake on steeply dipping fault, embedded in a layered crustal velocity-density structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agullo, Y.
2005-09-15
This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)
Parameterization analysis and inversion for orthorhombic media
Masmoudi, Nabil
2018-05-01
Accounting for azimuthal anisotropy is necessary for the processing and inversion of wide-azimuth and wide-aperture seismic data because wave speeds naturally depend on the wave propagation direction. Orthorhombic anisotropy is considered the most effective anisotropic model that approximates the azimuthal anisotropy we observe in seismic data. In the framework of full wave form inversion (FWI), the large number of parameters describing orthorhombic media exerts a considerable trade-off and increases the non-linearity of the inversion problem. Choosing a suitable parameterization for the model, and identifying which parameters in that parameterization could be well resolved, are essential to a successful inversion. In this thesis, I derive the radiation patterns for different acoustic orthorhombic parameterization. Analyzing the angular dependence of the scattering of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the conventionally used notation, I assess the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. In order to build practical inversion strategies, I suggest new parameters (called deviation parameters) for a new parameterization style in orthorhombic media. The novel parameters denoted ∈d, ƞd and δd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. The main feature of the deviation parameters consists of keeping the scattering of the vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters stationary with azimuth. Using these scattering features, we can condition FWI to invert for the parameters which the data are sensitive to, at different stages, scales, and locations in the model. With this parameterization, the data are mainly sensitive to the scattering of 3 parameters (out of six that describe an acoustic orthorhombic medium): the horizontal velocity in the x1 direction, ∈1 which provides scattering mainly near
Joint Inversion of Direct Current Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurt, B.B.
2007-01-01
In this study, I assumed the underground consist of horizontal layers. I developed one-dimensional (1D) Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) and seismic refraction inversion code using MATLAB package and attempt to find velocity, resistivity and depth of the layers. The code uses damped least square technique. The code can do inversion on DCR and seismic data either individually or jointly. I tested the joint inversion code on synthetic data. Eventually, I saw that the result of joint inversion is better than the result of individual inversions. The joint inversion found depth of models of each layer and, in addition, velocity and resistivity closer to real values
Crystal structure of a second triclinic polymorph of 2-methylpyridinium picrate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeganathan Gomathi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C6H8N+·C6H2N3O7− (systematic name: 2-methylpyridinium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate, crystallizes with two cations and two anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions via bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, generating R12(6 graph-set motifs. Numerous C—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed between these cation–anion pairs, which result in a three-dimensional network. In addition, weak aromatic π–π stacking between the 2-methylpyridinium rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.8334 (19 Å] and very weak stacking [inter-centroid distance = 4.0281 (16 Å] between inversion-related pairs of picrate anions is observed. The title salt is a second triclinic polymorph of the structure (also with Z′ = 2 reported earlier [Anita et al. (2006. Acta Cryst. C62, o567–o570; Chan et al. (2014. CrystEngComm, 16, 4508–4538]. In the title compound, the cations and anions display a chequerboard arrangement when viewed down [100], whereas in the first polymorph, (010 layers of alternating cations and anions are apparent in a [100] view. It is interesting that the unit-cell lengths are almost identical for the two polymorphs, although the inter-axial angles are quite different.
On the calibration process of film dosimetry: OLS inverse regression versus WLS inverse prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crop, F; Thierens, H; Rompaye, B Van; Paelinck, L; Vakaet, L; Wagter, C De
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was both putting forward a statistically correct model for film calibration and the optimization of this process. A reliable calibration is needed in order to perform accurate reference dosimetry with radiographic (Gafchromic) film. Sometimes, an ordinary least squares simple linear (in the parameters) regression is applied to the dose-optical-density (OD) curve with the dose as a function of OD (inverse regression) or sometimes OD as a function of dose (inverse prediction). The application of a simple linear regression fit is an invalid method because heteroscedasticity of the data is not taken into account. This could lead to erroneous results originating from the calibration process itself and thus to a lower accuracy. In this work, we compare the ordinary least squares (OLS) inverse regression method with the correct weighted least squares (WLS) inverse prediction method to create calibration curves. We found that the OLS inverse regression method could lead to a prediction bias of up to 7.3 cGy at 300 cGy and total prediction errors of 3% or more for Gafchromic EBT film. Application of the WLS inverse prediction method resulted in a maximum prediction bias of 1.4 cGy and total prediction errors below 2% in a 0-400 cGy range. We developed a Monte-Carlo-based process to optimize calibrations, depending on the needs of the experiment. This type of thorough analysis can lead to a higher accuracy for film dosimetry
Eichholzer, Monika; Rohrmann, Sabine; Barbir, Aline; Hermann, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob
2012-01-01
Colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risks have been linked to the intake of red and processed meat. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) formed herein during high temperature cooking, are metabolized by a variety of enzymes, and allelic variation in the coding genes could influence individual CRA risk. Associations of polymorphisms in NAT1, NAT2, GSTA1, SULT1A1, CYP1A2, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, GSTP1 genes with colorectal adenoma risk were investigated in a nested case-control study of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort including 428 cases matched by age, sex and year of recruitment with one or two controls (n=828) with negative colonoscopy per case. Genoyping was preformed with the Sequenom MassArray system and the LightCycler 480. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). For rs15561 (NAT1) and rs1057126 (NAT1), the rarer allel was significantly inversely associated with adenoma risk OR=0.80 (95% CI 0.65-0.97) and (OR=0.81 (95% CI 0.65-0.99) and, respectively). For the combined NAT2 alleles encoding for enzymes with medium (versus slow) activity we also observed a significantly inverse association with adenoma risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.85-0.97). In addition, homozygous carriers of the A allele of rs3957357 (GSTA1), i.e., those with a decreased enzyme activity, had a decreased risk of colorectal adenoma with an OR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.50-0.92; AA versus GG/GA). Polymorphisms in the other tested genes did not modify the risk of colorectal adenomas. In conclusion, polymorphisms in NAT1, NAT2, and GSTA1 are related to colorectal adenoma risk in this German cohort.
Self-constrained inversion of potential fields
Paoletti, V.; Ialongo, S.; Florio, G.; Fedi, M.; Cella, F.
2013-11-01
We present a potential-field-constrained inversion procedure based on a priori information derived exclusively from the analysis of the gravity and magnetic data (self-constrained inversion). The procedure is designed to be applied to underdetermined problems and involves scenarios where the source distribution can be assumed to be of simple character. To set up effective constraints, we first estimate through the analysis of the gravity or magnetic field some or all of the following source parameters: the source depth-to-the-top, the structural index, the horizontal position of the source body edges and their dip. The second step is incorporating the information related to these constraints in the objective function as depth and spatial weighting functions. We show, through 2-D and 3-D synthetic and real data examples, that potential field-based constraints, for example, structural index, source boundaries and others, are usually enough to obtain substantial improvement in the density and magnetization models.
Modeling of uncertainties in statistical inverse problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaipio, Jari
2008-01-01
In all real world problems, the models that tie the measurements to the unknowns of interest, are at best only approximations for reality. While moderate modeling and approximation errors can be tolerated with stable problems, inverse problems are a notorious exception. Typical modeling errors include inaccurate geometry, unknown boundary and initial data, properties of noise and other disturbances, and simply the numerical approximations of the physical models. In principle, the Bayesian approach to inverse problems, in which all uncertainties are modeled as random variables, is capable of handling these uncertainties. Depending on the type of uncertainties, however, different strategies may be adopted. In this paper we give an overview of typical modeling errors and related strategies within the Bayesian framework.
Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion
Zhang, Z.
2017-05-26
Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.
Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion
Zhang, Z.; Zabihi Naeini, E.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.
Analog fault diagnosis by inverse problem technique
Ahmed, Rania F.
2011-12-01
A novel algorithm for detecting soft faults in linear analog circuits based on the inverse problem concept is proposed. The proposed approach utilizes optimization techniques with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The main contribution of this work is to apply the inverse problem technique to estimate the actual parameter values of the tested circuit and so, to detect and diagnose single fault in analog circuits. The validation of the algorithm is illustrated through applying it to Sallen-Key second order band pass filter and the results show that the detecting percentage efficiency was 100% and also, the maximum error percentage of estimating the parameter values is 0.7%. This technique can be applied to any other linear circuit and it also can be extended to be applied to non-linear circuits. © 2011 IEEE.
Inverse-moment chiral sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golowich, E.; Kambor, J.
1996-01-01
A general class of inverse-moment sum rules was previously derived by the authors in a chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) study at two-loop order of the isospin and hypercharge vector-current propagators. Here, we address the evaluation of the inverse-moment sum rules in terms of existing data and theoretical constraints. Two kinds of sum rules are seen to occur: those which contain as-yet undetermined O(q 6 ) counterterms and those free of such quantities. We use the former to obtain phenomenological evaluations of two O(q 6 ) counterterms. Light is shed on the important but difficult issue regarding contributions of higher orders in the ChPT expansion. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Moebius inverse problem for distorted black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosu, H.
1993-01-01
Hawking ''thermal'' radiation could be a means to detect black holes of micron sizes, which may be hovering through the universe. We consider these micro-black holes to be distorted by the presence of some distribution of matter representing a convolution factor for their Hawking radiation. One may hope to determine from their Hawking signals the temperature distribution of their material shells by the inverse black body problem. In 1990, Nan-xian Chen has used a so-called modified Moebius transform to solve the inverse black body problem. We discuss and apply this technique to Hawking radiation. Some comments on supersymmetric applications of Moebius function and transform are also added. (author). 22 refs
Ionogram inversion for a tilted ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, J.W.
1990-01-01
Digital ionosondes such as the Dynasonde disclose that the ionosphere is seldom horizontal even when it is plane stratified to a good approximation. The local magnetic dip does not then determine correctly the radiowave propagation angle for inversion of the ionogram to a plasma density profile. The measured echo direction of arrival can be used together with the known dip for an improved propagation angle. The effects are small for simple one-parameter laminae but become important when differential (ordinary, extraordinary) retardations are used to aid correction for valley and starting ambiguities. The resulting profile describes the plasma distribution along the direction of observation, rather than the vertical; it thus conveys information about horizontal gradients. Observations suggest that advantages in inversion methods may be practicable for application to modern ionosonde recordings, by which local lateral structure can be described in greater detail. 20 refs
Inverse Faraday effect with plasmon beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S; Mendonca, J T
2011-01-01
The angular momentum conservation equation is considered for an electron gas, in the presence of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) plasmons propagating along the z-axis. The LG plasmons carry a finite orbital angular momentum despite longitudinal nature, which can be partly transfered to the electrons. For short timescales, such that ion motion can be neglected, plasmons primarily interact with the electrons, creating an azimuthal electric field and generating an axial magnetic field. This effect can be called an inverse Faraday effect due to plasmons. Numerically, it is found that the magnitude of the magnetic field enhances with the plasmon density or with the energy of the electron plasma waves. A comparison of the magnitudes of the axial magnetic field is made for the inverse Faraday effect excited by both plasmons and transverse photons.
Formal solutions of inverse scattering problems. III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prosser, R.T.
1980-01-01
The formal solutions of certain three-dimensional inverse scattering problems presented in papers I and II of this series [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1819 (1969); 17 1175 (1976)] are obtained here as fixed points of a certain nonlinear mapping acting on a suitable Banach space of integral kernels. When the scattering data are sufficiently restricted, this mapping is shown to be a contraction, thereby establishing the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence on the data of these formal solutions
Inverse problem of radiofrequency sounding of ionosphere
Velichko, E. N.; Yu. Grishentsev, A.; Korobeynikov, A. G.
2016-01-01
An algorithm for the solution of the inverse problem of vertical ionosphere sounding and a mathematical model of noise filtering are presented. An automated system for processing and analysis of spectrograms of vertical ionosphere sounding based on our algorithm is described. It is shown that the algorithm we suggest has a rather high efficiency. This is supported by the data obtained at the ionospheric stations of the so-called “AIS-M” type.
Elastic versus acoustic inversion for marine surveys
Mora, Peter; Wu, Zedong
2018-04-01
Full Wavefield Inversion (FWI) is a powerful and elegant approach for seismic imaging that is on the way to becoming the method of choice when processing exploration or global seismic data. In the case of processing marine survey data, one may be tempted to assume acoustic FWI is sufficient given that only pressure waves exist in the water layer. In this paper, we pose the question as to whether or not in theory - at least for a hard water bottom case - it should be possible to resolve the shear modulus or S-wave velocity in a marine setting using large offset data. We therefore conduct numerical experiments with idealized marine data calculated with the elastic wave equation. We study two cases, FWI of data due to a diffractor model, and FWI of data due to a fault model. We find that at least in idealized situation, elastic FWI of hard waterbottom data is capable of resolving between the two Lamé parameters λ and μ. Another numerical experiment with a soft waterbottom layer gives the same result. In contrast, acoustic FWI of the synthetic elastic data results in a single image of the first Lamé parameter λ which contains severe artefacts for diffraction data and noticable artefacts for layer reflection data. Based on these results, it would appear that at least, inversions of large offset marine data should be fully elastic rather than acoustic unless it has been demonstrated that for the specific case in question (offsets, model and water depth, practical issues such as soft sediment attenuation of shear waves or computational time), that an acoustic only inversion provides a reasonably good quality of image comparable to that of an elastic inversion. Further research with real data is required to determine the degree to which practical issues such as shear wave attenuation in soft sediments may affect this result.
Bayesian probability theory and inverse problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopec, S.
1994-01-01
Bayesian probability theory is applied to approximate solving of the inverse problems. In order to solve the moment problem with the noisy data, the entropic prior is used. The expressions for the solution and its error bounds are presented. When the noise level tends to zero, the Bayesian solution tends to the classic maximum entropy solution in the L 2 norm. The way of using spline prior is also shown. (author)
Radon concentration inversions in the troposphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, E.B.
1987-07-01
Vertical concentrations of radon in the lower troposphere were obtained in Southern Brazil up to 7Km high and have shown unexpected inverted profiles. The presence of low pressure center systems southwest to the flight path suggested that inversions might have been originated by a vertical transport mechanism based on the large scale circulation of developing synoptic systems. A simple friction-driven circulation model was contructed and the transport equation was solved. (author) [pt
Factorized Approximate Inverses With Adaptive Dropping
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopal, Jiří; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 3 (2016), A1807-A1820 ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : approximate inverses * incomplete factorization * Gram–Schmidt orthogonalization * preconditioned iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2016
Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective
Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W
2014-01-01
Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p
Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps
Beydoun, Wafik B.
2015-09-01
After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1
Inverse folding of RNA pseudoknot structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Linda YM
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and G-U-base pairings (secondary structure and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, RNAinverse, RNA-SSD as well as INFO-RNA are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm Inv which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm Inv. We give a detailed analysis of Inv, including pseudocodes. We show that Inv allows to design in particular 3-noncrossing nonplanar RNA pseudoknot 3-noncrossing RNA structures-a class which is difficult to construct via dynamic programming routines. Inv is freely available at http://www.combinatorics.cn/cbpc/inv.html. Conclusions The algorithm Inv extends inverse folding capabilities to RNA pseudoknot structures. In comparison with RNAinverse it uses new ideas, for instance by considering sets of competing structures. As a result, Inv is not only able to find novel sequences even for RNA secondary structures, it does so in the context of competing structures that potentially exhibit cross-serial interactions.
Elastic versus acoustic inversion for marine surveys
Mora, Peter
2018-04-24
Full Wavefield Inversion (FWI) is a powerful and elegant approach for seismic imaging that is on the way to becoming the method of choice when processing exploration or global seismic data. In the case of processing marine survey data, one may be tempted to assume acoustic FWI is sufficient given that only pressure waves exist in the water layer. In this paper, we pose the question as to whether or not in theory – at least for a hard water bottom case – it should be possible to resolve the shear modulus or S-wave velocity in a marine setting using large offset data. We therefore conduct numerical experiments with idealized marine data calculated with the elastic wave equation. We study two cases, FWI of data due to a diffractor model, and FWI of data due to a fault model. We find that at least in idealized situation, elastic FWI of hard waterbottom data is capable of resolving between the two Lamé parameters λ and μ. Another numerical experiment with a soft waterbottom layer gives the same result. In contrast, acoustic FWI of the synthetic elastic data results in a single image of the first Lamé parameter λ which contains severe artefacts for diffraction data and noticable artefacts for layer reflection data. Based on these results, it would appear that at least, inversions of large offset marine data should be fully elastic rather than acoustic unless it has been demonstrated that for the specific case in question (offsets, model and water depth, practical issues such as soft sediment attenuation of shear waves or computational time), that an acoustic only inversion provides a reasonably good quality of image comparable to that of an elastic inversion. Further research with real data is required to determine the degree to which practical issues such as shear wave attenuation in soft sediments may affect this result.
Approximate Inverse Preconditioners with Adaptive Dropping
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopal, J.; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 84, June (2015), s. 13-20 ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853; GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : approximate inverse * Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization * incomplete decomposition * preconditioned conjugate gradient method * algebraic preconditioning * pivoting Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2015
An inverse problem in a parabolic equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhilin Li
1998-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an inverse problem in a parabolic equation is studied. An unknown function in the equation is related to two integral equations in terms of heat kernel. One of the integral equations is well-posed while another is ill-posed. A regularization approach for constructing an approximate solution to the ill-posed integral equation is proposed. Theoretical analysis and numerical experiment are provided to support the method.
Differential equations inverse and direct problems
Favini, Angelo
2006-01-01
DEGENERATE FIRST ORDER IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS IN BANACH SPACES A NONISOTHERMAL DYNAMICAL GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS THEOREMSSOME GLOBAL IN TIME RESULTS FOR INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL PARABOLIC INVERSE PROBLEMSFOURTH ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS WITH GENERAL WENTZELL BOUNDARY CONDITIONSTUDY OF ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN UMD SPACESDEGENERATE INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF PARABOLIC TYPE EXPONENTIAL ATTRACTORS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR EQUATIONSCONVERGENCE TO STATIONARY STATES OF SOLUTIONS TO THE SEMILINEAR EQUATION OF VISCOELASTICITY ASYMPTOTIC BEHA
Inverse Scattering in a Multipath Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Cuccaro
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this contribution an inverse scattering problem is ad- dressed in a multipath environment. In particular, multipath is created by known ”extra” point-like scatterers (passive elements expressely deployed between the scene under in- vestigation and the source/measurement domains. Through a back-projection imaging scheme, the role of the passive elements on the achievable performance is shown and com- pared to the free-space case.
Inverse Statistics in the Foreign Exchange Market
Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.; Petroni, F.; Simonsen, I.
2004-01-01
We investigate intra-day foreign exchange (FX) time series using the inverse statistic analysis developed in [1,2]. Specifically, we study the time-averaged distributions of waiting times needed to obtain a certain increase (decrease) $\\rho$ in the price of an investment. The analysis is performed for the Deutsch mark (DM) against the $US for the full year of 1998, but similar results are obtained for the Japanese Yen against the $US. With high statistical significance, the presence of "reson...
Multiple scattering processes: inverse and direct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kagiwada, H.H.; Kalaba, R.; Ueno, S.
1975-01-01
The purpose of the work is to formulate inverse problems in radiative transfer, to introduce the functions b and h as parameters of internal intensity in homogeneous slabs, and to derive initial value problems to replace the more traditional boundary value problems and integral equations of multiple scattering with high computational efficiency. The discussion covers multiple scattering processes in a one-dimensional medium; isotropic scattering in homogeneous slabs illuminated by parallel rays of radiation; the theory of functions b and h in homogeneous slabs illuminated by isotropic sources of radiation either at the top or at the bottom; inverse and direct problems of multiple scattering in slabs including internal sources; multiple scattering in inhomogeneous media, with particular reference to inverse problems for estimation of layers and total thickness of inhomogeneous slabs and to multiple scattering problems with Lambert's law and specular reflectors underlying slabs; and anisotropic scattering with reduction of the number of relevant arguments through axially symmetric fields and expansion in Legendre functions. Gaussian quadrature data for a seven point formula, a FORTRAN program for computing the functions b and h, and tables of these functions supplement the text
Constraining inverse curvature gravity with supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mena, Olga; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab; Weller, Jochen; /University Coll., London /Fermilab
2005-10-01
We show that the current accelerated expansion of the Universe can be explained without resorting to dark energy. Models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature can have late time accelerating attractors without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedman equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe. This allows us to perform a detailed analysis of Supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. Hence, inverse curvature gravity models represent an example of phenomenologically viable models in which the current acceleration of the Universe is driven by curvature instead of dark energy. If we further include constraints on the current expansion rate of the Universe from the Hubble Space Telescope and on the age of the Universe from globular clusters, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07 {le} {omega}{sub m} {le} 0.21 (95% Confidence). Hence the inverse curvature gravity models considered can not explain the dynamics of the Universe just with a baryonic matter component.
Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density
Li, Yuanyuan
2017-08-17
Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.
Superconductivity in Mesocrystalline Inverse Opal Structures
Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Saygi, Salih; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Datta, Timir
2000-03-01
Mesocrystalline inverse opal structures were fabricated by the electrodeposition of metallic lead in synthetic opals. In these structures, the superconducting regions percolate in all directions through the voids in the artificial opals and their size is comparable to the coherence length for bulk lead. The inverse lead opals were proven superconducting, with a transition temperature close to that of bulk lead (between 7.2 K and 7.36 K) and broad transition regions. The magnetic behavior of the inverse opals was very different from that of bulk lead. Due to the reduced dimensonality of the superconducting regions, not surprisingly, the magnetic properties of our samples were found to be similar to those of type II superconductors. The critical magnetic field (or the field at which T_copals was proven at least two times larger than that for bulk lead and (dT_c/dH) was observed 2.7 times smaller. We found a reversible ZFC-FC magnetic behavior in the temperature range between T* and T_c. We also performed magnetic relaxation measurements and studied the fluctuation diamagnetism above T_c.
Inverse Opal Scaffolds and Their Biomedical Applications.
Zhang, Yu Shrike; Zhu, Chunlei; Xia, Younan
2017-09-01
Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine by functioning as biomimetic substrates to manipulate cellular behaviors. While many techniques have been developed to fabricate porous scaffolds, most of them rely on stochastic processes that typically result in scaffolds with pores uncontrolled in terms of size, structure, and interconnectivity, greatly limiting their use in tissue regeneration. Inverse opal scaffolds, in contrast, possess uniform pores inheriting from the template comprised of a closely packed lattice of monodispersed microspheres. The key parameters of such scaffolds, including architecture, pore structure, porosity, and interconnectivity, can all be made uniform across the same sample and among different samples. In conjunction with a tight control over pore sizes, inverse opal scaffolds have found widespread use in biomedical applications. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion on this new class of advanced materials. After a brief introduction to their history and fabrication, we highlight the unique advantages of inverse opal scaffolds over their non-uniform counterparts. We then showcase their broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, followed by a summary and perspective on future directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
An inverse approach for elucidating dendritic function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Torben-Nielsen
2010-09-01
Full Text Available We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function-structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a-priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a `hypothesis generator' in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a `function confirmation' by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions.
SeisFlows-Flexible waveform inversion software
Modrak, Ryan T.; Borisov, Dmitry; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Tromp, Jeroen
2018-06-01
SeisFlows is an open source Python package that provides a customizable waveform inversion workflow and framework for research in oil and gas exploration, earthquake tomography, medical imaging, and other areas. New methods can be rapidly prototyped in SeisFlows by inheriting from default inversion or migration classes, and code can be tested on 2D examples before application to more expensive 3D problems. Wave simulations must be performed using an external software package such as SPECFEM3D. The ability to interface with external solvers lends flexibility, and the choice of SPECFEM3D as a default option provides optional GPU acceleration and other useful capabilities. Through support for massively parallel solvers and interfaces for high-performance computing (HPC) systems, inversions with thousands of seismic traces and billions of model parameters can be performed. So far, SeisFlows has run on clusters managed by the Department of Defense, Chevron Corp., Total S.A., Princeton University, and the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
Stoner magnetism in an inversion layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golosov, D.I., E-mail: Denis.Golosov@biu.ac.il
2016-02-15
Motivated by recent experimental work on magnetic properties of Si-MOSFETs, we report a calculation of magnetisation and susceptibility of electrons in an inversion layer, taking into account the co-ordinate dependence of electron wave function in the direction perpendicular to the plane. It is assumed that the inversion-layer carriers interact via a contact repulsive potential, which is treated at a mean-field level, resulting in a self-consistent change of profile of the wave functions. We find that the results differ significantly from those obtained in the pure 2DEG case (where no provision is made for a quantum motion in the transverse direction). Specifically, the critical value of interaction needed to attain the ferromagnetic (Stoner) instability is decreased and the Stoner criterion is therefore relaxed. This leads to an increased susceptibility and ultimately to a ferromagnetic transition deep in the high-density metallic regime. In the opposite limit of low carrier densities, a phenomenological treatment of the in-plane correlation effects suggests a ferromagnetic instability above the metal–insulator transition. Results are discussed in the context of the available experimental data. - Highlights: • Stoner-type mean field theory for electrons in an inversion layer is constructed. • Wave function change under an in-plane magnetic field is taken into account. • Tendency toward ferromagnetism is strengthened in comparison with a usual Stoner theory. • In-plane correlations at low densities are taken into account phenomenologically.
Are Pericentric Inversions Reorganizing Wedge Shell Genomes?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel García-Souto
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Wedge shells belonging to the Donacidae family are the dominant bivalves in exposed beaches in almost all areas of the world. Typically, two or more sympatric species of wedge shells differentially occupy intertidal, sublittoral, and offshore coastal waters in any given locality. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of two sympatric and closely related wedge shell species, Donax trunculus and Donax vittatus, was performed. Results showed that the karyotypes of these two species were both strikingly different and closely alike; whilst metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs were the main components of the karyotype of D. trunculus, 10–11 of the 19 chromosome pairs were telocentric in D. vittatus, most likely as a result of different pericentric inversions. GC-rich heterochromatic bands were present in both species. Furthermore, they showed coincidental 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters at conserved chromosomal locations, although D. trunculus had an additional 45S rDNA cluster. Intraspecific pericentric inversions were also detected in both D. trunculus and D. vittatus. The close genetic similarity of these two species together with the high degree of conservation of the 45S rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters, and GC-rich heterochromatic bands indicate that pericentric inversions contribute to the karyotype divergence in wedge shells.
Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.
2008-10-10
Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.
The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2005-07-01
Full Text Available We resequenced 876 short fragments in a sample of 96 individuals of Arabidopsis thaliana that included stock center accessions as well as a hierarchical sample from natural populations. Although A. thaliana is a selfing weed, the pattern of polymorphism in general agrees with what is expected for a widely distributed, sexually reproducing species. Linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, within 50 kb. Variation is shared worldwide, although population structure and isolation by distance are evident. The data fail to fit standard neutral models in several ways. There is a genome-wide excess of rare alleles, at least partially due to selection. There is too much variation between genomic regions in the level of polymorphism. The local level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with gene density and positively correlated with segmental duplications. Because the data do not fit theoretical null distributions, attempts to infer natural selection from polymorphism data will require genome-wide surveys of polymorphism in order to identify anomalous regions. Despite this, our data support the utility of A. thaliana as a model for evolutionary functional genomics.
Probabilistic inversion in priority setting of emerging zoonoses.
Kurowicka, D.; Bucura, C.; Cooke, R.; Havelaar, A.H.
2010-01-01
This article presents methodology of applying probabilistic inversion in combination with expert judgment in priority setting problem. Experts rank scenarios according to severity. A linear multi-criteria analysis model underlying the expert preferences is posited. Using probabilistic inversion, a
Inverse problem of Ocean Acoustic Tomography (OAT) - A numerical experiment
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Mahadevan, R.; Murty, C.S.
Acoustic model simulation experiments related to the forward and inverse aspects of ocean tomography have been taken up with a view to estimate the vertical sound speed field by inverting the travel time data. Two methods of inversion have been...
Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.
Hydrographic and XBT data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Centre (IODC) are used to understand the process of temperature inversions occurring in the Bay of Bengal. The following aspects of the inversions are addressed: i) annual...
Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant
Surface layer temperature inversion occurring in the Bay of Bengal has been addressed. Hydrographic data archived in the Indian Oceanographic Data Center are used to understand various aspects of the temperature inversion of surface layer in the Bay...
Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion
Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.
2016-01-01
The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially
Source-independent elastic waveform inversion using a logarithmic wavefield
Choi, Yun Seok; Min, Dong Joon
2012-01-01
The logarithmic waveform inversion has been widely developed and applied to some synthetic and real data. In most logarithmic waveform inversion algorithms, the subsurface velocities are updated along with the source estimation. To avoid estimating
Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints
Zhang, Zhendong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing
2018-01-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like
Waveform inversion for acoustic VTI media in frequency domain
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the background model using a single scattered wavefield from an inverted perturbation. However, current
A nonlinear inversion for the velocity background and perturbation models
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2015-01-01
Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the single scattered wavefield obtained using an image. However, current RWI methods usually neglect
Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints
Zhang, Zhendong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi
2017-01-01
Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic
Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Taeyoung; Shin, Changsoo
2007-01-01
We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve
A New Formula for the Inverse Wavelet Transform
Sun, Wenchang
2010-01-01
Finding a computationally efficient algorithm for the inverse continuous wavelet transform is a fundamental topic in applications. In this paper, we show the convergence of the inverse wavelet transform.
INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS
Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef
2010-01-01
INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron
Full Waveform Inversion for Reservoir Characterization - A Synthetic Study
Zabihi Naeini, E.; Kamath, N.; Tsvankin, I.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
Most current reservoir-characterization workflows are based on classic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) inversion techniques. Although these methods have generally served us well over the years, here we examine full-waveform inversion (FWI
Approximate inverse preconditioning of iterative methods for nonsymmetric linear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benzi, M. [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Tuma, M. [Inst. of Computer Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)
1996-12-31
A method for computing an incomplete factorization of the inverse of a nonsymmetric matrix A is presented. The resulting factorized sparse approximate inverse is used as a preconditioner in the iterative solution of Ax = b by Krylov subspace methods.
A Segregating Inversion Generates Fitness Variation in Yellow Monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus)
Fishman, Lila; Kelly, John K.; Willis, John H.
2016-01-01
Polymorphic chromosomal rearrangements can bind hundreds of genes into single genetic loci with diverse effects. Rearrangements are often associated with local adaptation and speciation and may also be an important component of genetic variation within populations. We genetically and phenotypically characterize a segregating inversion (inv6) in the Iron Mountain (IM) population of Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower). We initially mapped inv6 as a region of recombination suppression in three F2 populations resulting from crosses among IM plants. In each case, the F1 parent was heterozygous for a derived haplotype, homogenous across markers spanning over 5 Mb of chromsome 6. In the three F2 populations, inv6 reduced male and female fitness components. In addition, inv6 carriers suffered an ∼30% loss of pollen viability in the field. Despite these costs, inv6 exists at moderate frequency (∼8%) in the natural population, suggesting counterbalancing fitness benefits that maintain the polymorphism. Across 4 years of monitoring in the field, inv6 had an overall significant positive effect on seed production (lifetime female fitness) of carriers. This benefit was particularly strong in harsh years and may be mediated (in part) by strong positive effects on flower production. These data suggest that opposing fitness effects maintain an intermediate frequency, and as a consequence, inv6 generates inbreeding depression and high genetic variance. We discuss these findings in relation to the theory of inbreeding depression and the maintenance of fitness variation. PMID:26868767
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Metzger, Silke; Walter, Carolin; Riess, Olaf
2013-01-01
The cause of Huntington disease (HD) is a polyglutamine repeat expansion of more than 36 units in the huntingtin protein, which is inversely correlated with the age at onset of the disease. However, additional genetic factors are believed to modify the course and the age at onset of HD. Recently......, we identified the V471A polymorphism in the autophagy-related gene ATG7, a key component of the autophagy pathway that plays an important role in HD pathogenesis, to be associated with the age at onset in a large group of European Huntington disease patients. To confirm this association in a second...... independent patient cohort, we analysed the ATG7 V471A polymorphism in additional 1,464 European HD patients of the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). In the entire REGISTRY cohort we could not confirm a modifying effect of the ATG7 V471A polymorphism. However, analysing...
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes
Inverse problems in classical and quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almasy, A.A.
2007-01-01
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. Despite a concentrated effort by physicists extending over many years, an understanding of QCD from first principles continues to be elusive. Fortunately, data continues to appear which provide a rather direct probe of the inner workings of the strong interactions. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. EIT is a technology developed to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technique works by performing simultaneous measurements of direct or alternating electric currents and voltages on the boundary of an object. These are the data used by an image reconstruction algorithm to determine the electrical conductivity distribution within the object. In this thesis, two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A
Inverse problems in classical and quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almasy, A.A.
2007-06-29
The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. Despite a concentrated effort by physicists extending over many years, an understanding of QCD from first principles continues to be elusive. Fortunately, data continues to appear which provide a rather direct probe of the inner workings of the strong interactions. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. EIT is a technology developed to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a conductive medium. The technique works by performing simultaneous measurements of direct or alternating electric currents and voltages on the boundary of an object. These are the data used by an image reconstruction algorithm to determine the electrical conductivity distribution within the object. In this thesis, two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A
The inverse conductivity problem with limited data and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, Victor
2007-01-01
This paper describes recent uniqueness results in inverse problems for semiconductor devices and in the inverse conductivity problem. We remind basic inverse probelsm in semiconductor theory and outline use of an adjoint equation and a proof of uniqueness of piecewise constant doping profile. For the inverse conductivity problem we give a first uniqueness proof when the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map is given at an arbitrarily small part of the boundary of a three-dimensional domain
2-(4-Fluorobenzylidenepropanedinitrile: monoclinic polymorph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed M. El-Agrody
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The title compound, C10H5FN2, is a monoclinic (P21/c polymorph of the previously reported triclinic (P-1 form [Antipin et al. (2003. J. Mol. Struct. 650, 1–20]. The 13 non-H atoms in the title polymorph are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å; a small twist between the fluorobenzene and dinitrile groups [C—C—C—C torsion angle = 175.49 (16°] is evident in the triclinic polymorph. In the crystal, C—H...N interactions lead to supramolecular layers parallel to (-101; these are connected by C—F...π interactions.
Hapsembler: An Assembler for Highly Polymorphic Genomes
Donmez, Nilgun; Brudno, Michael
As whole genome sequencing has become a routine biological experiment, algorithms for assembly of whole genome shotgun data has become a topic of extensive research, with a plethora of off-the-shelf methods that can reconstruct the genomes of many organisms. Simultaneously, several recently sequenced genomes exhibit very high polymorphism rates. For these organisms genome assembly remains a challenge as most assemblers are unable to handle highly divergent haplotypes in a single individual. In this paper we describe Hapsembler, an assembler for highly polymorphic genomes, which makes use of paired reads. Our experiments show that Hapsembler produces accurate and contiguous assemblies of highly polymorphic genomes, while performing on par with the leading tools on haploid genomes. Hapsembler is available for download at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/hapsembler.
Investigation of drug polymorphism: Case of artemisinin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horosanskaia, E.; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.; Lorenz, H.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The Artemisinin dimorphic system was found to be enantiotropic. • The Orthorhombic modification is the form stable at low-temperatures and the triclinic modification the form stable at high-temperatures. • The polymorphic phase transition occurs at ∼130 °C. - Abstract: The polymorphism of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin was examined. The phase behavior of solid artemisinin has experimentally been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and temperature-resolved X-Ray powder diffraction. In addition, complementary solution studies and suspension experiments were performed. The results clearly confirm the existence of two modifications of artemisinin, which are related enantiotropically. The orthorhombic modification is the thermodynamically stable form at low temperatures, while the triclinic form is the stable one at higher temperatures with a transition temperature of ∼130 °C. Problems associated with analysis of the polymorphic phase behavior are comprehensively addressed
Constraint on Parameters of Inverse Compton Scattering Model for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B2319+60, two parameters of inverse Compton scattering model, the initial Lorentz factor and the factor of energy loss of relativistic particles are constrained. Key words. Pulsar—inverse Compton scattering—emission mechanism. 1. Introduction. Among various kinds of models for pulsar radio emission, the inverse ...
n-Colour even self-inverse compositions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.
On quasiclassical approximation in the inverse scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geogdzhaev, V.V.
1985-01-01
Using as an example quasiclassical limits of the Korteweg-de Vries equation and nonlinear Schroedinger equation, the quasiclassical limiting variant of the inverse scattering problem method is presented. In quasiclassical approximation the inverse scattering problem for the Schroedinger equation is reduced to the classical inverse scattering problem
Microlocal analysis of a seismic linearized inverse problem
Stolk, C.C.
1999-01-01
The seismic inverse problem is to determine the wavespeed c x in the interior of a medium from measurements at the boundary In this paper we analyze the linearized inverse problem in general acoustic media The problem is to nd a left inverse of the linearized forward map F or equivalently to nd the
Inversions and the dynamics of eukaryotic gene order.
Huynen, M.A.; Snel, B.; Bork, P.
2001-01-01
Comparisons of the gene order in closely related genomes reveal a major role for inversions in the genome shuffling process. In contrast to prokaryotes, where the inversions are predominantly large, half of the inversions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans appear to be small,
Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
and the inequality is sharp for the inverse of the Koebe function k(z) = z/(1 − z)2. An alternative approach to the inverse coefficient problem for functions in the class S has been investigated by Schaeffer and Spencer [27] and FitzGerald [6]. Although, the inverse coefficient problem for the class S has been completely solved ...
Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.
Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R
2014-10-01
People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression.
Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2011-01-01
Full waveform inversion requires a good estimation of the source wavelet to improve our chances of a successful inversion. This is especially true for an encoded multisource time-domain implementation, which, conventionally, requires separate
Liu, Lu; Fei, Tong; Luo, Yi; Guo, Bowen
2017-01-01
This paper presents a workflow for near-surface velocity automatic estimation using the early arrivals of seismic data. This workflow comprises two methods, source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI) and early-arrival waveform inversion. Source
Polymorphic transformation of helical flagella of bacteria
Lim, Sookkyung; Howard Berg Collaboration; William Ko Collaboration; Yongsam Kim Collaboration; Wanho Lee Collaboration; Charles Peskin Collaboration
2016-11-01
Bacteria such as E. coli swim in an aqueous environment by utilizing the rotation of flagellar motors and alternate two modes of motility, runs and tumbles. Runs are steady forward swimming driven by bundles of flagellar filaments whose motors are turning CCW; tumbles involve a reorientation of the direction of swimming triggered by motor reversals. During tumbling, the helical flagellum undergoes polymorphic transformations, which is a local change in helical pitch, helical radius, and handedness. In this work, we investigate the underlying mechanism of structural conformation and how this polymorphic transition plays a role in bacterial swimming. National Science Foundation.
The monoclinic polymorph of dimethylarsinic acid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Betz
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The title compound, C2H7AsO2 or [As(CH32O(OH], is an organic derivative of arsinic acid, and is also known by its trivial name cacodylic acid. In contrast to the first polymorph (triclinic, space group Poverline{1}, Z = 2, the current study revealed monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c, Z = 8 for the second polymorph. The configuration of the tetrahedral molecule shows approximate Cs symmetry. Strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules to infinite zigzag chains along [010], which are further connected by weak intermolecular C—H...O contacts into a three-dimensional network.
The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerdes, Ulrik
2003-01-01
from only 10-15% in southern Europe to 40-50% in the north. The gradient may be a trace of the demic expansion of agriculture that began about 10,000 years ago, but it may also reflect the possibility that APOE*4 carriers are less likely to develop vitamin D deficiency. The common APOE polymorphism......Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...
Inverse planning for x-ray rotation therapy: a general solution of the inverse problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oelfke, U.; Bortfeld, T.
1999-01-01
Rotation therapy with photons is currently under investigation for the delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). An analytical approach for inverse treatment planning of this radiotherapy technique is described. The inverse problem for the delivery of arbitrary 2D dose profiles is first formulated and then solved analytically. In contrast to previously applied strategies for solving the inverse problem, it is shown that the most general solution for the fluence profiles consists of two independent solutions of different parity. A first analytical expression for both fluence profiles is derived. The mathematical derivation includes two different strategies, an elementary expansion of fluence and dose into polynomials and a more practical approach in terms of Fourier transforms. The obtained results are discussed in the context of previous work on this problem. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narasimhadhan, A.V.; Rajgopal, Kasi
2011-07-01
This paper presents a new hybrid filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm for fan-beam and cone-beam scan. The hybrid reconstruction kernel is the sum of the ramp and Hilbert filters. We modify the redundancy weighting function to reduce the inverse square distance weighting in the backprojection to inverse distance weight. The modified weight also eliminates the derivative associated with the Hilbert filter kernel. Thus, the proposed reconstruction algorithm has the advantages of the inverse distance weight in the backprojection. We evaluate the performance of the new algorithm in terms of the magnitude level and uniformity in noise for the fan-beam geometry. The computer simulations show that the spatial resolution is nearly identical to the standard fan-beam ramp filtered algorithm while the noise is spatially uniform and the noise variance is reduced. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shashi, V.; Allinson, P.S.; Golden, W.L.; Kelly, T.E. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
1994-09-01
Recent studies in yeast have shown that telomeres rather than centromeres lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may have a role in recombination. Cytological studies of meiosis in Drosophila and mice have shown that in pericentric inversion heterozygotes there is lack of loop formation, with recobmination seen only outside the inversion. In a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) we recognized that only affected males and carrier females had a pericentric X chromosome inversion (inv X(p11.4;q26)). Since the short arm inversion breakpoint was proximal to the DMD locus, it could not be implicated in the mutational event causing DMD. There was no history of infertility, recurrent miscarriages or liveborn unbalanced females to suggest there was recombination within the inversion. We studied 22 members over three generations to understand the pattern of meiotic recombination between the normal and the inverted X chromosome. In total, 17 meioses involving the inverted X chromosome in females were studied by cytogenetic analysis and 16 CA repeat polymorphisms along the length of the X chromosome. Results: (a) There was complete concordance between the segregation of the DMD mutation and the inverted X chromosome. (b) On DNA analysis, there was complete absence of recombination within the inverted segment. We also found no recombination at the DMD locus. Recombination was seen only at Xp22 and Xq27-28. (c) Recombination was seen in the same individual at both Xp22 and Xq27-28 without recombination otherwise. Conclusions: (1) Pericentric X inversions reduce the genetic map length of the chromosome, with the physical map length being normal. (2) Meiotic X chromosome pairing in this family is initiated at the telomeres. (3) Following telomeric pairing in pericentric X chromosome inversions, there is inhibition of recombination within the inversion and adjacent regions.
Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sophia Chui-Wai Ha
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Ankle inversion ligamentous sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. The most direct way is to investigate real injury incidents, but it is unethical and impossible to replicate on test participants. Simulators including tilt platforms, trapdoors, and fulcrum devices were designed to mimic ankle inversion movements in laboratories. Inversion angle was the only element considered in early designs; however, an ankle sprain is composed of inversion and plantarflexion in clinical observations. Inversion velocity is another parameter that increased the reality of simulation. This review summarised the simulators, and aimed to compare and contrast their features and settings.
3D inversion of full tensor magnetic gradiometry (FTMG) data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu; Wilson, Glenn
2011-01-01
Following recent advances in SQUID technology, full tensor magnetic gradiometry (FTMG) is emerging as a practical exploration method. We introduce 3D regularized focusing inversion for FTMG data. Our model studies show that inversion of magnetic tensor data can significantly improve resolution...... compared to inversion of magnetic vector data for the same model. We present a case study for the 3D inversion of GETMAG® FTMG data acquired over a magnetite skarn at Tallawang, Australia. The results obtained from our 3D inversion agree very well with the known geology of the area....
Toward Joint Inversion of Gravity and Dyanamics
Jacoby, W. R.
To better understand geodynamic processes as seafloor spreading, plumes, subduction, and isostatic adjustment, gravity is inverted with "a prioriinformation from topography/bathymetry, seismic structure and dynamic models. Examples are subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate below Vancouver Island, the passive Black SeaTurkey margin and Iceland ridge-plume interaction. Gravity and other data are averaged 50 km wide strips. Mass balances are estimated (showing also that the free air anomaly is misleading for narrow structures). The mass balances represent plate forces and plate bending, affecting the gravity signals and the isostatic state of continental margins and ridge-plume effects, which are highly correlated in space and cannot be separated without a priori information from modelling. The examples from widely different tectonic situations demonstrate that the art of regional-scale gravity inversion requires extensive background knowledge and inclusion of dynamic processes. It is difficult to conceive any formal, globally applicable procedure taking care of this; it is even a question, what is data, what a priori information? They are not distinguishable if all are included as foreward routines. The "accuracy" of models cannot be perfectly determined, if the "real" mass distribution is not known if known, gravity inversion would be unnecessary. In reality only guesses are possible on the basis of observations and physical laws governing geodynamics. A priori information and gravity data limit the resolution of gravity inversion. Different model types are indistinguishable because adjustments within their parameter uncertainties permit a good fit. But gravity excludes wrong models (Karl Popper: science evolves by falsification of wrong models), and precise gravity guides and defines aims, targets and strategies for new observations.
Polymorphism of the VEGF gene and its association with growth ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
User
Keywords: VEGF gene, caprine, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genetic variation, PCR-SSCP ... This field is strongly focusing on gene loci and polymorphisms that have ..... Enhance the efficiency of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis by short polyacrylamide gel and modified silver staining. Anal.
Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Understanding the genetics of a polymorphic trait is important to predict its likely evolution. In Collinsia heterophylla, the upper petal lip colour can be either be white or white with a purple band, while the lower petal lip colour is invariably purple. Because the corolla is only partly polymorphic, the polymorphism can not have ...
The V279F polymorphism might change protein character and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Polymorphisms at the protein level are also estimated to correlate with increased risk factors for heart attacks. One such polymorphism is the V279F polymorphism in Lp-PLA2 which results in a change in enzyme performance capability. This in turn implies a reduced risk of acute myocardial infarct (AMI) in Korean and ...
Analysis of TLR polymorphisms in typhoid patients and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ilakkia Sivaji
2016-01-20
Jan 20, 2016 ... implicated the genetic variations (polymorphisms) in TLR genes to influence the host susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the available literature on TLR polymorphism and susceptibility to typhoid fever is unclear. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the polymorphism of TLRs 1, 2, 4 and 5 in ...
Do prion protein gene polymorphisms induce apoptosis in non ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... Genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in prion protein coding gene, Prnp, greatly affect susceptibility to prion diseases in mammals. Here, the coding region of Prnp was screened for polymorphisms in redeared turtle, Trachemys scripta. Four polymorphisms, L203V, N205I, ...
Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm
Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E
2005-01-01
The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.
Frame approximation of pseudo-inverse operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole
2001-01-01
Let T denote an operator on a Hilbert space (H, [.,.]), and let {f(i)}(i=1)(infinity) be a frame for the orthogonal complement of the kernel NT. We construct a sequence of operators {Phi (n)} of the form Phi (n) (.) = Sigma (n)(i=1) [., g(t)(n)]f(i) which converges to the psuedo-inverse T+ of T i...... in the strong operator topology as n --> infinity. The operators {Phi (n)} can be found using finite-dimensional methods. We also prove an adaptive iterative version of the result. (C) 2001 Academic Press....
On the inverse of the Pomeranchuk theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, E.
1977-04-01
The Pomeranchuk theorem is valid only for bounded total cross sections at infinite energies, and for arbitrarily rising cross sections one cannot prove the zero asymptotic limit of the difference of the particle and antiparticle total cross sections. In the paper the problem is considered from the inverse point of view. It is proved using dispersion relations that if the total cross sections rise with some power of logarithm and the difference of the particle and antiparticle total cross sections remain finite, then the real to imaginary ratios of both the particle and antiparticle forward scattering amplitudes are bounded. (Sz.N.Z.)
Sulfoximines as potent RORγ inverse agonists.
Ouvry, Gilles; Bihl, Franck; Bouix-Peter, Claire; Christin, Olivier; Defoin-Platel, Claire; Deret, Sophie; Feret, Christophe; Froude, David; Hacini-Rachinel, Feriel; Harris, Craig S; Hervouet, Catherine; Lafitte, Guillaume; Luzy, Anne-Pascale; Musicki, Branislav; Orfila, Danielle; Parnet, Veronique; Pascau, Coralie; Pascau, Jonathan; Pierre, Romain; Raffin, Catherine; Rossio, Patricia; Spiesse, Delphine; Taquet, Nathalie; Thoreau, Etienne; Vatinel, Rodolphe; Vial, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Laurent F
2018-05-01
Progress in the identification of suitable RORγ inverse agonists as clinical candidates has been hampered by the high lipophilicity that seems required for high potency on this nuclear receptor. In this context, we decided to focus on the replacement of the hydroxymethyl group found on known modulators to determine if more polarity could be tolerated in this position. SAR of the replacement of this moiety is presented in this article leading to the identification of sulfoximine derivatives as potent modulators with pharmacological activity in the in vivo mouse Imiquimod psoriasis model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Lorentz integral transform and its inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnea, N.; Efros, V.D.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.
2010-01-01
The Lorentz integral transform method is briefly reviewed. The issue of the inversion of the transform, and in particular its ill-posedness, is addressed. It is pointed out that the mathematical term ill-posed is misleading and merely due to a historical misconception. In this connection standard regularization procedures for the solution of the integral transform problem are presented. In particular a recent one is considered in detail and critical comments on it are provided. In addition a general remark concerning the concept of the Lorentz integral transform as a method with a controlled resolution is made. (author)
Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels
Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze
2016-07-01
There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially
Constraining inverse-curvature gravity with supernovae.
Mena, Olga; Santiago, José; Weller, Jochen
2006-02-03
We show that models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature, can explain the current accelerated expansion of the Universe without resorting to dark energy and without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedmann equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe and performed a detailed analysis of supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. If we further include constraints on the current expansion of the Universe and on its age, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07baryonic matter component.
Thermodynamic inversion origin of living systems
Kompanichenko, Vladimir N
2017-01-01
This book discusses the theory, general principles, and energy source conditions allowing for the emergence of life in planetary systems. The author examines the material conditions found in natural hydrothermal sites, the appropriate analogs of prebiotic environments on early Earth. He provides an overview of current laboratory experiments in prebiotic materials chemistry and substantiation of a new direction for the experiments in the origin of life field. Describes thermodynamic inversion and how it relates to the living cell; Examines the current direction of experiments on prebiotic materials chemistry; Introduces and substantiates necessary conditions for the emergence of life.
Interferogram analysis using the Abel inversion technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yusof Munajat; Mohamad Kadim Suaidi
2000-01-01
High speed and high resolution optical detection system were used to capture the image of acoustic waves propagation. The freeze image in the form of interferogram was analysed to calculate the transient pressure profile of the acoustic waves. The interferogram analysis was based on the fringe shift and the application of the Abel inversion technique. An easier approach was made by mean of using MathCAD program as a tool in the programming; yet powerful enough to make such calculation, plotting and transfer of file. (Author)
Transmuted New Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Shuaib Khan
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the transmuted new generalized inverse Weibull distribution by using the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM scheme studied by Shaw et al. (2007. The proposed model contains the twenty three lifetime distributions as special sub-models. Some mathematical properties of the new distribution are formulated, such as quantile function, Rényi entropy, mean deviations, moments, moment generating function and order statistics. The method of maximum likelihood is used for estimating the model parameters. We illustrate the flexibility and potential usefulness of the new distribution by using reliability data.
Inverse Dynamics and the Immeasurable Motions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, John; Andersen, Michael Skipper; Damsgaard, Michael
complications of this scheme is that a large part of the acting forces are due to muscle contractions, which in this case also must be simulated. The ability to predict muscle contraction in complex movements has improved significantly in recent years, but the simultaneous prediction of movement and force...... in a reformulation of the underdeterminate inverse dynamics-type equilibrium equations to allow certain degrees of freedom to be governed by elastic equilibrium rather than measured movements. We briefly outline the method and compare predicted movements during overground gait on a treadmill measured using...
Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection
Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.
2007-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.
Complex nonlinear Fourier transform and its inverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saksida, Pavle
2015-01-01
We study the nonlinear Fourier transform associated to the integrable systems of AKNS-ZS type. Two versions of this transform appear in connection with the AKNS-ZS systems. These two versions can be considered as two real forms of a single complex transform F c . We construct an explicit algorithm for the calculation of the inverse transform (F c ) -1 (h) for an arbitrary argument h. The result is given in the form of a convergent series of functions in the domain space and the terms of this series can be computed explicitly by means of finitely many integrations. (paper)
Inversion transformation in the Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demkov, Yu.N.; Semenova, N.V.
1984-01-01
Using the inversion with respect to a sphere in the coordinate space, the equivalence between the Schroedinger equations with different potentials is established. It is shown that the zero-energy equation for a spherically symmetric potential is equivalent to the equation with an axially symmetric potential of a special form. The particular exact solutions of the zero-energy problem for the motion of a particle in the field of two Maxwell ''fish-eye'' potentials and potentials with the two Coulomb singularities are found
ITOUGH2: Solving TOUGH inverse problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
ITOUGH2 is a program that provides inverse modeling capabilities for the TOUGH2 code. While the main purpose of ITOUGH2 is to estimate two-phase hydraulic properties of calibrating a TOUGH2 model to laboratory or field data, the information obtained by evaluating parameter sensitivities can also be used to optimize the design of an experiment, and to analyze the uncertainty of model predictions. ITOUGH2 has been applied to a number of laboratory and field experiments on different scales. Three examples are discussed in this paper, demonstrating the code`s capability to support test design, data analysis, and model predictions for a variety of TOUGH problems.
A microwave inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirshfield, Jay L.
1999-01-01
The objective of this Phase II SBIR research program was to complete the final design originated during Phase I for a prototype Microwave Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA), to fabricate the-prototype MICA, and to test its performance as an electron accelerator. This report contains details of the design, predictions of accelerator performance, results of cold tests on the MICA structure, and details of the installation of MICA on the Yale Beam Physics Laboratory 6-MeV beamline. Discussion of future work is also included
Inverse amplitude method and Adler zeros
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Nicola, A.; Pelaez, J. R.; Rios, G.
2008-01-01
The inverse amplitude method is a powerful unitarization technique to enlarge the energy applicability region of effective Lagrangians. It has been widely used to describe resonances in hadronic physics, combined with chiral perturbation theory, as well as in the strongly interacting symmetry breaking sector. In this work we show how it can be slightly modified to also account for the subthreshold region, incorporating correctly the Adler zeros required by chiral symmetry and eliminating spurious poles. These improvements produce negligible effects on the physical region.
Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.; Bendib, A.; Bendib, K.; Sid, A.; Bendib, K.
1997-01-01
A new Weibel source due to the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is presented. It has been shown that in homogeneous plasmas, this mechanism may drive strong collisionless Weibel modes with growth rates of order of γ∼10 11 s -1 and negligible group velocities. In the laser-produced plasmas, for short laser wavelengths (λ L 10 14 W/cm 2 ), this Weibel source is most efficient as the ones due to the heat flux and the plasma expansion. The useful scaling law of the convective e-foldings, with respect to the laser and the plasma parameters, is also derived. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Multiscale phase inversion of seismic marine data
Fu, Lei
2017-08-17
We test the feasibility of applying multiscale phase inversion (MPI) to seismic marine data. To avoid cycle-skipping, the multiscale strategy temporally integrates the traces several times, i.e. high-order integration, to produce low-boost seismograms that are used as input data for the initial iterations of MPI. As the iterations proceed, higher frequencies in the data are boosted by using integrated traces of lower order as the input data. Results with synthetic data and field data from the Gulf of Mexico produce robust and accurate results if the model does not contain strong velocity contrasts such as salt-sediment interfaces.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Particle acceleration by inverse-Weibel instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawata, S [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
1997-12-31
A high demagnetization rate delta B/delta t can be obtained through fast decoupling of a magnetic field from an electric circuit which generates the magnetic field. Nowadays fast decoupling is possible by present switching technologies. A high particle-acceleration gradient can be obtained in an inductive acceleration system compared with that in a conventional induction accelerator. Based on this new proposal, inductive ion and electron accelerations were investigated numerically. The mechanism presented can be considered as pseudo-inverse Weibel instability. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs.
Particle acceleration by inverse-Weibel instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawata, S.
1996-01-01
A high demagnetization rate delta B/delta t can be obtained through fast decoupling of a magnetic field from an electric circuit which generates the magnetic field. Nowadays fast decoupling is possible by present switching technologies. A high particle-acceleration gradient can be obtained in an inductive acceleration system compared with that in a conventional induction accelerator. Based on this new proposal, inductive ion and electron accelerations were investigated numerically. The mechanism presented can be considered as pseudo-inverse Weibel instability. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs
Inverse Ising Inference Using All the Data
Aurell, Erik; Ekeberg, Magnus
2012-03-01
We show that a method based on logistic regression, using all the data, solves the inverse Ising problem far better than mean-field calculations relying only on sample pairwise correlation functions, while still computationally feasible for hundreds of nodes. The largest improvement in reconstruction occurs for strong interactions. Using two examples, a diluted Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a two-dimensional lattice, we also show that interaction topologies can be recovered from few samples with good accuracy and that the use of l1 regularization is beneficial in this process, pushing inference abilities further into low-temperature regimes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebrun, D.
1997-05-22
The aim of the dissertation is the linearized inversion of multicomponent seismic data for 3D elastic horizontally stratified media, using Born approximation. A Jacobian matrix is constructed; it will be used to model seismic data from elastic parameters. The inversion technique, relying on single value decomposition (SVD) of the Jacobian matrix, is described. Next, the resolution of inverted elastic parameters is quantitatively studies. A first use of the technique is shown in the frame of an evaluation of a sea bottom acquisition (synthetic data). Finally, a real data set acquired with conventional marine technique is inverted. (author) 70 refs.
Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikhsan Eka Prasetia
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desired position by Denso robot manipulator. Forward kinematics produce the desired position by the end-effector. Inverse kinematics produce joint angle, where the inverse kinematics produce eight conditions obtained from closed form solution with geometry approach to reach the desired position by the end-effector.
Inversion effects for faces and objects in developmental prosopagnosia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klargaard, Solja K; Starrfelt, Randi; Gerlach, Christian
2018-01-01
The disproportionate face inversion effect (dFIE) concerns the finding that face recognition is more affected by inversion than recognition of non-face objects; an effect assumed to reflect that face recognition relies on special operations. Support for this notion comes from studies showing...... that face processing in developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is less affected by inversion than it is in normal subjects, and that DPs may even display face inversion superiority effects, i.e. better processing of inverted compared to upright faces. To date, however, there are no reports of direct comparisons...... between inversion effects for faces and objects, investigating whether the altered inversion effect in DP is specific to faces. We examined this question by comparing inversion effects for faces and cars in two otherwise identical recognition tasks in a group of DPs (N = 16) and a matched control group...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hutchison, Ian B.; Delori, Amit; Wang, Xiao
2015-01-01
Using a large volume high-pressure press a new polymorph of an important precursor for biomedical polymers was isolated in gram quantities and used to seed crystallisation experiments at ambient pressure....
Association between the polymorphisms of angiotensin converting ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Detailed history taking was done with stress on age, family history, menstrual, obstetric, medical and drug history. Physical examination including body mass index calculation was done. Histopathological examination was done for tumor grading and staging. Detection of ACE gene (I/D) polymorphism by PCR and AT1R ...
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism And ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
reduction of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5- methyltetrahydrofolate. A 677 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) localized in the MTHFR gene was associated with both thermo ability and reduced activity of the enzyme and is associated with increased homocysteine levels. The aim of this study was to establish
RESEARCH ARTICLE Analysis of polymorphisms and selective ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-27
Jan 27, 2017 ... The presence of purifying selection and low nucleotide diversity indicated that ... protein in Plasmodium spp., and they are mainly due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ... This study was approved by Medical Research & Ethics Committee of the Ministry of. Health ..... X. Asembo Bay Cohort Project.
Phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study of the phenotypic characterisation and molecular polymorphism of local chicken populations was carried out in Benin on 326 chickens of the Forest ecological area and 316 of the Savannah ecological area, all were 7 months old at least. The collection of blood for the molecular typing was achieved on 121 ...
High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles
Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.
2017-12-01
Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.
Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) reveals that ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ajl yemi
2011-12-19
Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Salt stress, alkali stress, Gossypium hirsutum L., DNA methylation, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). INTRODUCTION. DNA methylation is one of the key epigenetic mecha- nisms among eukaryotes that can modulate gene expression without the changes of DNA sequence.
Osteoprotegerin polymorphisms are associated with alcohol ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-12-02
Dec 2, 2016 ... 4The College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, People's ... study is focussed on OPG gene polymorphisms associated with alcohol-induced ONFH. ... the risk of ONFH occurrence, and balanced on osteoclasts– ..... This work was supported by the National Natural Science Founda-.
Association between Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphisms and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Noha M. Bakr
the study. Genotypic analysis of IL-18 promoter polymorphisms were performed using sequence- .... diabetes mellitus, heart disease, previous stroke, cigarette smok- ing. Included .... of the mutated AA genotype and A allele was observed in IS ..... factor for ischemic stroke in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis. Meta.
Combined effect between two functional polymorphisms of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
four populations (Ireland, UK, Australia and Finland) reported an allelic association between ... of two common polymorphisms on SLC6A12 gene may be associated with TLE, but the ... Li L., Liu A., Wu X., Sun W., Wang Y. and Liu Y. 2015 Combined effect between two ... epileptic control subjects of Chinese Han origin were.
MYO9B polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kemppinen, A.; Suvela, M.; Tienari, P.J.
2009-01-01
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' region of myosin IXB (MYO9B) gene have recently been reported to associate with different inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. We monitored for the association of MYO9B variants to multiple sclerosis (MS) in four Northern European populations. First...
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
However, association of these polymorphisms with the metabolic syndrome and its individual components has not been well investigated in the Indian population. The Indian population harbours the maximum number of diabetics in the world who are thus more susceptible to metabolic disorders. We screened a South ...
Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the third largest natural fiber crop and one of the five major oil crops in the world. ... These novel polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful in genetic linkage map construction, germplasm classification and identification, gene identification and QTL mapping, and marker-assisted selection ...
OGG1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rössner ml., Pavel; Terry, M. B.; Gammon, M. D.; Zhang, F. F.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Eng, S. M.; Sagiv, S. K.; Gaudet, M. M.; Neugut, A. I.; Santella, R. M.
2006-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 4 (2006), s. 811-815 ISSN 1055-9965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : genetic polymorphism * breast cancer Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.289, year: 2006
Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism
Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David
2011-01-01
This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…
Koka: Programming with Row Polymorphic Effect Types
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daan Leijen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We propose a programming model where effects are treated in a disciplined way, and where the potential side-effects of a function are apparent in its type signature. The type and effect of expressions can also be inferred automatically, and we describe a polymorphic type inference system based on Hindley-Milner style inference. A novel feature is that we support polymorphic effects through row-polymorphism using duplicate labels. Moreover, we show that our effects are not just syntactic labels but have a deep semantic connection to the program. For example, if an expression can be typed without an _exn_ effect, then it will never throw an unhandled exception. Similar to Haskell's `runST` we show how we can safely encapsulate stateful operations. Through the state effect, we can also safely combine state with let-polymorphism without needing either imperative type variables or a syntactic value restriction. Finally, our system is implemented fully in a new language called Koka and has been used successfully on various small to medium-sized sample programs ranging from a Markdown processor to a tier-splitted chat application. You can try out Koka live at www.rise4fun.com/koka/tutorial.
LIG1 polymorphisms: the Indian scenario
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Elucidation of the genetic diversity and relatedness of the subpopulations of India may provide a unique resource for future analysis of genetic association of several critical community-specific complex diseases.We performed a comprehensive exploration of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the gene DNA ...
Formation of Piroxicam Polymorphism in Solution Crystallization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun Hansen, Thomas; Qu, Haiyan
2015-01-01
also explored, and new insights into polymorphic control are documented and discussed. The crystal landscape was mapped for cooling crystallization of piroxicam from acetone/water mixtures (0.5 K/min) and for antisolvent crystallization from acetone with water as the antisolvent. Varying cooling rates...
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms associated ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is involved in key steps of immune response. Genetic factors predispose individuals to periodontal disease. This study's aim was to explore the association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and clinical parameters in patients with periodontal disease. Genomic DNA was obtained ...
Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization of four important species of Bamboo, found in Raigad district, Maharashtra State, India. ... Bambusoideae are differentiated from other members of the family by the presence of petiolate blades with parallel venation and stamens are three, four, six or more, ...
Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material
Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from
Mitochondrial mutations and polymorphisms in psychiatric disorders
V. Sequeira (Vasco); M.V. Martin (Maureen); S.M. Rollins; E.A. Moon (Emily); W.E. Bunney (William E); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); S. Lupoli (Sara); G.D. Smith; J. Kelsoe (John); C.N. Magnan (Christophe); M. van Oven (Mannis); P. Baldi (Pierre); D.C. Wallace; M.P. Vawter (Marquis)
2012-01-01
textabstractMitochondrial deficiencies with unknown causes have been observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) in imaging and postmortem studies. Polymorphisms and somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were investigated as potential causes with next generation sequencing of
Neutron inverse kinetics via Gaussian Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picca, Paolo; Furfaro, Roberto
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A novel technique for the interpretation of experiments in ADS is presented. ► The technique is based on Bayesian regression, implemented via Gaussian Processes. ► GPs overcome the limits of classical methods, based on PK approximation. ► Results compares GPs and ANN performance, underlining similarities and differences. - Abstract: The paper introduces the application of Gaussian Processes (GPs) to determine the subcriticality level in accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) through the interpretation of pulsed experiment data. ADSs have peculiar kinetic properties due to their special core design. For this reason, classical – inversion techniques based on point kinetic (PK) generally fail to generate an accurate estimate of reactor subcriticality. Similarly to Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gaussian Processes can be successfully trained to learn the underlying inverse neutron kinetic model and, as such, they are not limited to the model choice. Importantly, GPs are strongly rooted into the Bayes’ theorem which makes them a powerful tool for statistical inference. Here, GPs have been designed and trained on a set of kinetics models (e.g. point kinetics and multi-point kinetics) for homogeneous and heterogeneous settings. The results presented in the paper show that GPs are very efficient and accurate in predicting the reactivity for ADS-like systems. The variance computed via GPs may provide an indication on how to generate additional data as function of the desired accuracy.
An Entropic Estimator for Linear Inverse Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amos Golan
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we examine an Information-Theoretic method for solving noisy linear inverse estimation problems which encompasses under a single framework a whole class of estimation methods. Under this framework, the prior information about the unknown parameters (when such information exists, and constraints on the parameters can be incorporated in the statement of the problem. The method builds on the basics of the maximum entropy principle and consists of transforming the original problem into an estimation of a probability density on an appropriate space naturally associated with the statement of the problem. This estimation method is generic in the sense that it provides a framework for analyzing non-normal models, it is easy to implement and is suitable for all types of inverse problems such as small and or ill-conditioned, noisy data. First order approximation, large sample properties and convergence in distribution are developed as well. Analytical examples, statistics for model comparisons and evaluations, that are inherent to this method, are discussed and complemented with explicit examples.
Inverse Ising inference with correlated samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obermayer, Benedikt; Levine, Erel
2014-01-01
Correlations between two variables of a high-dimensional system can be indicative of an underlying interaction, but can also result from indirect effects. Inverse Ising inference is a method to distinguish one from the other. Essentially, the parameters of the least constrained statistical model are learned from the observed correlations such that direct interactions can be separated from indirect correlations. Among many other applications, this approach has been helpful for protein structure prediction, because residues which interact in the 3D structure often show correlated substitutions in a multiple sequence alignment. In this context, samples used for inference are not independent but share an evolutionary history on a phylogenetic tree. Here, we discuss the effects of correlations between samples on global inference. Such correlations could arise due to phylogeny but also via other slow dynamical processes. We present a simple analytical model to address the resulting inference biases, and develop an exact method accounting for background correlations in alignment data by combining phylogenetic modeling with an adaptive cluster expansion algorithm. We find that popular reweighting schemes are only marginally effective at removing phylogenetic bias, suggest a rescaling strategy that yields better results, and provide evidence that our conclusions carry over to the frequently used mean-field approach to the inverse Ising problem. (paper)
Quantum Effects in Inverse Opal Structures
Bleiweiss, Michael; Datta, Timir; Lungu, Anca; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Palm, Eric; Brandt, Bruce
2002-03-01
Properties of bismuth inverse opals and carbon opal replicas were studied. The bismuth nanostructures were fabricated by pressure infiltration into porous artificial opal, while the carbon opal replicas were created via CVD. These structures form a regular three-dimensional network in which the bismuth and carbon regions percolate in all directions between the close packed spheres of SiO_2. The sizes of the conducting regions are of the order of tens of nanometers. Static susceptibility of the bismuth inverse opal showed clear deHaas-vanAlphen oscillations. Transport measurements, including Hall, were done using standard ac four and six probe techniques in fields up to 17 T* and temperatures between 4.2 and 200 K. Observations of Shubnikov-deHaas oscillations in magnetoresistance, one-dimensional weak localization, quantum Hall and other effects will be discussed. *Performed at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) FSU, Tallahassee, FL. This work was partially supported by grants from DARPA-nanothermoelectrics, NASA-EPSCOR and the USC nanocenter.
New RADIOM algorithm using inverse EOS
Busquet, Michel; Sokolov, Igor; Klapisch, Marcel
2012-10-01
The RADIOM model, [1-2], allows one to implement non-LTE atomic physics with a very low extra CPU cost. Although originally heuristic, RADIOM has been physically justified [3] and some accounting for auto-ionization has been included [2]. RADIOM defines an ionization temperature Tz derived from electronic density and actual electronic temperature Te. LTE databases are then queried for properties at Tz and NLTE values are derived from them. Some hydro-codes (like FAST at NRL, Ramis' MULTI, or the CRASH code at U.Mich) use inverse EOS starting from the total internal energy Etot and returning the temperature. In the NLTE case, inverse EOS requires to solve implicit relations between Te, Tz, and Etot. We shall describe these relations and an efficient solver successively implemented in some of our codes. [4pt] [1] M. Busquet, Radiation dependent ionization model for laser-created plasmas, Ph. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993).[0pt] [2] M. Busquet, D. Colombant, M. Klapisch, D. Fyfe, J. Gardner. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model, HEDP 5, 270 (2009).[0pt] [3] M.Busquet, Onset of pseudo-thermal equilibrium within configurations and super-configurations, JQSRT 99, 131 (2006)
Signature inversion in doubly odd 124La
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chantler, H.J.; Paul, E.S.; Boston, A.J.; Choy, P.T.W.; Nolan, P.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Davids, C.N.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R.; Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; Chiara, C.J.; Fossan, D.B.; Koike, T.; LaFosse, D.R.; Starosta, K.; Fletcher, A.M.; Smith, J.F.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kelsall, N.S.
2002-01-01
High-spin states have been studied in neutron-deficient 57 124 La 67 , populated through the 64 Zn( 64 Zn,3pn) reaction at 260 MeV. The Gammasphere γ-ray spectrometer has been used in conjunction with the Microball charged-particle detector, the Neutron Shell, and the Argonne Fragment Mass Analyzer, in order to select evaporation residues of interest. The known band structures have been extended and new bands found. Most of the bands are linked together, allowing more consistent spin and parity assignments. Comparison of band properties to cranking calculations has allowed configuration assignments to be made and includes the first identification of the g 9/2 proton-hole in an odd-odd lanthanum isotope. Two bands have been assigned a πh 11/2 xνh 11/2 structure; the yrast one exhibits a signature inversion in its level energies below I=18.5(ℎ/2π), while the excited one exhibits a signature inversion above I=18.5(ℎ/2π)
Evaluating Ethical Responsibility in Inverse Decision Support
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad M. Kabil
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Decision makers have considerable autonomy on how they make decisions and what type of support they receive. This situation places the DSS analyst in a different relationship with the client than his colleagues who support regular MIS applications. This paper addresses an ethical dilemma in “Inverse Decision Support,” when the analyst supports a decision maker who requires justification for a preconceived selection that does not correspond to the best option that resulted from the professional resolution of the problem. An extended application of the AHP model is proposed for evaluating the ethical responsibility in selecting a suboptimal alternative. The extended application is consistent with the Inverse Decision Theory that is used extensively in medical decision making. A survey of decision analysts is used to assess their perspective of using the proposed extended application. The results show that 80% of the respondents felt that the proposed extended application is useful in business practices. 14% of them expanded the usability of the extended application to academic teaching of the ethics theory. The extended application is considered more usable in a country with a higher Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (TICPI than in a country with a lower one.
Spectral solution of the inverse Mie problem
Romanov, Andrey V.; Konokhova, Anastasiya I.; Yastrebova, Ekaterina S.; Gilev, Konstantin V.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Maltsev, Valeri P.; Yurkin, Maxim A.
2017-10-01
We developed a fast method to determine size and refractive index of homogeneous spheres from the power Fourier spectrum of their light-scattering patterns (LSPs), measured with the scanning flow cytometer. Specifically, we used two spectral parameters: the location of the non-zero peak and zero-frequency amplitude, and numerically inverted the map from the space of particle characteristics (size and refractive index) to the space of spectral parameters. The latter parameters can be reliably resolved only for particle size parameter greater than 11, and the inversion is unique only in the limited range of refractive index with upper limit between 1.1 and 1.25 (relative to the medium) depending on the size parameter and particular definition of uniqueness. The developed method was tested on two experimental samples, milk fat globules and spherized red blood cells, and resulted in accuracy not worse than the reference method based on the least-square fit of the LSP with the Mie theory. Moreover, for particles with significant deviation from the spherical shape the spectral method was much closer to the Mie-fit result than the estimated uncertainty of the latter. The spectral method also showed adequate results for synthetic LSPs of spheroids with aspect ratios up to 1.4. Overall, we present a general framework, which can be used to construct an inverse algorithm for any other experimental signals.
Approaching the Island of Inversion: 34P
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, P.C.; Hoffman, C.R.; Wiedeking, M.; Allmond, J.M.; Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T.; Bleuel, D.L.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Goldblum, B.L.; Hinners, T.A.; Jeppesen, H.B.; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, I.Y.; Lesher, S.R.; Machiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, M.A.; Morris, D.; Perry, M.; Phair, L.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tabor, S.L.; Tripathi, Vandana; Volya, A.
2011-06-14
Yrast states in 34P were investigated using the 18O(18O,pn) reaction at energies of 20, 24, 25, 30, and 44 MeV at Florida State University and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The level scheme was expanded, ray angular distributions were measured, and lifetimes were inferred with the Doppler-shift attenuation method by detecting decay protons in coincidence with one or more rays. The results provide a clearer picture of the evolution of structure approaching the 'Island of Inversion', particularly how the 1 and 2 particle-hole (ph) states fall in energy with increasing neutro number approaching inversion. However, the agreement of the lowest few states with pure sd shell model predictions shows that the level scheme of 34P is not itself inverted. Rather, the accumulated evidence indicates that the 1-ph states start at 2.3 MeV. A good candidate for the lowest 2-ph state lies at 6236 keV, just below the neutron separation energy of 6291 keV. Shell model calculations made using a small modification of the WBP interaction reproduce the negative-parity, 1-ph states rather well.
Inverse Magnetoresistance in Polymer Spin Valves.
Ding, Shuaishuai; Tian, Yuan; Li, Yang; Mi, Wenbo; Dong, Huanli; Zhang, Xiaotao; Hu, Wenping; Zhu, Daoben
2017-05-10
In this work, both negative and positive magnetoresistance (MR) in solution-processed regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) is observed in organic spin valves (OSVs) with vertical La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 (LSMO)/P3HT/AlO x /Co configuration. The ferromagnetic (FM) LSMO electrode with near-atomic flatness is fabricated by a DC facing-target magnetron sputtering method. This research is focused on the origin of the MR inversion. Two types of devices are investigated in details: One with Co penetration shows a negative MR of 0.2%, while the other well-defined device with a nonlinear behavior has a positive MR of 15.6%. The MR measurements in LSMO/AlO x /Co and LSMO/Co junctions are carried to exclude the interference of insulating layer and two FM electrodes themselves. By examining the Co thicknesses and their corresponding magnetic hysteresis loops, a spin-dependent hybrid-interface-state model by Co penetration is induced to explain the MR sign inversion. These results proven by density functional theory (DFT) calculations may shed light on the controllable interfacial properties in designing novel OSV devices.
Wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion
Zhang, Sanzong
2011-01-01
The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion using a gradient optimization method is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated within the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly nonlinear with respect to changes in the velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we present a reflection traveltime tomography method based on the wave equation which enjoys a more quasi-linear relationship between the model and the data. A local crosscorrelation of the windowed downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the image point yields the lag time that maximizes the correlation. This lag time represents the reflection traveltime residual that is back-projected into the earth model to update the velocity in the same way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. No travel-time picking is needed and no high-frequency approximation is assumed. The mathematical derivation and the numerical examples are presented to partly demonstrate its efficiency and robustness. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Automatic differentiation in geophysical inverse problems
Sambridge, M.; Rickwood, P.; Rawlinson, N.; Sommacal, S.
2007-07-01
Automatic differentiation (AD) is the technique whereby output variables of a computer code evaluating any complicated function (e.g. the solution to a differential equation) can be differentiated with respect to the input variables. Often AD tools take the form of source to source translators and produce computer code without the need for deriving and hand coding of explicit mathematical formulae by the user. The power of AD lies in the fact that it combines the generality of finite difference techniques and the accuracy and efficiency of analytical derivatives, while at the same time eliminating `human' coding errors. It also provides the possibility of accurate, efficient derivative calculation from complex `forward' codes where no analytical derivatives are possible and finite difference techniques are too cumbersome. AD is already having a major impact in areas such as optimization, meteorology and oceanography. Similarly it has considerable potential for use in non-linear inverse problems in geophysics where linearization is desirable, or for sensitivity analysis of large numerical simulation codes, for example, wave propagation and geodynamic modelling. At present, however, AD tools appear to be little used in the geosciences. Here we report on experiments using a state of the art AD tool to perform source to source code translation in a range of geoscience problems. These include calculating derivatives for Gibbs free energy minimization, seismic receiver function inversion, and seismic ray tracing. Issues of accuracy and efficiency are discussed.
Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency
Bolgorian, Meysam
In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.
Eigenvectors phase correction in inverse modal problem
Qiao, Guandong; Rahmatalla, Salam
2017-12-01
The solution of the inverse modal problem for the spatial parameters of mechanical and structural systems is heavily dependent on the quality of the modal parameters obtained from the experiments. While experimental and environmental noises will always exist during modal testing, the resulting modal parameters are expected to be corrupted with different levels of noise. A novel methodology is presented in this work to mitigate the errors in the eigenvectors when solving the inverse modal problem for the spatial parameters. The phases of the eigenvector component were utilized as design variables within an optimization problem that minimizes the difference between the calculated and experimental transfer functions. The equation of motion in terms of the modal and spatial parameters was used as a constraint in the optimization problem. Constraints that reserve the positive and semi-positive definiteness and the inter-connectivity of the spatial matrices were implemented using semi-definite programming. Numerical examples utilizing noisy eigenvectors with augmented Gaussian white noise of 1%, 5%, and 10% were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is superior when compared with a known method in the literature.
Effects of BDNF polymorphisms on antidepressant action.
Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Ying-Jay
2010-12-01
Evidence suggests that the down-regulation of the signaling pathway involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecular element known to regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of major depression. The restoration of BDNF activity induced by antidepressant treatment has been implicated in the antidepressant therapeutic mechanism. Because there is variability among patients with major depressive disorder in terms of response to antidepressant treatment and since genetic factors may contribute to this inter-individual variability in antidepressant response, pharmacogenetic studies have tested the associations between genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes related to antidepressant therapeutic action. In human BDNF gene, there is a common functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF. Because of the potentially important role of BDNF in the antidepressant mechanism, many pharmacogenetic studies have tested the association between this polymorphism and the antidepressant therapeutic response, but they have produced inconsistent results. A recent meta-analysis of eight studies, which included data from 1,115 subjects, suggested that the Val/Met carriers have increased antidepressant response in comparison to Val/Val homozygotes, particularly in the Asian population. The positive molecular heterosis effect (subjects heterozygous for a specific genetic polymorphism show a significantly greater effect) is compatible with animal studies showing that, although BDNF exerts an antidepressant effect, too much BDNF may have a detrimental effect on mood. Several recommendations are proposed for future antidepressant pharmacogenetic studies of BDNF, including the consideration of multiple polymorphisms and a haplotype approach, gene-gene interaction, a single antidepressant regimen, controlling for age and gender interactions, and pharmacogenetic
Optimal Inversion Parameters for Full Waveform Inversion using OBS Data Set
Kim, S.; Chung, W.; Shin, S.; Kim, D.; Lee, D.
2017-12-01
In recent years, full Waveform Inversion (FWI) has been the most researched technique in seismic data processing. It uses the residuals between observed and modeled data as an objective function; thereafter, the final subsurface velocity model is generated through a series of iterations meant to minimize the residuals.Research on FWI has expanded from acoustic media to elastic media. In acoustic media, the subsurface property is defined by P-velocity; however, in elastic media, properties are defined by multiple parameters, such as P-velocity, S-velocity, and density. Further, the elastic media can also be defined by Lamé constants, density or impedance PI, SI; consequently, research is being carried out to ascertain the optimal parameters.From results of advanced exploration equipment and Ocean Bottom Seismic (OBS) survey, it is now possible to obtain multi-component seismic data. However, to perform FWI on these data and generate an accurate subsurface model, it is important to determine optimal inversion parameters among (Vp, Vs, ρ), (λ, μ, ρ), and (PI, SI) in elastic media. In this study, staggered grid finite difference method was applied to simulate OBS survey. As in inversion, l2-norm was set as objective function. Further, the accurate computation of gradient direction was performed using the back-propagation technique and its scaling was done using the Pseudo-hessian matrix.In acoustic media, only Vp is used as the inversion parameter. In contrast, various sets of parameters, such as (Vp, Vs, ρ) and (λ, μ, ρ) can be used to define inversion in elastic media. Therefore, it is important to ascertain the parameter that gives the most accurate result for inversion with OBS data set.In this study, we generated Vp and Vs subsurface models by using (λ, μ, ρ) and (Vp, Vs, ρ) as inversion parameters in every iteration, and compared the final two FWI results.This research was supported by the Basic Research Project(17-3312) of the Korea Institute of
Thermal, spectroscopic, and ab initio structural characterization of carprofen polymorphs.
Bruni, Giovanna; Gozzo, Fabia; Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella; Macchi, Piero; Simoncic, Petra; Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefania; Marini, Amedeo
2011-06-01
Commercial and recrystallized polycrystalline samples of carprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were studied by thermal, spectroscopic, and structural techniques. Our investigations demonstrated that recrystallized sample, stable at room temperature (RT), is a single polymorphic form of carprofen (polymorph I) that undergoes an isostructural polymorphic transformation by heating (polymorph II). Polymorph II remains then metastable at ambient conditions. Commercial sample is instead a mixture of polymorphs I and II. The thermodynamic relationships between the two polymorphs were determined through the construction of an energy/temperature diagram. The ab initio structural determination performed on synchrotron X-Ray powder diffraction patterns recorded at RT on both polymorphs allowed us to elucidate, for the first time, their crystal structure. Both crystallize in the monoclinic space group type P2(1) /c, and the unit cell similarity index and the volumetric isostructurality index indicate that the temperature-induced polymorphic transformation I → II is isostructural. Polymorphs I and II are conformational polymorphs, sharing a very similar hydrogen bond network, but with different conformation of the propanoic skeleton, which produces two different packing. The small conformational change agrees with the low value of transition enthalpy obtained by differential scanning calorimetry measurements and the small internal energy computed with density functional methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Inversion of the uterus following abortion.
Gupta, A S; Datta, N; Ghosh, D
1982-10-16
A case of inversion of the uterus following abortion is reported. The 35-year old patient, admitted October 10, 1978 to the Medical College and Hospitals in Calcutta, India was referred by a private practitioner with a history of amenorrhea for 16 weeks, bleeding for 3 days, expulsion of the fetus 3 days earlier, and something coming down per vaginum for 2 days. The patient was para 4+0 (all full term normal deliveries) and home delivery for the last child 1 1/2 years earlier. She had a history of regular menstrual periods. Her general condition was poor. The examination revealed a gangrenous mass coming out of the vulva with a very offensive smell. There was a raw surface on which placenta like tissue was attached. No active bleeding was seen. Fundus and cervix of the uterus could not be felt. On rectal examination the uterus could not be felt, a cup-like depression was felt at the site of the uterus. The provision diagnosis was inversion of uterus following abortion. Treatment was started with sedatives and antibiotics, and arrangements were made for a blood transfusion. The vaginal mass was covered with glycerine and acriflavine gauze, and a hysterectomy was decided upon after improvement of her general condition and control of the infection. On October 14th, the patient was placed in knee chest position and posterior vaginal wall was retracted with Sims' speculum when the inverted lump was spontaneously reduced within the vagina. The inverted uterus was felt in the region of the vaginal vault. Glycerine acriflavine pack was given which was taken out and repack was given daily until the operation. The hysterectomy was performed on October 23rd. The abdomen was opened up by a transverse incision and the pelvis was explored. In the region of the uterus a cup-shaped depression was noted. Tubes and ovaries of both sides were seen hanging laterally from the cupped area. The left tube was found congested and thickened. Reduction of uterus was done by making a vertical
Nonlinear Spatial Inversion Without Monte Carlo Sampling
Curtis, A.; Nawaz, A.
2017-12-01
High-dimensional, nonlinear inverse or inference problems usually have non-unique solutions. The distribution of solutions are described by probability distributions, and these are usually found using Monte Carlo (MC) sampling methods. These take pseudo-random samples of models in parameter space, calculate the probability of each sample given available data and other information, and thus map out high or low probability values of model parameters. However, such methods would converge to the solution only as the number of samples tends to infinity; in practice, MC is found to be slow to converge, convergence is not guaranteed to be achieved in finite time, and detection of convergence requires the use of subjective criteria. We propose a method for Bayesian inversion of categorical variables such as geological facies or rock types in spatial problems, which requires no sampling at all. The method uses a 2-D Hidden Markov Model over a grid of cells, where observations represent localized data constraining the model in each cell. The data in our example application are seismic properties such as P- and S-wave impedances or rock density; our model parameters are the hidden states and represent the geological rock types in each cell. The observations at each location are assumed to depend on the facies at that location only - an assumption referred to as `localized likelihoods'. However, the facies at a location cannot be determined solely by the observation at that location as it also depends on prior information concerning its correlation with the spatial distribution of facies elsewhere. Such prior information is included in the inversion in the form of a training image which represents a conceptual depiction of the distribution of local geologies that might be expected, but other forms of prior information can be used in the method as desired. The method provides direct (pseudo-analytic) estimates of posterior marginal probability distributions over each variable
Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2014-06-26
This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary from 8.3 to 66.5. Starting from Vr = 20.7, the flame is commonly characterized by three distinct zones. The length of the lower fuel entrainment region is inversely proportional to Vr. The flames investigated resemble a string shear layer confining this zone, and converging into the second distinct region, the flame neck zone. The third region is the rest of the flame, which spreads in a jet-like manner. The inverse diffusion flames exhibit varying degrees of partial premixing, depending upon on the velocity ratio Vr, and this region of partial premixing evolves into a well-mixed reaction zone along the flame centerline. The OH distribution correlated with the changes in the mean characteristics of the flow through reduction in the local Reynolds number due to heat release. The existence of a flame suppresses or laminarizes the turbulence at early axial locations and promotes fluctuations at the flame tip for flames with Vr < 49.8. In addition, the flame jet width can be correlated to the OH distribution. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks in OH are counterbalanced by flame closures and are governed by edge flame propagation. These local extinctions were found to occur at locations where large flow structures were impinging on the flame and are associated with a locally higher strain rate or correlated to the local high strain rates at the flame hole edges without this flow impinging. Another contributor to re-ignition was found to be growing flame kernels. As the flames approach global blow-off, these kernels become the main mechanism for re-ignition further downstream of the flames. At low Vr, laminarization within the early regions of the flame provides an effective shield, preventing the jet flow from
Bilinear Inverse Problems: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications
Ling, Shuyang
We will discuss how several important real-world signal processing problems, such as self-calibration and blind deconvolution, can be modeled as bilinear inverse problems and solved by convex and nonconvex optimization approaches. In Chapter 2, we bring together three seemingly unrelated concepts, self-calibration, compressive sensing and biconvex optimization. We show how several self-calibration problems can be treated efficiently within the framework of biconvex compressive sensing via a new method called SparseLift. More specifically, we consider a linear system of equations y = DAx, where the diagonal matrix D (which models the calibration error) is unknown and x is an unknown sparse signal. By "lifting" this biconvex inverse problem and exploiting sparsity in this model, we derive explicit theoretical guarantees under which both x and D can be recovered exactly, robustly, and numerically efficiently. In Chapter 3, we study the question of the joint blind deconvolution and blind demixing, i.e., extracting a sequence of functions [special characters omitted] from observing only the sum of their convolutions [special characters omitted]. In particular, for the special case s = 1, it becomes the well-known blind deconvolution problem. We present a non-convex algorithm which guarantees exact recovery under conditions that are competitive with convex optimization methods, with the additional advantage of being computationally much more efficient. We discuss several applications of the proposed framework in image processing and wireless communications in connection with the Internet-of-Things. In Chapter 4, we consider three different self-calibration models of practical relevance. We show how their corresponding bilinear inverse problems can be solved by both the simple linear least squares approach and the SVD-based approach. As a consequence, the proposed algorithms are numerically extremely efficient, thus allowing for real-time deployment. Explicit theoretical
Numerical Methods for Bayesian Inverse Problems
Ernst, Oliver
2014-01-06
We present recent results on Bayesian inversion for a groundwater flow problem with an uncertain conductivity field. In particular, we show how direct and indirect measurements can be used to obtain a stochastic model for the unknown. The main tool here is Bayes’ theorem which merges the indirect data with the stochastic prior model for the conductivity field obtained by the direct measurements. Further, we demonstrate how the resulting posterior distribution of the quantity of interest, in this case travel times of radionuclide contaminants, can be obtained by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Moreover, we investigate new, promising MCMC methods which exploit geometrical features of the posterior and which are suited to infinite dimensions.
Fourier rebinning algorithm for inverse geometry CT.
Mazin, Samuel R; Pele, Norbert J
2008-11-01
Inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) is a new type of volumetric CT geometry that employs a large array of x-ray sources opposite a smaller detector array. Volumetric coverage and high isotropic resolution produce very large data sets and therefore require a computationally efficient three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm. The purpose of this work was to adapt and evaluate a fast algorithm based on Defrise's Fourier rebinning (FORE), originally developed for positron emission tomography. The results were compared with the average of FDK reconstructions from each source row. The FORE algorithm is an order of magnitude faster than the FDK-type method for the case of 11 source rows. In the center of the field-of-view both algorithms exhibited the same resolution and noise performance. FORE exhibited some resolution loss (and less noise) in the periphery of the field-of-view. FORE appears to be a fast and reasonably accurate reconstruction method for IGCT.
On the quantum inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maillet, J.M.; Terras, V.
2000-01-01
A general method for solving the so-called quantum inverse scattering problem (namely the reconstruction of local quantum (field) operators in term of the quantum monodromy matrix satisfying a Yang-Baxter quadratic algebra governed by an R-matrix) for a large class of lattice quantum integrable models is given. The principal requirement being the initial condition (R(0)=P, the permutation operator) for the quantum R-matrix solving the Yang-Baxter equation, it applies not only to most known integrable fundamental lattice models (such as Heisenberg spin chains) but also to lattice models with arbitrary number of impurities and to the so-called fused lattice models (including integrable higher spin generalizations of Heisenberg chains). Our method is then applied to several important examples like the sl n XXZ model, the XYZ spin-((1)/(2)) chain and also to the spin-s Heisenberg chains
Producing a steady-state population inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.
1986-03-01
An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced
The inverse problem for Schwinger pair production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Hebenstreit
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The production of electron–positron pairs in time-dependent electric fields (Schwinger mechanism depends non-linearly on the applied field profile. Accordingly, the resulting momentum spectrum is extremely sensitive to small variations of the field parameters. Owing to this non-linear dependence it is so far unpredictable how to choose a field configuration such that a predetermined momentum distribution is generated. We show that quantum kinetic theory along with optimal control theory can be used to approximately solve this inverse problem for Schwinger pair production. We exemplify this by studying the superposition of a small number of harmonic components resulting in predetermined signatures in the asymptotic momentum spectrum. In the long run, our results could facilitate the observation of this yet unobserved pair production mechanism in quantum electrodynamics by providing suggestions for tailored field configurations.
Data quality for the inverse lsing problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Zhang, Pan
2016-01-01
There are many methods proposed for inferring parameters of the Ising model from given data, that is a set of configurations generated according to the model itself. However little attention has been paid until now to the data, e.g. how the data is generated, whether the inference error using one set of data could be smaller than using another set of data, etc. In this paper we discuss the data quality problem in the inverse Ising problem, using as a benchmark the kinetic Ising model. We quantify the quality of data using effective rank of the correlation matrix, and show that data gathered in a out-of-equilibrium regime has a better quality than data gathered in equilibrium for coupling reconstruction. We also propose a matrix-perturbation based method for tuning the quality of given data and for removing bad-quality (i.e. redundant) configurations from data. (paper)
Inverse problems for partial differential equations
Isakov, Victor
2017-01-01
This third edition expands upon the earlier edition by adding nearly 40 pages of new material reflecting the analytical and numerical progress in inverse problems in last 10 years. As in the second edition, the emphasis is on new ideas and methods rather than technical improvements. These new ideas include use of the stationary phase method in the two-dimensional elliptic problems and of multi frequencies\\temporal data to improve stability and numerical resolution. There are also numerous corrections and improvements of the exposition throughout. This book is intended for mathematicians working with partial differential equations and their applications, physicists, geophysicists, and financial, electrical, and mechanical engineers involved with nondestructive evaluation, seismic exploration, remote sensing, and various kinds of tomography. Review of the second edition: "The first edition of this excellent book appeared in 1998 and became a standard reference for everyone interested in analysis and numerics of...
Inverse Diffusion Curves Using Shape Optimization.
Zhao, Shuang; Durand, Fredo; Zheng, Changxi
2018-07-01
The inverse diffusion curve problem focuses on automatic creation of diffusion curve images that resemble user provided color fields. This problem is challenging since the 1D curves have a nonlinear and global impact on resulting color fields via a partial differential equation (PDE). We introduce a new approach complementary to previous methods by optimizing curve geometry. In particular, we propose a novel iterative algorithm based on the theory of shape derivatives. The resulting diffusion curves are clean and well-shaped, and the final image closely approximates the input. Our method provides a user-controlled parameter to regularize curve complexity, and generalizes to handle input color fields represented in a variety of formats.
Directed Neutron Beams From Inverse Kinematic Reactions
Vanhoy, J. R.; Guardala, N. A.; Glass, G. A.
2011-06-01
Kinematic focusing of an emitted fairly mono-energetic neutron beam by the use of inverse-kinematic reactions, i.e. where the projectile mass is greater than the target atom's mass, can provide for the utilization of a significant fraction of the fast neutron yield and also provide for a safer radiation environment. We examine the merit of various neutron production reactions and consider the practicalities of producing the primary beam using the suitable accelerator technologies. Preliminary progress at the NSWC-Carderock Positive Ion Accelerator Facility is described. Possible important applications for this type of neutron-based system can be both advanced medical imaging techniques and active "stand-off" interrogation of contraband items.
Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration experiment at ATF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fernow, R.; Kusche, K.P.; Liu, Y.; Kimura, W.D.; Kim, G.H.; Romea, R.D.; Steinhauer, L.C.
1994-01-01
Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration was demonstrated using an axicon optical system at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF S-band linac and a high power 10.6 μm CO 2 laser were used for the experiment. Experimental arrangement and the laser and the electron beams synchronization are discussed. The electrons were accelerated more than 0.7 MeV for a 34 MW CO 2 laser power. More than 3.7 MeV acceleration was measured with 0.7 GW CO 2 laser power, which is more than 20 times of the previous ICA experiment. The experimental results are compared with computer program TRANSPORT simulations
Numerical Methods for Bayesian Inverse Problems
Ernst, Oliver; Sprungk, Bjorn; Cliffe, K. Andrew; Starkloff, Hans-Jorg
2014-01-01
We present recent results on Bayesian inversion for a groundwater flow problem with an uncertain conductivity field. In particular, we show how direct and indirect measurements can be used to obtain a stochastic model for the unknown. The main tool here is Bayes’ theorem which merges the indirect data with the stochastic prior model for the conductivity field obtained by the direct measurements. Further, we demonstrate how the resulting posterior distribution of the quantity of interest, in this case travel times of radionuclide contaminants, can be obtained by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Moreover, we investigate new, promising MCMC methods which exploit geometrical features of the posterior and which are suited to infinite dimensions.
Inverse free-electron laser accelerator development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Steenbergen, A. van; Sandweiss, J.; Fang, J.M.
1994-06-01
The study of the Inverse Free-Electron Laser, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, has been pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory for a number of years. More recent studies focused on the development of a low energy (few GeV), high gradient, multistage linear accelerator. The authors are presently designing a short accelerator module which will make use of the 50 MeV linac beam and high power (2 x 10 11 W) CO 2 laser beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These elements will be used in conjunction with a fast excitation (300 μsec pulse duration) variable period wiggler, to carry out an accelerator demonstration stage experiment
Confidence bands for inverse regression models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birke, Melanie; Bissantz, Nicolai; Holzmann, Hajo
2010-01-01
We construct uniform confidence bands for the regression function in inverse, homoscedastic regression models with convolution-type operators. Here, the convolution is between two non-periodic functions on the whole real line rather than between two periodic functions on a compact interval, since the former situation arguably arises more often in applications. First, following Bickel and Rosenblatt (1973 Ann. Stat. 1 1071–95) we construct asymptotic confidence bands which are based on strong approximations and on a limit theorem for the supremum of a stationary Gaussian process. Further, we propose bootstrap confidence bands based on the residual bootstrap and prove consistency of the bootstrap procedure. A simulation study shows that the bootstrap confidence bands perform reasonably well for moderate sample sizes. Finally, we apply our method to data from a gel electrophoresis experiment with genetically engineered neuronal receptor subunits incubated with rat brain extract
Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms in Lung Cancer Susceptibility.
Eaton, Keith D; Romine, Perrin E; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt J; Petersdorf, Effie W
2018-05-01
Chronic inflammation has been implicated in carcinogenesis, with increasing evidence of its role in lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes in the risk for development of lung cancer. A nested case-control study design was used, and 625 cases and 625 well-matched controls were selected from participants in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, which is a large, prospective lung cancer chemoprevention trial. The association between lung cancer incidence and survival and 23 polymorphisms descriptive of 11 inflammation-related genes (interferon gamma gene [IFNG], interleukin 10 gene [IL10], interleukin 1 alpha gene [IL1A], interleukin 1 beta gene [IL1B], interleukin 2 gene [IL2], interleukin 4 receptor gene [IL4R], interleukin 4 gene [IL4], interleukin 6 gene [IL6], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene [PTGS2] (also known as COX2), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene [TGFB1], and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene [TNFA]) was evaluated. Of the 23 polymorphisms, two were associated with risk for lung cancer. Compared with individuals with the wild-type (CC) variant, individuals carrying the minor allele variants of the IL-1β-511C>T promoter polymorphism (rs16944) (CT and TT) had decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.74, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94] and OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-1.01], respectively, p = 0.03). Similar results were observed for the IL-1β-1464 C>G promoter polymorphism (rs1143623), with presence of the minor variants CG and CC having decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.95] and OR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.46-1.03], respectively, p = 0.03). Survival was not influenced by genotype. This study provides further evidence that IL1B promoter polymorphisms may modulate the risk for development of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Advances in Global Full Waveform Inversion
Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Lei, W.; Ruan, Y.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Modrak, R. T.; Orsvuran, R.; Smith, J. A.; Komatitsch, D.; Peter, D. B.
2017-12-01
Information about Earth's interior comes from seismograms recorded at its surface. Seismic imaging based on spectral-element and adjoint methods has enabled assimilation of this information for the construction of 3D (an)elastic Earth models. These methods account for the physics of wave excitation and propagation by numerically solving the equations of motion, and require the execution of complex computational procedures that challenge the most advanced high-performance computing systems. Current research is petascale; future research will require exascale capabilities. The inverse problem consists of reconstructing the characteristics of the medium from -often noisy- observations. A nonlinear functional is minimized, which involves both the misfit to the measurements and a Tikhonov-type regularization term to tackle inherent ill-posedness. Achieving scalability for the inversion process on tens of thousands of multicore processors is a task that offers many research challenges. We initiated global "adjoint tomography" using 253 earthquakes and produced the first-generation model named GLAD-M15, with a transversely isotropic model parameterization. We are currently running iterations for a second-generation anisotropic model based on the same 253 events. In parallel, we continue iterations for a transversely isotropic model with a larger dataset of 1,040 events to determine higher-resolution plume and slab images. A significant part of our research has focused on eliminating I/O bottlenecks in the adjoint tomography workflow. This has led to the development of a new Adaptable Seismic Data Format based on HDF5, and post-processing tools based on the ADIOS library developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We use the Ensemble Toolkit for workflow stabilization & management to automate the workflow with minimal human interaction.
Signature of inverse Compton emission from blazars
Gaur, Haritma; Mohan, Prashanth; Wierzcholska, Alicja; Gu, Minfeng
2018-01-01
Blazars are classified into high-, intermediate- and low-energy-peaked sources based on the location of their synchrotron peak. This lies in infra-red/optical to ultra-violet bands for low- and intermediate-peaked blazars. The transition from synchrotron to inverse Compton emission falls in the X-ray bands for such sources. We present the spectral and timing analysis of 14 low- and intermediate-energy-peaked blazars observed with XMM-Newton spanning 31 epochs. Parametric fits to X-ray spectra help constrain the possible location of transition from the high-energy end of the synchrotron to the low-energy end of the inverse Compton emission. In seven sources in our sample, we infer such a transition and constrain the break energy in the range 0.6-10 keV. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) shape. It is well described by a power law in a majority of light curves, the index being flatter compared to general expectation from active galactic nuclei, ranging here between 0.01 and 1.12, possibly due to short observation durations resulting in an absence of long-term trends. A toy model involving synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton (EC; disc, broad line region, torus) mechanisms are used to estimate magnetic field strength ≤0.03-0.88 G in sources displaying the energy break and infer a prominent EC contribution. The time-scale for variability being shorter than synchrotron cooling implies steeper PSD slopes which are inferred in these sources.