Sample records for trans nzoia district

  1. Income generation of farm labourers in Trans Nzoia District, Kenya : rural employment and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tellegen, N.; Verstrate, L.; Foeken, D.W.J.


    This study, carried out in 1989, is a support study for a larger survey of the nutritional situation in the households of labourers on large farms in Trans Nzoia, Kenya. Three categories were distinguished: permanent labourers, casual labourers living on the farm and casual labourers living off the

  2. Small Scale Dairy Cattle Feeding for Nyakinyua Area of Trans Nzoia District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwendia, C.W.; Miyekho, F.N.; Scarr, M.


    An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable

  3. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe abortion: experiences from community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia counties Kenya. (United States)

    Yegon, Erick Kiprotich; Kabanya, Peter Mwaniki; Echoka, Elizabeth; Osur, Joachim


    The rate of unsafe abortions in Kenya has increased from 32 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 to 48 per 1000 women in 2012. This is one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Kenya changed its Constitution to include a more enabling provision regarding the provision of abortion services. Abortion-related stigma has been identified as a key driver in silencing women's ability to reproductive choice leading to seeking to unsafe abortion. We sought to explore abortion-related stigma at the community level as a barrier to women realizing their rights to a safe, legal abortion and compare manifestations of abortion stigma at two communities from regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion. A qualitative study using 26 focus group discussions with general community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. We used thematic and content analysis to analyze and compare community member's responses regarding abortion-related stigma. Although abortion is recognized as being very common within communities, community members expressed various ways that stigmatize women seeking an abortion. This included being labeled as killers and are perceived to be a bad influence for women especially young women. Women reported that they were poorly treated by health providers in health facilities for seeking abortion especially young unmarried women. Institutionalization of stigma especially when Ministry of Health withdrew of standards and guidelines only heightened how stigma presents at the facilities and drives women seeking an abortion to traditional birth attendants who offer unsafe abortions leading to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of abortion-related complications. Community members located in counties in regions with high incidence of unsafe abortion also reported higher levels of how they would stigmatize a woman seeking an abortion compared to community members from counties in low incidence region. Young unmarried women bore the

  4. Game Design Concept Report : Application of the WeShareIt Game Elements in Nzoia River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onencan, A.M.; Enserink, B.; van de Walle, B.A.


    In early 2016, we designed Nzoia WeShareIt game to support joint decision-making, in a complex river basin, through policy practice in the form of water allocation trade-offs between food, energy, and nature. Nzoia WeShareIt game is a multi-player hybrid cooperation game.

    This concept


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Kimutai Kanda


    Full Text Available River Nzoia in Kenya, due to its role in transporting industrial and municipal wastes in addition to agricultural runoff to Lake Victoria, is vulnerable to pollution. Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important indicators of water pollution. Artificial neural network (ANN has gained popularity in water quality forecasting. This study aimed at assessing the ability of ANN to predict dissolved oxygen using four input variables of temperature, turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. Multilayer perceptron network architecture was used in this study. The data consisted of 113 monthly values for the input variables and output variable from 2009–2013 which were split into training and testing datasets. The results obtained during training and testing were satisfactory with R2 varying from 0.79 to 0.94 and RMSE values ranging from 0.34 to 0.64 mg/l which imply that ANN can be used as a monitoring tool in the prediction of dissolved oxygen for River Nzoia considering the non-correlational relationship of the input and output variables. The dissolved oxygen values follow seasonal trend with low values during dry periods.

  6. Trans* Leadership. (United States)

    Jourian, T J; Simmons, Symone L


    Focusing on emerging literature on trans* and gender-nonconforming students and their leadership, this chapter outlines the ways trans* students are engaged in leadership in educational institutions and outside of them and discusses implications for staff and faculty regarding how to support and engage these students and their leadership. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Effects of Financial Training on Financial Performance of Schools in Kenya: a survey of Administrators of Secondary Schools in Trans-Nzoia County


    Humphrey Nabiswa Chetambe; Maurice Sakwa


    The ever increasing cost of education to Governments and to citizens calls for effective management of school resources by administrators. When the Government of Kenya (GOK) introduced free secondary education, the national budgetary allocation for the program was between Ksh.25 billion and Ksh.39.7 billion in the financial year 2007/08 and this figure was projected to increase to between Ksh.28.3 billion and Ksh.74.3 billion in 2011 due to increasing demand for secondary education (Republic ...

  8. Trans-Planckian wimpzillas

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, E W; Tkachev, I I


    Two previously proposed conjectures--gravitational trans-Planckian particle creation in the expanding universe, and the existence of ultra-heavy stable particles with masses up to the Planck scale (wimpzillas)--are combined in a proposal for trans-Planckian particle creation of wimpzillas. It is shown that the trans-Planckian particle creation parameter should be rather small to avoid overproduction of such particles. This ensures that wimpzillas are mainly created at the end of primordial inflation. Conditions under which trans-Planckian wimpzillas can constitute the present dark matter are determined.

  9. Facts about trans fats (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  10. Trans as Contested Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Tobias


    Denne artikel rejser en række epistemologiske og metodologiske spørgsmål vedrørende læsningen af trans som identitetskategori. Disse spørgsmål er stærkt underbelyste i en skandinavisk akademisk kontekst, om end der el- lers i stigende grad produceres analyser af trans identitetsnarrativer. Artikl...

  11. Council Districts (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  12. Cis By Trans


    Rodovalho,Amara Moira


    Cis, trans: above all, metaphors. Cisjordan, region skirting the Jordan River. Cisplatin, Uruguay’s ancient name, region occupying one of the banks of the Prata River. Trans- Amazonian, that which crosses the Amazon; transatlantic, that which crosses the Atlantic. Cisalpine, transalpine. The geometric isomerism of Organic Chemistry, where “cis” are atoms that, when molecules are divided in half, remain on the same side, and “trans” those remaining on opposite sides. Ev...

  13. Trans-Spatial Utopias (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire


    The "trans-" perspectives offered in this special issue are heady stuff. Post-structuralism (philosophy) meets the digital age (electronics), meets globalization (economics), and meets translingual practice (linguistics) to create a perfectly utopian or placeless space for future exploration. I want to first add my voice to the…

  14. Low Trans Hydrogenation (United States)

    Although hydrogenation has been the technology of choice for fat formulation for many years recent concerns over the health and nutrition of trans fatty acids have had a profound effect on the edible oil industry. Since Jan. 1, 2006, TFA has been required on nutrition labels along with saturated an...

  15. A trans world journey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Bysted, Anette


    to a maximum of 2% of fat content from 2004. We assessed the potential exposure of consumers to IP-TFA by analysing popular foods in Denmark, and in 25 other countries. Fifty-five servings of French fries and chicken nuggets, 87 packages of microwave popcorn, and 393 samples of biscuits....../cakes/wafers with "partially hydrogenated vegetable fat" listed high on the food label were bought between November 2004, and February 2006. The content of IP-TFA was analysed by standardized methodology. We defined a "high trans menu" as a large size serving of French fries and nuggets, 100 g of microwave popcorn, and 100 g......A high intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and a daily intake as low as possible is required to minimize health risks. To achieve this at the individual level in Denmark, legislation limited IP-TFA in foods...

  16. TransQUAL Online User's Guide: Improving Student Transitions to Life after School. Version 3.0 (United States)

    Brewer, David


    TransQUAL Online is designed to assist school districts collaborate with others and continuously improve their transition practices for youth. TransQUAL incorporates New York State Education Department Transition Quality Indicators (TQI), based on the work of Paula Kolher from Western Michigan University. The TQI assesses program structure,…

  17. Fisheries Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  18. Warden Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  19. Forestry Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  20. Wastewater Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  1. Wildlife Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  2. Park Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  3. Radical feminists & trans activists truce


    Mackay, F.


    #GenderWeek: Truce! When radical feminists and trans feminists empathise\\ud Feminist Times\\ud By Finn Mackay \\ud read all #GenderWeek articles.\\ud We wanted to explore the ground between the polarised, entrenched positions in the so-called “TERF-war”. Radical feminists on one pole, trans-inclusionary feminists and trans activists on the other. The disputed territory being women-only space, language and the ever changing legal framework surrounding gender.\\ud Entrenchment leads to stalemate. S...

  4. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard


    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. The mean TFA values were below 2.0% of FAME, however, bakery products contained 4.5% and butter fat 3.2%, respectively. In addition, the distribution of individual trans C18:1 differed. In samples containing ruminant fat (butter and various confectioneries), vaccenic acid (t11-C18:1, t11) predominated, while in foods containing industrially hydrogenated fats, elaidic acid (trans-9, t9-) and t10-C18:1 were the major trans isomers.. This was reflected by a low t9/t11 index of 0.3 and 0.5 in butter and ruminant fat containing confectioneries, respectively, whilst the highest index was observed in shortenings and deep-fried potato products at 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. In conclusion, the TFA content of foods available on the German market is generally declining, but substantial variations are present. The t9/t11 index could be used as an indicator to determine ruminant fat. Practical applications: A number of studies provide evidence that a high TFA intake, particularly of industrial origin, adversely affects human health. The TFA content of foods could be reduced due to the introduction of several mandatory regulations and modifications regarding the hydrogenation process of oils. The most abundant dietary TFA are the isomers of trans C18:1. Unfortunately, the differentiation of these isomers is not yet very common, though the trans C18:1 profile differs depending on its origin (bacterial hydrogenation in the rumen or industrial hydrogenation). To date, data for TFA content

  5. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.


    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  6. quality and consumer acceptability of goat milk with respect to goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... farmers' goats in Trans Nzoia County was also determined. ..... Consumer acceptability (panelists scores*) of goat milk products in the north rift region in Kenya.

  7. TransForm: TransAlta 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Financial information from TransAlta Corp. was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000 and a summary of the how the electric utility is doing in terms of power generation, independent power producers, transmission and energy marketing. The utility has changed from a regulated vertically integrated utility into one of Canada's largest non-regulated electric power generators. The utility sold its retail businesses in Alberta and New Zealand and now focuses on coal and hydro generation, gas generation, high-voltage transmission and energy marketing. The newly constructed Centralia, Washington generation facility was brought on line with 1,340 MW in May 2000, on time and on budget. This was the platform to diversify their generation into the United States. The utility reported a solid financial year with $177.9 million in earnings from continuing operations, an 83 per cent increase from 1999, driven mostly by the results of Centralia and power marketing and trading businesses. A financial loss was suffered when the Wabamum power plant in Alberta was shut down for several months to repair a boiler. The utility made excellent progress toward their goal of 15,000 megawatts by 2005 by starting with the construction of what will be one of Canada's largest cogeneration facilities at Sarnia, Ontario. TransAlta also commissioned a 360 MW cogeneration facility at Poplar Creek at Suncor's Fort McMurray oil sand facility. TransAlta also has an excellent track record in developing power generation projects internationally. refs., tabs., figs

  8. An Evaluation of fertiliser Recommendations Obtained From Experimental Settings a Case of smallholder Maize Fertiliser Recommendations in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugunieri, G.L.; Nyangito, H.O.; Mose, L.O.


    This study was undertaken to compare maize yield in Kisii and Trans-Nzoia Districts of Western Kenya. Separate yield response functions were established for experimental and farm data and used to undertake an economic analysis of fertiliser used on maize on smallholder farms. For Kisii District, the optimal values obtained in the field management practices between farmers and researchers. Further, based on the farm data results from this district, farmers on average use fertiliser optimally. Therefore as long as these farmers are constrained by their resources such that they can not improve on their management practices, using of Nzoia district, the experimental and farm data optimal levels were not significantly different. this was attributed to the fact that maize production in this region is commercial activity and the level of field management tend to approximate the level at the research station. Therefore farmers in this region can gain from increased use of fertilizers at there current levels of field management. The study concluded that fertiliser rates obtained from experimental data are not suitable for all regions in Kenya

  9. Synthesis through Trans-disciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring


    synthesis is a requirement for creating successful ‘environmentally sustainable' architecture through the application of trans-disciplinarity, which leads to an increased awareness of the differences in decision-making as well as that of communication barriers between the different professions......When looking up the word ‘synthesis' in a dictionary, one comes across the following definition: "The combining of separate elements or substances to form a coherent whole."[1] Based on this definition one could argue that all great architectureis achieved through synthesis in one way or another...

  10. Trans issues in Liz Lochhead's 'Not Changed'


    Kaličanin Milena M.


    The paper is divided into four sections. In the first section entitled 'Introducing and Defining Trans (Issues)', the basic terms of transgender, transvestite, and transsexual are defined by relying on Stryker's Transgender History (2008). The second part of the paper, 'Trans Studies: In-Between Feminist and Queer Theory?', places transgender studies into an academic context by referring to the theoretical framework provided by trans theorists Stryker, Stone, and Ranck who unanimously claim t...

  11. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild


    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary


    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  13. Private Water Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  14. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  15. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.


    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  16. California Political Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  17. State Water Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  18. National Register Historic Districts (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  19. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  20. Trans Ova Genetics, L.C. (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Trans Ova Genetics, L.C., a business located at 2938 380th Street Sioux Center, IA 51250, for alleged violations at the Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.’s facility located in 12425

  1. Unscripting Curriculum: Toward a Critical Trans Pedagogy (United States)

    Keenan, Harper Benjamin


    In this essay, Harper B. Keenan draws on his own experience as a white queer and trans educator to consider the meaning of a critical trans pedagogy. Amid dissonant narratives of equal rights and subjection, he explores how his classroom teaching is shaped by his own experience of gender conditioning as well as by the contemporary political…

  2. TransAlta: More than a utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikalson, D.A.


    TransAlta Utilities Corporation is Canada's largest privately owned utility and is also a major coal mining company. In 1989, TransAlta produced 20.9% of all coal mined in Canada. A brief history of TransAlta is presented along with TransAlta's present coal operations and plans for the next three years. An overview is presented of how TransAlta Fuel Supply is organized to utilize contracted mining operation, engineering and environmental services and in-house capabilities. Recent strategic initiatives to improve organizational efficiency and the mining operations are discussed. These range from developing a common departmental vision to modifying major mining equipment. TransAlta's proactive role in clean coal combustion such as low NOx-SOx burner, integrated combined cycle gasification, and other energy research projects is reviewed. A summary is provided of recent participation of TransAlta in environmental management initiatives. Recent successes of TransAlta's unregulated subsidiary in the development of cogeneration facilities and the future of this area of business are discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs

  3. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively.This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and

  4. District nurse training


    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John


    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  5. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B


    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  6. The Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon Tania


    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, a treaty the parties have described as comprehensive and ambitious, yet also representing a balance of competing interests. The article focuses on the TPP’s chapters relating to investment, services, intellectual property and regulatory coherence, each of which provides insight into the motivations that drove the conclusion of the TPP and the negotiating dynamics that determined its final content. In areas such as investment, the TPP takes a more balanced approach than many earlier agreements, providing greater safeguards for the regulatory autonomy of states while still embodying core protections for foreign investors. In relation to intellectual property and services, the TPP goes beyond earlier agreements in several key respects, such as preventing the imposition of local presence requirements for service providers or requiring longer copyright terms than those demanded by other international treaties. The TPP chapter on regulatory coherence is one of the most novel features of the treaty, as regulatory coherence is not frequently included in earlier trade agreements, demonstrating the increased focus of states on addressing regulatory barriers to trade and investment. While all of these elements of the TPP are interesting in their own right, given the number and size of the parties involved in the agreement, they also provide valuable guidance about the direction of other ongoing and future preferential trade agreement negotiations, such as the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP and Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA.

  7. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.


    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  8. Formation of trans fats during food preparation. (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A


    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  9. "There's no chasing involved": cis/trans relationships, "tranny chasers," and the future of a sex-positive trans politics. (United States)

    Tompkins, Avery Brooks


    This article adds to a small, but growing, body of work on trans sexualities and partnerships, and provides a much-needed inquiry into the complex and contested politics of desire when we take trans identities, bodies, and sexualities into account. Using digital ethnographic data from YouTube videos along with in-person observational data from LGBTQ and trans conferences in the U.S., Tompkins argues that a sex-positive trans politics cannot emerge in trans and trans-allied communities if the rhetoric of the "tranny chaser" continues to inform discourses of desire and attraction to trans people.

  10. Effect of Trans, Trans-Farnesol on Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Several Closely Related Species. (United States)

    Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Miller, Andrew N


    Bat white-nose syndrome, caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has dramatically reduced the populations of many hibernating North American bat species. The search for effective biological control agents targeting P. destructans is of great importance. We report that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol, which is also a Candida albicans quorum sensing compound, prevented in vitro conidial germination for at least 14 days and inhibited growth of preexisting hyphae of five P. destructans isolates in filtered potato dextrose broth at 10 °C. Depending on the inoculation concentrations, both spore and hyphal inhibition occurred upon exposure to concentrations as low as 15-20 µM trans, trans-farnesol. In contrast, most North American Pseudogymnoascus isolates were more tolerant to the exposure of trans, trans-farnesol. Our results suggest that some Candida isolates may have the potential to inhibit the growth of P. destructans and that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol has the potential to be utilized as a biological control agent.

  11. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  12. Cis-trans photoisomerization of abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabham, D.E.; Biggs, R.H.


    An important regulator of numerous physiological processes in higher plants is abscisic acid (ABA), which is photoisomerized from the more biologically active cis isomer to the nearly inactive trans isomer by natural sunlight. It is possible that this photoisomerization is a UV control mechanism in functions regulated by ABA. The quantum yields of both the cis to trans and trans to cis photoisomerizations were measured under various conditions of pH and oxygen concentration at room temperature. The yield for photoisomerization of cis-ABA ranged from 0.25 at pH 3.0 to 0.11 at pH 7.0. Oxygen partially quenched the process. The quantum yield varied only slightly with wavelength. The quantum yield of photolysis of cis-ABA was reported for pH 3.0 as 0.06. This yield also varied slightly with wavelength and was relatively insensitive to oxygen. This relatively high yield explains the loss of potency of ABA during UV irradiation. Phosphorescence of cis- and trans-ABA was observed in methanol at 77 K. Onset of the emission was at 350 nm. The emission spectra were the same for both isomers. From these results a mechanism of UV action on plants based on the photoisomerization of the inactive trans-ABA to the biologically active cis isomer is proposed. (author)

  13. Trans Women Doing Sex in San Francisco. (United States)

    Williams, Colin J; Weinberg, Martin S; Rosenberger, Joshua G


    This research investigates the sexuality of trans women (individuals who were assigned male status at birth who currently identify as women), by focusing on the "bodily techniques" (Crossley, 2006) they use in "doing" sexuality. The "doing sexuality" framework not only is modeled after the "doing gender" approach of West and Zimmerman (1987), but also utilizes the idea of "sexual embodiment" to emphasize the agency of trans women as they conceptualize and organize their sexuality in a socially recognized way. This is often difficult as they confront discrimination from medical and legal professionals as well as intimate partners who may find it difficult to adapt to the trans woman's atypical body and conception of gender. However, with a study group of 25 trans women from San Francisco, we found the study participants to be adept at overcoming such hurdles and developing techniques to "do" their sexuality. At the same time, we found trans women's agency constrained by the erotic habitus (Green, 2008) of the wider society. The interplay between innovation and cultural tradition provides an opportunity to fashion a more general model of "doing" sexuality.

  14. Trans issues in Liz Lochhead's 'Not Changed'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Milena M.


    Full Text Available The paper is divided into four sections. In the first section entitled 'Introducing and Defining Trans (Issues', the basic terms of transgender, transvestite, and transsexual are defined by relying on Stryker's Transgender History (2008. The second part of the paper, 'Trans Studies: In-Between Feminist and Queer Theory?', places transgender studies into an academic context by referring to the theoretical framework provided by trans theorists Stryker, Stone, and Ranck who unanimously claim that transgender studies should have a place of its own within the academia and that trans theory should solely be written by transsexuals. These ideas are applied in the interpretation of Lochhead's story 'Not Changed' in the third segment of the paper. The critical insights of Butler (Gender Trouble, 1990; Undoing Gender, 2004 are found to be most helpful in the interpretation of Lochhead's story about Michael who has willingly undergone Hormone Replacement Therapy to become transsexual Michele. Finally, in the concluding remarks, Lochhead's story is viewed as a trans woman manifesto, urging both non-transsexual and transsexual persons to embrace new beginnings in their relationship.

  15. Technical aspects of trans reduction in margarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Duijn Gerrit


    Full Text Available The opinion of nutritional science on the effect of trans fatty acids on blood cholesterol has drastically changed during the last decade. As a reaction to these new findings, the European margarine industry decided in the mid nineties to eliminate trans containing components from their margarine fat phase compositions. This excluded practically the use of partially hydrogenated oils and fats. Trans-free margarines have been introduced with optimised fat crystal structures stabilising a maximum of water in oil emulsion with a minimum of solid fat phase. These fat crystal structures are formed by fat phase components obtained from interesterification and/or fractionation of non-hydrogenated and/or fully hydrogenated feedstocks.

  16. Physics of Trans-Planckian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Germani, Cristiano


    We study aspects of the phenomenon of gravitational UV-self-completeness and its implications for deformations of Einstein gravity. In a ghost-free theory flowing to Einstein gravity in the IR trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist. The only physical meaning of a trans-Planckian pole is the one of a classical state (Black Hole) which is fully described by the light IR quantum degrees of freedom and gives exponentially-suppressed contributions to virtual processes. In this sense Einstein gravity is UV self-complete, although not Wilsonian. We show that this UV/IR correspondence puts a severe constraint on any attempt of conventional Wilsonian UV-completion of trans-Planckian gravity. In particular, there is no well-defined energy domain in which gravity could become asymptotically weak or safe.

  17. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn


    % of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has......Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60...

  18. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Tveit, Ann; Dekant, Wolfgang


    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm for 6 h and urine was collected for 48 h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using 19 F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t 1/2 1/2 < 6 h). ► Glutathione adduct as predominant in vitro metabolite in all tested species. ► Toxic metabolites could not be detected in any great extent

  19. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M.; Tveit, Ann [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962-1057 (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)


    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm for 6 h and urine was collected for 48 h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using {sup 19}F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t{sub 1/2} < 6 h) and the extent of biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd was determined as approximately 0.01% of received dose in rabbits and approximately 0.002% in rats. trans-HCFO-1233zd undergoes both oxidative biotransformation and glutathione conjugation at very low rates. The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals. - Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► Glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P-450 dependent

  20. Solid Waste Management Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  1. District nursing is vital. (United States)

    Bliss, Julie


    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  2. Floodplain District Permit (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  3. 115th Congressional Districts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  4. Allegheny County Council Districts (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  5. ACT250 Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  6. NM Property Tax Districts (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  7. NM School District Boundaries (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  8. Groundwater Managment Districts (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  9. Powdered activated carbon adsorption of two fishy odorants in water: Trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao


    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption of two fishy odorants, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal (HDE) and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (DDE), was investigated. Both the pseudo first-order and the pseudo second-order kinetic models well described the kinetics curves, and DDE was more readily removed by PAC. In isotherm tests, both Freundlich and Modified Freundlich isotherms fitted the experimental data well. PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for DDE than for HDE, which could be ascribed to the difference in their hydrophobicity. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) indicated an exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process. PAC dosage, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM) presence were found to influence the adsorption process. With increasing PAC dosage, the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order rate constants both increased. The value of pH had little influence on HDE or DDE molecules but altered the surface charge of PAC, and the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH9. The presence of NOM, especially the fraction with molecular weight less than 1k Dalton, hindered the adsorption. The study showed that preloaded NOM impaired the adsorption capacity of HDE or DDE more severely than simultaneously fed NOM did. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Trans-kingdom cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Marijn; Constantin, Maria-Ermioni; Thordal-Christensen, Hans


    This review focuses on the mobility of small RNA (sRNA) molecules from the perspective of trans-kingdom gene silencing. Mobility of sRNA molecules within organisms is a well-known phenomenon, facilitating gene silencing between cells and tissues. sRNA signals are also transmitted between organism...

  11. The european Trans-Tools transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.


    The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland

  12. Trans-Kullo jagatakse tükkideks / Kadrin Karner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karner, Kadrin


    Primos OÜ omanik ja Trans-Kullo osanik Endel Siff ütles, et Trans-Kullo on aktsionäride erinevate ärihuvide tõttu läinud jagunemisele, mis võib lõppeda ettevõtte likvideerimisega. Lisa: Trans-Kullo

  13. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  14. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.


    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  15. Trans-sphenoidal excision of craniopharyngiomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal R


    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas have been by and large excised by the transcranial route. Since 1982, 11 patients have been operated by the traus-sphensidal route in the department. The clinical features with which they were presented, diagnostic investigations, details of surgical procedures and follow-up analysis is being presented here. A retrospective study of radiological investigation was done to determine the features that help decide the choice of surgical approach to these lesions. Only lesions that were primarily intrasellar, cystic and those that expanded the sella could be treated by the trans-sphenoidal route. Associated suprasellar extensions could also be removed. Predominantly calcified or firm, fleshy tumours lent themselves poorly to removal by the trans-sphenoidal route.

  16. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom (United States)

    Resnik, David


    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  17. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training (United States)

    Davidson, Jim


    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  18. Siegel discs via trans-quasiconformal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde


    kompleksstruktur kan integreres, det vil sige definerer en kompleksstruktur. I denne komplekse struktur er den nye afbildning holomorf og har en Siegel disk. Der findes imidlertid masser af tilfælde hvor dette ikke lader sig gøre, men hvor man istedet kan finde en trans-kvasikonform udvidelse til enheds-disken af...... mængde af rotationstal med fuldt mål på cirklen har konjugationen en trans-kvasi-konform udvidelse til disken. Dette er et skridt i beviset for at for næsten alle (i Lebeguemåls forstand) rotations tal, er randen af Siegel-disken for et kvadratisk polynomium med en Siegel disk med et sådant rotationstal...

  19. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il


    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (edible oil). PMID:26483890

  20. Trans-triquetral Perilunate fracture dislocation


    John-Henry Rhind; Abhinav Gulihar; Andrew Smith


    Perilunate dislocations and perilunate fracture dislocations are rare and serious injuries. Perilunate dislocations represent less than 10% of all carpal injuries of which 61% represent transcaphoid fractures. Because of their rarity, up to 25% of perilunate dislocations are initially missed on first assessment. We present the case of a 66-year-old-gentleman who sustained an isolated trans-triquetral perilunate fracture dislocation while walking his dog. This was diagnosed in the emergency de...

  1. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  2. The TransPetro emergency response system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, A.T.F.; Cardoso, V.F.; Carbone, R.; Berardinelli, R.P. [Petrobras-TransPetro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, M.T.M.; Casanova, M.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica, TeCGraf


    Petrobras-TransPetro developed the TransPetro Emergency Response System in response to emergency situations at large oil pipelines or at terminal facilities located in sea or river harbour areas. The standard of excellence includes full compliance with environmental regulations set by the federal government. A distributed workflow management software called InfoPAE forms the basis of the system in which actions are defined, along with geographic and conventional data. The first prototype of InfoPAE was installed in 1999. Currently it is operational in nearly 80 installations. The basic concepts and functionality of the TransPetro Emergency Response System were outlined in this paper with reference to the mitigative actions that are based on an evaluation of the organization of the emergency teams; the communication procedures; characterization of the installations; definition of accidental scenarios; environmental sensitivity maps; simulation of oil spill trajectories and dispersion behaviour; geographical data of the area surrounding the installations; and, other conventional data related to the installations, including available equipment. The emergency response team can take action as soon as an accident is detected. The action plan involves characterizing several scenarios and delegating mitigative actions to specific sub-teams, each with access to geographic data on the region where the emergency occurred. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Physics of trans-Planckian gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Folkerts, Sarah; Germani, Cristiano


    We study the field theoretical description of a generic theory of gravity flowing to Einstein general relativity in IR. We prove that, if ghost-free, in the weakly-coupled regime such a theory can never become weaker than general relativity. Using this fact, as a by-product, we suggest that in a ghost-free theory of gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist. The only physical meaning of a trans-Planckian pole is the one of a classical state (black hole) which is described by the light IR quantum degrees of freedom and gives exponentially-suppressed contributions to virtual processes. In this picture Einstein gravity is UV self-complete, although not Wilsonian, and sub-Planckian distances are unobservable in any healthy theory of gravity. We then finally show that this UV/IR correspondence puts a severe constraint on any attempt of conventional Wilsonian UV-completion of trans-Planckian gravity. Specifically, there is no well-defined energy domain in which gravity could become asymptotically weak or safe.

  4. TransAlta 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This annual report presents financial information from TransAlta Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the electric utility has performed in terms of power generation, independent power producers, transmission and energy marketing. TransAlta is one of the largest non-regulated power generation and wholesale marketing companies in Canada. It's assets include coal-fired, gas-fired, hydro and renewable generation facilities in Canada, the United States, Mexico and Australia. Reported earnings in 2003 were $1.26 per share compared to $1.17 in 2002. The strong first quarter was followed by harsh market conditions, low water levels which affected hydro production, and pricing restrictions in Ontario that reduced contribution from the Sarnia plant. This report outlines the utility's progress in increasing revenue and producing more power. In 2003, unplanned outages were reduced by 7 per cent and injury frequency rate was reduced by 27 per cent. The installation of 114 wind turbines in Fort Macleod, Alberta, increased TransAlta's renewable energy capacity to 3.7 per cent in 2003. The wind farm produces 75 MW of electricity, enough to power more than 32,500 homes annually. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. refs., tabs., figs

  5. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  6. TransCanada Corporation 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    TransCanada is a leading North American energy company dealing with natural gas transmission, power generation and marketing opportunities. Financial information from TransCanada was presented in this annual report along with a review of its operations in 2004 and a summary of how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2004, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations and maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. Achievements in 2004 included the acquisition of the Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline System and the North Baja Pipeline System; the purchase of hydroelectric generation assets in New England with a total generating capacity of more than 500 MW; and the completed construction of two new gas-fired cogeneration plants, the 165 MW MacKay River facility in Alberta and the 90 MW Grandview facility in New Brunswick. The challenges in 2004 included the performance of the company's existing asset-based businesses and the new initiatives to produce another year of solid operating and financial results. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  7. Trans-Cultural, Trans-Language Practices: Potentialities for Rethinking Doctoral Education Pedagogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojni Choy


    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and trans-cultural within these policies. In this paper, we define these terms and advocate for a policy position which orients to a futurist definition of culture. We then review the work of Michael Singh and his research team at Western Sydney University who have responded to this rapid increase in Asian international student doctoral enrolments in Australian universities by developing pedagogic principles around notions of trans-language and trans-cultural practices. In the final section of the paper, we then draw on our own experiences of doctoral supervision in Australian universities to reflect on our positioning within the pedagogic principles around trans-language and trans-cultural practices.

  8. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  9. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  10. New Mexico State Forestry Districts (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  11. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  12. Development of acid soils tolerant wheat for Uasin Ngishu and Trans Zoia District of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, L.; Kinyua, M.G.; Njau, P.N.


    The study used three methods to introduce and stabilise genetic variations in acid soil tolerant lines, which included hybridization, introduction and double haploid system. The results showed significant difference among the test lines with R973 line (average yield 0.94 tons/ ha) showing superiority over the other lines. A significant (p<0.05) test weight performance between the tested lines, with the highest test weight of 42.7 gm per 1000 kernel wt for R972, is reported. More work in the development of suitable varieties for acid soils tolerance, with the need for integrated approach with the agronomist, soil scientist, the breeder and pathologists working together is recommended. Characterisation and Marker Assisted Selection as a more suitable method to handle the current situation is suggested

  13. Sexual desire in trans persons: associations with sex reassignment treatment. (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Van Hoorde, Birgit; Heylens, Gunter; De Cuypere, Griet; Monstrey, Stan; Weyers, Steven; Hoebeke, Piet; T'Sjoen, Guy


    Sex steroids and genital surgery are known to affect sexual desire, but little research has focused on the effects of cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery on sexual desire in trans persons. This study aims to explore associations between sex reassignment therapy (SRT) and sexual desire in a large cohort of trans persons. A cross-sectional single specialized center study including 214 trans women (male-to-female trans persons) and 138 trans men (female-to-male trans persons). Questionnaires assessing demographics, medical history, frequency of sexual desire, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), and treatment satisfaction. In retrospect, 62.4% of trans women reported a decrease in sexual desire after SRT. Seventy-three percent of trans women never or rarely experienced spontaneous and responsive sexual desire. A third reported associated personal or relational distress resulting in a prevalence of HSDD of 22%. Respondents who had undergone vaginoplasty experienced more spontaneous sexual desire compared with those who planned this surgery but had not yet undergone it (P = 0.03). In retrospect, the majority of trans men (71.0%) reported an increase in sexual desire after SRT. Thirty percent of trans men never or rarely felt sexual desire; 39.7% from time to time, and 30.6% often or always. Five percent of trans men met the criteria for HSDD. Trans men who were less satisfied with the phalloplasty had a higher prevalence of HSDD (P = 0.02). Trans persons who were more satisfied with the hormonal therapy had a lower prevalence of HSDD (P = 0.02). HSDD was more prevalent in trans women compared with trans men. The majority of trans women reported a decrease in sexual desire after SRT, whereas the opposite was observed in trans men. Our results show a significant sexual impact of surgical interventions and both hormonal and surgical treatment satisfaction on the sexual desire in trans persons. © 2013 International Society for Sexual

  14. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together (United States)

    Mart, Dan


    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  15. 7 CFR 917.14 - District. (United States)


    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  16. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  17. Trans fats in New Zealand: time for labelling regulations? (United States)

    Gladding, Patrick; Benatar, Jocelyne R


    Trans fats (trans fatty acids) are commonly used for deep frying in restaurants and in the fast food, snack food, fried food, and baked goods industries, often to extend the shelf life of foods. However they are widely considered to be harmful to health. Trans fats were banned in New York City restaurants from 1 July 2007, and there is growing vocal opposition to trans fats in the European Union. Denmark became the first country, in March 2003, to introduce laws regulating the content of trans fats in food (maximum of 2% of edible fats and oils). What are trans fats, what harm do they cause, and should New Zealand also consider imposing mandatory regulations on their use in food? This article explores the issues.

  18. Nuclear reactions: Science and trans-science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.


    This book is a collection of essays written by Weinberg over the span of his scientific and administrative career. A sound theorist, he was introduced to nuclear physics as part of the Manhattan project, and assumed administrative responsibilities during that project. His career has allowed him to make valuable contributions in a broad range of fields. These essays touch on topics of interest to him, concern to the country, and of profound import for society as it exists today. They are grouped into five sections: science and trans-science; scientific administration; strategic defense and arms control; time, energy and resources; nuclear energy

  19. TRAN-STAT: statistics for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.


    This issue of TRAN-STAT discusses statistical methods for assessing the uncertainty in predictions of pollutant transport models, particularly for radionuclides. Emphasis is placed on radionuclide transport models but the statistical assessment techniques also apply in general to other types of pollutants. The report begins with an outline of why an assessment of prediction uncertainties is important. This is followed by an introduction to several methods currently used in these assessments. This in turn is followed by more detailed discussion of the methods, including examples. 43 references, 2 figures

  20. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum


    Velasco B., Rodrigo; Gil G., Jesús H.; García P., Carlos M.; Durango R., Diego L.


    The biotransformation of trans-cinnamic acid by whole cells of the Colombian native phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum was studied. Initially, fungitoxicity of this compound against C. acutatum was evaluated; trans-cinnamic acid exhibited a moderate to weak toxicity against the microorganism and apparently a detoxification mechanism was present. Then, in order to study such mechanism and explore the capacity of this fungus to biotransform trans-cinnamic acid into value-added produ...

  1. Trans-nationalisation Processes in the Ukrainian Economy


    Bolharova Natalya K.; Panevnyk Tetyana M.


    The article considers main processes of trans-nationalisation of Ukrainian economy, identifies specific features of trans-national production and explains some theoretical aspects of these issues. It provides main stages of theoretical comprehension of activity of trans-national corporations (TNC), specific features of the theory of competitive advantages of TNC and specifies the basic ones of them. The article conducts analysis of flows of direct foreign investments into the Ukrainian econom...

  2. Trans*Forming College Masculinities: Carving out Trans*Masculine Pathways through the Threshold of Dominance (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.


    Men and masculinities studies are gaining prominence in higher education literature, illuminating how cisgender college men understand and grapple with masculinity. Additionally, the increased visibility of trans* students has fueled the expanding scholarship and attention to their experiences, often however centering on white gender-conforming…

  3. Trans advanced surface laser ablation (TransPRK) outcomes using SmartPulseTechnology. (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Kymionis, George D


    To evaluate early visual rehabilitation, post-operative pain, epithelial healing and haze after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) using the SmartPulseTechnology (SPT) of Schwind Amaris (Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, Germany). This was a retrospective comparative evaluation of a cohort of myopic patients undergoing TransPRK with SPT (group 1), with one matched control group that underwent conventional TransPRK (group 2). All cases had a 6-month post-operative follow-up including visual acuity and slit-lamp examination. Subjective evaluation of pain was recorded post-operatively. 49 eyes of 25 patients in group 1 and 40 eyes of 20 patients in group 2 were enrolled. The patients' visual rehabilitation was significantly faster in group 1, one day and one week post-operatively (P0.05). TransPRK using SPT provides promising results in the early post-operative period. Visual rehabilitation, re-epithelialization and pain were faster in the early post-operative period in group 1 in comparison with group 2. Haze formation was not significantly different between the two groups; however, it was consistently less in group 1. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trans-nationalizing the African Public Sphere: What Role for Trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 9, 2011 ... At a time when the notion of 'trans-national public spheres' is gaining .... ple refer specifically to the language and its speakers in Senegal and Mauri- .... of the Pulaar language and the improvement of the social and economic.

  5. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn


    To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The objec...

  6. Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid. (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Remya, P; Sathish, U; Rani, T; Mohan, S


    The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the optimised geometry of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been determined from B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The effects of substituents (acrylyl group) on the imidazole vibrational frequencies are analysed. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been precisely assigned and analysed and the theoretical results are compared with the experimental vibrations. (1)H and (13)C NMR isotropic chemical shifts are calculated and the assignments made are compared with the experimental values. The energies of important MO's of the compound are also determined from DFT method. The total electron density and electrostatic potential of the compound are determined by natural bond orbital analysis. Various reactivity and selectivity descriptors such as chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the appropriate local quantities employing natural population analysis (NPA) are calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón


    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Is there such a thing as Tech Trans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik


    This short paper is an attempt to start a discussion on some basic issues within the concept of Tech Trans especially the relationship between flow and structure within the concept. The background to this paper is first of all an academic interest in the relationship between flow and structure...... explores the concept of Tech Trans, show rooms and innovation systems, and it suggests that the notion of Tech Trans should be defined in the fix point of vertical and horizontal innovation. Finally this paper suggests a mathematical formula for evaluating Tech Trans....

  9. Attention modulates trans-saccadic integration. (United States)

    Stewart, Emma E M; Schütz, Alexander C


    With every saccade, humans must reconcile the low resolution peripheral information available before a saccade, with the high resolution foveal information acquired after the saccade. While research has shown that we are able to integrate peripheral and foveal vision in a near-optimal manner, it is still unclear which mechanisms may underpin this important perceptual process. One potential mechanism that may moderate this integration process is visual attention. Pre-saccadic attention is a well documented phenomenon, whereby visual attention shifts to the location of an upcoming saccade before the saccade is executed. While it plays an important role in other peri-saccadic processes such as predictive remapping, the role of attention in the integration process is as yet unknown. This study aimed to determine whether the presentation of an attentional distractor during a saccade impaired trans-saccadic integration, and to measure the time-course of this impairment. Results showed that presenting an attentional distractor impaired integration performance both before saccade onset, and during the saccade, in selected subjects who showed integration in the absence of a distractor. This suggests that visual attention may be a mechanism that facilitates trans-saccadic integration. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Homologous SV40 RNA trans-splicing: Special case or prime example of viral RNA trans-splicing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Poddar


    Full Text Available To date the Simian Virus 40 (SV40 is the only proven example of a virus that recruits the mechanism of RNA trans-splicing to diversify its sequences and gene products. Thereby, two identical viral transcripts are efficiently joined by homologous trans-splicing triggering the formation of a highly transforming 100 kDa super T antigen. Sequences of other viruses including HIV-1 and the human adenovirus type 5 were reported to be involved in heterologous trans-splicing towards cellular or viral sequences but the meaning of these events remains unclear. We computationally and experimentally investigated molecular features associated with viral RNA trans-splicing and identified a common pattern: Viral RNA trans-splicing occurs between strong cryptic or regular viral splice sites and strong regular or cryptic splice sites of the trans-splice partner sequences. The majority of these splice sites are supported by exonic splice enhancers. Splice sites that could compete with the trans-splicing sites for cis-splice reactions are weaker or inexistent. Finally, all but one of the trans-splice reactions seem to be facilitated by one or more complementary binding domains of 11 to 16 nucleotides in length which, however occur with a statistical probability close to one for the given length of the involved sequences. The chimeric RNAs generated via heterologous viral RNA trans-splicing either did not lead to fusion proteins or led to proteins of unknown function. Our data suggest that distinct viral RNAs are highly susceptible to trans-splicing and that heterologous viral trans-splicing, unlike homologous SV40 trans-splicing, represents a chance event.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kislov


    Full Text Available Introduction. For several decades, the gap of vocational education with quickly changing realities in labour market, in the field of technologies and socio-economic sphere, and the need for the advancing vocational training, have been considered as the topical and steadily growing problems. Numerous attempts to overcome the presented above problems by means of fundamentalization and predictive methods have not led to anything so far. It is obvious that other education opportunities for in-demand, highly skilled, competitive specialists are needed.The aims of the publication are to discuss the potential of trans-professional education; to come up with arguments in favour of its introduction as the most perspective direction which might allow university and college graduates: to be guided better on labour market; to be more confident in unstable, unpredictable reality; to adapt quickly to dynamically changing situations in the world of professions.Methodology and research methods. The research paper is based on comparative analysis that provided an opportunity to find out the conceptual grounds of traditional mono-professional education and trans-professional education appropriate for challenges of modern Russia.Results and scientific novelty. It is emphasized that mono-professionalism as a paradigm reference point of professional education content is called for global reconsideration; for many years, preservation of traditional forms and methods have prevented mono-professionalism of good intentions to give it the advancing character, especially, at its initial stage.For the first time, trans-professional education has been considered as a result of considerably heterogeneous (as opposed to homogeneous bi- and polyprofessional training; the essence of that training consists in learning not related specialties concerned to one professional group, but professions that are absolutely far apart. Such approach will promote not only expansion of

  12. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  13. Repair Activity of trans-Resveratrol toward 2'-Deoxyguanosine Radicals. (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; An, Ping; Li, Shujin; Zhou, Liping


    In the present study, the repair activity of trans-resveratrol toward 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) radicals in polar and nonpolar solvents was studied using density functional theory. The hydrogen transfer/proton coupled electron transfer and single electron transfer (SET) mechanisms between trans-resveratrol and dGuo-radicals were considered. Taking into consideration the molar fraction of neutral trans-resveratrol (ROH) and anionic trans-resveratrol (RO - ), the overall rate constants for repairing dGuo-radicals by trans-resveratrol are 9.94 × 10 8 and 2.01 × 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 in polar and nonpolar solvents, respectively, and the overall rate constant of repairing cation radical (dGuo •+ ) by trans-resveratrol via an SET mechanism is 7.17 × 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The repair activity of RO - toward dGuo-radicals is better than that of ROH, but the repair activity of ROH toward dGuo •+ is better than that of RO - . Unfortunately, neither ROH nor RO - can repair the 2'-deoxyribose radicals of dGuo. It can therefore be concluded that trans-resveratrol is an effective antioxidant for repairing base radicals of dGuo and dGuo •+ . The study can help us understand the repair activity of trans-resveratrol toward dGuo radicals.

  14. Shifting Paradigms: Moving beyond "Trans 101" in Sexuality Education (United States)

    Green, Eli R.


    Trans-inclusive sexuality education can be complex, confusing, and outright intimidating for even the most seasoned sexuality educator to teach. Historically, standalone "Trans 101" sessions have successfully raised awareness about the highly marginalized transgender community. However, their potential success has been limited by being taught in…

  15. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border relations between Nigeria and Niger republic. ... cordial relations between her and her immediate neighbours and thus stem the scourge of smuggling and other trans-border crimes which have negatively affected the Nigerian economy and her international image.

  16. TransPlanckian Particles and the Quantization of Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't


    Trans-Planckian particles are elementary particles accelerated such that their energies surpass the Planck value. There are several reasons to believe that trans-Planckian particles do not represent independent degrees of freedom in Hilbert space, but they are controlled by the cis-Planckian

  17. Relative Stability of cis- and trans-Hydrindanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Tori


    Full Text Available The relative stabilities of several cis- and trans-hydrindanones were compared using both isomerization experiments and MM2 calculations. The generally believed rule that cis-hydrindanones are more stable than trans-isomers is applicable, but is not always true. This review introduces examples, mainly from studies in our laboratory, to explain these facts.

  18. Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products. (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A


    Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet.

  19. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

  20. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The principal problem in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning is the length of time required to obtain meaningful data. Patient movement and radioisotope migration during the scanning period can cause distortion of the image. The object of this invention is to reduce the scanning time without degrading the images obtained. A system is described in which a scintillation camera detector is moved to an orbit about the cranial-caudal axis relative to the patient. A collimator is used in which lead septa are arranged so as to admit gamma rays travelling perpendicular to this axis with high spatial resolution and those travelling in the direction of the axis with low spatial resolution, thus increasing the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable without sacrificing spatial resolution. (author)

  1. Trans Ocean Gas CNG transportation development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation is on the rise due to increased global demand for natural gas. However, the challenge of transporting LNG lies in finding suitable locations for import terminals. Compressed natural gas (CNG) transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets not practical for LNG or pipelines. The founder of Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. Financial support is needed to perform verification testing and for regulatory approval. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System (United States)


    A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy

  3. Becoming lesbian: Monique Wittig's queer-trans-feminism. (United States)

    Henderson, Kevin


    Inspired by Lynne Huffer's queer feminist genealogy, this article explores queer-trans-feminism as a project that would bring together queer, feminist, and transgender theory and politics into a shared critical lineage. I suggest that Monique Wittig is a neglected thinker who could re-enliven connections and debates within queer, feminist, and trans theory and politics. Utilizing recent historiographies of queer and feminist theory, I imagine what it would mean to hold on to the figure of the lesbian as a figure for queer-trans-feminist politics rather than render the lesbian anachronistic. I then explore the implications of Wittig's notion that "lesbians are not women" for a queer-trans-feminism. I argue that Wittig's critique of the language of the social sciences offers queer-trans-feminist scholars a source for contemporary self-critique and coalition.

  4. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.


    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  5. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of N-trans-Caffeoyldopamine and N-trans-Feruloyldopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dizdar


    Full Text Available Phenolic acids and their derivatives found in nature are well-known for their potential biological activity. In this study, two amides derived from trans-caffeic/ferulic acid and dopamine were synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, mass spectrometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compounds were tested for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE from Electrophorus electricus and for antioxidant activity by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH• and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS•+, reducing ferric ions, and ferrous ions chelation. N-trans-Feruloyldopamine displayed the highest inhibitory effect on AChE with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 8.52 μM. In addition, an in silico study was done to determine the most favorable AChE cluster with the synthesized compounds. Further, these clusters were investigated for binding positions at the lowest free binding energy. Both synthesized hydroxycinnamates were found to be better antioxidants than the parent acids in in vitro tests applied. N-trans-Caffeoyldopamine showed the best antioxidant activity in the three tested methods—against non-biological stable free radicals IC50 5.95 μM for DPPH•, 0.24 μM for the ABTS•+ method, and for reducing power (ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE 822.45 μmol/mmol—while for chelation activity against Fe2+ ions N-trans-feruloyldopamine had slightly better antioxidant activity (IC50 3.17 mM.

  6. Understanding the complexity of trans fatty acid reduction in the American diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group. (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Borra, Susan; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yin-Piazza, Shirley Y


    A 2-day forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing trans fatty acids without increasing saturated fats in the food supply while maintaining functionality and consumer acceptance of packaged, processed, and prepared foods. Attendees represented the agriculture and oilseed industry and oil processing, food manufacturing, food service, government, food technology, and health and nutrition disciplines. Presentations included food science behind fatty acid technology, the health science of dietary fatty acids, alternatives to trans fatty acids, and the use of alternatives in food manufacturing and food service. The reduction of trans fatty acids in the food supply is a complex issue involving interdependent and interrelated stakeholders. Actions to reduce trans fatty acids need to carefully consider both intended and unintended consequences related to nutrition and public health. The unintended consequence of greatest concern is that fats and oils high in saturated fats, instead of the healthier unsaturated fats, might be used to replace fats and oils with trans fatty acids. Many different options of alternative oils and fats to replace trans fatty acids are available or in development. Decisions on the use of these alternatives need to consider availability, health effects, research and development investments, reformulated food quality and taste, supply-chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference demonstrated the value of collaboration between the food industry and health and nutrition professionals, and this conference model should be used to address other food development, processing, and/or technology issues.

  7. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  8. A Tale of Two Districts (United States)

    Simon, Mark


    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  9. Redesigning the District Operating System (United States)

    Hodas, Steven


    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  10. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia


    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  11. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.


    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  12. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  13. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...

  14. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum


    Rodrigo Velasco B.; Jesús H. Gil G.; Carlos M. García P.; Diego L. Durango R.


    Se estudió la biotransformación de ácido trans-cinámico mediante células completas del hongo fitopatógeno nativo colombiano Colletotrichum acutatum. Inicialmente, se evaluó la fungitoxicidad de este compuesto contraC. acutatum; el ácido trans-cinámico exhibió una toxicidad moderada a débil contra el microorganismo y aparentemente se presentó un mecanismo de detoxificación. Luego, para estudiar tal mecanismo y explorar la capacidad de este hongo para biotransformar el ácido trans-cinámico en ...

  15. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  16. Ionising radiation and trans-generational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, I.; Niksic, G.


    Indirect monitoring of the impact posed by ionising radiation to the genome instability of the descendants, consequent to the irradiation of one of their parents, boils down to the investigation of changes occurring exclusively in the mini-satellite loci of the cells constituting the gametal developmental line. The resultant mini-satellite mutations are expressed in their percentages, and equal to the ratio of the number of mutated alleles in that particular generation over the total number of alleles present. The impact of ionising radiation to the irradiated parent's offspring was first noticed on haematopoietic mouse stem-cells. Even though an irradiated cell of a female parent lacks any mutations whatsoever, daughter cells present with the increased mutation rates. The observed phenomenon of the so called trans-generational instability has been defined as the occurrence of mutations in the genome of individuals originating from the irradiated ancestors. Due to the aforementioned, one can conclude that these mutations need not be present in the irradiated parental cells, and do not necessarily vanish in the next few generations, but may result in the increase in mutation rates observed in the latter. The results of the investigations performed on the animal model, as well as of those carried out in human population, point to the occurrence of significant changes to be found on mini-satellite loci of the descending generation, while the mechanism underlying those changes hasn't been completely clarified yet, and, therefore, calls for the further investigation. (author)

  17. Crystallinity and the effect of ionizing radiation in polyethylene. V. Distribution of trans-vinylene and trans, trans conjugated double bonds in linear polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, G.N.


    Freeze-dried chain folded single crystals and the single crystals without amorphous surface layers (crystalline cores) of different thicknesses of linear polyethylene were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays up to 600 Mrad. Concentration of trans-vinylene double bonds and conjugated diene produced during irradiation of the crystals was measured by infrared. Concentrations of trans-vinylene and of the conjugated diene were independent of thickness of crystalline core which suggest that the double bonds were randomly distributed in the crystalline parts of the crystals. Concentrations of trans-vinylene and of conjugated double bonds were lower in chain-folded crystals than in the crystalline cores and this suggests that the folds (amorphous surface layers) are less preferential sites for formation of the double bonds. The zero-order growth and first-order decay kinetics of trans-vinylene double bonds was studied by the equation derived by Dole et al. The equation is strictly obeyed up to 300 Mrad and the results then deviate. Since there is the decay of trans-vinylene double bonds and though there are no crosslinks in the crystalline cores, it has been suggested that the decay of the double bond does not result in the crosslinks


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanny Soeiro Sousa


    Full Text Available This essay seeks to make an examination on how the gender category influences in the development process, based on the concept of development as freedom by Amartya Sen. In view of this purpose, we analyze the main human rights violations suffered by travesties and transsexuals due to the female and male identity construction in contrast to social norms establishing hierarchical positions of men and women as constituents of male and female categories. In other words, conflicts made in the wake of gender relations. This study is the result of a literature review and analysis of data on homophobic violence against trans experience.

  19. Finding a Trans-Affirmative Provider: Challenges Faced by Trans and Gender Diverse Psychologists and Psychology Trainees. (United States)

    Dickey, Lore M; Singh, Anneliese A


    This article explores some of the challenges faced by trans and gender diverse (TGD) individuals who not only are attempting to access trans-affirmative care, but who are also members of the very profession from which they are seeking services. The authors explore challenges related to finding supervision, accessing care for assessment services, and finding a provider for personal counseling. With each example, the authors unpack the challenges and also address the implications for training for all involved. Based on these challenges that TGD psychologists and trainees face in attempting to access care, the authors provide recommendations related to trans-affirmative training for psychologists. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  1. Naturally occurring and process-induced trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, butter oil. INTRODUCTION ... important role in determining risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) than ... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade, supplied by.

  2. Trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P. C.; Li, D.


    Transformer based Z-source (trans-Z-source) inverters are recently proposed by extending the traditional Z-source inverter with higher buck-boost capability as well as reducing the passive components at the same time. Multi-Level Z-source inverters are single-stage topological solutions used...... for buck-boost energy conversion with all the favourable advantages of multi-level switching retained. This paper presents three-level trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter topology, which achieves both the advantages of trans-Z-source and three-level NPC inverter configuration. With proper...... modulation scheme, the three-level trans-Z-source inverter can function with minimum of six device commutations per half carrier cycle (same as the traditional buck NPC inverter), while maintaining to produce the designed volt-sec average and inductive voltage boosting at ac output terminals. The designed...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lilyana


    Full Text Available The study is about a close look at Conrad's trans-racial romance related to the Victorian period. Trans-racial love between white men and non-white women becomes a popular theme in the early works of Josep Conrad, a famous writer of the late Victorian period. Using a closely technical reading in the three of Conrad's works Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly, and An Outcast of the Island, we can show that such a trans-racial romance is not merely meant for appreciating equivalence. In turn, the trans-racial romance of Conrad's can be understood as the reflection of the Western colonization on the East where the white men take a role as subjects who had dominately explored while the non-white women as objects who are passively being explored. Key words: colonization, race, romance plot, subject, object, and dominance

  4. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons. (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna


    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes a collection of published lightcurves of trans-Neptunian objects published through December 2002. The collection includes lightcurves of 18...

  6. Polarization in high Psub(trans) and cumulative hadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.


    The final hadron polarization in the high Psub(trans) processes is analyzed in the parton hard scattering picture. Scaling assumption allows a correct qualitative description to be given for the Psub(trans)-behaviour of polarization or escape angle behaviour in cumulative production. The energy scaling and weak dependence on the beam and target type is predicted. A method is proposed for measuring the polarization of hadron jets

  7. Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans. (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Sforza, Stefano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ghidini, Cristiana; Caporaso, Nicola; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Marchelli, Rosangela


    Many in vitro studies demonstrated significant biological effects of trans-resveratrol. Thus, understanding the rate of intestinal absorption and metabolization in vivo of trans-resveratrol is the prerequisite to evaluate its potential health impact. Bioavailability studies mainly in animals or in humans using the pure compound at very high doses were performed. In this work, trans-resveratrol bioavailability from a moderate consumption of red wine in 25 healthy humans has been studied by three different experiments. The wine ingestion was associated to three different dietary approaches: fasting, a standard meal, a meal with high and low amount of lipids. Trans-resveratrol 3- and 4'-glucuronides were synthesized, purified, and characterized as pure standards. Bioavailability data were obtained by measuring the concentration of free, 3-glucuronide and 4'-glucuronide trans-resveratrol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection, in serum samples taken at different times after red wine administration. Free trans-resveratrol was found, in trace amounts, only in some serum samples collected 30 min after red wine ingestion while after longer times resveratrol glucuronides predominated. Trans-resveratrol bioavailability was shown to be independent from the meal or its lipid content. The finding in human serum of trans-resveratrol glucuronides, rather than the free form of the compound, with a high interindividual variability, raises some doubts about the health effects of dietary resveratrol consumption and suggests that the benefits associated to red wine consumption could be probably due to the whole antioxidant pool present in red wine.

  8. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera


    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo


    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  9. Allegheny County School District Boundaries (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  10. New Mexico Property Tax Districts (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  11. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.


    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  12. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.


    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. A comparison of trans-cranial and trans-sphenoidal approaches for vision improvement due to pitutary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabai SA


    Full Text Available To improve visual disturbance, optic nerve decompression can be performed via transcranial or tran-sphenoidal approaches. Although the surgical exposure in transcranial approach is favourable, yet the optic nerve's presence in the field may make it vulnerable to damage. Of fighty patients with different types of pituitary adenomas, 35 cases with medium-sized (1-3 cm tumors have been studied in a randomized clinical trial during a three year period, to compare the applicability of these approaches. While short hospital stay with better visual outcome was observed in fifteen trans-sphenoidal cases, in comparison to 20 trans-cranial cases, however the preoperative visual status and underlying disorders were similar in both groups. Decompressing the optic apparatus, trans-sphenoidally, seems beneficial, where there are no contraindications for the procedure in medium-sized pituitary adenomas


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza García Reyes


    Full Text Available Este artículo evidencia los principales resultados de la investigación cualitativa titulada: Putas y trans. Narrativas sobre mujeres trans en España –desarrollada en 2010–, la cual estudió su presencia en textos académicos sobre prostitución en España, producidos entre los años 2000-2009. El análisis de contenido de 34 narrativas evidenció que las referencias a mujeres trans resulta escasa en ellas, aun siendo ellas quienes tienen mayor presencia en la prostitución, en proporción con las mujeres biológicas. Solo nueve textos mencionan la experiencia trans al interior de la prostitución y, entre estos, el asunto solo aparece asertivamente descrito cuando son las propias mujeres trans quienes escriben. AbstractThis paper shows the results of a qualitative research entitled: Hookers and Trans Women: Narratives about trans women in Spain. This study was developed in 2010 and it is based on presence of trans women in the academic texts of prostitution in Spain produced between 2000 and 2009. The content analysis of thirty four narratives showed that the references to in transsexual women in these texts were few, although they have more presence into prostitution, in relation to the biological women. Only nine texts show an experience of prostitution and among these, transexperience only is described assertively when transsexual women write the texts themselves.

  15. Biscoitos recheados: quanto mais baratos maior teor de gordura trans? = Filled cookies: the cheaper the higher trans fat content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdino, Tatiana Pizzato


    Conclusões: quanto maior a quantidade de gorduras trans, menor a quantidade de gordura saturada e menor preço. Sugere-se uma revisão na legislação quanto à inserção da quantidade exata de gorduras trans no rótulo, uma vez que o consumo elevado dessas gorduras está associado a dislipidemias, um fator de risco para doença cardiovascular

  16. Reasons for decision in the matter of Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc. (formerly Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc.) : tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In 2006 and 2007 Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc. (now Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc.) submitted a series of applications to the National Energy Board for revisions to the Trans Mountain Tariffs. They were filed in response to apportionment concerns on the Trans Mountain pipeline. Four of the applications involved pronounced and contentious changes to the capacity allocation procedures on the pipeline system. For ease of reference, the Board amalgamated its 4 decisions on these applications into a single document. A map of the Trans Mountain pipeline system as a whole was presented along with a detailed map indicating the delivery locations served by the system in the lower mainland of British Columbia and the state of Washington. The issues considered by the Board in each of these decisions included capacity allocation for Westridge Dock; capacity allocations to export destinations; common carriage requirements; and the need for creating a new barge subcategory. Relevant sections of the National Energy Board Act referred to in the decisions were highlighted. This document also listed the Trans Mountain Tariffs that have introduced notable revisions to the capacity allocation procedures on the system since September 2003. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 appendices

  17. 'Homens trans': novos matizes na aquarela das masculinidades? 'Trans men': new colours in the masculinities picture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida


    Full Text Available O artigo discute de forma exploratória a emergência de uma nova categoria identitária no Brasil, a de 'homem trans'. Essa se constrói diferenciando-se da identidade lésbica e, também, de expressões de gênero de outros grupos que tiveram seus corpos assignados como femininos ao nascimento, mas que contestam essa assignação sem, contudo, se afirmarem 'homens' de forma constante. Afirma-se que a emergência dos 'homens trans' tem sido potencializada pelo estabelecimento do processo transexualizador no SUS. Discutem-se o uso do termo "homem trans" e algumas características comuns a tais sujeitos. Problematizam-se a complexidade de seus processos de autorreconhecimento e construção de masculinidades, sua rápida capacidade de indiferenciação a partir de modificações corporais e, alguns dos efeitos políticos e subjetivos, da visibilidade e da indiferenciação.The article discusses in an exploratory form the emergence of a new identity category in Brazil, namely "transmen". This identity is constructed as a differentiation from the lesbian identity and also from gender expressions of other groups that had their bodies assigned as female upon birth, but that later refuted this assignment without, however, affirming themselves as "men" on a permanent way. The article claims that the emergence of "transmen" has been made possible by the establishment of the transexualization process in the Public Health Care System. Furthermore, the article discusses the use of the term "transman" and some common characteristics related to those persons. The author critiques their complex processes of self-knowledge and construction of masculinities, as well as their quick capacity for non-differentiation from the stand-point of bodily modifications. Finally, the author discusses the political and subjective consequences of their visibility and non-differentiation.

  18. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia


    Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe


    We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we sh...

  19. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Duncan M.; Lyon, Robert; Watson, David G.; Barski, Oleg A.; McGarvie, Gail; Ellis, Elizabeth M.


    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V max of 2141 ± 500 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 11 ± 4 μM. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K I of 3.1 ± 0.57 μM. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V max of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 15 ± 2 μM and was not inhibited by pyrazole

  20. Trans, Switzerland: new drinking-water hydropower station; Gemeinde Trans (GR) - Neubau Trinkwasserkraftwerk - Bauprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadient, N.; Scherrer, I.


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the construction project for the realisation of a hydropower installation that uses the water of the drinking-water mains in Trans, Grisons, Switzerland, to generate electricity. Figures are presented on the head of water available, the proposed electrical power to be installed as well as the annual production and the financing of the project. The latter has been assured by the Swiss scheme for the cost-covering remuneration of electrical energy generated using renewable resources. The construction project agreed on is described and discussed. The project is to be realised together with the refurbishment of the existing drinking-water supply system. The installations necessary and the proposed electromechanical equipment are described and discussed. Also, the supply of increased amounts of water for fire-fighting purposes are noted.

  1. Reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid: Italian Multicentric Study. (United States)

    Aprea, C; Sciarra, G; Bozzi, N; Pagliantini, M; Perico, A; Bavazzano, P; Leandri, A; Carrieri, M; Scapellato, M L; Bettinelli, M; Bartolucci, G B


    This article reports the results of a study, conducted in the framework of the scientific activities of the Italian Society for Reference Values, aimed at defining reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in the general population not occupationally exposed to benzene. t,t-MA concentrations detected in 376 subjects of the resident population in three areas of Italy, two in central (Florence and southern Tuscany) and one in northern Italy (Padua), by three laboratories, compared by repeated interlaboratory controls, showed an interval of 14.4-225.0 microg/L (5th-95th percentile) and a geometric mean of 52.5 microg/L. The concentrations measured were influenced by tobacco smoking in a statistically significant way: Geometric mean concentrations were 44.8 microg/L and 76.1 microg/Ll in nonsmokers (264 subjects) and smokers (112 subjects), respectively. In the nonsmoking population, a significant influence of gender was found when concentrations were corrected for urinary creatinine, geometric mean concentrations being 36.7 microg/g creatinine in males (128 subjects) and 44.7 microg/g creatinine in females (136 subjects). The place of residence of subjects did not seem to influence urinary excretion of the metabolite, although personal inhalation exposure to benzene over a 24-h period showed slightly higher concentrations in Padua and Florence (geometric means of 6.5 microg/m(3) and 6.6 microg/m(3), respectively) than in southern Tuscany (geometric mean of 3.9 microg/m(3)). Concentration of t,t-MA in urine samples collected at the end of personal air sampling showed little relationship to personal inhalation exposure to benzene, confirming the importance of other factors in determining excretion of t,t-MA when concentrations in personal air samples are very low.

  2. Reasons for decision in the matter of TransCanada PipeLines Limited and TransCanada Keystone Pipeline GP Ltd. : application dated 5 June 2006 for leave to transfer pipeline facilities and for a determination of the transfer price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    TransCanada Pipelines Limited and its fully owned subsidiary TransCanada Keystone Pipeline GP Ltd. applied to the National Energy Board in June 2006 for leave to transfer certain pipeline facilities comprising part of TransCanada's mainline natural gas transmission system from TransCanada to Keystone for use in Keystone's proposed new oil pipeline. The transfer would involve the conversion of the facilities from gas service to oil service for use in the Keystone Project. The new oil pipeline would extend from Hardisty Alberta to Wood River and Patoka, Illinois. It would initially provide access for western Canada crude oil producers to the southern Petroleum Administration Defence District (PADD) 2 region of the United states. This is a major refining area which presently has minimal access for western Canada crude oil because of the limited pipeline capacity into the region. The Board held a hearing process to seek the views of interested parties regarding the list of issues that should be considered in dealing with the application. The list of issues included arguments of the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) regarding the Board's jurisdiction; regulatory standards; energy supply markets and pipelines; potential impacts of the transfer such as potential costs to gas shippers and the impact of the transfer on mainline operations; and, the transfer at net book value (NBV). This document presented the Board's views on the transfer and the public interest. After considering all factors, the Board approved the sale and purchase of the Facilities from TransCanada to Keystone. The Board further ordered that TransCanada may reduce the mainline rate base by the NBV of the facilities upon their transfer to Keystone, and that Keystone may include the NBV in its pipeline oil plant upon the transfer of the facilities. 5 tabs., 14 figs., 6 appendices

  3. Disintegration of aerobic granules induced by trans-2-decenoic acid. (United States)

    Cai, Pei-Jie; Xiao, Xiang; He, Yan-Rong; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing


    One current major hurdle to practical implementation of aerobic granule technology is the frequent occurrence of granule disintegration during long-term operation. However, the mechanism behind this is largely unclear today. Here, 2-decenoic acid, which has been previously demonstrated to be released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and disperse biofilms, was found to also induce the disintegration of aerobic granules. A comparison of the solution compositions from samples of only trans-2-decenoic acid, only aerobic granules, and granules added with trans-2-decenoic acid shows that bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were stripped from granule surface upon trans-2-decenoic acid dosing. Due to the possible toxicity of trans-2-decenoic acid at a saturation concentration, the disintegrated granules and the milky suspension in the disintegration test showed a significantly lower oxygen uptake rate than the un-integrated granules. This work suggests that trans-2-decenoic acid released by microbes might play a critical role in regulating the disintegration of aerobic granules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera. (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo


    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  5. A simplified study of trans-mitral Doppler patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas George


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans-mitral Doppler produces complex patterns with a great deal of variability. There are several confusing numerical measures and indices to study these patterns. However trans-mitral Doppler produces readymade data visualization by pattern generation which could be interpreted by pattern analysis. By following a systematic approach we could create an order and use this tool to study cardiac function. Presentation of the hypothesis In this new approach we eliminate the variables and apply pattern recognition as the main criterion of study. Proper terminologies are also devised to avoid confusion. In this way we can get some meaningful information. Testing the hypothesis Trans-mitral Doppler should be seen as patterns rather than the amplitude. The hypothesis can be proven by logical deduction, extrapolation and elimination of variables. Trans-mitral flow is also analyzed vis-à-vis the Starling's Law applied to the left atrium. Implications of the hypothesis Trans-mitral Doppler patterns are not just useful for evaluating diastolic function. They are also useful to evaluate systolic function. By following this schema we could get useful diagnostic information and therapeutic options using simple pattern recognition with minimal measurements. This simplified but practical approach will be useful in day to day clinical practice and help in understanding cardiac function better. This will also standardize research and improve communication.

  6. Trans-nationalisation Processes in the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolharova Natalya K.


    Full Text Available The article considers main processes of trans-nationalisation of Ukrainian economy, identifies specific features of trans-national production and explains some theoretical aspects of these issues. It provides main stages of theoretical comprehension of activity of trans-national corporations (TNC, specific features of the theory of competitive advantages of TNC and specifies the basic ones of them. The article conducts analysis of flows of direct foreign investments into the Ukrainian economy. It shows distribution of direct foreign investments into Ukraine by main countries-investors, regions-recipients and types of economic activity. It conducts review and analysis of the modern state of trans-national corporations of foreign origin in the Ukrainian market. It considers functioning of domestic TNC in Ukraine and main tendencies of entering of Ukrainian companies into the world environment and also identifies directions of further development of these phenomena. Prospects of further studies in this direction are identification of the degree of trans-nationalisation processes in the Ukrainian economy and identification of the positive effect, in particular, synergy from integration and globalisation.

  7. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash


    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose ...... of this paper is to report scenarios, which quantify the impacts for India of regional cooperation to materialize trans-country pipelines. The analysis covers time period from 2005 to 2030.......India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose...

  8. In Search of a Trans-national Climate Change Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassus Saint-Genies, Geraud de


    Private entities engagement in the battle against climate change is a well-established fact, and a source of intense and diversified normative activity. A certain type of climate rules has thus arisen, with a private origin and an international scope, as they transcend the borders of existing territories. In this context, one could wonder about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law, as a relatively autonomous body of law, which would exist at the margins of international and national climate change law. Building on the discussions that have been conducted about the trans-national law in other areas of regulations, this study intends to provide answers about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law

  9. Mechanically induced cis to trans reisomerization of azobenzene (United States)

    Turansky, Robert; Konopka, Martin; Stich, Ivan; Marx, Dominik


    Using density functional techniques we study mechanochemistry of the azobenzene molecule. Azobenzene is an optically switchable molecule. Laser light is normally used to achieve molecular switching between the cis and trans isomers. We use mechanochemistry to achieve the switching. Thiolate-gold bond can used to exert mechanical energy on the molecule bonded between two gold electrodes in static AFM apparatus. Our model consists of two realistic gold electrodes bridged by dithioazobenzene. We find that pulling the transisomer leads just to formation of gold nanowires and mechanical breakage of the electrodes. However, mechanochemistry with modest applied forces leads to cis trans reisomerization via rotation mechanism. Contrary, use of simple constraints instead of realistic gold electrodes, leads to cis trans reisomerization, albeit with significantly larger applied forces and via inversion mechanism. Important experimental and theoretical ramifications of these simulations will be discussed.

  10. Asymmetrically doped one-dimensional trans-polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Heron


    More than 30 years ago [H. Shirakawa, E.J. Louis, A.G. MacDiarmid, C.K. Chiang, A.J. Heeger, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 578 (1977); S. Etemad, A.J. Heeger, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 33 (1982) 443] it was discovered that doped trans-polyacetylene (CH) x , a one-dimensional (1D) conjugated polymer, exhibits electrical conductivity. In this work we show that an asymmetrically doped 1D trans-polymer has non-conventional properties, as compared to symmetrically doped systems. Depending on the level of asymmetry between the chemical potentials of the two involved fermionic species, the polymer can be in a partially or fully spin polarized state. Some possible experimental consequences of doped 1D trans-polymers used as 1D organic polarized conductors are discussed.

  11. Letter to the editor: healthy alternatives to trans fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Julie


    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of trans fats is associated with an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To comply with regulatory policies and public health authorities recommendations, trans fats should be replaced in food products. The study by Sundram et al. (Nutrition & Metabolism 2007, 4:3 reporting the effect on CVD risk factors of interesterified fat (IE and partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO compared to palm olein (POL has been critically analyzed. The study design and in particular the composition of the tested fats was not suitable to properly answer the question raised regarding the effect of alternative ingredients to trans fats on plasma lipids. The observed effects are divergent with predicted data derived from the literature model consolidated using the individual results of 60 randomized clinical trials. The results of the study published by Sundram and co-workers have to be considered with awareness.

  12. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Quin Kelly E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  13. Peel Region TransHelp's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    TransHelp was founded in the Peel Region of Ontario in 1981 to provide paratransit service to individuals unable to use conventional transit. The TransHelp vehicle fleet consists of 40 buses that make over 220,000 one way trips annually. Each vehicle has a typical life span of between 375,000 and 425,000 km. TransHelp vehicles spend much of their time idling in emissions-sensitive areas, such as outside hospitals. In order to reduce fuel costs, TransHelp adopted the use of propane to fuel its vehicles. However, difficulties were experienced with this technology, particularly on V-10 engines where increased maintenance was a problem. SFI Technologies Inc. provided a solution with their SEQUIN System which allows seamless transitioning between gasoline and propane under all conditions without any operator involvement in fuel selection. The technology favours propane as the fuel of choice and automatically switches between propane and gasoline based on the ideal conditions at the time of operation. The technology has received certification from the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States and the Canadian Standards Association. The use of the SEQUIN System has proven to successful for TransHelp. It has allowed the use of propane to be continued, meaning that vehicle emissions are greatly reduced relative to gasoline or diesel fuelled vehicles. TransHelp has realized a fuel savings of 15-20 per cent over gasoline and receives an additional federal transit rebate of 15 per cent for the conversion cost.

  14. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  15. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.


    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  16. Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Kovacs, Szilvia


    Objectives: To examine the correlates of trans fat knowledge and trans fat label use; to examine the influence of trans fat knowledge, trans fat label use, and dietary attitudes on intake of high trans fat food. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: An urban commuter college. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-two college students. Variables…

  17. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi


    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  18. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithwick, Yoram


    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU) –1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α –1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies

  19. Science and trans-science in standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majone, G.


    Standard-setting is a blending of scientific, trans-scientific, and political elements which result in a number of consequences. Health standards, for example, are influenced by biological and philosophical assumptions and scientific traditions, with the dose-response function treated as a trans-scientific question because of scientific uncertainties. Costs and benefits and other values besides health, safety, or environment also enter into the balancing of regulatory decisions and keep regulations from a purely scientific knowledge is desirable. Recommendations that industry be self-regulatory reflect a shift in emphasis from legal enforcement to information-based compliance

  20. cis–trans Isomerization of silybins A and B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Novotná


    Full Text Available Methods were developed and optimized for the preparation of the 2,3-cis- and the 10,11-cis-isomers of silybin by the Lewis acid catalyzed (BF3∙OEt2 isomerization of silybins A (1a and B (1b (trans-isomers. The absolute configuration of all optically pure compounds was determined by using NMR and comparing their electronic circular dichroism data with model compounds of known absolute configurations. Mechanisms for cis–trans-isomerization of silybin are proposed and supported by quantum mechanical calculations.

  1. Trans women and Michfest: An ethnophenomenology of attendees' experiences. (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Kozlowski, Christine; Shattell, Mona; Todd, Nathan R


    The rise of queer and transgender studies has greatly contributed to feminist and lesbian understandings of sex, gender, and sexuality and also has resulted in rifts, tensions, and border wars. One such tension is around the inclusion of trans women in women-only space, such as the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival (Michfest). In this ethnophenomenological study, we interviewed and surveyed 43 cisgender women who attended Michfest in 2013. Participants had a variety of perspectives on trans inclusion and on the dialogue surrounding it, and these paralleled intersections, frictions, and tensions between feminism, queer theory, and transgender studies.

  2. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Clemenceau, Stéphane


    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator. Describe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semiology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography) point to the mesial temporal structures. The trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach is a minimally invasive and safe technique that allows disconnection of the temporal stem and resection of temporomesial structures.

  3. A "Trans-Dyadic" Perspective on the Goldwater Rule. (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M


    The Goldwater Rule has been debated, redefined, and debated further since the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States. This column offers a perspective on the Goldwater Rule that moves beyond psychiatry's current preoccupation with precision DSM-5 diagnosis of individuals, which ethically requires consent or other legal authorization for release of diagnostic information to others, and into the realm of leadership as seen through the "trans-dyadic" lens of psychoanalytic understanding of large group processes on a societal level. Concepts from large group psychology are introduced to illustrate "trans-dyadic" perspectives on leadership that do not challenge the Goldwater Rule.

  4. Trans-dinitroglycoluril isomers-A DFT treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemi Türker


    Full Text Available Isomers of trans-1,4-Dinitroglycoluril (trans-DINGU and their 1,3-tautomers are considered within the constraints of B3LYP/6-31++G (d,p and B3LYP/CC-PVTZ levels of DFT calculations. Additionally, the interactions of these isomers and proton in vacuum are investigated. The data have revealed that two of the three isomers undergo CH bond cleavage as the result of interaction with proton in vacuum. The total energies, some structural properties, the calculated IR and UV spectra are discussed.

  5. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study. (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E


    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  6. Biscoitos recheados: quanto mais baratos maior teor de gordura trans? = Filled cookies: the cheaper the higher trans fat content?


    Galdino, Tatiana Pizzato


    Objetivos: identificar a quantidade de gorduras totais, saturadas e trans descritas nos rótulos de biscoitos recheados e verificar se existe associação entre o preço e a quantidade de gorduras trans Métodos: a amostra foi composta por 25 pacotes de biscoitos recheados de diferentes tipos e marcas, copiando-se de cada rótulo as informações necessárias. Para análise dos resultados foram efetuados cálculos de estatística descritiva, análise de variância e correlação de Spearmann Resultados...

  7. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann


    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  8. Nation, Districts Step up Safety (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi


    President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

  9. Marketing Techniques for School Districts. (United States)

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  10. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP) (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  11. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  12. VT Data - Overlay District 20170228, Richmond (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following overlay districts are included in the data:Shoreline Protection OverlayFlood Hazard OverlayDetails about these overlay districts, as well as zoning...

  13. Exploración estocástica de las superficies de energía potencial de dímeros cis-trans y trans-trans del ácido fórmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said F. Figueredo


    Full Text Available Potential energy surface (PES of cis-trans and trans-trans formic acid dimers were sampled using a stochastic method, and the geometries, energies, and vibrational frequencies were computed at B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p level of theory. The results show that molar free energy of dimerization deviated up to 108.4% when basis set superposition error (BSSE and zero-point energy (ZPE were not considered. For cis-trans dimers, C=O and O - H bond weakened, whereas C - O bonds strengthened due to dimerization. Also, trans-trans FA dimers did not show a trend regarding strengthening or weakening of the C=O, O - H and C - O bonds.

  14. Trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction in three cleft patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Martini, M.; Nadjmi, N.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Jagtman, A.K.; Bergé, S.J.


    The trans-sinusoidal maxillary distractor (TS-MD) was used to achieve maxillary advancement in three patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. After preoperative computer-aided planning of the distraction vectors, each TS-MD was bent on a stereolithographic model of the maxilla of the patient.

  15. The trans influence in mer-trichloronitridobis(triphenylarsine)ruthenium(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper


    The title compound, mer-[RuCl(3)N(C(18)H(15)As)(2)], is the first structurally characterized example of a nitride complex in which ruthenium is six-coordinated to monodentate ligands only. The Ru[triple-bond]N bond length [1.6161 (15) A] is relatively long, and the trans influence of the nitride...

  16. Transient nerve damage following intubation for trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, KA; Eindhoven, GB; Wierda, JMKH


    Purpose: To describe a case of transient lingual and hypoglossal nerve damage following intubation for a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Clinical features: A 56-yr-old acromegalic man was scheduled for trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy. He had been treated with octreotide six months previously which

  17. transPLANT Resources for Triticeae Genomic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Spannagl


    Full Text Available The genome sequences of many important Triticeae species, including bread wheat ( L. and barley ( L., remained uncharacterized for a long time because their high repeat content, large sizes, and polyploidy. As a result of improvements in sequencing technologies and novel analyses strategies, several of these have recently been deciphered. These efforts have generated new insights into Triticeae biology and genome organization and have important implications for downstream usage by breeders, experimental biologists, and comparative genomicists. transPLANT ( is an EU-funded project aimed at constructing hardware, software, and data infrastructure for genome-scale research in the life sciences. Since the Triticeae data are intrinsically complex, heterogenous, and distributed, the transPLANT consortium has undertaken efforts to develop common data formats and tools that enable the exchange and integration of data from distributed resources. Here we present an overview of the individual Triticeae genome resources hosted by transPLANT partners, introduce the objectives of transPLANT, and outline common developments and interfaces supporting integrated data access.

  18. FDA Developments: Food Code 2013 and Proposed Trans Fat Determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.


    268 Reports EFFL 4|2014 USA FDA Developments: Food Code 2013 and Proposed Trans Fat Determination Margaret Rosso Grossman* I. Food Code 2013 and Food Code Reference System Since 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration has published a Food Code, now updated every four years. In November 2013, the

  19. Triplet State Resonance Raman Spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Grossman, W.E.L.; Killough, P.M


    The resonance Raman spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene (DPB) in its ground state and the resonance Raman spectrum (RRS) of DPB in its short-lived electronically excited triplet state are reported. Transient spectra were obtained by a pump-probe technique using two pulsed lasers...

  20. Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal drainage of petrous apex cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex are rare lesions that pose challenging surgical decisions and approaches when attempting surgical drainage. In this article we present 2 cases of successful surgical management using an endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach and review the requirements and considerations ...

  1. Trans-umbilical Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trans-umbilical Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis without Raising Skin-flaps: An Easy-to-use Modification Applied to the Series of 164 Patients from a Rural Institute of Central India. Priyadarshan Anand Jategaonkar, Sudeep Pradeep Yadav1. INTRODUCTION. Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is widely ...

  2. Hybrid e-learning tool TransLearning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Marjoleine G.; Kupper, Frank; Beers, P.J.; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.


    E-learning and storytelling approaches can support informal vicarious learning within geographically widely distributed multi-stakeholder collaboration networks. This case study evaluates hybrid e-learning and video-storytelling approach ‘TransLearning’ by investigation into how its storytelling

  3. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kochan


    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.

  4. Participatory Disease Surveillance in the Detection of Trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the detection of trans-boundary animal diseases using participatory disease surveillance in Borno State. Participatory epidemiology is an emerging field that is based on the use of participatory techniques for harvesting qualitative epidemiological intelligence contained within community observations, ...

  5. The Evolution of Trans-Skeletal Method Osteosynthesis | Omeonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to give a brief overview of the history of trans-skeletal method ostheosynthesis as it relates to the evolution of the Ilizarov external fixation device. BODY: The pin frame external fixators originated from the idea of bone reduction with pins fixed to fragments before applying the plaster ...

  6. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.


    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the

  7. Improvement of arbutin trans-epidermal delivery using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the ability of radiofrequency (RF) microporation to promote trans-epidermal delivery of arbutin. Methods: To investigate the enhancing effect of RF microchannels on skin permeation of arbutin, in vitro skin permeability studies were performed with RF microporation-treated Hartley albino guinea pig skin ...

  8. Few atom chemistry of the trans actinide element rutherfordium (Rf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagame, Y.


    Studies of chemical properties of the trans actinide elements - starting with element 104 (Rf) - offer the unique opportunity to obtain information about trends in the Periodic Table at the limits of nuclear stability and to assess the magnitude of the influence of relativistic effects on chemical properties. To explore experimentally the influence of relativistic effects of electron shell structure, we study the chemical properties of the trans actinide elements. So far, we have developed some experimental apparatuses for the study of chemical properties of the trans actinide elements: a beam-line safety system for the usage of the gas-jet coupled radioactive 248 Cm target chamber for the production of trans actinides, a rotating wheel catcher apparatus for the measurement of α particles and spontaneous fission decay of trans actinides and an automated rapid chemical separation apparatus based on high performance liquid chromatography. The trans actinide nuclide, the element 104, 261 Rf (t 1/2 = 78 s) has been successfully produced via the reactions of 248 Cm( 18 O,5n) at the JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) tandem accelerator. The evaluated production cross section was about 10 nb, indicating that the production rate was approximately 2 atoms per min. Because of the short half-life and the low production rate of Rf, each atom produced decays before a new atom is synthesized. It means that any chemistry to be performed must be done on an 'atom-at-a-time' basis. Therefore rapid, very efficient and selective chemical procedures are indispensable to isolate the desired trans actinide 261 Rf. To perform fast and repetitive ion-exchange separation of Rf, we have developed the apparatus AIDA (Automated Ion exchange separation system coupled with the Detection apparatus for Alpha spectroscopy). Recently, ion-exchange behavior of Rf in acidic solutions has been studied with AIDA, and the results indicate that anion-exchange behavior of Rf is quite similar

  9. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide (United States)

    McNeil, Michele


    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  10. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts. (United States)


    ...; (2) changes in the relative position of existing districts with respect to onion production; (3) the... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... Districts. (a) For the purpose of selecting committee members, the following districts of the production...

  11. Sexual Harassment Policies in Florida School Districts. (United States)

    Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson


    Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…

  12. School District Cash Management. Program Audit. (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  13. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grower districts. 982.31 Section 982.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... importance of production in each district and the number of growers in each district; (2) the geographic...

  14. Conflict Management in Declining School Districts. (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; Wheaton, Dennis R.


    Professional literature about managing conflicts associated with declining enrollments indicates the existing tension in this area. A research study shows that, while upper-middle class districts may succeed using a rational approach to decision making, lower class districts, for various reasons, may not. Special problems of urban districts are…

  15. Regional District Attorney's Offices - Alaska Department of Law (United States)

    District Stephen B. Wallace, District Attorney Physical Address: 204 Chief Eddie Hoffman Hwy. Bethel, AK Hours M-TH 8-4:30, F 8-12 Kenai - 3rd Judicial District Scot H. Leaders, District Attorney Trading Bay

  16. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles... (United States)


    ... Shallow, well- Deep alluvial Deep to moderate Mostly shallow drained, residual soils, with clay, depth... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... Adelaida District viticultural area are hillside residual soils, which generally have shallow rooting...

  17. "It's a Hard Line to Walk": Black Non-Binary Trans* Collegians' Perspectives on Passing, Realness, and Trans*-Normativity (United States)

    Nicolazzo, Z.


    Being labeled as "abnormal, or deviant, or not being one of the rest of us" has real effects for one's life chances. Trans* people are one such group who have continually been codified as abnormal, abject, weird, deceptive, and social pariahs. The purpose of the following study was to explore how the concepts of passing, realness, and…

  18. 77 FR 22576 - Possible Revocation of Ocean Transportation Intermediary License No. 021899-Trans World Logistics... (United States)


    ... Intermediary License No. 021899--Trans World Logistics Corporation; Order To Show Cause Trans World Logistics Corporation (Trans World Logistics) is an Indiana corporation, incorporated in October 2006. Records... Logistics maintains its principal offices at 702 Penny Lane, Plainfield, Indiana. BCL records identify the...

  19. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne


    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  20. Reprogramming Acyl Carrier Protein Interactions of an Acyl-CoA Promiscuous trans-Acyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Zhixia; Musiol-Kroll, Ewa Maria; Weber, Tilmann


    Protein interactions between acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and trans-acting acyltransferase domains (trans-ATs) are critical for regioselective extender unit installation by many polyketide synthases, yet little is known regarding the specificity of these interactions, particularly for trans-ATs w...

  1. Sexualidade e experiências trans: do hospital à alcova Sexuality and trans experiences: from the hospital to the bedroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Bento


    Full Text Available Depois dos estudos das masculinidades, não é possível pensar a produção das identidades de gênero sem referenciá-las ao caráter relacional. Esta mudança deveu-se à incorporação da perspectiva relacional nesse campo de estudos e à crítica ao conceito de gênero assentado em uma suposta natureza feminina e masculina para construir as interpretações sobre o lugar dos corpos da ordem de gênero. Os objetivos desse artigo são: 1 apontar como um determinado conceito de gênero pode visibilizar múltiplas expressões de gênero, a exemplo das identidades trans (transexuais, travestis, cross dress, drag queen, drag king, transgêneros ou invisibilizá-las e contribuir para sua patologização. O segundo objetivo será apresentar narrativas de homens trans e de mulheres trans, que nos contarão suas vivências sexuais. Os saberes médicos-psi advogam a inexistência de sexualidade em seus corpos, sendo este um dos indicadores para produção do diagnóstico de transexua­lidade. Tentarei argumentar que a base teórica que sustenta a patologização das identidades trans e a afirmação que as pessoas trans são assexuadas tem como fundamento uma concepção que atrela e condiciona as identidades de gênero às estruturas biológicas.In the aftermath of studies on masculinity, it is impossible to consider the production of gender identities without linking them to the relationship aspect. This change was due to the incorporation of the relationship perspective in this field of study and criticism of the concept of gender founded upon an alleged concept of femininity and masculinity to create interpretations of the place of bodies in the gender order. The objectives of this paper are: 1 to show how a given concept of gender can render multiple expressions of gender visible, like the trans identities (transsexuals, transvestites, cross dressers, drag queens, drag kings, transgenders or sublimate them and contribute to their pathologization

  2. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Sochaski, R.O.


    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  3. Guidelines for District Heating Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The present guidelines contain a set of recommendations focusing on planning, installation, use and maintenance of district heating (DH) substations within district heating systems throughout Europe. The recommendations were developed in order to enable readers to develop well-functioning substations and an effective heat and domestic warm water delivery. These guidelines are intended to give the most effective overall solutions for various parts of the customer installation. The guidelines are not meant to specify the different components of the substation such as meters or heat exchangers. The guidelines deal with a wide variety of issues concerning both present systems of today and district heating systems of the future. Specific handling and maintenance recommendations are mainly focused on present modern systems but are also intended to cover the future situation as much as is feasible. For this reason, certain existing systems are not dealt with in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines do not cover steam systems, systems with temperatures exceeding 110 deg C and pressure levels above 1.6 MPa. The guidelines include a chapter on the heat meter, as the meter and especially the meter installation is always installed simultaneously with the rest of the substation. These guidelines aim to provide best-practice and easy-to-handle recommendations for: - those who are responsible for relations between district heating utilities and customers; - those who own or maintain a building connected to the district heating network; - those who manufacture, plan, purchase, test and install substations. These guidelines do not deal with investment or cost aspects, but in general, Euroheat and Power recommends looking at the lifetime cost of all components of the substation, instead of investment costs alone. An example of this is provided in Chapter 7.8. The Guidelines were developed based on the most optimal operating principles of substations and meters

  4. She's always a woman: Butch lesbian trans women in the lesbian community. (United States)

    Rossiter, Hannah


    While the visibility and acceptance of trans women have grown globally in recent years, this progress has primarily been within a traditional, heteronormative narrative. But a growing number of trans women identify as butch lesbians and challenge this heteronormative narrative. The existence of butch trans women has created a debate on where they fit within queer and lesbian communities and how their gender performance fits within traditional butch/femme understandings of lesbian or queer relationships. This article seeks to explore the intersections of gender identity and sexual orientation that butch trans women experience when they engage with lesbian and trans communities.

  5. The Portuguese Cinema, Trans-temporality and the Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Castelo Branco


    Full Text Available Eduardo Lourenço has focused some of his research on the historical-mythical relationship of the Portuguese with their country, claiming that they have been living in a kind of hyper-identity, incorporating an obsession with the past, which co-exists with a waiting utopian by future, as is demonstrates the Sebastianism myth. Focused on the representations of trans-temporality, identity, collective memory and myth, The Portuguese Cinema, Trans-temporality and the Myth, concentrated especially in Eduardo Lourenço's work to propose a research on how the identity myths – created and disseminated by Portuguese literature over the centuries – earned imagistic representations in the twentieth and twenty-first century’s, through a cinema that built or deconstructed these historical and patriotic mythological, inscribing image capacities to continually rebuild one mythologized common heritage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Roberto Escobar C


    Full Text Available Se indaga por la experiencia del cuerpo trans (transgénero o transexual, cuya “artificialidad” interpela los órdenes del sujeto en la modernidad. El estudio se ubica en el contexto de dos ciudades latinoamericanas: México D. F. y Bogotá. Se plantea un vínculo entre la corporalidad trans, la biografía y los nombramientos de unas subjetividades que devienen tensión al orden somático moderno, tanto en sus versiones de docilidad y disciplinamiento, como también de hiperestesia y consumo. Así, la intervención singular sobre un cuerpo se torna en politización macro en el ámbito de lo público.

  7. Experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. (United States)

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L


    This paper explores the intimate relationship experiences of the cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine-identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners' self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified.

  8. Lightlike Hypersurfaces in Indefinite Trans-Sasakian Manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massamba, Fortune


    This paper deals with lightlike hypersurfaces of indefinite trans-Sasakian manifolds of type (α, β), tangent to the structure vector field. Characterization Theorems on parallel vector fields, integrable distributions, minimal distributions, Ricci-semi symmetric, geodesibility of lightlike hypersurfaces are obtained. The geometric configuration of lightlike hypersurfaces is established. We prove, under some conditions, that there are no parallel and totally contact umbilical lightlike hypersurfaces of trans-Sasakian space forms, tangent to the structure vector field. We show that there exists a totally umbilical distribution in an Einstein parallel lightlike hypersurface which does not contain the structure vector field. We characterize the normal bundle along any totally contact umbilical leaf of an integrable screen distribution. We finally prove that the geometry of any leaf of an integrable distribution is closely related to the geometry of a normal bundle and its image under φ-bar. (author)

  9. Trans-esterification of poultry skin fat to produce biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, H.; Shah, S.F.A.; Ali, Z.M.


    Chicken skin and its fat are sources of solid waste that are usually not utilized and add solid pollution. This research work deals with the production of useful biodiesel from utilizing the waste chicken (fat and its skins). Waste chicken fat and its skins (sourced from local shops of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan) were extracted and trans-estrification was made. The product of trans-estrification was fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) commonly known as biodiesel. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) was used as catalyst and glycerol was obtained as a by-product. The FAME produced was tested for six parameters namely calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity when compared to ASTM E2515-11 standard values. The results of this experiment showed that the calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity values of FAME produced from chicken skin and its fat were close to that of petroleum derived diesel. (author)

  10. Interdisciplinary research and trans-disciplinary validity claims

    CERN Document Server

    Gethmann, C F; Hanekamp, G; Kaiser, M; Kamp, G; Lingner, S; Quante, M; Thiele, F


    Interdisciplinarity has seemingly become a paradigm for modern and meaningful research. Clearly, the interdisciplinary modus of deliberation enables to unfold relevant but quite different disciplinary perspectives to the reflection of broader scientific questions or societal problems. However, whether the comprehensive results of interdisciplinary reflection prove to be valid or to be acceptable in trans-disciplinary terms depends upon certain preconditions, which have to be fulfilled for securing scientific quality and social trust in advisory contexts. The present book is written by experts and practitioners of interdisciplinary research and policy advice. It analyses topical and methodological approaches towards interdisciplinarity, starting with the current role of scientific research in society. The volume continues with contributions to the issues of knowledge and acting and to trans-disciplinary deliberation. The final conclusions address the scientific system as substantial actor itself as well as the...

  11. Extended SVM algorithms for multilevel trans-Z-source inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei


    Full Text Available This paper suggests extended algorithms for multilevel trans-Z-source inverter. These algorithms are based on space vector modulation (SVM, which works with high switching frequency and does not generate the mean value of the desired load voltage in every switching interval. In this topology the output voltage is not limited to dc voltage source similar to traditional cascaded multilevel inverter and can be increased with trans-Z-network shoot-through state control. Besides, it is more reliable against short circuit, and due to several number of dc sources in each phase of this topology, it is possible to use it in hybrid renewable energy. Proposed SVM algorithms include the following: Combined modulation algorithm (SVPWM and shoot-through implementation in dwell times of voltage vectors algorithm. These algorithms are compared from viewpoint of simplicity, accuracy, number of switching, and THD. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the expected representations.

  12. Trans* and gender variant citizenship and the state in Norway


    Monro, Surya; Van der Ros, Janneke


    The last decade has seen the expansion of trans identities that are gender queer, non-binary, androgynous, or multiply-sexed and gendered in Western Europe. These developments mark a shift from a uniformly gender-binaried system to one that encompasses some degree of gender pluralism, as reflected to an extent in policy changes in some European countries. However, gender binarism is still prevalent. This article uses the case of Norway to demonstrate a contrast between the citizenship statuse...

  13. Relic dark energy from the trans-Planckian regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini, Laura; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Kanti, Panagiota


    As yet, there is no underlying fundamental theory for the trans-Planckian regime. There is a need to address the issue of how the observables in our present Universe are affected by processes that may have occurred at super-Planckian energies (referred to as the trans-Planckian regime). Specifically, we focus on the impact the trans-Planckian regime has on two observables: namely, dark energy and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum. We model the trans-Planckian regime by introducing a 1-parameter family of smooth non-linear dispersion relations which modify the frequencies at very short distances. A particular feature of the family of dispersion functions chosen is the production of ultralow frequencies at very high momenta k (for k>M P ). We name the range of the ultralow energy modes (of very short distances) that have frequencies equal to or less than the current Hubble rate H 0 as the tail modes. These modes are still frozen today due to the expansion of the Universe. We calculate their energy today and show that the tail provides a strong candidate for the dark energy of the Universe. During inflation, their energy is about 122 to 123 orders of magnitude smaller than the total energy, for any random value of the free parameter in the family of dispersion relations. For this family of dispersions, we present the exact solutions and show that the CMBR spectrum is that of a (nearly) blackbody, and that the adiabatic vacuum is the only choice for the initial conditions

  14. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach


    Mathon , Bertrand; Clemenceau , Stéphane


    International audience; BackgroundHippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator.MethodDescribe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.ConclusionSelective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semi...

  15. Trans-acting translational regulatory RNA binding proteins. (United States)

    Harvey, Robert F; Smith, Tom S; Mulroney, Thomas; Queiroz, Rayner M L; Pizzinga, Mariavittoria; Dezi, Veronica; Villenueva, Eneko; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Lilley, Kathryn S; Willis, Anne E


    The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs. Importantly, it has been shown that subsets of RBPs often work in concert, forming distinct regulatory complexes upon different cellular perturbation, creating an RBP combinatorial code, which through the translation of specific subsets of mRNAs, dictate cell fate. With the development of new methodologies, a plethora of novel RNA binding proteins have recently been identified, although the function of many of these proteins within mRNA translation is unknown. In this review we will discuss these methodologies and their shortcomings when applied to the study of translation, which need to be addressed to enable a better understanding of trans-acting translational regulatory proteins. Moreover, we discuss the protein domains that are responsible for RNA binding as well as the RNA motifs to which they bind, and the role of trans-acting ribosomal proteins in directing the translation of specific mRNAs. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes Translation > Translation Regulation Translation > Translation Mechanisms. © 2018 Medical Research Council and University of Cambridge. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Efficient hierarchical trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion of magnetotelluric data (United States)

    Xiang, Enming; Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dong, Hao; Ren, Zhengyong


    This paper develops an efficient hierarchical trans-dimensional (trans-D) Bayesian algorithm to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data for subsurface geoelectrical structure, with unknown geophysical model parameterization (the number of conductivity-layer interfaces) and data-error models parameterized by an auto-regressive (AR) process to account for potential error correlations. The reversible-jump Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm, which adds/removes interfaces and AR parameters in birth/death steps, is applied to sample the trans-D posterior probability density for model parameterization, model parameters, error variance and AR parameters, accounting for the uncertainties of model dimension and data-error statistics in the uncertainty estimates of the conductivity profile. To provide efficient sampling over the multiple subspaces of different dimensions, advanced proposal schemes are applied. Parameter perturbations are carried out in principal-component space, defined by eigen-decomposition of the unit-lag model covariance matrix, to minimize the effect of inter-parameter correlations and provide effective perturbation directions and length scales. Parameters of new layers in birth steps are proposed from the prior, instead of focused distributions centred at existing values, to improve birth acceptance rates. Parallel tempering, based on a series of parallel interacting Markov chains with successively relaxed likelihoods, is applied to improve chain mixing over model dimensions. The trans-D inversion is applied in a simulation study to examine the resolution of model structure according to the data information content. The inversion is also applied to a measured MT data set from south-central Australia.

  17. Energetics and Kinetics of trans-SNARE Zippering (United States)

    Rebane, Aleksander A.; Shu, Tong; Krishnakumar, Shyam; Rothman, James E.; Zhang, Yongli

    Synaptic exocytosis relies on assembly of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins into a four-helix bundle to drive membrane fusion. Complementary SNAREs anchored to the synaptic vesicle (v-SNARE) and the plasma membrane (t-SNARE) associate from their N-termini, transiting a half-assembled intermediate (trans-SNARE), and ending at their C-termini with a rapid power stroke that leads to membrane fusion. Although cytosolic SNARE assembly has been characterized, it remains unknown how membranes modulate the energetics and kinetics of SNARE assembly. Here, we present optical tweezers measurements on folding of single membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers. To our knowledge, this is the first such report. We measured the energetics, kinetics, and assembly intermediates of trans-SNAREs formed between a t-SNARE inserted into a bead-supported bilayer and a v-SNARE in a nanodisc. We found that the repulsive force of the apposed membranes increases the lifetime of the half-assembled intermediate. Our findings provide a single-molecule platform to study the regulation of trans-SNARE assembly by proteins that act on the half-assembled state, and thus reveal the mechanistic basis of the speed and high fidelity of synaptic transmission. This work was supported by US National Institutes of Health Grants F31 GM119312-01 (to A.A.R) and R01 GM093341 (to Y.Z.).

  18. Trans-Saharan geopolitics. The game and the stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.


    The geopolitics of energy exports from the trans-Saharan region are similar to the Caspian great game' at the end of the last century. In North/West Africa as in West/Central Asia, the question of control over hydrocarbon reserves and lines of access to those reserves lies at the source of various conflicts. Rivalries are expressed through open and complex conflicts in which powers confront one another over oil-rich zones through proxy ethnic, religious or cultural groups, as dictated by the colossal economic interests at stake. The increasing number of conflicts - the Niger Delta, Darfur, the Azawak, etc. - is an illustration of this. The shock waves from this rivalry undermine regional peace and security, as well as the security of international energy supplies. The question here is to understand the game and the stakes of this trans-Saharan chess-board, to study its principal features and its energetic consequences. The national oil companies and states of the region can work around or through the geopolitical rifts caused by local rivalries and extra-regional appetites. There is therefore a need to understand the ways in which the players in the trans-Saharan 'great game' interact with one another, an to identifies the effects these interactions may have in the field of energy, in terms of potential reserves and transport projects. The TSGP is presented as an illustration of this geopolitical dynamics. (author)

  19. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation. (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A


    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  20. Formation of trans-caffeoyl-CoA from trans-4-coumaroyl-CoA by Zn2+-dependent enzymes in cultured plant cells and its activation by an elicitor-induced pH shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneusel, R.; Matern, U.; Nicolaij, K.


    A novel hydroxylase activity catalyzing the formation of trans-caffeoyl-CoA from trans-4-coumaroyl-CoA was identified in crude extracts from cultured parsley cells. The extracts were less active (Vmax/Km) in converting trans-4-coumaric to trans-caffeic acid. Optimal hydroxylase activity was found at

  1. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Velasco B.


    Full Text Available Se estudió la biotransformación de ácido trans-cinámico mediante células completas del hongo fitopatógeno nativo colombiano Colletotrichum acutatum. Inicialmente, se evaluó la fungitoxicidad de este compuesto contraC. acutatum; el ácido trans-cinámico exhibió una toxicidad moderada a débil contra el microorganismo y aparentemente se presentó un mecanismo de detoxificación. Luego, para estudiar tal mecanismo y explorar la capacidad de este hongo para biotransformar el ácido trans-cinámico en productos con valor agregado, el microorganismo se incubó con el sustrato usando tres medios de cultivo diferentes (Czapeck-Dox, Sabouraud y PDB a condiciones ambientales. Usando el medio Czapeck-Dox, los cultivos completos de C.acutatum redujeron el ácido trans-cinámico, primero a aldehídos (transcinamaldehido y 3-fenilpropanal, luego a alcoholes (alcohol cinamílico y 3-fenil-1-propanol. Posteriormente, estos alcoholes fueron transformados a los correspondientes ésteres de acetilo. Sin embargo, algunos de estos productos estuvieron ausentes o presentes a una concentración diferente cuando se cambió el medio de cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un mecanismo de detoxificación en el cual el sistema carbonílico α,β-insaturado es afectado.Por otra parte, los productos metabólicos formados son compuestos útiles usados como fragancias y sabores. Por consiguiente, el metabolismo del ácido trans-cinámico usando C. acutatum puede proporcionar nuevos blancos metabólicos para controlar C. acutatum así como también una forma simple y eficiente para obtener sabores y perfumes, tales como el alcohol cinamílico y el 3-fenil-1-propanol, y sus ésteres de acetilo.

  2. Accountability in district nursing practice: key concepts. (United States)

    Griffith, Richard


    Public trust and confidence in district nurses is essential to the nurse-patient relationship that underpins effective care and treatment. That trust and confidence has even greater focus for district nurses who care for patients in their own homes. Those patients need to be able to count on the professionalism and probity of their district nurses. The professionalism and probity of district nurses is based on their accountability, which protects the public by imposing standards on district nurses and holds them answerable for their acts and omissions. This is the first of a series of articles on accountability in district nursing practice to mark the introduction of the revised Nursing and Midwifery Code on the 31 March 2015. This month's article considers the key concepts of accountability.

  3. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)


    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  4. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.


    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention:

  5. Comparison of the patient radiation exposure during coronary angiography and angioplasty procedures using trans-radial and trans-femoral access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tarighatnia


    Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained in this study, no differences were found in patients’ radiation dose in both access groups, therefore with regard to comparatively more clinical advantages associated with the Trans-radial access technique it might be a good substitute for Trans-femoral access.

  6. A good year for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne


    In Norway, high prices on electric power have caused economic progress for the district heating companies. The price of district heating is determined by the prices of power and fuel oil. However, the government wants to remove the tax on electricity to the industry, which is the district heating companies' major group of customers, along with public buildings. This is likely to entail a great loss of income

  7. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, B.; Bauer, A.; Kraut, G.; Scherberich, F.D.


    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.) [de

  8. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment... (United States)


    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  9. 7 CFR 920.12 - District. (United States)


    .... (e) District 5 shall include the counties of San Joaquin, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Merced, Stanislaus, Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara...

  10. Reinstating district nursing: A UK perspective. (United States)

    Morris, Hannah


    As policy directives gather pace for service provision to be delivered in primary care, district nursing has not been recognised as a valuable asset to facilitate this agenda. Investment in district nursing and specialist district nursing education has fallen. This is concurrent with an ageing district nursing workforce, a lack of recruitment and growing caseloads, as district nursing adapts to meet the challenges of the complexities of contemporary healthcare in the community. The district nurse role is complex and multifaceted and includes working collaboratively and creatively to coordinate care. Redressing the shortages of specialist district nurse practitioners with increased numbers of health care support workers will not replace the skill, knowledge, experience required to meet the complex care needs of today's society. District nursing needs to be reinstated as the valuable asset it is, through renewed investment in the service, research development and in specialist practice education. To prevent extinction district nurses need to be able to demonstrate and articulate the complexities and dynamisms of the role to reinstate themselves to their commissioners as a valuable asset for contemporary practice that can meet current health and social care needs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin


    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  12. District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang


    Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

  13. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ


    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  14. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes (United States)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.


    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  15. Binge-type behavior in rats consuming trans-fat-free shortening. (United States)

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W


    Studies from this and another laboratory involving an animal model of binge-type behavior have used vegetable shortening containing trans-fats. Due to reformulations by vegetable shortening manufacturers to remove trans-fats from their products, only trans-fat-free shortenings are now available. The goal of the present study was to assess binge-type behavior in rats with trans-fat and trans-free vegetable shortening. Trans-fat-free shortening was provided to three different groups of non-food-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats on different schedules of access: continuous access (24 h/day-7 days/week), daily access (1 h every day), and intermittent access (1 h on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays). Trans-fat shortening was provided to a fourth group on the intermittent access schedule. A fifth group had no shortening access (chow only). Both intermittent groups (trans-fat-free and trans-fat) consumed significantly more shortening during the 1-h period of availability than did the daily group, and there was no difference in shortening intakes between the intermittent groups. These results are identical to previous reports of binge-type behavior in rats using this model. Thus, binge-type behavior in the present behavioral model depends upon the schedule of access, not the presence of trans-fats in the shortening.

  16. Uranium districts in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.


    A short review is given of reconnaissance work in South Greenland. The work has demonstrated that there are areas in the Motzfeldt centre of at least 1 km 2 with continuously high radioactivity. If the uranium content of these radioactive zones are sufficiently high, then potential ore tonnages could prove to be substantial. The reconnaissance exploration has proved that uranium mineralization is widely distributed in the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq district. It is, no doubt, responsible for the high uranium values in the exploration geochemical samples. Although the size of the pitchblende occurences which have been found so far are small, the high grade of the mineralisation, the great frequency of the fracturing and the evidence for an all pervasive mineralising event over a wide area indicate that there is a good possibility of finding economic mineralisation within the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq area. The area as a whole may, perhaps, be termed a ''uranium mineral district''. As the potential targets are small, only detailed follow-up exploration will establish this. At the same time more detailed work on individual showings, and geological mapping to demonstrate the relative ages of the various petrological and mineralising events, will establish the possible origin of this uranium mineralisation. (author)

  17. Ácidos graxos trans: implicações nutricionais e fontes na dieta Trans fatty acids: nutritional implications and sources in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Antunes Martin


    Full Text Available Este artigo revisa as principais fontes de ácidos graxos trans na dieta e as implicações nutricionais da ingestão elevada destes isômeros. São apresentados resumidamente os métodos analíticos utilizados na identificação e quantificação dos ácidos graxos trans, sendo abordados as suas vantagens e desvantagens. Os alimentos que empregam gordura parcialmente hidrogenada na sua produção, são fontes importantes de isômeros trans na dieta da maior parte da população em países industrializados. Este estudo compara os níveis de ácidos graxos trans em gorduras hidrogenadas, margarinas e batatas frita, analisados em diversos países, incluindo o Brasil. Esta avaliação indica a presença de níveis elevados de isômeros trans em alimentos produzidos no Brasil.This article review the main sources of trans fatty acids in the diet and nutritional implications of the high intake of these isomers. Analytical methods for the identification and quantification of trans fatty acids are presented briefly with regard to advantages and drawbacks of each method. Foods make with partially hidrogenated fats are important sources of trans isomers in the diets of most people in industrialized countries. It is made a comparison between levels of trans fatty acids in shortenings, margarines and potato chips evaluated in Brazil and in other countries. High levels of trans isomers are noted in Brazilian foods.

  18. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.


    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  19. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities (United States)

    Espinosa, Ruben W.


    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  20. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland... (United States)


    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  1. 33 CFR 3.25-1 - Fifth district. (United States)


    ... District § 3.25-1 Fifth district. (a) The District Office is in Portsmouth, Va. (b) The Fifth Coast Guard District is comprised of: North Carolina; Virginia; District of Columbia; Maryland; Delaware; that part of... boundary at the shoreline at the North Carolina-South Carolina border, point located at approximately 30°55...

  2. Does climate change explain the decline of a trans-Saharan Afro-Palaearctic migrant? (United States)

    Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Dougall, T W; Beale, C M


    There is an urgent need to understand how climate change will impact on demographic parameters of vulnerable species. Migrants are regarded as particularly vulnerable to climate change; phenological mismatch has resulted in the local decline of one passerine, whilst variations in the survival of others have been related to African weather conditions. However, there have been few demographic studies on trans-Saharan non-passerine migrants, despite these showing stronger declines across Europe than passerines. We therefore analyse the effects of climate on the survival and productivity of common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos, a declining non-passerine long-distant migrant using 28 years' data from the Peak District, England. Adult survival rates were significantly negatively correlated with winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), being lower when winters were warm and wet in western Europe and cool and dry in northwest Africa. Annual variation in the productivity of the population was positively correlated with June temperature, but not with an index of phenological mismatch. The 59% population decline appears largely to have been driven by reductions in adult survival, with local productivity poorly correlated with subsequent population change, suggesting a low degree of natal philopatry. Winter NAO was not significantly correlated with adult survival rates in a second, Scottish Borders population, studied for 12 years. Variation in climatic conditions alone does not therefore appear to be responsible for common sandpiper declines. Unlike some passerine migrants, there was no evidence for climate-driven reductions in productivity, although the apparent importance of immigration in determining local recruitment complicates the assessment of productivity effects. We suggest that further studies to diagnose common sandpiper declines should focus on changes in the condition of migratory stop-over or wintering locations. Where possible, these analyses should be repeated

  3. A modern trans-ionospheric propagation sensing system (United States)

    Bishop, G. J.; Klobuchar, J. A.; Ronn, A. E.; Bedard, M. G.


    One of the most important potential problems with modern military systems which utilize spacecraft is the effect of the ionosphere on the radio signals which pass to and from the spacecraft. Such systems include active communications and navigation satellites as well as both ground-based and potential space-based ranging systems. The major effects the ionosphere can have on such systems are the additional time delay the electrons in the earth's ionosphere add to the free space path delay, the short term rate of change of this additional delay, amplitude scintillation or fading effects the signal encounters due to irregularities in the ionosphere, and Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio waves transmitted through the ionosphere. While some of these effects were studied adequate models of these effects on military systems still do not exist. A modern trans-ionospheric sensing system, called TISS, is being procured which will consist of a number of stations located throughout the world, making real time measurements of the time delay of the ionosphere, and its rate of change, as well as amplitude scintillation, along several different viewing directions from each station. These trans-ionospheric measurements will be used to allow models, which currently provide only monthly propagation parameters. The real-time specifications of these parameters can then be used as decision aids in both the tactical and the strategic military environments. The TISS will include first order artificial intelligence design to aid in gathering the most appropriate sets of available real-time trans-ionospheric propagation data, and will communicate these data sets to the Air Weather Service Forecasting Center where they will be tailored to specific military customers.

  4. State and district policy influences on district-wide elementary and middle school physical education practices. (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eyler, Amy; Carnoske, Cheryl; Slater, Sandy


    To examine the influence of state laws and district policies on district-wide elementary school and middle school practices related to physical education (PE) time and the percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time during PE. Multivariate, cross-sectional analysis of state laws, district wellness and PE policies, and district PE practices for school year 2010-2011 controlling for district-level urbanicity, region, size, race/ethnicity of students, and socioeconomic status and clustered on state. One hundred ninety-five public school districts located in 42 states. District-level PE coordinators for the included districts who responded to an online survey. Minutes and days of PE per week and percent time spent in MVPA during PE time. District PE coordinators reported significantly less PE time than national standards-82.9 and 189.6 minutes at the elementary school and middle school levels, respectively. Physical education was provided an average of 2.5 and 3.7 days per week, respectively; and the percentage of MVPA time in PE was 64.4% and 65.7%, respectively. At the elementary school level, districts in either states with laws governing PE time or in a state and district with a law/policy reported significantly more days of PE (0.63 and 0.67 additional days, respectively), and districts in states with PE time laws reported 18 more minutes of PE per week. At the middle school level, state laws were associated with 0.73 more days of PE per week. Neither state laws nor district policies were positively associated with percent MVPA time in PE. State laws and district policies can influence district-level PE practices-particularly those governing the frequency and duration of PE-although opportunities exist to strengthen PE-related laws, policies, and practices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Miranda Campos


    Full Text Available This article aims to observe the phenomenon of carnivalization and trans­textuality the novel The Whistler, the Angolan writer Ondjaki. Comprise the theoretical analysis of Bakhtin’s theory on carnivalization and its im­portance for social subversion of monologic discourse established by of­ficial bodies, the theory of Gérard Genette on transtextuality pointing five possible textual relationships. An understanding of the theories and car­nivalization transtextuality pervades the concepts of animism and taboo presented the theory of Sigmund Freud.

  6. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas


    for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö......This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...

  7. Graphene oxide catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Shin


    Full Text Available We report the fast cis-trans isomerization of an amine-substituted azobenzene catalyzed by graphene oxide (GO, where the amine functionality facilitates the charge transfer from azobenzene to graphene oxide in contrast to non-substituted azobenzene. This catalytic effect was not observed in stilbene analogues, which strongly supports the existence of different isomerization pathways between azobenzene and stilbene. The graphene oxide catalyzed isomerization is expected to be useful as a new photoisomerization based sensing platform complementary to GO-based fluorescence quenching methods.

  8. Structural analysis of the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, G.H.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.


    The TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) is a Type B container under development at the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratory, for use in the transportation of contact-handled transuranic waste. This report describes the numerical analyses of the container's response to end-on, side-on, and center of gravity over corner impacts on an unyielding surface following a 9 m free fall. The results of the analyses are compared to available experimental data. In general, the analytical predictions and experimental comparisons confirm the validity of the TRUPACT design concept

  9. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food


    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard


    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dieta...

  10. trans-Dichloridobis(3,4-dimethylpyridineplatinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Chernyshev


    Full Text Available In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C7H9N2], the PtII atom is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two 3,4-dimethylpyridine ligands and two chloride ligands, resulting in a typical slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The crystallographic inversion centre forces the value of the C—N—N—C torsion angle to be linear and the 3,4-dimethyl-pyridine ligands to be coplanar.

  11. Upgrading Algeria-Italy trans-Mediterranean natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, G.


    The first trans-Mediterranean pipeline system, which went into service in 1983, had to be doubled in capacity in order to meet increased European demand for Algerian natural gas. After a brief review of the contractual, planning and construction history of the first pipeline, this paper discusses the strategies taken which led to the decision to double the line's capacity. Descriptions are then given of the different construction phases realized in Tunisia, the Sicilian Channel and Italian mainland. Focus is on construction schedules, problems and solutions. The report comes complete with details of project financing, organizing, materials supply programs, innovative technology applications, design philosophy and construction techniques

  12. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn


    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits...... countries in Europe still consume I-TF in amounts that increase their risk of coronary heart disease. Under current European Union (EU) legislation, the sale of products containing I-TF is legal but conflicts with the WHO recommendation to minimise the intake of I-TF. An EU-legislative limit on I-TF content...

  13. Crafting Legitimacy in District-Community Partnerships (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kimberly


    Background/Context: Partnering across districts, schools, and other community organizations has become ubiquitous as a policy for promoting change. Despite growing attention to and scholarship on district-community partnerships, there is little examination of the organizational mechanisms involved in sustaining them. Purpose/Objectives: This study…

  14. Smallholder agricultural technology development in Soroti district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    National Agricultural Advisory and Development Services (NAADS) in Soroti district. The study shows that .... important additions are HIV/AIDS, basic principles of nutrition ... in supplying inputs to farmers and technology delivery, while the .... Table 3. Social differentiation of NAADS and FFS groups in Soroti district 2004.

  15. Districts Adjust to Growth in Older Population (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.


    The 1,000-student Allegheny Valley district in Pennsylvania boasts generations of alumni and a community so involved with the schools that high school graduation becomes an open celebration in downtown Springdale Borough. Yet the district hasn't asked for a tax increase in three years, and it is pushing out a message to older residents about…

  16. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  17. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts. (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  18. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard


    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  19. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts (United States)

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher


    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  20. the creation of new districts in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    However, it focuses also on the financial burden that these newly created districts place on the locality and ..... Reports on one of the newly created districts paint a grim picture: “For more than 10 .... of the Consolidated Fund for such grants.80.

  1. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment. (United States)

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert


    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  2. Salaryfax for Nine Districts 1972-73. (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the nine metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation…

  3. Collaborative Strategic Decision Making in School Districts (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Rich, William; Ross, Susan A.


    Purpose: The dual purpose of this paper is to determine how superintendents in US school districts work with stakeholders in the decision-making process and to learn how different choices superintendents make affect decision outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study of three school districts employs qualitative methodology to…

  4. Trans-abdominal ultrasound evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of uterine leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Wei; Huang Jin; Wang Junhua; Wang Yuling


    Objective: To determine the value of dynamic trans-abdominal ultrasound after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Methods: The trans-abdominal ultrasound images of 63 patients before and after HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas were compared. Results: The volume and blood flow of leiomyomas were reduced after the HIFU treatment. Conclusion: Trans-abdominal ultrasound is a valuable method for evaluating the results of HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas. (authors)

  5. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  6. Epoxidation of the methamphetamine pyrolysis product, trans-phenylpropene, to trans-phenylpropylene oxide by CYP enzymes and stereoselective glutathione adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanga, Madhu; Younis, Islam R.; Tirumalai, Padma S.; Bland, Tina M.; Banaszewska, Monica; Konat, Gregory W.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Gannett, Peter M.; Callery, Patrick S.


    Pyrolytic products of smoked methamphetamine hydrochloride are well established. Among the various degradation products formed, trans-phenylpropene (trans-β-methylstyrene) is structurally similar to styrene analogues known to be bioactivated by CYP enzymes. In human liver microsomes, trans-phenylpropene was converted to the epoxide trans-phenylpropylene oxide (trans-2-methyl-3-phenyloxirane) and cinnamyl alcohol. Incubation of trans-phenylpropene with microsomes in the presence of enzyme-specific P450 enzyme inhibitors indicated the involvement of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 enzymes. Both (R,R)-phenylpropylene oxide and (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide were formed in human liver microsomal preparations. Enantiomers of trans-phenylpropylene oxide were stereoselectively and regioselectively conjugated in a Phase II drug metabolism reaction catalyzed by human liver cytosolic enzymes consisting of conjugation with glutathione. The structure of the phenylpropylene oxide-glutathione adduct is consistent with nucleophilic ring-opening by attack at the benzylic carbon. Exposure of cultured C6 glial cells to (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide produced a cytotoxic response in a concentration-dependent manner based on cell degeneration and death

  7. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.


    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  8. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders


    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  9. Design of Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase mutants with improved trans-sialidase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyffenegger, Christian; Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Jers, Carsten


    were analyzed via kinetics for their ability to carry out trans-sialidase reaction using CGMP and D-lactose as substrates. The sialidase variants with 15 and 16 mutations, respectively, exhibited significantly improved trans-sialidase activity for D-lactose sialylation. Our results corroborate......, that computational studies of trans-glycosylation can be a valuable input in the design of novel trans-glycosidases, but also highlight the importance of experimental validation in order to assess the performance. In conclusion, two of the seven mutants displayed a dramatic switch in specificity from hydrolysis...

  10. Boycunts and bonus holes: trans men's bodies, neoliberalism, and the sexual productivity of genitals. (United States)

    Edelman, Elijah Adiv; Zimman, Lal


    Recent theorizations of trans embodiment have brought attention to the ways neoliberalism limits the productivity of nonnormatively gendered bodies. This article deals with the discursive framing of embodiment and sexual desirability among trans men and other transmasculine persons negotiating Internet-mediated homoerotic spaces. Micro-level analysis of discourse structure and macro-level analysis of socio-political context together show how trans men navigate homonormative sexual economies by linguistically recuperating their bodies' sexually productivity. Instead of undermining claims of embodied masculinity and homoerotic value, potential sites of exclusion-i.e., trans genitals-become sites of flexible accumulation that enhance rather than detract from their bearers' desirability.

  11. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin. (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo


    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.


    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  13. HIV Prevalence, Sexual Partners, Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition Risk Among Trans Men, San Francisco, 2014. (United States)

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F


    We surveyed 122 trans men using a hybrid sampling method that included randomly selected physical and online venues and peer referral to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 0% (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval 0-3.3%). Of 366 partnerships described, 44.8% were with cisgender women, 23.8% with cisgender men, 20.8% with trans men, and 10.7% with trans women. Condomless receptive anal and front hole/vaginal sex averaged one to three episodes per six months. HIV prevalence in trans men is likely closer to heterosexual cisgender men and women in San Francisco than trans women or MSM. Prevention prioritizing trans women and MSM, coupled with individualized and relevant sexual health education for trans men with partners from these populations, may best address the HIV prevention needs of trans men. Systematic collection of transgender status in Census and health data is needed to understand other health disparities among trans men.

  14. Surgical outcomes of patients with superficial esophageal cancer. A comparison between trans-thoracic esophagectomy and trans-hiatal esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideo; Kubota, Hisako; Murakami, Haruaki


    We inspected the feasibility of minimally invasive surgery for superficial esophageal cancer, the trans-hiatal approach without thoracotomy. We examined the surgical outcomes of 33 superficial esophageal cancer whose cancer had invaded the submucosal layer and who underwent resection in our hospital between April 2003 and April 2009. The patients who had tumor invasion of within the sm1 and no metastasis to the upper and middle mediastinum lymph nodes were operated on by the trans-hiatal esophagectomy (THE). The other patients were underwent ordinary trans-thoracic esophagectomy (TTE). After the operations, we recommended adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for all patients whose tumor were histopathologically proved to involve the sm2 layer as well as the vessels and/or lymphatic duct. Of our 33 cases, nine were diagnosed as pM1 or pM2. Two were diagnosed as pM3, one of which had lymph node metastasis. Eleven cases were diagnosed as pSM1, four as pSM2, and seven as pSM3; and lymph node metastasis was observed in 4 pSM1 cases (36%), 2 pSM2 cases (50%) and 5 pSM3 cases (71.4%). The five-year survival rate in all cases was 89.6%. The five-year survival rate by operating method was 100% in THE cases or 80.9% in TTE cases. The rates by tumor depth of invasion was 100% in pM1-2 cases, 92.3% in pM3-SM1 cases and 78.8% in pSM2-3 cases. It is concluded that the surgical outcome of THE in accordance with our indication criteria is equal to that of TTE for superficial esophageal cancer. (author)

  15. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, H.


    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

  16. Tautomeric preferences of the cis and trans isomers of axitinib (United States)

    Mirzaei, M. Saeed; Taherpour, Avat Arman


    The tautomeric preferences of axitinib, a potent anticancer drug, as tyrosine kinase inhibitor have been investigated using quantum chemical calculations and docking methods. The energy differences between the two tautomers of trans-isomer are around 4 and 3 kcal mol-1 in vacuo and water, respectively, and for its cis-isomer (major photochemical isomerization product) this equilibrium reversed completely in favour of the second tautomer (not considered previously), which is about 7-8 kcal mol-1 more stable in both gas and aqueous media. The results indicate a very high activation energy for proton exchange for both [1,2] and [1,5] H-shift (around 50 kcal mol-1) in the gas phase, but inclusion of protic solvents (e.g. water) decrease this barrier to around 14 and 35 kcal mol-1 for the both hydrogen shift processes, respectively. In order to have better insight about the electronic structure of axitinib tautomers, the NBO, HOMO-LUMO, NICS and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces (MESP) calculations have been carried out. Docking investigations on the two more stable tautomers revealed that binding of the trans isomer of tautomer I to the active site of the receptor is the most favourable in the terms of energy and structure. This more stability could be attributed to the more hydrogen bonding of this tautomer with the protein residues in comparison to the second tautomer.

  17. Trans-resveratrol: a magical elixir of eternal youth? (United States)

    Orallo, Francisco


    Trans-resveratrol or (E)-resveratrol [3,4',5 trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, t-RESV or (E)-RESV] is a natural component of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae), abundant in the skin of grapes (but not in the flesh) and in the leaf epidermis and present in wines (especially red wines). In in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments, t-RESV exhibits a number of biological activities, including anti inflammatory, antioxidant, platelet antiaggregatory and anticarcinogenic properties, and modulation of lipoprotein metabolism. Some of these activities have been implicated in the cardiovascular protective effects attributed to t-RESV and to red wine. Prior to 2002 there had been no previous studies describing the potential effects of t-RESV on the lifespan extension. However, in the last 5 years, several researchers have reported that t-RESV is a potent activator of sirtuin enzymatic activity, mimics the beneficial effects of caloric restriction (CR), retards the aging process and increases longevity in a number of organisms from different phyla such as yeasts, worms, flies and short-lived fish. In addition, t-RESV seems to be effective in delaying the onset of a variety of age-related diseases in mammals (e.g.: rodents). Therefore, this review will basically focus on the possible role of t-RESV to extend life duration and on some of the mechanisms by which t-RESV may act as an anti-aging agent.

  18. TransCut: interactive rendering of translucent cutouts. (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Sun, Xin; Ren, Zhong; Lin, Stephen; Tong, Yiying; Guo, Baining; Zhou, Kun


    We present TransCut, a technique for interactive rendering of translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. As the object is fractured or cut open, the user can directly examine and intuitively understand the complex translucent interior, as well as edit material properties through painting on cross sections and recombining the broken pieces—all with immediate and realistic visual feedback. This new mode of interaction with translucent volumes is made possible with two technical contributions. The first is a novel solver for the diffusion equation (DE) over a tetrahedral mesh that produces high-quality results comparable to the state-of-art finite element method (FEM) of Arbree et al. but at substantially higher speeds. This accuracy and efficiency is obtained by computing the discrete divergences of the diffusion equation and constructing the DE matrix using analytic formulas derived for linear finite elements. The second contribution is a multiresolution algorithm to significantly accelerate our DE solver while adapting to the frequent changes in topological structure of dynamic objects. The entire multiresolution DE solver is highly parallel and easily implemented on the GPU. We believe TransCut provides a novel visual effect for heterogeneous translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations.

  19. Spectroscopic manifestation of trans- effect in tungsten (6) octahedral complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buslaev, Yu A; Tsivadze, A Yu; Kharitonov, Yu Ya; Kokunov, Yu V; Gustyakova, M P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii


    The vibration spectra are studied of the following WOF/sub 4/ acetonitrile solutions in the presence of L ligands: formamide, acetamide, propioamide, butyric acid amide, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl acetamide, oxymethyl nicotinamide, diethyl nicotinamide, benzamide, salicylic acid amide, acetal acetamide, hydrorubean acid, hexamethyl phosphorus triamide, tetramethyl urea, TBP, DMSO and diethyl amine, molar ratio of WOF/sub 4/:L = 1:1. Infrared absorption spectra (400-4000 cm/sup -1/) and combination scattering spectra (50-4000 cm/sup -1/) were recorded. A decline in the vibration frequency was caused by a lesser strength constant in the WO bond during exchange of CH/sub 3/CN for L. A slight weakening of the WO bond depending on the nature of the trans-ligands of L on the L-W-O coordinate is representative of the trans-effect of coordinated ligands in the octahedral complexes of tungsten, WOF/sub 4/xL.

  20. Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.


    In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH) x -chains where the π-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment

  1. VT Data - Cons/Rec Overlay District 20110301, Winhall (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Conservation and Recreatioal Protection overaly districts for the Town of Winhall, Vermont. Other overlay districts (Transfer of Development Rights, and Scenic...

  2. Ontario Power Authority district energy research report : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This paper presented an analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of district energy in Ontario. The market context for district energy was evaluated, and institutional issues that may influence the future development and operation of district energy systems in Ontario were explored. Technical, economic, and environmental analyses of district energy based on different neighbourhood sizes, types, and district energy systems were presented. Three case studies were included to demonstrate real world district energy applications. A set of interviews conducted with representatives of the province's district energy supply chain was also provided in order to provide a framework for district energy opportunities and challenges within the province. 22 tabs., 16 figs.

  3. Legislative Districts, Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US Senate district showing the locations in the County of Polk, WI., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Legislative Districts dataset current as of 2007. Four layers - One State Assembly district, one State Senate district, one US House of Rep district, and one US...

  4. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the next...

  5. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  6. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms (United States)

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.


    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  7. Effective team management by district nurses. (United States)

    Bliss, Julie


    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working.

  8. Teores de ácidos graxos trans de alguns alimentos consumidos no Rio de Janeiro Trans fatty acids of some foods consumed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Chiara


    Full Text Available Desconhecem-se os teores de ácidos graxos trans em diversos alimentos. Este estudo analisou os teores de ácidos graxos trans, saturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados em batatas fritas, biscoitos e sorvetes. As batatas fritas foram dos tipos chips e de duas redes de fast food, os sorvetes, de duas marcas comerciais e de duas lojas de fast food, e os biscoitos, de marcas diferentes. As amostras de batatas chips e de biscoitos pertenciam a lotes distintos e foram adquiridas em supermercados da região. Analisaram-se seis amostras por produto, através de cromatografia gasosa. O valor médio dos ácidos trans de batatas fritas de redes de fast food foi de 4,74g/100g, enquanto em batatas chips estes ácidos graxos não foram detectados. Nos sorvetes os valores variaram de 0,041g a 1,41g e em biscoitos, de 2,81g a 5,60g. Biscoitos tipo cream cracker apresentaram teores de ácidos graxos trans mais altos e de insaturados mais baixos. Concluiu-se que alguns produtos apresentaram, em 100g, teores de ácidos graxos trans superiores aos recomendados para ingestão total diária em diversos países.The content of trans fatty acids in most consumed foods in Brazil is unknown. This study assessed trans saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in samples of fried potatoes, cookies and ice cream. The analysis included: potato chips and fried potatoes from two popular fast food restaurants, ice cream of two different trademarks and from two fast food restaurants, and cookies of different trademarks. The samples of potato chips and cookies were acquired in different supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and distinct manufacture dates were chosen. Six samples of each product were analyzed through gas chromatography. The average trans fatty acids content in fried potatoes from fast food restaurants was 4.74g/100g; in ice cream the values varied from 0.041g to 1.41g; and in cookies the values varied from 2.81g to 5.60g. No trans fatty

  9. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hye-Jin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. Methods We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC, compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS or a low trans fat (LC diet for 12 weeks. Results LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR. Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. Conclusions We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC.

  10. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat (United States)


    Background Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. Methods We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks. Results LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. Conclusions We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC. PMID:21247503

  11. Trans-ligand-dependent arrangement (bent or linear) of Pt II-bound dialkylcyanamide ligands: Molecular structure of trans-dichloro(dimethylcyanamide)(dimethyl sulfoxide)platinum(II) (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana B.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Fritsky, Igor O.; Haukka, Matti


    The title compound, trans-[PtCl 2(NCNMe 2)(Me 2SO)], is the first example of the structurally characterized Pt II species having the nitrile and the sulfoxide ligands in the trans-position to each other. The most significant feature of this structure is the non-linear arrangement of the Pt sbnd N1 sbnd C1 fragment providing the rare case of the bent form of the dialkylcyanamide ligand.

  12. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)


    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  13. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.


    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  14. Endoscopic versus microscopic trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudakos, J. K.; Markou, K. D.; Georgalas, C.


    Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery has been increasingly replacing microscopic surgery as the state of the art trans-sphenoidal approach. To assess the efficacy and safety of pure endoscopic approach in comparison with microscopic approach in pituitary surgery. Literature review and meta-analysis.

  15. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van


    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  16. Detection of trans-cis flips and peptide-plane flips in protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, W.G.; Joosten, R.P.; Vriend, G.


    A coordinate-based method is presented to detect peptide bonds that need correction either by a peptide-plane flip or by a trans-cis inversion of the peptide bond. When applied to the whole Protein Data Bank, the method predicts 4617 trans-cis flips and many thousands of hitherto unknown

  17. Trans-complex formation by proteolipid channels in the terminal phase of membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, C; Bayer, M J; Bühler, S


    -complex formation occurs downstream from trans-SNARE pairing, and depends on both the Rab-GTPase Ypt7 and calmodulin. The maintenance of existing complexes and completion of fusion are independent of trans-SNARE pairs. Reconstituted proteolipids form sealed channels, which can expand to form aqueous pores in a Ca2...

  18. Reprogramming the Dynamin 2 mRNA by Spliceosome-mediated RNA Trans-splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Trochet


    Full Text Available Dynamin 2 (DNM2 is a large GTPase, ubiquitously expressed, involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. DNM2 mutations cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy which is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and histopathological features including nuclear centralization in absence of regeneration. No curative treatment is currently available for the DNM2-related autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. In order to develop therapeutic strategy, we evaluated here the potential of Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing technology to reprogram the Dnm2-mRNA in vitro and in vivo in mice. We show that classical 3′-trans-splicing strategy cannot be considered as accurate therapeutic strategy regarding toxicity of the pre-trans-splicing molecules leading to low rate of trans-splicing in vivo. Thus, we tested alternative strategies devoted to prevent this toxicity and enhance frequency of trans-splicing events. We succeeded to overcome the toxicity through a 5′-trans-splicing strategy which also allows detection of trans-splicing events at mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing strategy may be used to reprogram mutated Dnm2-mRNA but highlight the potential toxicity linked to the molecular tools which have to be carefully investigated during preclinical development.

  19. Trans Ova Genetics, L.C. - Clean Water Act Public Notice (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Trans Ova Genetics, L.C., a business located at 2938 380th Street Sioux Center, IA 51250, for alleged violations at the Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.’s facility located in 12425

  20. Design of Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase mutants with improved trans-sialidase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nyffenegger

    Full Text Available A sialidase (EC from the non-pathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli, TrSA, has been shown to exert trans-sialidase activity after mutation of five specific amino acids in the active site (M96V, A98P, S120Y, G249Y, Q284P to form the so-called TrSA5mut enzyme. By computational and hypothesis driven approaches additional mutations enhancing the trans-sialidase activity have been suggested. In the present work, we made a systematic combination of these mutations leading to seven new variants of the T. rangeli sialidase, having 6-16 targeted amino acid mutations. The resulting enzyme variants were analyzed via kinetics for their ability to carry out trans-sialidase reaction using CGMP and D-lactose as substrates. The sialidase variants with 15 and 16 mutations, respectively, exhibited significantly improved trans-sialidase activity for D-lactose sialylation. Our results corroborate, that computational studies of trans-glycosylation can be a valuable input in the design of novel trans-glycosidases, but also highlight the importance of experimental validation in order to assess the performance. In conclusion, two of the seven mutants displayed a dramatic switch in specificity from hydrolysis towards trans-sialylation and constitute the most potent trans-sialidase mutants of TrSA described in literature to date.

  1. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.


    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of...

  2. Trans-African Identity: Cultural Globalization and the Role of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization entails a process, in any case irreversible, of intensification of transnational, trans-societal and trans-cultural spaces, events, problems, economic transactions, conflicts and biographies, a process not necessarily unfolding in a centripetal, homogeneous and single way towards the formation of a single world ...

  3. Changes in Trans Fat and Fatty Acids in Fast Food Menu Items (United States)

    Recent interest in trans fatty acid intake and subsequent recommendations included in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to decrease intake has led to extensive product reformulations of widely consumed foods high in trans fat. As part of these efforts to provide current and accurate nutrien...

  4. 75 FR 33799 - EasTrans, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-30-000] EasTrans, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 4, 2010, EasTrans, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the...

  5. Stream traffic data archival, querying, and analysis with TransDec. (United States)


    The goal of research was to extend the traffic data analysis of the TransDec (short for : Transportation Decision-Making) system, which was developed under METRANS 09-26 : research grant. The TransDec system is a real-data driven system to support de...

  6. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods (United States)

    Catalano, D. Chase J.


    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  7. Solvent-dependent regioselective oxidation of trans-chalcones using aqueous hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Wang; Jiabin, Yang; Lushen, Li, E-mail: [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering; Jin, Cai; Chunlong, Sun; Min, Ji [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    A novel method for regioselective oxidation of trans-chalcones with hydrogen peroxide in acetonitrile to afford cinnamic acids is reported. Only trans-b-arylacrylic acids were observed. A wide range of functionalized products can be effectively produced from various chalcones in good to excellent yields. (author)

  8. Filaggrin compound heterozygous patients carry mutations in trans position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Johansen, Jeanne D


    by means of allele-specific PCR amplification and analysis of PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis. All R501X/2282del4 compound heterozygous samples collected over a 4-year period of routine FLG mutation testing were investigated. In total, 37 samples were tested. All thirty-seven R501X/2282del4......More than 40 null mutations in the filaggrin (FLG) gene are described. It is therefore possible to find two different null mutations in one individual (compound heterozygosity). It has been generally perceived that homozygous and compound heterozygous individuals were genotypically comparable......; however, this has not been scientifically investigated. Two different FLG null mutations in the same individual may be in trans position, meaning that each mutation locates to a different allele functionally equivalent to homozygosity, or may be in cis position, meaning that both mutations locate...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahardini -


    Full Text Available This study is to explore the strategy of awakening of The Unyil ‘Indonesian puppet film at television’. “The Unyil” is one of the popular children’s show on 1980's era until the early 1990's. Meanwhile “Laptop Si Unyil” premiered in Trans7 broadcast on March 19, 2007. The main characters used in this program is a puppet show “The Unyil”. This study focuses on the finding of new concept of ‘The Unyil’ in order to be able to re-life. Some perspectives would be analyzed such as program theme, style of storytelling, the use of narrator, and narrative structure. Keywords: program theme, narrative structure, style of storytelling, the use of anarrator.

  10. Trans-disciplinarity: The Singularities and Multiplicities of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer


    Full Text Available This inaugural issue of Footprint aims at understanding today’s architecture culture as a negotiation between two antithetical definitions of architecture’s identity. The belief in the disciplinary singularity of architectural objects, irreducible to the conditions of their production, is confronted - in discourse and design - with the perception of architecture as an interdisciplinary mediation between multiple political, economic, social, technological and cultural factors. With the concept of trans-disciplinarity, the negotiation between these two positions is investigated here as an engine of the ‘tradition of the present’ of contemporary architecture - the discourses and designs which emerged in the 1960s and defined orientation points for today’s architectural thought and practice.

  11. Trans-disciplinarity: The Singularities and Multiplicities of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Stanek


    Full Text Available This inaugural issue of Footprint aims at understanding today’s architecture culture as a negotiation between two antithetical definitions of architecture’s identity. The belief in the disciplinary singularity of architectural objects, irreducible to the conditions of their production, is confronted – in discourse and design – with the perception of architecture as an interdisciplinary mediation between multiple political, economic, social, technological and cultural factors. With the concept of trans-disciplinarity, the negotiation between these two positions is investigated here as an engine of the ‘tradition of the present’ of contemporary architecture – the discourses and designs which emerged in the 1960s and defined orientation points for today’s architectural thought and practice.

  12. Trans Fatty Acid content in Danish margarines and shortenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Bysted, Anette; Hansen, Kirsten


    with similar investigations in 1992 and 1995. A gradual decline of TFA in Danish margarines was observed. From 1992 to 1995, a reduction of TFA from 10.4 to 3.6% took place in margarines with 20-40% linoleic acid. In 1999, TFA was practically absent in all the margarines, but it remained unchanged...... in shortenings, averaging about 6-7%. Long-chain TFA from hydrogenated,fish oil, although present in 13 brands in 1995, were not found at all in the 1999 samples. Trans-linoleic acids or CLA were not found. The reduction in TFA content in margarines has not resulted in a systematic change over the years...

  13. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food. (United States)

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard


    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation.

  14. The Concept “Trans-Regional Political Institution”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Федорович Гуринович


    Full Text Available Considered in the paper transregional Institute, they are a new political format in the development of the multidimensionality of the conditions of contemporary globalization. The BRICS is increasingly developing global opportunities for effective, intensive and equitable international cooperation not only in the interests of the participating countries, but also ensure a maximum level of stability, security and progress of the world system, its progressive and steady development. The study of various aspects of TRANS-regional development of modern political institution, represented by the BRICS, is caused by the fact that the mechanism of its development depends not only on economic interests but also on political stability and regional cooperation of its member countries.

  15. The copyright wars three centuries of trans-atlantic battle

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Peter


    Today’s copyright wars can seem unprecedented. Sparked by the digital revolution that has made copyright—and its violation—a part of everyday life, fights over intellectual property have pitted creators, Hollywood, and governments against consumers, pirates, Silicon Valley, and open-access advocates. But while the digital generation can be forgiven for thinking the dispute between, for example, the publishing industry and Google is completely new, the copyright wars in fact stretch back three centuries—and their history is essential to understanding today’s battles. The Copyright Wars—the first major trans-Atlantic history of copyright from its origins to today—tells this important story. Peter Baldwin explains why the copyright wars have always been driven by a fundamental tension. Should copyright assure authors and rights holders lasting claims, much like conventional property rights, as in Continental Europe? Or should copyright be primarily concerned with giving consumers cheap and easy ac...

  16. Sacramento District History (1929-2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Willie; Asay, Laura; Davy, Barbara J; Doyle, Brian; Fast, James P; Gonzalez, Jennifer L; Layton, Debra A; Nevins, Michael J; Taylor, James H; Van Dam, Carl


    Although the Sacramento District was established in 1929, this document recaptures the legendary history from the mid-1800's and the repercussions the Central Valley endured regarding the navigation...

  17. VT Data - Overlay District 20170802, Shelburne (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:Lakeshore Conservation OverlyNeighborhood OverlayVillage Design Review OverlayVillage Core OverlayWater...

  18. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  19. NM Property Tax Districts December 2013 (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Zivic


    Full Text Available After the liberation of Nis from the Turks which took place on January 11th, 1878, there were two military hospitals: one was next to The Skull Tower and the other on the road to Leskovac and there was Islahana the civil institution which was not the forerunner of the district hospital in Nis. At first, they founded the military hospital in Nis in 1878 and then they founded The District Hospital on July 17th in 1881. The first director of the District hospital was Anton Zajicek. He is also the first graduated medical doctor in Nis. The District Hospital was situated on the left bank of the Nisava river in a private house.

  1. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  2. VT Data - Overlay District 20170407, Burlington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay District Data is included:Design Review OverlayInstitutional Core Campus OverlayRH Density Bonus OverlayNatural Resource Protection OverlayRL...

  3. School District Finance Survey, 2013-14 (United States)

    Department of Education — School District Finance Survey, 2013–14 (F-33 2013–14) is a study that is part of the Common Core of Data (CCD) program; program data is available since 1989–90 at ....

  4. Solar district heating and cooling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Bava, Federico; Andersen, Martin


    and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real‐world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal...... technology can be integrated with district heating. Solar thermal technology combined with thermally driven chillers to provide cooling for cooling networks is also included in this paper. In order for a technology to spread successfully, not only technical but also economic issues need to be tackled. Hence......Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and implemented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collectors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could...

  5. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.


    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial

  6. The contribution of district clinical specialist team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Tshwane District Health Services, Gauteng Department of Health, South Africa .... assurance managers conducted monthly scoring of antenatal records at delivery ... Clinical audit and health system strengthening are part of DCSTs' scope.

  7. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  8. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015) (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  9. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicke, G.J.


    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from the

  10. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL. (United States)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C


    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  11. Intergenic mRNA molecules resulting from trans-splicing. (United States)

    Finta, Csaba; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G


    Accumulated recent evidence is indicating that alternative splicing represents a generalized process that increases the complexity of human gene expression. Here we show that mRNA production may not necessarily be limited to single genes, as human liver also has the potential to produce a variety of hybrid cytochrome P450 3A mRNA molecules. The four known cytochrome P450 3A genes in humans, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43, share a high degree of similarity, consist of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron boundaries, and form a cluster on chromosome 7. The chimeric CYP3A mRNA molecules described herein are characterized by CYP3A43 exon 1 joined at canonical splice sites to distinct sets of CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 exons. Because the CYP3A43 gene is in a head-to-head orientation with the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes, bypassing transcriptional termination can not account for the formation of hybrid CYP3A mRNAs. Thus, the mechanism generating these molecules has to be an RNA processing event that joins exons of independent pre-mRNA molecules, i.e. trans-splicing. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the ratio of one CYP3A43/3A4 intergenic combination was estimated to be approximately 0.15% that of the CYP3A43 mRNAs. Moreover, trans-splicing has been found not to interfere with polyadenylation. Heterologous expression of the chimeric species composed of CYP3A43 exon 1 joined to exons 2-13 of CYP3A4 revealed catalytic activity toward testosterone.

  12. Trans Fatty Acids in the Hong Kong Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. C. Chung


    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine trans fatty acids (TFA content of 142 individual food items, including bakery, fast food, and other fatty food that may contain high level of TFA. TFA was detected in all samples, except for four samples including one plain bread, one sponge cake, and two batter-made foods (egg roll and eggette samples. For those found to contain detectable TFA, the content ranged up to 4.7 g/100 g of food or 17.3% of total lipids. On a per 100 grams of food basis, the highest mean TFA content among the 18 food subgroups was the doughnuts/French toast subgroup (0.95 g, followed by the other pastries subgroup (0.49 g and the bread with filling/topping subgroup (0.44 g. Among the samples, the highest TFA content is from a doughnut (4.7 g/100 g, followed by two cream-filled bread with shredded coconut (1.8 and 1.4 g/100 g and a sweetheart cake (1.7 g/100 g. Only consuming one whole piece of doughnut would have reached 100% of the maximum daily TFA intake as recommended by WHO based on a 2000 kcal diet. About 78% of samples had TFA ≤0.3 g/100 g food. For the majority of the food samples available in Hong Kong, if TFA was present, C18:1 trans would possibly be the predominant one.

  13. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicke, G.J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from

  14. Trans-algorithmic nature of learning in biological systems. (United States)

    Shimansky, Yury P


    Learning ability is a vitally important, distinctive property of biological systems, which provides dynamic stability in non-stationary environments. Although several different types of learning have been successfully modeled using a universal computer, in general, learning cannot be described by an algorithm. In other words, algorithmic approach to describing the functioning of biological systems is not sufficient for adequate grasping of what is life. Since biosystems are parts of the physical world, one might hope that adding some physical mechanisms and principles to the concept of algorithm could provide extra possibilities for describing learning in its full generality. However, a straightforward approach to that through the so-called physical hypercomputation so far has not been successful. Here an alternative approach is proposed. Biosystems are described as achieving enumeration of possible physical compositions though random incremental modifications inflicted on them by active operating resources (AORs) in the environment. Biosystems learn through algorithmic regulation of the intensity of the above modifications according to a specific optimality criterion. From the perspective of external observers, biosystems move in the space of different algorithms driven by random modifications imposed by the environmental AORs. A particular algorithm is only a snapshot of that motion, while the motion itself is essentially trans-algorithmic. In this conceptual framework, death of unfit members of a population, for example, is viewed as a trans-algorithmic modification made in the population as a biosystem by environmental AORs. Numerous examples of AOR utilization in biosystems of different complexity, from viruses to multicellular organisms, are provided.

  15. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District


    dewanti, parawita


    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  16. Mandatory food labeling of trans fat acids: qualitative analysis of the public consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernandes Davies

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the stakeholders and their contributions to the public consultation carried out with regard to the mandatory trans fat acids food labeling proposal in Brazil. Methodology thematic analysis of the documents. Results 25 stakeholders made suggestions regarding the proposed law, and the majority belonged to the food industry sector. The following issues were raised: lack of knowledge among the consumers about trans fat acids; lack of information about trans fat acids in food composition tables and infrastructure to analyse the trans fat content of foods; voluntary trans fat labelling. Conclusions The stakeholders addressed important issues, such as improving nutritional knowledge among the population. However, few stakeholders linked to consumers took part in the public consultation, which might lead to disproportionate influence of the food industry on the development of future food policies.

  17. It All Starts with a Sandwich: Identification of Sialidases with Trans-Glycosylation Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Nyffenegger, Christian; Holck, Jesper


    structure of two amino acids proximal to the active site of the T. cruzi trans-sialidase infers trans-sialidase activity. On this basis, four enzymes with putative trans-sialidase activity were identified through an iterative alignment from 2909 native sialidases available in GenBank, which were cloned...... and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of these, one enzyme, SialH, derived from Haemophilus parasuis had an aromatic sandwich structure on the protein surface facing the end of the catalytic site (Phe168; Trp366), and was indeed found to exhibit trans-sialidase activity. SialH catalyzed production of the human...... provided data that help understand structure-function relations of trans-sialidases....

  18. Cardiology Centre Patients’ Awareness of the Negative Effects of Trans Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plociņa Lāsma


    Full Text Available It is very important to promote public awareness of the negative effects on health — trans fatty acid effects on cardiovascular disease. The study included 70 patients of the Latvian Centre of Cardiology, Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital (PSCUH. The PSCUH research institute gave permission to conduct the study. The patients answered questions about their awareness of trans fatty acids. The questionnaire used was obtained from the study “Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population” and modified for survey of the cardiology unit patients. The majority (74% of the respondents had heard and read something about trans fatty acids, but 62% women and 54% men were poorly informed about trans fatty acids and their negative effect on cardiovascular diseases. Unclear issues for patients were discussed after the questionnaire.

  19. A prospective study of trans fat intake and risk of preeclampsia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavarro, J. E.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Leth, Torben


    Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at gestation wk...... 25; preeclampsia diagnosis was obtained by linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. 1804 cases of preeclampsia and 402 cases of severe preeclampsia were identified in the cohort. Intake of trans fats decreased during the study period as a consequence of reduction in industrial trans fat...... intake. Intake of trans fats in the 2nd trimester was unrelated to risk of preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Relative risk (95% confidence interval; P, trend) of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia comparing top to bottom quintiles of trans fat intake were 0.95 (0.81; 1.11, 0.33) and 1.07 (0.78; 1...

  20. The extent to which school district competitive food and beverage policies align with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: implications for federal regulations. (United States)

    Schneider, Linda M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J


    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 authorized the Secretary of the US Department of Agriculture to establish science-based nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold in school that are, at a minimum, aligned with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), while still providing districts with discretion in regulating the competitive food and beverage environment. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which district competitive food and beverage policies had specific and required limits aligned with 2010 DGA recommendations, and to inform US Department of Agriculture efforts as they develop competitive food and beverage standards. Competitive food and beverage policies were compiled for the 2009-2010 school year from a nationally representative sample of 622 districts. Each policy was double-coded for compliance with selected 2010 DGA recommendations (ie, restrictions on sugars, fats, trans fats, and sodium in foods and restrictions on regular soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, and fat content of milk). Descriptive statistics were computed, clustered to account for the sample design, and weighted to account for districts nationwide. District nutrition policies were strongest for elementary schools. Nationwide, content of foods and soda availability were more commonly addressed. Areas that require attention include stronger nutrition standards at the secondary level, limits on trans fats, sodium, sugar-sweetened beverages other than soda, and fat content of milk, and greater availability of produce and whole grains at all sale locations. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.


    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  2. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven


    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  3. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.


    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  4. Standing balance in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes: A literature review. (United States)

    Seth, Mayank; Lamberg, Eric


    Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. Literature review. Data were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, , CINHAL, and Science Direct. Studies were selected only if they included standing balance assessment of people with unilateral trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The review yielded seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. The general test methodology required participants to stand still on force platforms, with feet together, while center of pressure or postural sway was recorded. According to the findings of this review, individuals with trans-tibial amputees due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities. Limited evidence suggests their balance might be further diminished as compared to individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Although the evidence is limited, because of the underlying pathology and presence of comorbidities in individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes, one cannot ignore these findings, as even a minor injury from a fall may develop into a non-healing ulcer and affect their health and well-being more severely than individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Clinical relevance Individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities compared to healthy individuals and individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. This difference should be considered when designing and fabricating prostheses. Prosthetists and rehabilitation clinicians should consider designing amputation cause-specific rehabilitation interventions, focussing on balance and other

  5. Perfil nutricional de alimentos com alegação de zero gordura trans Nutritional profile of foods with zero trans fatty acids claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Moron Gagliardi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a composição de ácidos graxos de alguns alimentos industrializados disponíveis no mercado brasileiro nos quais houve redução da quantidade de ácidos graxos trans. Verificar também se estes alimentos atendem às quantidades recomendadas de consumo de gordura saturada, após redução de gordura trans. MÉTODOS: Alimentos industrializados (margarina cremosa A e B, margarina com fitosterol, biscoito doce recheado, biscoito salgado sem recheio, batata frita e lanche com hambúrguer de fast food multinacional com alegação de 0% de gordura trans foram adquiridos em pontos comerciais e analisados em cromatógrafo gasoso. RESULTADOS: Apesar da redução nas quantidades de ácidos graxos trans, os alimentos analisados contêm grandes quantidades de gorduras saturadas principalmente o ácido palmítico. Além disso, alguns dos alimentos estudados apresentam uma razão n-3/n-6 fora do recomendado para a prevenção da aterosclerose. CONCLUSÃO: O consumo irrestrito desses alimentos tem forte potencial deletério para a saúde. O rótulo de ausência de ácidos graxos trans deve ser visto com cuidado e não significa uma liberação para o consumo irrestrito desses alimentos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the composition of fatty acids in some foods available in the Brazilian market in which there was a claimed reduction in the amount of trans fatty acids. Also evaluate whether these foods meet recommended amounts for saturated fat consumption, after reduction of trans fat amounts. METHODS: Industrialized food (creamy margarine A and B, plant sterol margarine, stuffed sweet biscuit, salty biscuit without stuffing, French fried potatoes and a burger lunch from a multinational chain of "fast food" all with the allegation of 0% trans fat content were purchased in commercial points and analyzed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: Despite the reduction in trans fatty acid amounts, analyzed foods contained large concentrations of saturated fats

  6. Biomass universal district heating systems (United States)

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo


    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  7. Are Fast Food “Trans-Fat” Claims True? An Infraspec VFA-IR Spectrometer Analysis of Trans-fat content in select food items purchased from Long John Silver’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins


    Full Text Available Studies linking high trans-fat diets to coronary heart disease (CHD have prompted the need to regulate, limit, or completely ban trans-fat from all commercial food products, including fast foods. Many U.S. fast food chains now claim that their food items, particularly French fries, have "no trans-fat". In a previous study, our lab tested the validity of trans-fat claims made by several popular fast food restaurants by experimentally determining the %trans-fat in oil extracted from fast food French fries. In some cases, the trans-fat content was nearly twice as high as the amount reported by the restaurant in their literature. Long John Silver's, for example, reported a trans-fat content of 25% for their French fries, while our lab actually found over 40% trans-fat. The purpose of this study is to broaden our study of Long John Silver's trans-fat claims by analyzing a variety of their food items and comparing our findings with the %trans-fat reported by the restaurant literature (nutrition fact tables. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. Our preliminary findings suggest that nearly every food item under study contained considerably more trans-fat than the amount reported in the restaurant’s literature.

  8. Consumo de ácidos grasos trans y riesgo cardiovascular Consumption of trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manzur J


    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos con configuración trans poco se encuentran en los alimentos de manera natural, sino que se incorporan a éstos como consecuencia de modificaciones principalmente debidas a los procesos industriales de hidrogenación a que se someten los aceites para convertirlos en grasas sólidas. Aún cuando su estructura incluye dobles enlaces, el tipo de configuración permite un comportamiento biológico similar al de los ácidos grasos saturados, con efectos negativos sobre múltiples funciones celulares. La evidencia demuestra que son perjudiciales para la salud, en especial a lo que se refiere a riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, razón por la cual es importante disminuir su consumo. Teniendo en consideración la evidencia obtenida de investigaciones sobre las alteraciones del metabolismo producidas por los ácidos grasos trans, es posible plantear una precaución lógica hacia el consumo de dietas ricas en dichos ácidos. Sus efectos deletéreos serían incluso peores en aquellas poblaciones que consumen bajas cantidades de ácidos grasos esenciales. De ahí surge la importancia de iniciar con prontitud políticas sanitarias orientadas a controlar la aterosclerosis en nuestro país. Las mismas deben estar necesariamente sustentadas sobre un conocimiento profundo de las características o condiciones particulares a las que nuestra población se encuentra sometida. Sólo así podrá darse inicio a una intervención efectiva sobre nuestros cuestionados hábitos alimentarios.Trans fatty acids are scarcely found naturally in food; they are incorporated to it as a result of modifications mainly due to hydrogenation industrial processes to which oils are submitted in order to obtain solid fats. Even when its structure includes double bonds, the type of configuration allows a biological behavior similar to that of saturated fatty acids, with negative effects on multiple cellular functions. The evidence shows that they are harmful to health

  9. Dehalogenation Activity of Selected Fungi Toward δ-Iodo-γ-Lactone Derived from trans,trans-Farnesol. (United States)

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Gładkowski, Witold; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Szumny, Antoni; Gębarowska, Elżbieta; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław


    Time-course of biotransformation of racemic trans-4-((E)-4',8'-dimethylnona-3',7'-dien-1-yl)-5-iodomethyl-4-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (1) in fungal and yeast cultures was investigated. In these conditions, the substrate 1 was enantioselectively dehalogenated yielding 4-((E)-4',8'-dimethylnona-3',7'-dien-1-yl)-4-methyl-5-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one (2) and its structure was established based on the spectroscopic data. The most effective biocatalyst used was Didymosphaeria igniaria, which catalyzed the process with highest rate and enantioselectivity (ee of product = 76%). The antiproliferative activity of δ-iodo-γ-lactone 1, product of its biotransformation 2, and starting substrate (farnesol) were evaluated toward two cancer cell lines: A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia). © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Non-suicidal self-injury in trans people: associations with psychological symptoms, victimization, interpersonal functioning, and perceived social support. (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Witcomb, Gemma; Thurston, Megan; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon


    There is a paucity of systematic research in the area of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans people. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NSSI in trans people and the associations with intra- and interpersonal problems. Participants were 155 untreated individuals with a diagnosis of transsexualism (according to International Classification of Disease-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic. All participants completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale, the Experiences of Transphobia Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The sample consisted of 66.5% trans women and 33.5% trans men and 36.8% of them had a history of engaging in NSSI. The prevalence of NSSI was significantly higher in trans men (57.7%) compared with trans women (26.2%). Trans individuals with NSSI reported more psychological and interpersonal problems and perceived less social support compared with trans individuals without NSSI. Moreover, the probability of having experienced physical harassment related to being trans was highest in trans women with NSSI (compared with those without NSSI). The study found that with respect to psychological symptoms, trans women reported significantly more intrapersonal and interpersonal symptoms compared with trans men. Finally, the results of the regression analysis showed that the probability of engaging in NSSI by trans individuals was significantly positively related to a younger age, being trans male, and reporting more psychological symptoms. The high levels of NSSI behavior and its association with interpersonal and interpersonal difficulties and lack of social support need to be taken into consideration when assessing trans individuals. The effect of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on psychological functioning, including NSSI behavior

  11. New York City trans fat ban: improving the default option when purchasing foods prepared outside the home (United States)

    The adverse effects of trans fatty acid (trans fat) on cardiovascular health have been known for at least 2 decades. During that time, both the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Institute of Medicine’s Dietary Reference Intake guidelines have recommended restricting trans fat intake to the ex...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Singer


    Full Text Available This article explores the treatment of trans medical expenses under American and Canadian tax laws. In both tax systems, medical expenses are deemed worthy of tax relief, while many cosmetic procedures are excluded. This article argues that tax administrators and the judiciary are influenced by social stigma when they employ the distinction between cosmetic and medical expenses to exclude or allow trans medical expenses. In the American context, this article focuses on the Internal Revenue Service’s reasons for deeming a trans woman’s gender dysphoria-related medical expenses to be ineligible for the medical deduction. It then turns to the taxpayer’s subsequent appeal to the U.S. Tax Court in O’Donnabhain v. Commissioner, 134 TC no. 4, and the Court’s determination that, while the taxpayer’s sex reassignment surgery and hormone therapy were eligible expenses, her breast augmentation was not deductible. The article follows by outlining the Canadian medical expense tax credit to determine how similar trans medical expenses might be treated in light of a budget amendment in 2010 prohibiting claims for most cosmetic procedures. The article concludes that in both the American and Canadian context, trans people are held to a higher standard than required under each respective tax statute, with their gender dysphoria-related medical expenses needing to be documented as “medically necessary” to avoid categorization as ineligible cosmetic expenses.   Le présent article examine le traitement des frais médicaux liés à la dysphorie sexuelle en vertu des lois fiscales américaines et canadiennes. Dans les deux régimes fiscaux, les frais médicaux sont considérés comme admissibles à un allègement fiscal, tandis que plusieurs interventions esthétiques sont exclues. Le présent article fait valoir que les administrateurs fiscaux et la magistrature sont influencés par les stigmates sociaux lorsqu’ils ont recours à la distinction

  13. Comparative evaluation of capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation of cis-cis, cis-trans, and trans-trans isomers of atracurium besylate. (United States)

    de Moraes, M de L; Polakiewicz, B; Mattua, M F; Tavares, M F


    Atracurium besylate is a highly selective nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent routinely used during anesthetic procedures. The commercial presentation of this drug is a mixture of positional isomers, cis-cis, cis-trans, and trans-trans. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography has been the technique of choice for the analysis of atracurium besylate formulations at the quality control laboratory of Núcleo de Desenvolvimento Cristália (São Paulo, Brazil), a local pharmaceutical company. HPLC analysis is usually conducted under gradient elution using acetonitrile/0.1 M phosphate buffer eluent mixture as mobile phase and an octadecyl silica (ODS)-packed column. The complete elution of the three isomers takes about 1 hr. In this work, an alternative capillary electrophoresis methodology was developed. The complete resolution of all three isomers was accomplished in about 13 min (+20 kV/72 cm, 211 nm direct detection) using a 60-mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 4) containing 20 mM beta-cyclodextrin and 4 M urea. The isomer ratio was found to be 59.1% cis-cis, 35.9% cis-trans, and 5.02% trans-trans (expected ratio: 59:35:6). Laudanosine, a major metabolite of atracurium besylate, was identified in two commercially available formulations, Tracur (Núcleo de Desenvolvimento Cristália) and Tracrium (Glaxo Wellcome, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Its concentration increases considerably during storage of the product, even if the product is stored at low temperatures.

  14. Can trans-generational experiments be used to enhance species resilience to ocean warming and acidification? (United States)

    Chakravarti, Leela J; Jarrold, Michael D; Gibbin, Emma M; Christen, Felix; Massamba-N'Siala, Gloria; Blier, Pierre U; Calosi, Piero


    Human-assisted, trans-generational exposure to ocean warming and acidification has been proposed as a conservation and/or restoration tool to produce resilient offspring. To improve our understanding of the need for and the efficacy of this approach, we characterized life-history and physiological responses in offspring of the marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica exposed to predicted ocean warming (OW: + 3°C), ocean acidification (OA: pH -0.5) and their combination (OWA: + 3°C, pH -0.5), following the exposure of their parents to either control conditions ( within-generational exposure ) or the same conditions ( trans-generational exposure ). Trans-generational exposure to OW fully alleviated the negative effects of within-generational exposure to OW on fecundity and egg volume and was accompanied by increased metabolic activity. While within-generational exposure to OA reduced juvenile growth rates and egg volume, trans-generational exposure alleviated the former but could not restore the latter. Surprisingly, exposure to OWA had no negative impacts within- or trans-generationally. Our results highlight the potential for trans-generational laboratory experiments in producing offspring that are resilient to OW and OA. However, trans-generational exposure does not always appear to improve traits and therefore may not be a universally useful tool for all species in the face of global change.

  15. Breaking down barriers: exploring the potential for social care practice with trans survivors of domestic abuse. (United States)

    Rogers, Michaela


    There is increasing recognition that domestic abuse takes place outside the heteronormative paradigm of social life. This paper presents a discussion of the findings of doctoral research which explores trans people's experiences of domestic abuse, their social care needs and whether these are met by domestic abuse agencies. This paper foregrounds debate on the intersections of domestic abuse, trans communities and social care provision as this research, and previous studies, suggests that trans survivors do not seek out or benefit from social care intervention. Qualitative data, collected via narrative interviews, were collected during 2012 from participants mainly located in the United Kingdom (two participants were based in the United States). A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with trans people (n = 15) and social care practitioners (n = 9). Data were examined using a voice-centred relational technique. The findings reveal that barriers are multiple and complex but work could be undertaken to encourage help-seeking behaviours. Barriers include expectations of a transphobic response and 'Othering' practices; lack of entitlement felt by trans people; lack of knowledge/misunderstandings about trans social care needs; heteronormative bias of existing services; and practitioner attitudes fixed to notions about gender as binary. The paper ends by proposing a framework for practice with trans survivors which incorporates a person-centred, narrative approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. TransAlta Corporation 1996 annual report : new directions, new opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    TransAlta Corp. is an energy management company that operates through two subsidiaries: (1) TransAlta Utilities Corp. which owns and operates electricity generation, transmission and distribution assets in Alberta, and (2) TransAlta Energy Corp. which is in the business of electric and thermal energy supply, gas and electricity distribution, energy services and energy marketing in regions of Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Argentina and the United States. This report presents a summary of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements and common share information for 1996. During the year the corporation advanced three significant initiatives (1) operational effectiveness, as shown by impressive productivity increases, and major investments in three independent power projects, (2) improved strategic direction through a review of plans and options, resulting in a clearer, more focused vision of the future, and (3) realignment of the organizational structure by centralizing marketing and sales functions, and establishing a corporate business development group. Details of operational and financial results were provided for both subsidiaries, i. e. TransAlta Utilities and TransAlta Energy. Sales of electric energy for TransAlta Utilities amounted to 27.8 billion kWh; 4.6 billion kWh for TransAlta Energy. Return on equity was 11.4 per cent, down from 11.8 per cent in 1995. Net earnings per common share were $1.14 per share (including one-time items), the same as in 1995. tabs., figs

  17. The Partnership Pact: Fulfilling School Districts' Research Needs with University-District Partnerships (United States)

    Ralston, Nicole; Weitzel, Bruce; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Naegele, Zulema; Smith, Rebecca


    There has been a recent shift in university-district partnership models from traditional transactional partnerships, which lack a shared purpose, to transformational partnerships that are mutually beneficial to both universities and school districts. These transformational research-practice partnerships have gained popularity in the United States…

  18. The need for multisectoral food chain approaches to reduce trans fat consumption in India. (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna


    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends virtually eliminating trans fat from the global food supply. Although several high-income countries have successfully reduced trans fat levels in foods, low- and middle-income countries such as India face additional challenges to its removal from the food supply. This study provides a systems analysis of the Indian food chain to assess intervention options for reducing trans fat intake in low-income consumers. Data were collected at the manufacturer, retailer and consumer levels. Qualitative interviews were conducted with vanaspati manufacturers (n = 13) and local food vendors (n = 44). Laboratory analyses (n = 39) of street foods/snacks sold by the vendors were also conducted. Trans fat and snack intakes were also examined in low-income consumers in two rural villages (n = 260) and an urban slum (n = 261). Manufacturers of vanaspati described reducing trans fat levels as feasible but identified challenges in using healthier oils. The fat content of sampled oils from street vendors contained high levels of saturated fat (24.7-69.3 % of total fat) and trans fat (0.1-29.9 % of total fat). Households were consuming snacks high in trans fat as part of daily diets (31 % village and 84.3 % of slum households) and 4 % of rural and 13 % of urban households exceeded WHO recommendations for trans fat intakes. A multisectoral food chain approach to reducing trans fat is needed in India and likely in other low- and middle-income countries worldwide. This will require investment in development of competitively priced bakery shortenings and economic incentives for manufacturing foods using healthier oils. Increased production of healthier oils will also be required alongside these investments, which will become increasingly important as more and more countries begin investing in palm oil production.

  19. Ruminant and industrial trans-fatty acid uptake in the heart. (United States)

    Ganguly, Riya; LaVallee, Renee; Maddaford, Thane G; Devaney, Brittany; Bassett, Chantal M C; Edel, Andrea L; Pierce, Grant N


    Dietary trans-fats are strongly associated with heart disease. However, the capacity for the tissues of the body, and specifically the heart, to take up trans-fats is unknown. It is also unknown if different trans-fats have different uptake capacities in the heart and other tissues of the body. Diets of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were supplemented for 14weeks with foods that contained 1.5% of the trans-fat elaidic acid or vaccenic acid. Tissues were extracted and frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then lipids were analyzed by gas chromatography for fatty acid content. Isolated cardiomyocytes were also exposed to elaidic or vaccenic acid in cell culture media for 24h. Dietary supplementation with vaccenic or elaidic acid resulted in a 20-fold higher accumulation of these TFAs in fat deposits in the body in comparison to liver. Liver tissue accumulated about twice as much per gram tissue as heart. Similar quantities of both elaidic acid and vaccenic acid were taken up by the tissues. Isolated cardiomyocytes exhibited an unusually large uptake of trans-fat, and this was dependent upon both the concentration and duration of exposure to the trans-fats but not upon the type of trans-fat. Expression levels of CD36 and FATP4 were not significantly changed during dietary interventions or exposure of cells to trans-fats. We conclude that fat, liver and heart (including cardiomyocytes) are all capable of accumulating trans-fat in response to dietary supplementation without changes in fatty acid transport protein expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical characterization of trans-sialidase TS1 variants from Trypanosoma congolense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle, is a resurgent disease in Africa caused by Trypanosoma parasites. Trans-sialidases expressed by trypanosomes play an important role in the infection cycle of insects and mammals. Whereas trans-sialidases of other trypanosomes like the American T. cruzi are well investigated, relatively little research has been done on these enzymes of T. congolense. Results Based on a partial sequence and an open reading frame in the WTSI database, DNA sequences encoding for eleven T. congolense trans-sialidase 1 variants with 96.3% overall amino acid identity were amplified. Trans-sialidase 1 variants were expressed as recombinant proteins, isolated and assayed for trans-sialylation activity. The purified proteins produced α2,3-sialyllactose from lactose by desialylating fetuin, clearly demonstrating their trans-sialidase activity. Using an HPLC-based assay, substrate specificities and kinetic parameters of two variants were characterized in detail indicating differences in substrate specificities for lactose, fetuin and synthetic substrates. Both enzymes were able to sialylate asialofetuin to an extent, which was sufficient to reconstitute binding sites for Siglec-4. A mass spectrometric analysis of the sialylation pattern of glycopeptides from fetuin revealed clear but generally similar changes in the sialylation pattern of the N-glycans on fetuin catalyzed by the trans-sialidases investigated. Conclusions The identification and characterization of a trans-sialidase gene family of the African parasite T. congolense has opened new perspectives for investigating the biological role of these enzymes in Nagana and sleeping sickness. Based on this study it will be interesting to address the expression pattern of these genes and their activities in the different stages of the parasite in its infection cycle. Furthermore, these trans-sialidases have the

  1. Nutritional profile of phytococktail from trans-Himalayan plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhar

    Full Text Available We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, apricot (Prunus armeniaca, and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, palmitoleic acid (43.47%, oleic acid (20.89%, and linoleic acid (4.31% were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit

  2. Metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Demonstration of common physiological metabolites in rat small intestinal mucosa and circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.


    The kinetics and metabolism of physiological doses of all-trans-retinoic acid were examined in blood and small intestinal mucosa of vitamin A-depleted rats. A major portion of intrajugularly injected retinoic acid is rapidly (within 2 min) sequestered by tissues; subsequently 13-cis-retinoic acid and polar metabolites are released into circulation. All-trans-retinoic acid appears in small intestinal epithelium within 2 min after dosing and is the major radioactive compound there for at least 2 h. Retinoyl glucuronide and 13-cis-retinoic acid are early metabolites of all-trans-retinoic acid in the small intestine of bile duct-cannulated rats. Retinoyl glucuronide, the major metabolite of retinoic acid intestinal epithelium, in contrast to other polar metabolites, was not detected in circulation. An examination of [ 3 H]retinyl acetate metabolites under steady state conditions in vitamin A-repleted rats demonstrates the occurrence of all-trans-retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid in circulation and in intestinal epithelium, in a pattern similar to that found after injection of retinoic acid into vitamin A-depleted rats. These data establish that all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and retinoyl glucuronide are physiological metabolites of vitamin A in target tissues, and therefore are important candidates as mediators of the biological effect of the vitamin


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Lima Telmo


    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  4. Cis/trans Coordination in olefin metathesis by static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    In regard to [(N-heterocyclic carbene)Ru]-based catalysts, it is still a matter of debate if the substrate binding is preferentially cis or trans to the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. By means of static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations, a simple olefin, like ethylene, is shown to be prone to the trans binding. Bearing in mind the higher reactivity of trans isomers in olefin metathesis, this insight helps to construct small alkene substrates with increased reactivity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben


    and trans fatty acids of C16:1, C18:1,n-9, C18:1,n-12, C18:2 and C22:1 in two- and three-dimensional score plots. With Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), it is possible to calculate models that can predict from the mass spectra of unknown fatty acids whether they are of the cis or trans...... configuration, which is demonstrated for C18:1 trans from hardened margarine and butter....

  6. Cis/trans Coordination in olefin metathesis by static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Correa, Andrea; Pump, Eva; Cavallo, Luigi


    In regard to [(N-heterocyclic carbene)Ru]-based catalysts, it is still a matter of debate if the substrate binding is preferentially cis or trans to the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. By means of static and molecular dynamic DFT calculations, a simple olefin, like ethylene, is shown to be prone to the trans binding. Bearing in mind the higher reactivity of trans isomers in olefin metathesis, this insight helps to construct small alkene substrates with increased reactivity. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  7. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))


    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  8. PLK4 trans-Autoactivation Controls Centriole Biogenesis in Space. (United States)

    Lopes, Carla A M; Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Cunha-Ferreira, Inês; Zitouni, Sihem; Bento, Inês; Duarte, Paulo; Gilberto, Samuel; Freixo, Francisco; Guerrero, Adán; Francia, Maria; Lince-Faria, Mariana; Carneiro, Jorge; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica


    Centrioles are essential for cilia and centrosome assembly. In centriole-containing cells, centrioles always form juxtaposed to pre-existing ones, motivating a century-old debate on centriole biogenesis control. Here, we show that trans-autoactivation of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the trigger of centriole biogenesis, is a critical event in the spatial control of that process. We demonstrate that centrioles promote PLK4 activation through its recruitment and local accumulation. Though centriole removal reduces the proportion of active PLK4, this is rescued by concentrating PLK4 to the peroxisome lumen. Moreover, while mild overexpression of PLK4 only triggers centriole amplification at the existing centriole, higher PLK4 levels trigger both centriolar and cytoplasmatic (de novo) biogenesis. Hence, centrioles promote their assembly locally and disfavor de novo synthesis. Similar mechanisms enforcing the local concentration and/or activity of other centriole components are likely to contribute to the spatial control of centriole biogenesis under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Trans-Contextual Model of Autonomous Motivation in Education (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.


    The trans-contextual model outlines the processes by which autonomous motivation toward activities in a physical education context predicts autonomous motivation toward physical activity outside of school, and beliefs about, intentions toward, and actual engagement in, out-of-school physical activity. In the present article, we clarify the fundamental propositions of the model and resolve some outstanding conceptual issues, including its generalizability across multiple educational domains, criteria for its rejection or failed replication, the role of belief-based antecedents of intentions, and the causal ordering of its constructs. We also evaluate the consistency of model relationships in previous tests of the model using path-analytic meta-analysis. The analysis supported model hypotheses but identified substantial heterogeneity in the hypothesized relationships across studies unattributed to sampling and measurement error. Based on our meta-analysis, future research needs to provide further replications of the model in diverse educational settings beyond physical education and test model hypotheses using experimental methods. PMID:27274585

  10. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem


    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  11. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System (United States)

    Abdelkareem, Mohamed; El-Baz, Farouk


    Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is) the biggest river system in Africa. PMID:26257941

  12. Trans-eCare: creating a transparent data exchange platform. (United States)

    Buysse, Heidi; Coorevits, Pascal; Thienpont, Geert; De Moor, Georges


    Home health care (HHC) organizations as well as hospitals encounter information-tracking problems regarding their patients. When a patient is admitted to the hospital, it is not always possible/easy to find out if this person already had HHC and if so, by which organization it was provided. HHC organizations also not always know to which hospital a person is admitted. At discharge, although discharge documents exist, HHC organizations not always receive the necessary information. However, sharing information between the different care-partners involved is important, among others for the continuity of care. Hospitals will gain better insight in the provided home care before admission, and HHC organizations will get a more complete and direct insight in the course of care at the hospital. In doing so, they are better prepared to provide the necessary care for the patient admitted to the hospital or returning at home. Discussion with the partners involved in the IBBT-Trans-eCare project resulted in tracking the current problems, defining goals and presenting a solution to meet the defined problems.

  13. Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury by pointed iron rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Tewari


    Full Text Available Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury (TOPI by a foreign body is an extremely rare compound head injury having a potential to cause major morbidity and mortality. Preoperative radiological imaging by CT scan is very important for operative guidance, but in remote area where CT scan is not available, the patient is generally referred to tertiary level. Here we present a case which was dealt successfully without CT scan, only on the basis of stable clinical status and X-rays. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who had an accidental injury (fall from height by rod. Immediate X-ray (anteroposterior and lateral views revealed that the pointed end of the foreign body (rod was inside the ipsilateral anterior fossa via basifrontal bone up to frontal vertex, not crossing the midline. CT scan was not available and his vitals with GCS were normal (15/15. He was operated with the help of an ophthalmic surgeon by right frontotemporal craniotomy. The patient was discharged on 10 th day without any neurological deficit except restricted right eyeball movement to superolateral and ptosis. The restricted eyeball movements recovered after third month of follow up with remnant ptosis for 2 years. This case highlights an unusual case, direct visualization and repair of brain structures with higher antibiotics can save the life even in remote areas where CT scan is still not available only on the basis of stable GCS and X-rays.

  14. 2012: no trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products. (United States)

    Ansorena, Diana; Echarte, Andrea; Ollé, Rebeca; Astiasarán, Iciar


    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are strongly correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Current dietary recommendations exclude bakery products from frequent consumption basically due to their traditionally high content of TFA. The aim of this work was to analyse the lipid profile of different bakery products currently commercialised in Spain and with a conventionally high fat and TFA content. Premium and store brands for each product were included in the study. No significant amounts of TFA were found in any of the analysed products, regardless the brand. TFA content ranged between 0.17 g and 0.22 g/100 g product (mean=0.19 g/100 g product). Expressed on percentage of fatty acids, the maximum value was 0.87 g/100 g fatty acids and the mean value was 0.68%. These data are significantly lower than those observed in previously published papers for these types of products, and highlighted the importance of updating food composition databases in order to accurately estimate the real and current intake of TFA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system aided by fuzzy logic (United States)

    Hata, Yutaka; Nakamura, Masato; Yagi, Naomi; Ishikawa, Tomomoto


    This paper describes a trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system for measuring the blood flow direction in brain under skull. In this system, we use an ultrasonic array probe with the center frequency of 1.0 MHz. The system determines the fuzzy degree of blood flow by Doppler Effect, thereby it locates blood vessel. This Doppler Effect is examined by the center of gravity shift of the frequency magnitudes. In in-vitro experiment, a cow bone was employed as the skull, and three silicon tubes were done as blood vessels, and bubble in water as blood. We received the ultrasonic waves through a protein, the skull and silicon tubes in order. In the system, fuzzy degrees are determined with respect to the Doppler shift, amplitude of the waves and attenuation of the tissues. The fuzzy degrees of bone and blood direction are calculated by them. The experimental results showed that the system successfully visualized the skull and flow direction, compared with the location and flow direction of the phantom. Thus, it detected the flow direction by Doppler Effect under skull, and automatically extracted the region of skull and blood vessel.

  16. The Trans-Pacific Partnership and pharmaceutical innovation. (United States)

    Freeman, Robert A


    Trade agreements are an overlooked area of research and policy analysis that affect market access, pricing and reimbursement decisions by pharmaceutical manufacturers, and research and development decisions in the long term. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is the most recent multi-national agreement under considerations that may have profound implications in developed and developing countries in the Pacific Rim. As in the case of other trade arrangements, the TPP negotiations are not transparent, but a major leak of the most recent draft has been published in WikiLeaks. The leaked document has raised a number of concerns about intellectual property rights (IPR) and regulatory data protection (RDP) that have implications for public health and economic policy throughout the region. In particular, IPR and RDP go beyond the minimum standards set under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and may affect drug access negatively by delaying generic drug and biosimilar product availability and by raising prices by removing national regulations dealing with drug pricing and reimbursement. Of particular concern is the establishment of a litigation process where multi-national companies can sue individual countries before a panel of private attorneys who are appointed by the World Bank or United Nations. This paper addresses these concerns along with a commentary on the likelihood of occurring and the need for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trans-disciplinary community groups: an initiative for improving healthcare. (United States)

    Sideras, James Demetri


    In the context of budget constraints and the current quality crisis facing UK healthcare, the purpose of this paper is to examine the use of trans-disciplinary community groups (TCG)--an innovative and inexpensive initiative for improving patient care. Using an action research study, TCG was implemented within a private healthcare firm for vulnerable adults. Qualitative data were gathered over 12 months from 33 participants using depth interviews and focus groups. TCG led to improved patient activities and increased patient decision-making and confidence in self-advocacy. Key prerequisites were top management commitment, democratic leadership and employee empowerment. However, staff nurses resisted TCG because they were inclined to using managerial control and their own independent clinical judgements. Whilst the findings from this study should not be generalized across all healthcare sectors, its results could be replicated in contexts where there is wide commitment to TCG and where managers adopt a democratic style of leadership. Researchers could take this study further by exploring the applicability of TCG in public healthcare organizations or other multi-disciplinary service contexts. The findings of this research paper provide policy makers and healthcare managers with practical insights on TCG and the factors that are likely to obstruct and facilitate its implementation. Adopting TCG could enable healthcare managers to ameliorate their services with little or no extra cost, which is especially important in a budget constraint context and the current quality crisis facing UK healthcare.

  18. Who wrote the rules for the Trans-Pacific Partnership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Allee


    Full Text Available Twelve governments recently signed the much-anticipated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP, sparking heated debate about its merits. As a primary motivation for this first “mega-regional” agreement, US President Barack Obama argues that the TPP is a way for the USA, and not China or someone else, to write the global trade rules of the future. This begs some important questions, namely which country or countries really did write most of the TPP and thus whose agenda for 21st century trade might it advance? To answer these questions, we compare the recently-released text of the TPP to the language in the 74 previous trade agreements that TPP members signed since 1995. Our text-as-data analyses reveal that the contents of the TPP are taken disproportionately from earlier US trade agreements. The ten preferential trade agreements (PTAs that most closely match the TPP are all US PTAs. Moreover, the contents of controversial chapters, such as the one on investment, are drawn even more heavily from past US treaty language. Our study and findings apply power-based accounts of international institutions to a landmark new agreement, and portray a more active, template-based process of international diffusion.

  19. On The Detachment of Massive Trans-Neptunian Objects (United States)

    Fleisig, Jacob; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Zderic, Alexander


    Our Solar System contains a large population of icy bodies stretching well beyond the orbit of Neptune. These objects, known collectively as the Scattered Disk, are remnants from the early formation of the Solar System that were scattered outward from their birth location by Neptune. But not all fit the bill.Sedna, one particularly massive Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO), does not conform to the scattering pattern. Its orbital eccentricity (e) is much lower than expected for a scattered object. This means its perihelion distance (proportional to 1-e) is much larger than the orbit of Neptune, or that it is “detached” from the main Solar System. Many more TNOs share similarities with Sedna. These observations suggest that there is a large population of detached TNOs that have a dynamical history different than that of the objects scattered by Neptune.The physical mechanism by which these massive minor planets become detached is currently unknown. However, we have discovered a phenomenon, driven by differential precession between TNOs of different masses and mutual secular gravitational torques, that naturally detach massive minor planets. This mechanism could have notable consequences for the outer Solar System and may shed some light on the origin of the detached population of minor planets near the Scattered Disk.

  20. trans-Tetracarbonylbis[tris(3-fluorophenylphosphane]chromium(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Norlidah


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cr(C18H12F3P2(CO4], the Cr atom is octahedrally coordinated by four carbonyl ligands and the two tertiary phosphanes, which are trans to each other. The three benzene rings in one phosphane ligand make dihedral angles of 53.50 (9, 75.51 (10 and 80.63 (10° with each other, while in the other ligand these angles are 51.92 (10, 78.56 (11 and 86.80 (10°. C—H...O and C—H...F interactions link the molecules into a three-dimensional network. Each of the F atoms is disordered over two positions with refined occupancies of 0.944 (3:0.056 (3, 0.702 (4:0.298 (4, 0.829 (4:0.171 (4, 0.567 (4:0.433 (4, 0.545 (4:0.455 (4 and 0.920 (4:0.080 (4.

  1. Juvenile Osprey Navigation during Trans-Oceanic Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W Horton

    Full Text Available To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean.

  2. Pulse radiolysis of solutions of trans-stilbene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langan, J.R.; Salmon, G.A.


    On pulse radiolysis of solutions of trans-stilbene (t-St) in THF the radical-anion of t-St is formed by reaction of e - sub(s) with t-St. The transient absorption spectrum observed with lambdasub(max) at 500 and 720 nm is attributed to the unassociated St - . The subsequent decay of the radical-anion is accounted for by reaction with the counter-cation of THF formed on radiolysis and with radiolytically generated radicals; rate constants for these processes are estimated. Addition of sodium tetrahydridoaluminate (NAH) results in the radical-anion being associated with Na + as a contact ion-pair and a shift of lambdasub(max) to 490 nm. In the presence of the lithium salt the absorption spectrum of the radical-anion reverts to 500 nm. On pulse radiolysis of solutions containing NAH the main reaction forming St - is that of (Na + , e - sub(s))ion pairs with t-St. In addition there is a delayed formation of St - over a period of microseconds. The presence of tetrahydridoaluminate salts also greatly enhances the stability of St - and at high doses per pulse little decay was observed over 700 μs. The variation of G(St - ) with [NAH] was studied and was found to attain a plateau value of 2.0 at the higher concentrations. (author)

  3. Financing Trans-European Energy Infrastructures - Past, Present and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschhausen, Christian von


    The transformation of the European energy system towards a low carbon industry requires substantial investment and financing. According to the Energy Infrastructure Package (EIP), around one trillion euros must be invested in the European energy system until 2020. Out of the euro 200 billion required investment for transmission networks, only half of the capital will be provided by markets. This leaves a financial gap of ca. euro 100 bn. and poses a question on the EU role in financing European energy infrastructures. This policy paper by Christian Von Hirschhausen focuses on the future financing of trans-European energy infrastructures. After providing an overview of the long-term infrastructure needs and of the various instruments that currently exist to finance these infrastructures, the author discusses various aspects related with the planning and financing of cross border energy infrastructures with the help of a case study: the North Sea Grid Project. On the basis of the North Sea example, he highlights the importance of adopting a regulatory approach balancing European and Member States' interests as well as of streamlining and expanding the EU financial support to sustainable energy infrastructures

  4. Revisitation: a trans phenomenology of the media image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cael M Keegan


    Full Text Available How might certain moving images move us into transgender becoming? The recent proliferation of transgender images in the media of the Global North has been widely regarded as supporting transgender political and social equality. But do these images do justice to the complexity of transgender lives? Who are images of transgender identity made for, and whose interests do they serve? Instead of discussing media that produce a transgender object for public consumption, this essay’s author is interested in theorizing a trans point of media reception for the popular image. This essay illustrates how transgender subjects might fashion their own archives of becoming through encounters with media that unintentionally support transgender embodiment as a possibility in the world. Revisiting his phenomenological encounters with the film Under the Skin and the “Milk: It Does a Body Good” ad campaign, the author analyzes how certain media objects have the unexpected power to “move” the transgender subject into becoming.

  5. Japan and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Borisovich Kovrigin


    Full Text Available The article discusses the new format of international trade - Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP - and the consequences of its formation for various sectors of the Japanese economy. The paper aims at summarizing the results of a long-term (2009-2016 monitoring of Japanese and foreign mass-media coverage of the emerging Partnership and Japan’s role in this process. The author reveals a split within Japanese society and elites with regard to participation in this US-sponsored organization. Some important examples illustrate ideology of both TPP’s proponents and adversaries in Japan. The study also discusses negotiations’ chronology, differences in approach among all the twelve participating nations as well prospects for ratification of the agreement by national legislatures. For example, Japan’s opposition parties are ready to unite to prevent the ratification of the TTP in the Parliament; and the current US President, most likely, will not have time to ratify the Partnership in the US Congress before the end of his presidential term. The article also points out possible alternatives to the TPP forwarded by China which has not been invited to join the Partnership. These initiatives include ‘One belt, One Road’ (OBOR or New Silk Road and Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP

  6. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice. (United States)

    Green, Julie


    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study.

  7. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii


    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  8. Shortage of energy increases profitability of district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Increased demand will cause the price of district heating to increase, but not to the level of the price of electricity. The cheapest heating alternative in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is district heating. In Norway, district heating is developed primarily for commercial buildings and housing cooperatives. Thirty per cent of all buildings under construction are prepared for district heating and the percentage will increase strongly in the coming time. The total net production of district heating in Norway in 2001 was 2000 GWh, which is only a small part of the total potential for district heating

  9. Nuclear power plant in the Oslofjord district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audunson, T.; Aure, J.; Billfalk, L.; Rye, H.; Thundrup, A.


    The hydrophysical investigations made in order to evaluate the suitability of the waters adjacent to two prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Outer Oslofjord district are summarised. The evaluation of the diffusion and dilution of releases of 200 and 100 m 3 /s heated by 10 0 Cin this area is also presented. The effects of an intake in the Haaoeyfjord basin is also considered. The conclusions are presented in a collective report for all prospective sites 'Thermal power plants in the Oslofjord district, recipient evaluations' (Termiske kraftverk i Oslofjordomraadet, resipientvurderinger) published by Fiskeridirektoratets Havforskningsinstitutt, Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning and Vassdrags- og Havnelaboratoriet, dated November 1975. (JIW)

  10. The district nursing service: a national treasure. (United States)

    Oldman, Crystal


    District nurses are a national treasure. They are the key professionals who will enable the agenda of patients being cared for at home to be realised. They are highly trusted and valued by communities who lead and manage teams of nurses and nursing assistants expertly to deliver high-quality care in the patient's own home. In an era where the focus is now turning to the community for more care, more actions are required to increase our district nursing workforce. This article discusses the above issues in relation to recent reports on the current status of community nursing.

  11. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel


    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  12. trans-2-Tritylcyclohexanol as a chiral auxiliary in permanganate-mediated oxidative cyclization of 2-methylenehept-5-enoates: application to the synthesis of trans-(+)-linalool oxide. (United States)

    Al Hazmi, Ali M; Sheikh, Nadeem S; Bataille, Carole J R; Al-Hadedi, Azzam A M; Watkin, Sam V; Luker, Tim J; Camp, Nicholas P; Brown, Richard C D


    The permanganate-mediated oxidative cyclization of a series of 2-methylenehept-5-eneoates bearing different chiral auxiliaries was investigated, leading to the discovery of trans-2-tritylcyclohexanol (TTC) as a highly effective chiral controller for the formation of the 2,5-substituted THF diol product with high diastereoselectivity (dr ∼97:3). Chiral resolution of (±)-TTC, prepared in one step from cyclohexene oxide, afforded (-)-(1S,2R)-TTC (er >99:1), which was applied to the synthesis of (+)-trans-(2S,5S)-linalool oxide.

  13. trans-2-Phenyl-4-thiophenoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzothiopyran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Pal


    Full Text Available Iodine-catalyzed cyclocondensation of cinnamaldehyde and thiophenol yields rapidly trans-2-phenyl-4-thiophenoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzothiopyran in excellent yield with very high diastereoselectivity.

  14. Formation of trans fatty acids during the frying of chicken fillet in corn oil. (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Yang, Ying; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong; Chen, Feng; Luo, Pengju George


    To assess effects of heated edible oils on intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs); the formation of TFAs in cooking conditions was investigated by a frying system model, in which chicken fillet was fried in a commercial corn oil at 170 °C, for 12 frying cycles. The main TFAs detected in chicken fillet were trans C18:2 fatty acids (FAs) and trans C18:3 FAs, which exhibited no significant differences among the frying cycles. Besides, the content of trans C18:1 FAs were very low in all samples on different frying cycles. The intake of TFAs was estimated to be 0.06 g/100 g when chicken fillet fried in this process was consumed. These results suggest that an ordinary frying process upon a commercial corn oil has little impact on the daily TFAs intake.

  15. Rigid nonproteinogenic cyclic amino acids as ligands for glutamate receptors: trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Udo; Bisel, Philippe; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans


    The second-generation asymmetric synthesis of the trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids reported herein proceeds via Strecker reaction of chiral ketimines, obtained from condensation of racemic 2-ethoxycarbonylmethylcyclopentanone and commercially available (S)- and (R)-1-phenylethylamine, respectively......) yielded diastereomeric mixtures of secondary alpha-amino amido-esters, which after separation were hydrogenolyzed and hydrolyzed each to the enantiomeric trans-1-amino-2-carboxymethylcyclopentanecarboxylic acids. Their configuration was completely established by NMR methods, CD spectra, and X-ray analysis...... of the trans-1S,2R-configured secondary alpha-amino amido-ester. In receptor binding assays and functional tests, trans-1S,2R-1-amino-2-carboxymethylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid hydrochloride was found to behave as a selective mGluR(2)-antagonist without relevant binding properties at iGluRs....

  16. Effect of heat processing on the profiles of trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SFA). Meanwhile, published information about trans fatty acids (TFAs) content in TBO remains unexplored. Therefore, a comparison of the fatty acid (FA) composition of traditional butter (TB) and (TBO) with emphasis on geometric and conjugated ...

  17. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets (United States)

    The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...

  18. Synthesis of racemic [methyl-d3]-labeled cis- and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravard, A.; Crooks, P.A.


    A method is described for the synthesis of the racemic [methyl-d 3 ] forms of the nicotine metabolites cis-3'-hydroxycotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine. The key intermediate was [methyl-d 3 ]-N-methylhydroxylamine, obtained from a selective hydrogenation of d 3 -nitro-methane. This intermediate was converted to [methyl-d 3 ]-α-3-pyridyl-N-methylnitrone, which was condensed with methyl acrylate to give a mixture of isomeric isoxazolidines. The hydrogenolysis of this mixture afforded a 70:30 mixture of [methyl-d 3 ] cis- and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, from which the pure cis-isomer could be isolated by recrystallization from acetone. [Methyl-d 3 ]-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine could be prepared in high yield from the cis-isomer via chiral inversion utilizing a Mitsunobu reaction, or by chromatographic separation from a mixture of the cis- and trans-3'-benzoyloxycotinine, followed by O-debenzoylation in methanolic NaOH. (author)

  19. The initial experience of trans-rectal ultrasound and biopsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The initial experience of trans-rectal ultrasound and biopsy in diagnosis of carcinoma prostate in Gezira Hospital for Renal Disease and Surgery (GHRDS). Walaa Eldin Ibraheem, Sami Mahjoub Taha, Mustafa Omran Mansour, Mohammed El Imam Mohamed Ahmed ...

  20. Strange Bedfellows: Anachronisms, Identity Politics, and the Queer Case of Trans. (United States)

    Gailey, Nerissa


    This article explores trans identities, as articulated within a few historical texts. From early literary depictions of gender difference, to medicalized conceptions of transsexualism, to a proliferation of trans and queer identities represented by an ever-expanding "alphabet soup" of identity labels, our understandings of identities, sexualities, and queer community-building continue to change. I use the notion of "kind-making," as elaborated on in the work of Ian Hacking, to illustrate that some queer and trans identifications are affiliative, whereas others are contrastive or oppositional in nature, and these structural differences have important implications with respect to understanding identity and sexuality, and also trans inclusion within LGBT communities and activist efforts.

  1. Study of reactions of isotopic exchange of trans-zeatin with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.


    Reactions of isotopic exchange of trans-zeatin with high-radioactive tritium water, with gaseous tritium in solution and solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation are studied to prepare trans-zeatin and dihydrozeatin labelled with tritium. It is shown that reaction of isotopic exchange of trans-zeatin with gaseous tritium both in solutions and without solvents at 160 Deg C and above leads to practically total hydrogenation of initial compound with formation of dihydrozeatin labelled with tritium. Isotopic exchange with tritium water permits to prepare zeatin labelled with tritium with 67 % yield and specific radioactivity 0.68 PBq/mol. It is determined that in the case of solid-phase isotopic exchange within 150-155 Deg C temperature interval both dihydrozeatin and trans-zeatin labelled with tritium are formed [ru

  2. Better faster cheaper: TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Financial information from TransCanada was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000, including a summary of actions in the area of management, strategy, and policy. The company's efforts in 2000 were directed at restoring and strengthening their financial position by strengthening their balance sheet, restoring earnings, establishing a growth platform for future earnings and positioning the company with discretionary cash flow. In 2000, TransCanada substantially completed its divestiture program and sold assets for proceeds of nearly $3.4 billion. These proceeds have been used mainly to reduce debt and associated financial charges. TransCanada also made successful bids in Alberta's power auctions, increased ownership in Ocean State power and TransCanada Power, L.P. In addition, the company began development of two new power plants in Alberta. These initiatives are expected to contribute to an increase in earnings. tabs., figs

  3. A mutant sialidase having trans-sialidase activity for use in production of sialylated glycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), malto-oligosaccharides (MOS), isomalto-oligosaccarides (IMO), lactulose, melibiose, maltose, glycosyl sucrose, lactosucrose and fucose. Trans-sialidated mono- and oligo- saccharides, produced with the mutant enzyme, are useful in preparing...

  4. Trigemino-cardiac reflex: occurrence of asystole during trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy: a case report. (United States)

    Jeon, Dae Geun; Kang, Bong Jin; Hur, Tae Won


    The trigemino-cardiac reflex has been reported to occur during various craniofacial surgeries or procedures including manipulation of the trigeminal ganglion, tumor resection in the cerebellopontine angle, various facial reconstructions and trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy. Regarding risk factors during trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy, invasiveness closely related to the size of tumor and the degree of manipulation of cavernous sinus wall have been reported. We report the case of a 40-year-old female patient who had a relatively small-sized (trans-sphenoidal operation of the wall of the cavernous sinus, which strongly suggests the importance of careful manipulation of the cavernous sinus wall. In addition to reporting this rare complication of trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy, we reviewed its clinical management by performing a literature search.

  5. Patient radiation exposure in right versus left trans-radial approach for coronary procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigattieri, Stefano; Di Russo, Cristian; Cera, Maria; Fedele, Silvio; Sciahbasi, Alessandro [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Pugliese, Francesco Rocco [Emergency Department Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome (Italy)


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure, assessed by dose-area product (DAP), in right trans-radial approach (RR) versus left trans-radial approach (LR) for coronary procedures. Background: In LR the catheter course is more similar to trans-femoral approach, thus allowing an easier negotiation of coronary ostia which, in turn, might translate into reduced fluoroscopy time (FT) and radiation exposure as compared to RR. Methods: We retrospectively selected diagnostic and interventional procedures (PCI) performed by RR or LR at our center from May 2009 to May 2014. We only included in the analysis the procedures in which DAP values were available. Results: We analyzed 1464 procedures, 1175 of which performed by RR (80.3%) and 289 by LR (19.7%). Median DAP values were significantly higher in RR as compared to LR for diagnostic and interventional procedures (4482 vs. 3540{sup 2} and 11523 vs. 10086{sup 2}, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in FT and in contrast volume (CV). In the propensity-matched cohort, consisting of 269 procedures for each group, no significant differences between LR and RR were observed in median DAP values for both diagnostic and interventional procedures (3990 vs. 3542{sup 2} and 9964 vs. 10216{sup 2}, respectively; p = ns); FT and CV were also similar. At multiple linear regression analysis laterality of trans-radial approach was not associated with DAP. Conclusions: In an experienced trans-radial center LR is not associated with a reduction in radiation exposure, FT or CV as compared to RR. - Highlights: • Right trans-radial approach is by far more commonly used than left trans-radial approach. • Left trans-radial approach has the advantage of an easier catheter manipulation, more similar to trans-femoral approach. • This could reduce fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure. • We conducted a retrospective study to investigate patient radiation

  6. Thiyl radical-induced cis-trans-isomerization of arachidonic acid inhibits prostaglandin metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzsch, S.; Droessler, K.; Sprinz, H.; Brede, O.


    Complete text of publication follows. Thiyl radicals radiolytically generated from thiophenol in methanolic solution are known to isomerise double bonds of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). γ-irradiating of such a system containing all-cis 5,8,11,14 eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid, AA) with low doses (0.1-0.8 kGy) results in a mixture of 8 to 32% mono-trans-isomers. Here we report about the influence of mono-trans-AA on the primary steps of AA-metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis, catalysed by cyclooxygenase (COX). In the cell-free model system the reaction of COX-1 with AA was analysed by controlling the oxygen level during the enzymatic reaction. As an example, a mixture of a low quantity of mono-trans-isomerized AA (10%) and 90% all-cis-isomer exhibits a marked reduced oxygen consumption by 45%. As further proofs - the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the COX-coupled peroxidase reaction was detected, - and the COX-1 activity in presence of different amounts of trans-AA was characterized using a photometric assay based on the oxidation of TMPD. All these methods indicated semiquantitatively a reduced activity of COX-1, depending on the trans-isomer yield. Therefore, an inhibition of COX-1 activity by only one trans-double-bond in AA could be concluded. Furthermore, in vitro cell-line experiments were performed analysing the influence of mono-trans-isomerized AA on the activity of the cell-own COX-2. Hence, VD 3 -differentiated and LPS-stimulated monocyte-like cells were incubated with mono-trans-AA and ROS-production was detected by the chemiluminescence measurements mentioned above. Compared to the reaction with all-cis-AA we found a considerable lowered formation of ROS. Likewise, we obtained a reduced PGE 2 -expression between 15 and 40% for cells treated with 8 to 29% trans-AA. The model as well as in vivo experiments demonstrate an inhibition effect of mono-trans-AA and give rise for postulating an enzyme blocking mechanism

  7. Intra-District Disparities in Primary Education: A Case Study of Bankura District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Maji


    Full Text Available The level of education and its response to different educational opportunities vary from one spatial unit to another depending on various factors like social, economic, cultural, and institutional. It is understood that certain regions acquire relative advancements over others in terms of human resource development and human capital formation. The key purpose of this research is to examine the intra-district disparities in primary education in Bankura District one of the districts of West Bengal. It ranks 11thamong the 19 districts of West Bengal (Human Development Report, 2007.  Overall literacy rate of the district stands at 70.26% but the district scores low in terms of female literacy rates, which is 60.05%,whereas the male literacy rate is 80.05%, which is a huge gender literacy gap of 20%. There are also regional inequalities existing at block level. Kotulpur ranks first with a literacy rate of 78.01% while Saltora occupies the bottom position with literacy rate of just 61.45% (Census of India, 2011. The level of educational development is dependent on several factors—enrolment ratio, dropout and repetition rates, pupil-teacher ratio, habitations covered by educational institutions, space-student ratio, drinking water and sanitation facilities in school, etc. In this context, the present study aims at examining the issues of intra-district disparities in educational attainment with regard to various educational amenities of Bankura district, West Bengal. Ten attributes have been selected to examine the level of development in primary education. It is clear from the study that the level of development in eastern part of the district is relatively better in comparison to other regions. Economic backwardness and physical bottlenecks continue to be major issues in western blocks.

  8. A trans-disciplinary review of deep learning research for water resources scientists


    Shen, Chaopeng


    Deep learning (DL), a new-generation artificial neural network research, has made profound strides in recent years. This review paper is intended to provide water resources scientists with a simple technical overview, trans-disciplinary progress update, and potentially inspirations about DL. Effective architectures, more accessible data, advances in regularization, and new computing power enabled the success of DL. A trans-disciplinary review reveals that DL is rapidly transforming myriad sci...

  9. Synthesis and crystal structure of trans-[Ni(pyzdcH)M 2 (H 2 O) 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determined structure of the title compound C24H20Ni2N8O20 consists of the mononuclear trans-[Ni(pyzdc)2(H2O)2], (pyzdc = pyrazine-2,3- dicarboxylate). The Ni(II) atom is hexa-coordinated by two (pyzdcH)- groups and two water molecules. The coordinated water molecules are in trans-diaxial positions and the ...

  10. Peculiarities of general atmospheric circulation above Kazakhstan and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turulina, G.K.; Muradov, M.A.; Sal'nikov, V.G.; Bogacev, V.P.


    Essential information is gathered for analysis and typification of atmospheric processes observed above Kazakhstan during studied period (1964-1986). Peculiarities of atmospheric processes and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances above Kazakhstan territory are researched. Received data indicate on actuality of the problem for Republic of Kazakhstan and necessity of signing of the International Convention on trans-bordering pollution with purpose of integration in fulfillment of International Program of observation and assessment of spreading of air pollutants in Europe. (author)

  11. Were policies in Brazil effective to reducing trans fat from industrial origin in foods? (United States)

    Dias, Flávia da Silva Lima; Lima, Mário Ferreira; Velasco, Patricia Coelho de; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Sardinha, Fátima Lúcia de Carvalho; Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares do


    To determine the trans fatty acids content of processed foods frequently consumed by adults living in a Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after the enactment of a mandatory trans fatty acids labelling policy. Between February 2014 and January 2015, a specifically dietary questionnaire was completed by 107 adults to assess the frequency of processed foods consumption. The most commonly consumed products from the survey, including vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits, snacks, cheese bread (pão de queijo), french fries, cheeseburger and ice cream, were then analyzed for their trans fatty acids content using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Differences in the levels of trans fatty acids were observed among 22 products analyzed, considering that trans fatty acids content ranged between 0.0 g/100 g in samples of cream cracker biscuit 1 and olive oil to 0.83 g/100 g in samples of cheeseburger (fast food), 0.51 g/100 g in samples of frozen pão de queijo and 12.92 g/100 g in samples of chocolate sandwich cookies with cream filling 2. The overall trans fatty acids content of the different samples of margarine brands was 0.20 g/100 g for brand 1 and 0.0 g/100 g for brand 2. These data are significantly lower than those observed in a survey conducted in 2003, when the regulation had been enacted. Our data indicate that Brazilian regulation is very likely implicated in the observed drop in trans fatty acids of the most processed foods but has yet to eliminate them, which reinforces the urgent need to revise the legislation, since a minimum amount of trans fat does not mean that the food product does not contain this type of fat.

  12. Were policies in Brazil effective to reducing trans fat from industrial origin in foods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia da Silva Lima Dias


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the trans fatty acids content of processed foods frequently consumed by adults living in a Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after the enactment of a mandatory trans fatty acids labelling policy. METHODS Between February 2014 and January 2015, a specifically dietary questionnaire was completed by 107 adults to assess the frequency of processed foods consumption. The most commonly consumed products from the survey, including vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits, snacks, cheese bread (pão de queijo, french fries, cheeseburger and ice cream, were then analyzed for their trans fatty acids content using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. RESULTS Differences in the levels of trans fatty acids were observed among 22 products analyzed, considering that trans fatty acids content ranged between 0.0 g/100 g in samples of cream cracker biscuit 1 and olive oil to 0.83 g/100 g in samples of cheeseburger (fast food, 0.51 g/100 g in samples of frozen pão de queijo and 12.92 g/100 g in samples of chocolate sandwich cookies with cream filling 2. The overall trans fatty acids content of the different samples of margarine brands was 0.20 g/100 g for brand 1 and 0.0 g/100 g for brand 2. These data are significantly lower than those observed in a survey conducted in 2003, when the regulation had been enacted. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that Brazilian regulation is very likely implicated in the observed drop in trans fatty acids of the most processed foods but has yet to eliminate them, which reinforces the urgent need to revise the legislation, since a minimum amount of trans fat does not mean that the food product does not contain this type of fat.

  13. Trans generational ethics: protecting future generations against nuclear waste hazards. Some ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, G.C.


    This paper describes the activities launched at SCK x CEN, intended to explore ethical and other non-technical aspects when dealing with the time scales considered in the high-level waste disposal program. Especially the issues of retrievability and precaution will be focused on which will be philosophically contextualised. Many questions will be raised in order to sensitize all stakeholders for the trans-disciplinary character of the trans-generational problem at hand. (author)

  14. Observational studies are compatible with an association between saturated and trans fats and cardiovascular disease


    Hooper, Lee; Mann, Jim


    Context What is the relationship between saturated or trans fats in our food and cardiovascular risk? To find out we must examine the totality of interventional and observational evidence, and all appropriate outcomes. The World Health Organization Nutrition Guidance Advisory Group (WHO NUGAG) recently commissioned systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which examined effects of modifying saturated or trans fat intakes on mortality or cardiovascular health1, 2 and controlle...

  15. Trans?generational plasticity in response to immune challenge is constrained by heat stress


    Roth, Olivia; Landis, Susanne H.


    Trans-generational plasticity is the adjustment of phenotypes to changing habitat conditions that persist longer than the individual lifetime. Fitness benefits (adaptive TGP) are expected upon matching parent-offspring environments. In a global change scenario, several performance-related environmental factors are changing simultaneously. This lowers the predictability of offspring environmental conditions, potentially hampering the benefits of trans-generational plasticity. For the first tim...

  16. Obtenção de gorduras low trans por interesterificação quimica


    Miluska Castillo Caceres


    Resumo: As gorduras trans, principalmente presentes nos alimentos industrializados como biscoitos, gorduras para fritura, margarinas, entre outros, são resultados da hidrogenação parcial, processo utilizado pela indústria há mais de 100 anos Abstract:Trans fats, most contained within food industrialized and biscuits, fats for frying, margarine and others, are the result of partial hydrogenation, a process used by the industry for more than 100 years

  17. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience


    Maksin-Mićić Marija


    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  18. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union


    Maksin-Mićić Marija


    The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and f...

  19. Trans-apical aortic valve implantation in a patient with stentless valve degeneration. (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; MacCarthy, Philip; Monaghan, Mark; Wendler, Olaf


    Trans-apical valve-in-valve trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has successfully been performed in selected, high-risk patients, who suffered prosthetic degeneration after aortic valve replacement using stented xenografts. We report the case of a 79-year-old male patient who underwent one of the first successful TAVIs in a failing stentless bioprosthesis. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Dan Nilai Pelanggan Terhadap Kepuasan Dan Loyalitas Pelanggan Trans Metro Pekanbaru


    Harpadeles, Ian; ', Jushermi; Nursanti, Aida


    This study aims to measure the impact of service quality and customer value on customer satisfaction and loyalty Trans Metro Pekanbaru. The population in this study is the Trans Metro Pekanbaru customers with a total sample of 100 respondents, using purposive sampling technique. Analysis of data using path analysis with SPSS version 17.0. The results showed that the variables of service quality significantly influence customer satisfaction. Customer value significantly influence customer sati...

  1. Trigemino-cardiac reflex: occurrence of asystole during trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy: a case report


    Jeon, Dae Geun; Kang, Bong Jin; Hur, Tae Won


    The trigemino-cardiac reflex has been reported to occur during various craniofacial surgeries or procedures including manipulation of the trigeminal ganglion, tumor resection in the cerebellopontine angle, various facial reconstructions and trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy. Regarding risk factors during trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy, invasiveness closely related to the size of tumor and the degree of manipulation of cavernous sinus wall have been reported. We report the case of a 40-year-old fem...

  2. Image guidance in trans-sphenoidal surgery for giant pituitary adenomas: Luxury or necessity?


    Deepak Agrawal


    Background: In spite of availability of image guidance (neuronavigation) at major centers around the world, most trans-sphenoidal surgeries for pituitary adenomas continue to be done under fluoroscopic control. On the other hand, the high mortality and morbidity for giant pituitary adenomas is mainly due to inadequate tumor removal. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to study to utility of image guidance in trans-sphenoidal surgeries for optimizing tumor removal in giant pit...

  3. Rural district hospitals - essential cogs in the district health system - and primary healthcare re-engineering. (United States)

    le Roux, K W D P; Couper, I


    The re-engineering of primary healthcare (PHC) is regarded as an essential precursor to the implementation of National Health Insurance in South Africa, but improvements in the provision of PHC services have been patchy. The authors contend that the role of well- functioning rural district hospitals as a hub from which PHC services can be most efficiently managed has been underestimated, and that the management of district hospitals and PHC clinics need to be co-located at the level of the rural district hospital, to allow for proper integration of care and effective healthcare provision.

  4. Characteristics of uranium districts of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.


    Uranium deposits are discovered in 15 ore districts of the Russian Federation. They are subdivided into four groups: Streltsovsky district with existing production centre, Stavropolsky district with depleted deposits, three prospective districts and ten reserve districts. The overview of new data on these districts is presented. Streltsovsky district with Priargunsky Production Centre include 19 molybdenum-uranium deposits of structure-bound volcanic type in caldera. The main activities in Stavropolsky district with two depleted uranium deposits are connected with restoration works and wastes rehabilitation. Except Streltsovsky district there are no more deposits in the Russian Federation prepared for uranium production. At the same time some uranium deposits of Vitimsky, Zauralsky, and West-Siberian districts are prospective for new development of production centres. They belong to the sandstone type, related to paleovalley or basal channel, and are suitable for ISL operation. The deposits of the other districts are considered to be reserve and considered unprofitable for uranium production at present and in the nearest future. The biggest of them is Aldansky district with gold-uranium deposits in potassium metasomatites in areas of Mesozoic activation of Archean cratons. Central Transbaikalsky, Yeniseisky, Yergeninsky, Onezhsky, Ladozhsky, Bureinsky, Khankaisky, Volgo-Uralsky reserve districts include mainly small-size deposits of vein, volcanic, surficial and metasomatite types with low uranium grades. (author)

  5. Gender identification and sex reassignment surgery in the trans population: a survey study in France. (United States)

    Giami, Alain; Beaubatie, Emmanuelle


    Drawing from controversies between medical, legal, and associative actors about the obligation of sex reassignment surgeries (SRS) for people who intend to change their civil status, this article discusses the role that medical procedures, and particularly SRS, play in contemporary gender identifications and transition pathways in France. In 2010, the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research conducted a national survey in order to study the sociodemographic characteristics, access to medical, and psychological care, and state of health among trans individuals. After a long period of ethnographic work during which a partnership was established with trans actors to map the social, medical, and political landscape of trans communities, a questionnaire was developed and distributed between July and October 2010 in collaboration with most of the trans organizations and public and private health professionals operating in France. Overall, 381 self-identified trans individuals returned the anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The results highlighted the heterogeneity of the trans population, whose definition cannot be reduced to a group of individuals undergoing standardized hormonal treatments and SRS. Two central indicators, sex assigned at birth and gender self-identification, enabled us to describe and analyze different medical and legal pathways with a particular focus on SRS, which is often compulsory for a change of civil status in France. Although SRS remains an important factor in an individual's subjective evaluation of the success of the transition pathway, its practice varies depending on one's sex assigned at birth and gender identification.

  6. The evolutionary landscape of intergenic trans-splicing events in insects (United States)

    Kong, Yimeng; Zhou, Hongxia; Yu, Yao; Chen, Longxian; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan


    To explore the landscape of intergenic trans-splicing events and characterize their functions and evolutionary dynamics, we conduct a mega-data study of a phylogeny containing eight species across five orders of class Insecta, a model system spanning 400 million years of evolution. A total of 1,627 trans-splicing events involving 2,199 genes are identified, accounting for 1.58% of the total genes. Homology analysis reveals that mod(mdg4)-like trans-splicing is the only conserved event that is consistently observed in multiple species across two orders, which represents a unique case of functional diversification involving trans-splicing. Thus, evolutionarily its potential for generating proteins with novel function is not broadly utilized by insects. Furthermore, 146 non-mod trans-spliced transcripts are found to resemble canonical genes from different species. Trans-splicing preserving the function of ‘breakup' genes may serve as a general mechanism for relaxing the constraints on gene structure, with profound implications for the evolution of genes and genomes. PMID:26521696

  7. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate prevents murine dietary steatohepatitis caused by trans-fatty acid plus fructose. (United States)

    Morinaga, Maki; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Arai, Kumiko; Kusama, Hiromi; Uchiyama, Akira; Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio


    Excess consumption of trans-fatty acid could increase the risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, treatment targeting trans-fatty acid-induced NASH has not been examined. Here we focused on the influence of trans-fatty acid intake on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes, so we investigated the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), on trans-fatty acid-caused steatohepatitis using diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Elaidic acid (EA, trans-fatty acid) alone did not cause definitive liver injury. In contrast, EA plus low-dose fructose induced extensive apoptosis in hepatocytes with severe fat accumulation. EA plus fructose significantly increased ER stress markers such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while PBA significantly reduced this response. In vitro, EA promoted expression of GRP78 and phosphorylation of eIF2α in primary-cultured hepatocytes. EA also increased hepatocellular susceptibility to low-dose tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Treatment with PBA significantly reduced these responses. In conclusion, EA potentiates susceptibly to non-hazardous dose of fructose, and increases ER and oxidative stress. PBA improved steatohepatitis induced by EA plus fructose through amelioration of ER stress. Therefore, ER stress-targeted therapy using a chemical chaperone is a promising novel strategy for trans-fatty acid-induced steatohepatitis.

  8. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the stability of all-trans lutein and its degradation kinetics. (United States)

    Song, Jiang-Feng; Li, Da-Jing; Pang, Hui-Li; Liu, Chun-Quan


    Ultrasound treatment has been widely applied in the extraction of biologically active compounds including carotenoids. However, there are few reports on their effects on the stability of these compounds. In the present study, the stability of all-trans lutein, one of the carotenoids, was investigated under the action of ultrasound. Results showed that ultrasound induced the isomerization of all-trans lutein to its isomers, namely to 13-cis lutein, 13'-cis lutein, 9-cis lutein and 9'-cis lutein as analyzed by HPLC coupled with DAD and LC-MS; and the percentage of the isomerization increased with increasing both ultrasonic frequency and power. The stability of all-trans lutein in dichloromethane was worst among multiple kinds of solvents. Interestingly, the retention rate of all-trans lutein improved as the temperature increased, which runs counter to the Arrhenius law. Under ultrasound irradiation, the degradation mechanism might be different with various temperatures, the degradation of all-trans lutein followed first-order kinetics at 20°C, while second-order kinetics was followed at 30-50°C. As the ultrasonic reaction time prolonged, lutein epoxidation nearly occurred. Those results presented here emphasized that UAE techniques should be carefully used in the extraction of all-trans lutein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.


    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  10. Uncovering the Boundary-spanning Role of Information Systems Research in Trans-Disciplinary Knowledge Advancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Lim, Eric T. K.; Tan, Chee-Wee


    Intrigued by the important yet underexplored inter-disciplinary impact of IS discipline, this study investigates the inter-disciplinary role played by IS discipline in trans-disciplinary knowledge advancement. To achieve this objective, this study firstly advanced a Model of Trans-Disciplinary Kn......Intrigued by the important yet underexplored inter-disciplinary impact of IS discipline, this study investigates the inter-disciplinary role played by IS discipline in trans-disciplinary knowledge advancement. To achieve this objective, this study firstly advanced a Model of Trans......-Disciplinary Knowledge Advancement that posits a process that consists of three stages of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis with two transitions, namely knowledge liquidization and crystallization, in two modes, namely boundary-reinforcing and boundary-spanning. In light of this model, this study conducted...... elicited. Results from an in-depth bibliographic analysis on these central articles shed light on four distinct trans-disciplinary roles (i.e., spanner, innovator, aggregator, and reinforcer) and trans-disciplinary characteristics of IS research....

  11. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market. (United States)

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana


    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the "biscuits, wafers and cookies" group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry.

  12. The prototype cameras for trans-Neptunian automatic occultation survey (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Hu, Yen-Sang; Geary, John C.; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Amato, Stephen M.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Pratlong, Jerome; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Lehner, Matthew; Norton, Timothy; Jorden, Paul


    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is a three robotic telescope project to detect the stellar occultation events generated by TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs). TAOS II project aims to monitor about 10000 stars simultaneously at 20Hz to enable statistically significant event rate. The TAOS II camera is designed to cover the 1.7 degrees diameter field of view of the 1.3m telescope with 10 mosaic 4.5k×2k CMOS sensors. The new CMOS sensor (CIS 113) has a back illumination thinned structure and high sensitivity to provide similar performance to that of the back-illumination thinned CCDs. Due to the requirements of high performance and high speed, the development of the new CMOS sensor is still in progress. Before the science arrays are delivered, a prototype camera is developed to help on the commissioning of the robotic telescope system. The prototype camera uses the small format e2v CIS 107 device but with the same dewar and also the similar control electronics as the TAOS II science camera. The sensors, mounted on a single Invar plate, are cooled to the operation temperature of about 200K as the science array by a cryogenic cooler. The Invar plate is connected to the dewar body through a supporting ring with three G10 bipods. The control electronics consists of analog part and a Xilinx FPGA based digital circuit. One FPGA is needed to control and process the signal from a CMOS sensor for 20Hz region of interests (ROI) readout.

  13. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet. (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D


    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  14. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya. (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer


    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  15. Trans-obturator Tape in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi M


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a new minimally-invasive surgical procedure using trans-obturator Tape (TOT to treat female stress urinary incontinence.Methods: This clinical trial study was performed from 2003 to 2004 in the Gynecology Department of Imam Hospital, Vali-e-Asr, Tehran, Iran. A total of 35 women with stress urinary incontinence underwent the TOT procedure. All patients underwent pre-operative clinical examination, cough-stress test (full bladder, uroflowmetry and post-voiding residual volume assessment. Results: The mean age of patients was 50 years, ranging from 26 to 74 years, with an average urinary stress incontinence duration of six years. The mean time of follow-up was 14 months (at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months and the average duration of surgery was about 20 minutes. The perioperative complication rate was 9% with no vascular, nerve or bowel injuries. The rate of hemorrhagic side effects (spontaneously-absorbed hematoma and blood loss not requiring blood transfusion was 2.9%. Post-operative urinary retention and vaginal erosion occurred in one case each; the former was treated by intermittent self-catheterization. In total, 91.4% of patients were completely cured and 8.6% were improved without failure of treatment. Conclusions: The present study confirms the results obtained by Delorme and coworkers, and allows us to consider TOT as a safe, minimally invasive and efficient short-term surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, alone or in combination with prolapse repair. Following this study, a randomized control trial is recommended to compare TOT with the gold standard surgery for women with urinary incontinence.

  16. Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery of pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y R Yadav


    Full Text Available Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery (EETS is increasingly used for pituitary lesions. Pre-operative CT and MRI scans and peroperative endoscopic visualization can provide useful anatomical information. EETS is indicated in sellar, suprasellar, intraventricular, retro-infundibular, and invasive tumors. Recurrent and residual lesions, pituitary apoplexy and empty sella syndrome can be managed by EETS. Modern neuronavigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators, ultrasonic bone curette can add to the safety. The binostril approach provides a wider working area. High definition camera is much superior to three-chip camera. Most of the recent reports favor EETS in terms of safety, quality of life and tumor resection, hospital stay, better endocrinological, and visual outcome as compared to the microscopic technique. Nasal symptoms, blood loss, operating time are less in EETS. Various naso-septal flaps and other techniques of CSF leak repair could help reduce complications. Complications can be further reduced after achieving the learning curve, good understanding of limitations with proper patient selection. Use of neuronavigation, proper post-operative care of endocrine function, establishing pituitary center of excellence and more focused residency and endoscopic fellowship training could improve results. The faster and safe transition from microscopic to EETS can be done by the team concept of neurosurgeon/otolaryngologist, attending hands on cadaveric dissection, practice on models, and observation of live surgeries. Conversion to a microscopic or endoscopic-assisted approach may be required in selected patients. Multi-modality treatment could be required in giant and invasive tumors. EETS appears to be a better surgical option in most pituitary adenoma.

  17. Antiretroviral therapy programme outcomes in Tshwane district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To ascertain patient retention on ART after 5 years on treatment in one district of Gauteng Province, SA, establish the number of patients ... A retrospective cohort study of patients initiated on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between January and March .... ferred-out patients from the total of 381 leaves.

  18. States Eye Looser Rein on Districts (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda


    The push to give school districts greater operating flexibility--a grassroots rallying cry eclipsed in recent years by the charter school movement--is seeing a resurgence, as states seek to spur innovation that will help raise student achievement. In Georgia, Governor Sonny Perdue is proposing "performance contracts" that would free…

  19. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    urban designers to creatively improve the sustainable performance of a district" (Kortman et al, 2001). Compared to other tools for assessing urban sustainability, DPL represents a simple and flexible approach. The idea is to use a limited number of indicators based on already collected data. Once...

  20. Taking the Plunge: Districts Leap into Virtualization (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer


    Moving from a traditional desktop computing environment to a virtualized solution is a daunting task. In this article, the author presents case histories of three districts that have made the conversion to virtual computing to learn about their experiences: What prompted them to make the move, and what were their objectives? Which obstacles prove…

  1. Districts Begin Looking Harder at Absenteeism (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.


    As policymakers debate the merits of new tests and intervention strategies to improve student achievement, some districts are exploring a more basic warning sign: Are students even showing up? A growing consensus of research points to chronic absence--defined by the national policy group Attendance Counts as missing 10 percent of school or…

  2. De flora van het Urbaan district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton


    The urban areas in the Netherlands can be considered as a separate flora district; the so-called “Urban district”. It consists of large stony areas, with a “steppe”-like environment and a deviant climate. Characteristic for urban areas are often disturbed and trampled communities of ruderals and

  3. Report of the Fourth District Economists' Roundtable


    Michael F. Bryan; John B. Martin


    A summary of the 1994 forecasts for real output and inflation presented by 15 members of the Fourth District Economists' Roundtable at their January 1994 meeting, highlighting the measurement of service sector prices and the role of small businesses in creating jobs.

  4. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts (United States)

    Allen, L. Hank


    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  5. Assertiveness: making yourself heard in district nursing. (United States)

    Lawton, Sally; Stewart, Fiona


    Being assertive is not the same as being aggressive. Assertiveness is a tool for expressing ourselves confidently, and a way of saying 'yes' and 'no' in an appropriate way. This article explores issues concerned with assertiveness in district nurse settings. It outlines helpful techniques to develop assertiveness, such as the broken record, fogging, negative assertion and negative inquiry.

  6. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program. (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.


    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  7. Business district streetscapes, trees, and consumer response (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf


    A multistudy research program has investigated how consumers respond to the urban forest in central business districts of cities of various sizes. Trees positively affect judgments of visual quality but, more significantly, may influence other consumer responses and behaviors. Survey respondents from all regions of the United States...

  8. District profile: the shoe fits at Northampton. (United States)


    An old county town that has retained its individuality through all the changes of the last three centuries, and is expanding vigorously to meet the challenge of the next--that is Northampton. The health services of the district reflect the town, and draw strength, as they always have done, from close links with the community they serve.

  9. New Attitudes Shaping Labor-District Relations (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen


    Back in the mid-2000s, in public and in the news media, Joseph P. Burke, then superintendent of the Springfield public schools, and Timothy T. Collins, president of the local teachers' union, often seemed to be at odds with each other. Out of the public eye, however, the two men had begun meeting regularly. When Burke left the district, the work…

  10. Challenges of decentralisation in Ghana: district assembly's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana and the various legislations on decentralisation articulate the explicit objectives of the policy which includes responsiveness to community needs. The rationale behind Ghana's decentralisation programme and the functions of the District Assemblies (DAs) therefore provide a ...

  11. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.


    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  12. Teachers Already Armed in Some Districts (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi


    Shooting instructor Johnny Price looked at the teachers lined up in front of him. Mr. Price, the owner of Big Iron Concealed Handgun Training in Waco, Texas, spent two days this month training teachers and staff members from the Clifton school district in all they need to know to earn licenses to carry weapons out of sight. There is no indication…

  13. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center. (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  14. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro


    In many countries, district heating (DH) has a key role in the national strategic energy planning. However, tighter legislation on new and future buildings requires much less heating demand which subsequently causes relative high network heat loss. This will make current DH system uneconomical co...

  15. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 947.32 Section 947.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... consideration to (1) the relative importance of new areas of production, (2) changes in the relative position of...

  16. District Stressors and Teacher Evaluation Ratings (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben; Mayrowetz, David; Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Umpstead, Regina R.


    Purpose: Federal and state policymakers in the USA have sought to better differentiate the performance of K-12 teachers by enacting more rigorous evaluation policies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether these policies are working as intended and explore whether district stressors such as funding, enrollment, and governance are…

  17. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tems of the earth atmosphere coupled system and are extreme weather ... intense low pressure systems (India Meteorological. Department (IMD) .... which is responsible for the structural damage due to TC. ..... It fails to distinguish the more prone districts .... References. BMTPC 2006 Vulnerability Atlas of India: Earthquake,.

  18. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.


    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  19. 36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seashore District. 27.3 Section 27.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CAPE...' studio, for appropriate small scale home occupations as the making and selling of traditional Cape Cod...

  20. Indianapolis Plan Suggests Blueprint for Other Districts (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.


    An Indianapolis-based nonprofit organization has crafted a sweeping plan for reworking the 33,000-student Indianapolis school system that would place the district under the control of the city's mayor, pare down the money spent in central administration, and give principals broad authority to hire and fire teachers. The reform plan created by the…

  1. The reliability and usability of district health information software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reliability and usability of district health information software: case studies from Tanzania. ... The District Health Information System (DHIS) software from the Health Information System ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Plan Implementation in the Asante Akyem South District Assembly: Capacity Issues and Challenges. ... This paper uses a case study approach to appraise the capacity of the Asante Akyem South District Assembly (AASDA) in ...

  3. Comparative study of soil physical characteristics of Jaipur district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The present study was carried in Jaipur district of Rajasthan state to measure physical characteristics of the soil samples from different districts of Jaipur. Soils samples were taken at ..... Random field models in earth sciences. Academic. Press.

  4. El Acuerdo TransPacífico y su efecto en América Latina/ The TransPacific Partnership Agreement and its effects on Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Caballero Santos


    Full Text Available Actualmente se están negociando un Acuerdo TransPacífico en comercio e inversión, que abarca a un gran número de países bañados por el océano del mismo nombre, al mismo tiempo que se avanza en un acuerdo trans-Atlántico entre Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea. En este trabajo se aborda este escenario de megabloques comerciales desde la óptica de los efectos que pueda acarrear para América Latina y se visibiliza cómo estas formas de inserción internacional también ponen de manifiesto las diferentes lógicas existentes en el contexto latinoamericano. A TransPacific Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement is currently being negotiated among a great amount of countries in both sides of the Pacific ocean, while developing a TransAtlantic Partnership between the US and the EU. In this work this commercial scenario, covering several continents, is presented from a Latin American perspective, emphasizing the effects that these agreements could produce on this region. And furthermore, the analysis of these ways of international insertion shows us the competing logics which coexist across the Latin American region.

  5. Endoscopic treatment of trans-sellar trans-sphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome presenting with non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. (United States)

    Sasani, M; Ozer, A F; Aydin, A L


    Basal encephaloceles are rare, accounting for about 1.5% of all encephaloceles. The trans-sellar trans-sphenoidal encephalocele variety is the rarest. Morning glory syndrome is often associated with basal encephalocele. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrheas are the least common of these, accounting for only 3% to 5% of all CSF rhinorrheas. The authors describe the outcome of a 10-year follow-up study of a 26-year-old male patient with a spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea occurring trans-sphenoidal encephalocele associated with bilateral morning glory syndrome that was treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach. Endoscopic exploration of the sella floor was performed and closed with abdomen fat packing and muscle fascia. The postoperative course was uneventful. A follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) image at 6 months postoperatively showed extension of encephalocele in the sphenoidal sinus, which was repaired. The patient had no further CSF rhinorrhea and showed no ophthalmologic changes over a follow-up period of over 10 years. Ophthalmologic findings such as strabismus, in association with anomalies of the optic nerve, should alert the physician to the possible presence of an unrecognized skull base midline defect and encephalocele before CSF leakage is seen. The authors believe that a surgeon who has equal confidence in performing the endoscopic endonasal and conventional microscopic trans-sphenoidal approaches should choose the less invasive surgery.

  6. SupraTrans II. Test drive facility for a superconductor-based maglev train; SupraTrans II. Fahrversuchsanlage fuer eine Magnetbahn mit Supraleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Lars; Haas, Oliver de [evico GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Berger, Dietmar; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden (Germany); Olsen, Henning; Roehlig, Steffen [ELBAS Elektrische Bahnsysteme Ingenieur-Gesellschaft mbH, DNV company, Dresden (Germany)


    The SupraTrans system was further developed and a test drive facility built up in Dresden. The latter permits complex drive tests to be made as well as the testing of components. Compared to the demonstrator, the facility is characterized by a higher loadability, higher speeds and a completely contactless energy transmission. (orig.)

  7. [Application of individually designed trans-fissure approach in brain surgery: analysis of 90 cases]. (United States)

    Zhao, Ji-Zong; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Mao-Zhi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Rong; Tang, Ya-Juan


    To explore the feasibility and value of trans-fissure approaches in brain surgery through individually designed craniotomy. Ninety patients with intracranial space-occupying lesions, 47 males and 58 females, aged (43 +/- 14) (1 - 68), were treated by individualized trans-fissure approach surgeries. Linear scalp incision or "horseshoe shape" scalp incision were designed to perform the operation, with a bone flap 3 - 4 cm in diameter. The shortest approach to reach the lesion was decided under the guidance of neuro-navigation and real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Then the lesions were removed through natural cortical fissures. Another 79 patients with intracranial space-occupying lesions, 53 males and 51 females, aged (42 +/- 11) (15 -73), undergoing classical surgeries in the same period were used as control group. The average operation time, size of bone flap, amount of blood loss, hospitalization time, and hospitalization cost were compared between these 2 groups. The operation time of the individually designed trans-fissure approach group was (3.1 +/- 1.6) hours (1.33 - 10.83 hours), significantly shorter than that of the control group [(4.8 +/- 1.9) hrs, P trans-fissure approach group was (173 +/- 168) ml (20 m - 500 ml), significantly less than that of the control group [(410 +/- 61) ml, P trans-fissure approach group was (12 +/- 5) cm2 [(1 - 25) cm2], significantly smaller than that of the control group [(20. +/- 9) cm2, P trans-fissure approach group received retransfusion, compared to 15 in the control group, during operation. No infection or other significant complications occurred after operation in the individually designed trans-fissure approach group. The hospitalization time of the individually designed trans-fissure approach group was (20 +/- 6) days (9 - 39 days), significantly shorter than that of the control group [(24 +/- 7) days, P trans-fissure approach group was (23171 +/- 7280) yuan RMB; significantly lower than that of the control group

  8. Bottleneck analysis at district level to illustrate gaps within the district health system in Uganda (United States)

    Kiwanuka Henriksson, Dorcus; Fredriksson, Mio; Waiswa, Peter; Selling, Katarina; Swartling Peterson, Stefan


    ABSTRACT Background: Poor quality of care and access to effective and affordable interventions have been attributed to constraints and bottlenecks within and outside the health system. However, there is limited understanding of health system barriers to utilization and delivery of appropriate, high-impact, and cost-effective interventions at the point of service delivery in districts and sub-districts in low-income countries. In this study we illustrate the use of the bottleneck analysis approach, which could be used to identify bottlenecks in service delivery within the district health system. Methods: A modified Tanahashi model with six determinants for effective coverage was used to determine bottlenecks in service provision for maternal and newborn care. The following interventions provided during antenatal care were used as tracer interventions: use of iron and folic acid, intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria, HIV counseling and testing, and syphilis testing. Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in Mayuge and Namayingo districts in Uganda were used in this study. Results: Effective coverage and human resource gaps were identified as the biggest bottlenecks in both districts, with coverage ranging from 0% to 66% for effective coverage and from 46% to 58% for availability of health facility staff. Our findings revealed a similar pattern in bottlenecks in both districts for particular interventions although the districts are functionally independent. Conclusion: The modified Tanahashi model is an analysis tool that can be used to identify bottlenecks to effective coverage within the district health system, for instance, the effective coverage for maternal and newborn care interventions. However, the analysis is highly dependent on the availability of data to populate all six determinants and could benefit from further validation analysis for the causes of bottlenecks identified. PMID:28581379

  9. Trans-jugular catheter-directed thrombolysis combined with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiesheng; Li Zhengran; Jiang Zaibo; Zhu Kangshun; Guan Shouhai; Zhou Bing; Xu Changmou; He Keke; Shang Hong


    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of trans-jugular catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) together with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs. Methods: Jugular vein puncture, indwelling catheter and placement of IVC filter were performed in 18 patients with DVT (study group) followed by continuous trans-jugular CDT together with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis. During the corresponding period, 16 patients with DVT (control group) received trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis only. Results: The thrombolytic time and total dose of urokinase in study group and control group were (6.6 ± 2.3) days, (5.52 ± 2.24) x 106 units and (8.2 ± 1.4) days, (7.00 ± 1.66) x 106 units respectively. The thrombolytic time and total dose of urokinase in study group were significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). After the treatment the thigh circumference and calf circumference in study group showed a reduction of (4.6 ± 2.1) cm and (4.0 ± 2.1) cm respectively, which were (3.2 ± 1.7) cm and (2.7 ± 1.5) cm respectively in control group, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The complete patent of the veins was 66.7% in study group and 31.3% in control group, the difference between two groups was significant (P < 0.05). In four cases of the study group, the filters were withdrawn through the original puncture site after the thrombus was completely dissolved. Conclusion: Trans-jugular CDT combined with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis is an effective and safe therapeutic technique for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, moreover, the filter can be taken back via the original puncture site when the thrombus is completely dissolved. (authors)

  10. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana


    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  11. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana. (United States)

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng


    Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees' personal values and goals are realised. The aim of the study was to evaluate employees' personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  12. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.


    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  13. Little Reason for Being: A Case of School District Dissolution. (United States)

    Ellis, Pam

    In 1980, Tonnelly Central School District became the first school district in New York State to be dissolved pursuant to Section 1505 of Education Law, marking the first use of dissolution and annexation as a means by which to address the programmatic and management problems encountered in the operation of a central school district. Problems faced…

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic (United States)

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  15. Profiles of Merit Pay Provisions in Ohio School Districts (United States)

    Willis, Chris; Ingle, W. Kyle


    A small number of districts in Ohio from a variety of locales have adopted merit pay provisions. Using Springer's (2009) taxonomy of teacher compensation, we analyzed compensation provisions of these districts. We asked: What are the characteristics of these districts? What criteria are used to determine merit? Who is determining who receives…

  16. Stakeholder Experiences in District-University Administrator Preparation Partnerships (United States)

    Sanzo, Karen L.; Wilson, Jacob McKinley, III


    Our qualitative study explores the lived experiences of district stakeholders in university-district leadership preparation programs. Collaborative partnerships between school districts and universities focused on developing quality school leader are a part of recent efforts to provide the field of public education with exemplary leadership. The…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.


    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  18. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction (United States)

    Holmstrom, Annette


    The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…

  19. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond? (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn


    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  20. Inventory Control of Fixed Assets by School District Personnel. (United States)

    Jensen, Paul E.

    By July 1, 1966, each school district in New York State was required to install a system of property accounting. This pamphlet provides a suggested method of property accounting to assist school districts in meeting this requirement. In addition, suggestions are made to help the districts record the information needed for fire insurance purposes.…