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Sample records for trans fats electronic

  1. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  2. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    biological plausibility add weight to the prospect of a causal connection. Our results may have relevance to public policy determinations regarding dietary trans fats. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00330980.

  3. Formation of trans fats during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  4. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (edible oil). PMID:26483890

  5. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. The mean TFA values were below 2.0% of FAME, however, bakery products contained 4.5% and butter fat 3.2%, respectively. In addition, the distribution of individual trans C18:1 differed. In samples containing ruminant fat (butter and various confectioneries), vaccenic acid (t11-C18:1, t11) predominated, while in foods containing industrially hydrogenated fats, elaidic acid (trans-9, t9-) and t10-C18:1 were the major trans isomers.. This was reflected by a low t9/t11 index of 0.3 and 0.5 in butter and ruminant fat containing confectioneries, respectively, whilst the highest index was observed in shortenings and deep-fried potato products at 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. In conclusion, the TFA content of foods available on the German market is generally declining, but substantial variations are present. The t9/t11 index could be used as an indicator to determine ruminant fat. Practical applications: A number of studies provide evidence that a high TFA intake, particularly of industrial origin, adversely affects human health. The TFA content of foods could be reduced due to the introduction of several mandatory regulations and modifications regarding the hydrogenation process of oils. The most abundant dietary TFA are the isomers of trans C18:1. Unfortunately, the differentiation of these isomers is not yet very common, though the trans C18:1 profile differs depending on its origin (bacterial hydrogenation in the rumen or industrial hydrogenation). To date, data for TFA content

  6. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  7. Trans fats in New Zealand: time for labelling regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Patrick; Benatar, Jocelyne R

    2007-11-09

    Trans fats (trans fatty acids) are commonly used for deep frying in restaurants and in the fast food, snack food, fried food, and baked goods industries, often to extend the shelf life of foods. However they are widely considered to be harmful to health. Trans fats were banned in New York City restaurants from 1 July 2007, and there is growing vocal opposition to trans fats in the European Union. Denmark became the first country, in March 2003, to introduce laws regulating the content of trans fats in food (maximum of 2% of edible fats and oils). What are trans fats, what harm do they cause, and should New Zealand also consider imposing mandatory regulations on their use in food? This article explores the issues.

  8. Letter to the editor: healthy alternatives to trans fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Julie

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of trans fats is associated with an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To comply with regulatory policies and public health authorities recommendations, trans fats should be replaced in food products. The study by Sundram et al. (Nutrition & Metabolism 2007, 4:3 reporting the effect on CVD risk factors of interesterified fat (IE and partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO compared to palm olein (POL has been critically analyzed. The study design and in particular the composition of the tested fats was not suitable to properly answer the question raised regarding the effect of alternative ingredients to trans fats on plasma lipids. The observed effects are divergent with predicted data derived from the literature model consolidated using the individual results of 60 randomized clinical trials. The results of the study published by Sundram and co-workers have to be considered with awareness.

  9. Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Kovacs, Szilvia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the correlates of trans fat knowledge and trans fat label use; to examine the influence of trans fat knowledge, trans fat label use, and dietary attitudes on intake of high trans fat food. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: An urban commuter college. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-two college students. Variables…

  10. Understanding the complexity of trans fatty acid reduction in the American diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Borra, Susan; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yin-Piazza, Shirley Y

    2007-04-24

    A 2-day forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing trans fatty acids without increasing saturated fats in the food supply while maintaining functionality and consumer acceptance of packaged, processed, and prepared foods. Attendees represented the agriculture and oilseed industry and oil processing, food manufacturing, food service, government, food technology, and health and nutrition disciplines. Presentations included food science behind fatty acid technology, the health science of dietary fatty acids, alternatives to trans fatty acids, and the use of alternatives in food manufacturing and food service. The reduction of trans fatty acids in the food supply is a complex issue involving interdependent and interrelated stakeholders. Actions to reduce trans fatty acids need to carefully consider both intended and unintended consequences related to nutrition and public health. The unintended consequence of greatest concern is that fats and oils high in saturated fats, instead of the healthier unsaturated fats, might be used to replace fats and oils with trans fatty acids. Many different options of alternative oils and fats to replace trans fatty acids are available or in development. Decisions on the use of these alternatives need to consider availability, health effects, research and development investments, reformulated food quality and taste, supply-chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference demonstrated the value of collaboration between the food industry and health and nutrition professionals, and this conference model should be used to address other food development, processing, and/or technology issues.

  11. Trans-esterification of poultry skin fat to produce biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, H.; Shah, S.F.A.; Ali, Z.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chicken skin and its fat are sources of solid waste that are usually not utilized and add solid pollution. This research work deals with the production of useful biodiesel from utilizing the waste chicken (fat and its skins). Waste chicken fat and its skins (sourced from local shops of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan) were extracted and trans-estrification was made. The product of trans-estrification was fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) commonly known as biodiesel. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) was used as catalyst and glycerol was obtained as a by-product. The FAME produced was tested for six parameters namely calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity when compared to ASTM E2515-11 standard values. The results of this experiment showed that the calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity values of FAME produced from chicken skin and its fat were close to that of petroleum derived diesel. (author)

  12. FDA Developments: Food Code 2013 and Proposed Trans Fat Determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    268 Reports EFFL 4|2014 USA FDA Developments: Food Code 2013 and Proposed Trans Fat Determination Margaret Rosso Grossman* I. Food Code 2013 and Food Code Reference System Since 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration has published a Food Code, now updated every four years. In November 2013, the

  13. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  14. Binge-type behavior in rats consuming trans-fat-free shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicki, F H E; Charny, G; Corwin, R L W

    2008-07-05

    Studies from this and another laboratory involving an animal model of binge-type behavior have used vegetable shortening containing trans-fats. Due to reformulations by vegetable shortening manufacturers to remove trans-fats from their products, only trans-fat-free shortenings are now available. The goal of the present study was to assess binge-type behavior in rats with trans-fat and trans-free vegetable shortening. Trans-fat-free shortening was provided to three different groups of non-food-deprived male Sprague Dawley rats on different schedules of access: continuous access (24 h/day-7 days/week), daily access (1 h every day), and intermittent access (1 h on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays). Trans-fat shortening was provided to a fourth group on the intermittent access schedule. A fifth group had no shortening access (chow only). Both intermittent groups (trans-fat-free and trans-fat) consumed significantly more shortening during the 1-h period of availability than did the daily group, and there was no difference in shortening intakes between the intermittent groups. These results are identical to previous reports of binge-type behavior in rats using this model. Thus, binge-type behavior in the present behavioral model depends upon the schedule of access, not the presence of trans-fats in the shortening.

  15. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits...... countries in Europe still consume I-TF in amounts that increase their risk of coronary heart disease. Under current European Union (EU) legislation, the sale of products containing I-TF is legal but conflicts with the WHO recommendation to minimise the intake of I-TF. An EU-legislative limit on I-TF content...

  16. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  17. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  18. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hye-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. Methods We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC, compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS or a low trans fat (LC diet for 12 weeks. Results LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR. Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. Conclusions We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC.

  19. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. Methods We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks. Results LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. Conclusions We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC. PMID:21247503

  20. The need for multisectoral food chain approaches to reduce trans fat consumption in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-07-22

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends virtually eliminating trans fat from the global food supply. Although several high-income countries have successfully reduced trans fat levels in foods, low- and middle-income countries such as India face additional challenges to its removal from the food supply. This study provides a systems analysis of the Indian food chain to assess intervention options for reducing trans fat intake in low-income consumers. Data were collected at the manufacturer, retailer and consumer levels. Qualitative interviews were conducted with vanaspati manufacturers (n = 13) and local food vendors (n = 44). Laboratory analyses (n = 39) of street foods/snacks sold by the vendors were also conducted. Trans fat and snack intakes were also examined in low-income consumers in two rural villages (n = 260) and an urban slum (n = 261). Manufacturers of vanaspati described reducing trans fat levels as feasible but identified challenges in using healthier oils. The fat content of sampled oils from street vendors contained high levels of saturated fat (24.7-69.3 % of total fat) and trans fat (0.1-29.9 % of total fat). Households were consuming snacks high in trans fat as part of daily diets (31 % village and 84.3 % of slum households) and 4 % of rural and 13 % of urban households exceeded WHO recommendations for trans fat intakes. A multisectoral food chain approach to reducing trans fat is needed in India and likely in other low- and middle-income countries worldwide. This will require investment in development of competitively priced bakery shortenings and economic incentives for manufacturing foods using healthier oils. Increased production of healthier oils will also be required alongside these investments, which will become increasingly important as more and more countries begin investing in palm oil production.

  1. Mandatory food labeling of trans fat acids: qualitative analysis of the public consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernandes Davies

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the stakeholders and their contributions to the public consultation carried out with regard to the mandatory trans fat acids food labeling proposal in Brazil. Methodology thematic analysis of the documents. Results 25 stakeholders made suggestions regarding the proposed law, and the majority belonged to the food industry sector. The following issues were raised: lack of knowledge among the consumers about trans fat acids; lack of information about trans fat acids in food composition tables and infrastructure to analyse the trans fat content of foods; voluntary trans fat labelling. Conclusions The stakeholders addressed important issues, such as improving nutritional knowledge among the population. However, few stakeholders linked to consumers took part in the public consultation, which might lead to disproportionate influence of the food industry on the development of future food policies.

  2. A prospective study of trans fat intake and risk of preeclampsia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavarro, J. E.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Leth, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at gestation wk...... 25; preeclampsia diagnosis was obtained by linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. 1804 cases of preeclampsia and 402 cases of severe preeclampsia were identified in the cohort. Intake of trans fats decreased during the study period as a consequence of reduction in industrial trans fat...... intake. Intake of trans fats in the 2nd trimester was unrelated to risk of preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Relative risk (95% confidence interval; P, trend) of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia comparing top to bottom quintiles of trans fat intake were 0.95 (0.81; 1.11, 0.33) and 1.07 (0.78; 1...

  3. Observational studies are compatible with an association between saturated and trans fats and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Lee; Mann, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Context What is the relationship between saturated or trans fats in our food and cardiovascular risk? To find out we must examine the totality of interventional and observational evidence, and all appropriate outcomes. The World Health Organization Nutrition Guidance Advisory Group (WHO NUGAG) recently commissioned systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which examined effects of modifying saturated or trans fat intakes on mortality or cardiovascular health1, 2 and controlle...

  4. Changes in Trans Fat and Fatty Acids in Fast Food Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in trans fatty acid intake and subsequent recommendations included in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to decrease intake has led to extensive product reformulations of widely consumed foods high in trans fat. As part of these efforts to provide current and accurate nutrien...

  5. New York City trans fat ban: improving the default option when purchasing foods prepared outside the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse effects of trans fatty acid (trans fat) on cardiovascular health have been known for at least 2 decades. During that time, both the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Institute of Medicine’s Dietary Reference Intake guidelines have recommended restricting trans fat intake to the ex...

  6. Impact of low-trans fat compositions on the quality of conventional and fat-reduced puff pastry

    OpenAIRE

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.

    2016-01-01

    Four vegetable fat blends (FBs) with low trans-fatty acid (TFA???0.6?%) content with various ratios of palm stearin (PS) and rapeseed oil (RO) were characterised and examined for their application in puff pastry production. The amount of PS decreased from FB1 to FB4 and simultaneously the RO content increased. A range of analytical methods were used to characterise the FBs, including solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cone penetrometry and rheological measuremen...

  7. Chronic consumption of trans fat can facilitate the development of hyperactive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Kuhn, F T; Dias, V T; Roversi, K; Vey, L T; Antoniazzi, C T; Barcelos, R C S; Bürger, M E

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, the increased consumption of processed foods, which are rich in hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), has led to a decreased consumption of fish and oilseed, rich in omega-3 fatty acids. This eating habit provides an increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which may be related to neuropsychiatric conditions, including inattention and hyperactivity. In this study, we evaluated the potential connection between prolonged trans fat consumption and development of hyperactivity-like symptoms in rats using different behavioral paradigms. Trans fat intake for 10 months (Experiment 1), as well as during pregnancy and lactation across two sequential generations of rats, (Experiment 4) induced active coping in the forced swimming task (FST). In addition, HVF supplementation was associated with increased locomotion before and after amphetamine (AMPH) administration (Experiment 2). Similarly, HVF supplementation during pregnancy and lactation were associated with increased locomotion in both young and adult rats (Experiment 3). Furthermore, trans fat intake across two sequential generations increased locomotor and exploratory activities following stressors (Experiment 4). From these results, we suggest that chronic consumption of trans fat is able to enhance impulsiveness and reactivity to novelty, facilitating hyperactive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. News media coverage of trans fat: health risks and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2013-01-01

    Prior research indicates that the news media play a critical role in transmitting information to the public about the most pressing public health problems, and framing attributions about who in society is responsible for solving these problems. In this article, we use content analysis methods to study the agenda-setting and framing functions of the news media in shaping perceptions about the health risks posed by trans fat in the U.S. diet. A census of news stories focusing on trans fat was collected from the two largest circulation U.S. newspapers and three major television networks from 1998 to 2008 (N = 156). The content of news coverage was analyzed using a 23-item instrument. Findings indicated that the news media served an important agenda-setting role in educating the public about the presence of trans fat in the U.S. diet and describing the health risks these foods pose. In addition, results indicate that news media coverage framed attributions of responsibility for solving the problem of trans fat in the food supply. News stories noting the heart disease risks of trans fat were significantly more likely to mention governmental responses aimed at curbing consumption than news coverage that did not note these health risks.

  9. Temporal trends in fast-food restaurant energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content, United States, 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Roberts, Susan B; Fierstein, Jamie L; Gary, Christine E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-12-31

    Excess intakes of energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat are associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic syndrome. Trends in fast-food restaurant portion sizes can inform policy decisions. We examined the variability of popular food items in 3 fast-food restaurants in the United States by portion size during the past 18 years. Items from 3 national fast-food chains were selected: French fries, cheeseburgers, grilled chicken sandwich, and regular cola. Data on energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content were collated from 1996 through 2013 using an archival website. Time trends were assessed using simple linear regression models, using energy or a nutrient component as the dependent variable and the year as the independent variable. For most items, energy content per serving differed among chain restaurants for all menu items (P ≤ .04); energy content of 56% of items decreased (β range, -0.1 to -5.8 kcal) and the content of 44% increased (β range, 0.6-10.6 kcal). For sodium, the content of 18% of the items significantly decreased (β range, -4.1 to -24.0 mg) and the content for 33% increased (β range, 1.9-29.6 mg). Absolute differences were modest. The saturated and trans fat content, post-2009, was modest for French fries. In 2013, the energy content of a large-sized bundled meal (cheeseburger, French fries, and regular cola) represented 65% to 80% of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, and sodium content represented 63% to 91% of the 2,300-mg-per-day recommendation and 97% to 139% of the 1,500-mg-per-day recommendation. Findings suggest that efforts to promote reductions in energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat intakes need to be shifted from emphasizing portion-size labels to additional factors such as total calories, frequency of eating, number of items ordered, menu choices, and energy-containing beverages.

  10. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Tetri, Laura H.; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Yerian, Lisa M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fr...

  11. Are Fast Food “Trans-Fat” Claims True? An Infraspec VFA-IR Spectrometer Analysis of Trans-fat content in select food items purchased from Long John Silver’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies linking high trans-fat diets to coronary heart disease (CHD have prompted the need to regulate, limit, or completely ban trans-fat from all commercial food products, including fast foods. Many U.S. fast food chains now claim that their food items, particularly French fries, have "no trans-fat". In a previous study, our lab tested the validity of trans-fat claims made by several popular fast food restaurants by experimentally determining the %trans-fat in oil extracted from fast food French fries. In some cases, the trans-fat content was nearly twice as high as the amount reported by the restaurant in their literature. Long John Silver's, for example, reported a trans-fat content of 25% for their French fries, while our lab actually found over 40% trans-fat. The purpose of this study is to broaden our study of Long John Silver's trans-fat claims by analyzing a variety of their food items and comparing our findings with the %trans-fat reported by the restaurant literature (nutrition fact tables. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. Our preliminary findings suggest that nearly every food item under study contained considerably more trans-fat than the amount reported in the restaurant’s literature.

  12. Artificial trans fat in popular foods in 2012 and in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and thereby decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to monitor the change...

  13. Were policies in Brazil effective to reducing trans fat from industrial origin in foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Flávia da Silva Lima; Lima, Mário Ferreira; Velasco, Patricia Coelho de; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Sardinha, Fátima Lúcia de Carvalho; Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares do

    2018-04-09

    To determine the trans fatty acids content of processed foods frequently consumed by adults living in a Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after the enactment of a mandatory trans fatty acids labelling policy. Between February 2014 and January 2015, a specifically dietary questionnaire was completed by 107 adults to assess the frequency of processed foods consumption. The most commonly consumed products from the survey, including vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits, snacks, cheese bread (pão de queijo), french fries, cheeseburger and ice cream, were then analyzed for their trans fatty acids content using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Differences in the levels of trans fatty acids were observed among 22 products analyzed, considering that trans fatty acids content ranged between 0.0 g/100 g in samples of cream cracker biscuit 1 and olive oil to 0.83 g/100 g in samples of cheeseburger (fast food), 0.51 g/100 g in samples of frozen pão de queijo and 12.92 g/100 g in samples of chocolate sandwich cookies with cream filling 2. The overall trans fatty acids content of the different samples of margarine brands was 0.20 g/100 g for brand 1 and 0.0 g/100 g for brand 2. These data are significantly lower than those observed in a survey conducted in 2003, when the regulation had been enacted. Our data indicate that Brazilian regulation is very likely implicated in the observed drop in trans fatty acids of the most processed foods but has yet to eliminate them, which reinforces the urgent need to revise the legislation, since a minimum amount of trans fat does not mean that the food product does not contain this type of fat.

  14. Were policies in Brazil effective to reducing trans fat from industrial origin in foods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia da Silva Lima Dias

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the trans fatty acids content of processed foods frequently consumed by adults living in a Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after the enactment of a mandatory trans fatty acids labelling policy. METHODS Between February 2014 and January 2015, a specifically dietary questionnaire was completed by 107 adults to assess the frequency of processed foods consumption. The most commonly consumed products from the survey, including vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits, snacks, cheese bread (pão de queijo, french fries, cheeseburger and ice cream, were then analyzed for their trans fatty acids content using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. RESULTS Differences in the levels of trans fatty acids were observed among 22 products analyzed, considering that trans fatty acids content ranged between 0.0 g/100 g in samples of cream cracker biscuit 1 and olive oil to 0.83 g/100 g in samples of cheeseburger (fast food, 0.51 g/100 g in samples of frozen pão de queijo and 12.92 g/100 g in samples of chocolate sandwich cookies with cream filling 2. The overall trans fatty acids content of the different samples of margarine brands was 0.20 g/100 g for brand 1 and 0.0 g/100 g for brand 2. These data are significantly lower than those observed in a survey conducted in 2003, when the regulation had been enacted. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that Brazilian regulation is very likely implicated in the observed drop in trans fatty acids of the most processed foods but has yet to eliminate them, which reinforces the urgent need to revise the legislation, since a minimum amount of trans fat does not mean that the food product does not contain this type of fat.

  15. Impact of low-trans fat compositions on the quality of conventional and fat-reduced puff pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    Four vegetable fat blends (FBs) with low trans-fatty acid (TFA ≤ 0.6 %) content with various ratios of palm stearin (PS) and rapeseed oil (RO) were characterised and examined for their application in puff pastry production. The amount of PS decreased from FB1 to FB4 and simultaneously the RO content increased. A range of analytical methods were used to characterise the FBs, including solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cone penetrometry and rheological measurements. The internal and external structural quality parameters of baked puff pastry were investigated using texture analyser equipped with an Extended Craft Knife (ECK), VolScan and C-Cell image system. Puff pastry containing FB1 and FB2 achieved excellent baking results for full fat and fat-reduced puff pastry; hence these FBs contained adequate shortening properties. A fat reduction by 40 % using FB2 and a reduction of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) by 49 %, compared to the control, did not lead to adverse effects in lift and specific volume. The higher amount of RO and the lower SAFA content compared to FB1 coupled with the satisfying baking results makes FB2 the fat of choice in this study. FB3 and FB4 were found to be unsuitable for puff pastry production because of their melting behaviour.

  16. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetri, Laura H; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Yerian, Lisa M; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) equivalent for 1-16 wk were compared with mice fed standard chow or mice with trans fats or HFCS omitted. Cage racks were removed from western diet mice to promote sedentary behavior. By 16 wk, trans fat-fed mice became obese and developed severe hepatic steatosis with associated necroinflammatory changes. Plasma alanine aminotransferase levels increased, as did liver TNF-alpha and procollagen mRNA, indicating an inflammatory and profibrogenic response to injury. Glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose developed within 2 and 4 wk, respectively. Plasma insulin, resistin, and leptin levels increased in a profile similar to that seen in patients with NASH. The individual components of this diet contributed to the phenotype independently; isocaloric replacement of trans fats with lard established that trans fats played a major role in promoting hepatic steatosis and injury, whereas inclusion of HFCS promoted food consumption, obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Combining risk factors for the metabolic syndrome by feeding mice trans fats and HFCS induced histological features of NASH in the context of a metabolic profile similar to patients with this disease. Because dietary trans fats promoted liver steatosis and injury, their role in the epidemic of NASH needs further evaluation.

  17. Effect of Extruding Full-Fat Soy Flakes on Trans Fat Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of extrusion process on the trans fatty acids (TFAs formation in soybean crude oils, three different extrusion parameters, namely, extrusion temperature (80–160°C, feed moisture (10–26%, and screw speed (100–500 rpm, were carried out. It was found that only five different types of TFAs were detected out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before the extrusion started, the initial amount of total TFAs was 3.04 g/100 g. However, after extruding under every level of any variable, the total amounts of TFAs were significantly higher than those in the control sample (P<0.05. For example, taking the effect of extrusion temperature into account, we can find that the highest amount of total of trans fatty acid (TTFA was 1.62 times the amount of that in the control sample, whereas the lowest amount of TTFA was 1.54 times the amount of that in the control sample. Importantly, it was observed that the amounts of every type of trans fatty acid were not continuously increasing with the increase of the level of any extrusion variable. This phenomenon demonstrated that the formation and diversification were intricate during extruding process and need to be further studied.

  18. Interesterificação química: alternativa para obtenção de gorduras zero trans Chemical interresterification: alternative to production of zero trans fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The function of lipids in human nutrition has been intensively debated in the last decade.This context reinforces the concern about controlling the trans fat ingestion, due to its negative implications on health. Interesterification provides an important alternative to modify the consistency of oils and fats without causing formation of trans isomers. This article reports research done towards production of zero trans fats by chemical interesterification, for different industrial purposes. Aspects related to the effect of trans fats on diet, their impact on health and modifications in Brazilian legislation are also covered.

  19. Sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content per 1,000 kilocalories: temporal trends in fast-food restaurants, United States, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Roberts, Susan B; Fierstein, Jamie L; Gary, Christine E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-12-31

    Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants. We analyzed the nutrient content of frequently ordered items from 3 US national fast-food chains: fried potatoes (large French fries), cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and a grilled chicken sandwich. We used an archival website to obtain data on sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content for these items from 2000 through 2013. The amount of each nutrient per 1,000 kcal was calculated to determine whether there were trends in product reformulation. Sodium content per 1,000 kcal differed widely among the 3 chains by food item, precluding generalizations across chains. During the 14-year period, sodium content per 1,000 kcal for large French fries remained high for all 3 chains, although the range narrowed from 316-2,000 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2000 to 700-1,420 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2013. Among the items assessed, cheeseburgers were the main contributor of saturated fat, and there was little change in content per 1,000 kcal for this item during the 14-year period. In contrast, there was a sharp decline in saturated and trans fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal. Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period. With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat.

  20. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  1. Cis and trans monoenoic fatty acids of hydrogenated mango kernel fats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Saleem, M.; Siddiqui, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    The fats produced as a result of hydrogenation of the oils of three varieties of mango kernel (Mangifera indica), were found to consist of trans fatty acids, C/sub 16:1/ (0.02-0.60 %), C/sub 18:1/ (2.69-4.48 %), C/sub 20:1/ (0.02-0.04 %), C/sub 22:1/ (traces-0.05 %), C/sub 24:1/ (traces-0.02 %) in addition to cis fatty acids. (author)

  2. The effect of conjugated linoneic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Wanders, A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural trans fatty acid that is largely restricted to ruminant fats and consumed in foods and supplements. Its role in blood pressure (BP) regulation is still unclear. We examined the effect of cis-9, trans-11 CLA on BP compared with oleic acid. A

  3. Biscoitos recheados: quanto mais baratos maior teor de gordura trans? = Filled cookies: the cheaper the higher trans fat content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdino, Tatiana Pizzato

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: quanto maior a quantidade de gorduras trans, menor a quantidade de gordura saturada e menor preço. Sugere-se uma revisão na legislação quanto à inserção da quantidade exata de gorduras trans no rótulo, uma vez que o consumo elevado dessas gorduras está associado a dislipidemias, um fator de risco para doença cardiovascular

  4. Consumption of a solid fat rich in lauric acid results in a more favorable serum lipid profile in healthy men and women than consumption of a solid fat rich in trans-fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Solid fats are used in food manufacturing to provide texture and firmness to foods. Such fats are rich in either saturated or trans-fatty acids, both of which increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that trans-fatty acids increase risk more than

  5. Biscoito integral: fonte de fibra, isento de lactose e gordura trans. = Integral cookie: fiber source, free of lactose and trans fats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Ferrari de Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por produtos isentos de lactose, gordura trans e rico em fi bra é crescente no mercado alimentício. O presente estudo de natureza transversal, com coleta de dados primários, teve como objetivo desenvolver um tipo de biscoito rico em fibras, isento de lactose e livre de gorduras trans. Os biscoitos foram submetidos à avaliação sensorial com 144 consumidores, freqüentadores de uma panifi cadora de Maringá, Paraná, sendo 61% (n = 88 sexo femininoe 39% (n = 56 do sexo masculino, na faixa etária de 15 a 80 anos de idades. Para o teste de aceitação do produto, utilizou-se a escala hedônica de nove pontos (1 a 9 e a intenção de compra do produto com uma escala de cinco pontos. Participaram da pesquisa 144 pessoas que relataram 59% de aceitação de 8 a 9 pontos na escala hedônica. Somente 1% desgostaram, em diferentes níveis, dos biscoitos produzidos. Para a intenção de compra, 79% dos julgadores apresentaram-se propensos a compra do produto. Em 21% dos casos, os julgadores ou estariam em dúvida (15% ou defi nitivamente não comprariam o produto (6%. O produto final apresentou quantidades satisfatórias de fibras, ficando insento de lactose e gordura trans. = The demand for products free of lactose, trans fats and high in fiber is increasing in the food market. The present study of transverse nature, with primary data collect, aimed to develop a type of cookie rich in fibers, exempt of lactos, free from trans fats. The cookies were submitted to sensory evaluation with 144 consumers, who attend a bakery in Maringá of Paraná State - Brazil, 61% (n = 88 female and 39% (n = 56 male, aged 15-80 years ages. For the test of acceptance of the product, been used the hedonic scale of nine points (1 to 9, and the intention of purchase of the product with a scale of fivepoints. Hundred and forty four people have participated in the research that told as acceptance from 8 to 9 points in the scale of 59%. Only 1% disgusted et

  6. Biscoitos recheados: quanto mais baratos maior teor de gordura trans? = Filled cookies: the cheaper the higher trans fat content?

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, Tatiana Pizzato

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: identificar a quantidade de gorduras totais, saturadas e trans descritas nos rótulos de biscoitos recheados e verificar se existe associação entre o preço e a quantidade de gorduras trans Métodos: a amostra foi composta por 25 pacotes de biscoitos recheados de diferentes tipos e marcas, copiando-se de cada rótulo as informações necessárias. Para análise dos resultados foram efetuados cálculos de estatística descritiva, análise de variância e correlação de Spearmann Resultados...

  7. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  8. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe: a market basket investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-20

    To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits/cakes/wafers in 2012-2013 in 20 European countries. The I-TF content was assessed in a market basket investigation. Three large supermarkets were visited in each capital, and in some countries, three additional ethnic shops were included. A total of 598 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with 'partially hydrogenated vegetable fat' or a similar term high on the list of ingredients were analysed, 312 products had more than 2% of fat as I-TF, exceeding the legislatively determined I-TF limit in Austria and Denmark; the mean (SD) was 19 (7)%. In seven countries, no I-TF was found, whereas nine predominantly Eastern European countries had products with very high I-TF content, and the remaining four countries had intermediate levels. Of the five countries that were examined using the same procedure as in 2006, three had unchanged I-TF levels in 2013, and two had lower levels. The 18 small ethnic shops examined in six Western European countries sold 83 products. The mean (SD) was 23 (12)% of the fat as I-TF, all imported from countries in Balkan. In Sweden, this type of food imported from Balkan was also available in large supermarkets. The findings suggest that subgroups of the population in many countries in Europe still consume I-TF in amounts that increase their risk of coronary heart disease. Under current European Union (EU) legislation, the sale of products containing I-TF is legal but conflicts with the WHO recommendation to minimise the intake of I-TF. An EU-legislative limit on I-TF content in foods is expected to be an effective strategy to achieve this goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. Low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil improves plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in apo E(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Yong-Bok; Lee, Ki-Teak; Park, Taesun; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explicate the effects of feeding low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil (LF) on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism involved in apo E(-/-) mice. The animals were fed a commercial shortening (CS), commercial low trans fat (CL) and LF diet based on AIN-76 diet (10% fat) for 12 weeks. LF supplementation exerted a significant suppression in hepatic lipid accumulation with the concomitant decrease in liver weight. The LF significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid whereas it significantly increased HDL-C concentration and the HDL-C/total-C ratio compared to the CS group. Reduction of hepatic lipid levels in the LF group was related with the suppression of hepatic enzyme activities for fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, and cholesterol regulating enzyme activity compared to the CS and CL groups. Accordingly, low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil is highly effective for improving hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in apo E(-/-) mice.

  10. Formulation of Zero-Trans Crystalized Fats Produced from Palm Stearin and High Oleic Safflower Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia E. Buitimea-Cantúa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High intake of trans fat is associated with several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Fat blends, produced by direct blending process of palm stearin (PS with high oleic safflower oil (HOSO in different concentrations, were investigated. The effects of the PS addition (50, 70, or 90% and the rate of agitation (RA (1000, 2000, or 3000 rpm on physical properties, fatty acid profile (FAP, trans fatty acids (TFA, crystal structure, and consistency were researched. The blend containing 50% of each sort of oil (50% PS/50% HOSO showed that melting point and features were similar to the control shortening. The saturated fatty acids (SFA were higher followed by monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Significant differences in the content of palmitic and oleic acids among blends were observed. The 50% PS/50% HOSO blend contained higher oleic acid (42.9% whereas the 90% PS/10% HOSO was higher in palmitic acid (56.9%. The blending of PS/HOSO promoted the β crystal polymorphic forms. The direct blending process of equal amounts of PS and HOSO was an adequate strategy to formulate a new zero-trans crystallized vegetable fats with characteristics similar to commercial counterparts with well-balanced fats rich in both omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.

  11. Effect of heating oils and fats in containers of different materials on their trans fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, A L Amrutha; Joshi, Vishal; Gurudutt, K N

    2012-08-30

    The nature of the container material and temperature employed for deep-frying can have an influence on the development of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the fat used. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of heating vegetable oils and partially hydrogenated vegetable fats with different initial TFA content in stainless steel, Hindalium (an aluminium alloy), cast iron and glass containers. Ground nut oil (oil 1), refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palmolein (oil 2) and two partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with low (fat 1) and high (fat 2) TFA content were uniformly heated at 175-185 °C over a period of 12 h. An increase in TFA content to 20 g kg⁻¹ was observed in oil 2 in the cast iron container, while a decrease in TFA content of 20-30 g kg⁻¹ was observed in fat 2 in all containers. The heating process of fats and oils also led to an increase in Butyro refractometer reading and colour values. This study showed that the TFA 18:1t content of oil 1, oil 2 and fat 1 increased with repeated or prolonged heating. The cast iron container showed the highest increase in TFA 18:1t for RBD palmolein (oil 2). The amount of linoleic acid trans isomers formed in the heating process was negligible. Fat 2 with high initial TFA content showed a decrease in TFA 18:1 and 18:2 on heating in all containers. Oils heated in glass and stainless steel containers showed less TFA 18:1t formation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik Inuit communities: a success story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Counil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet.

  13. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years...

  14. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, are well established. However, effects of HPMC on dietary saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are largely unknown. This study investigated the eff...

  15. Fatty acids trans profile of oil and hidrogenated soy fat in frying process

    OpenAIRE

    Sanibal, Elaine Abrão Assef; Mancini Filho, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as alterações dos ácidos graxos e a formação de isômeros trans, durante o aquecimento de óleo de soja (OS) e gordura parcialmente hidrogenada de soja (GPHS) no processo de fritura de batata por 100 horas com reposição lipídica. O perfil de ácidos graxos foi avaliado através de cromatografia gasosa em coluna capilar de 100m. Os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados trans foram os predominantes entre os isômeros trans. A partir de 10 horas de fritura, o OS formou 2,1...

  16. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that

  17. Regulation of trans fats: the gap, the Polder, and McDonald's French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B

    2006-05-01

    Lowering the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) probably reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Estimates of the reduction vary from 4% based on changes in plasma LDL and HDL concentrations alone, to > 20% based on epidemiological associations when TFA intake is lowered by 2% of energy (5 g/day). Even the lowest estimate represents enough cases to justify measures to reduce TFA intake. In The Netherlands, a major reduction in TFA content of retail foods has been achieved in the 1990s through efforts of industry; government intervention has been minimal. Societal pressure is now helping to reduce the TFA content of fast foods. McDonald's French fries in The Netherlands now have less than 4% trans and 24% saturates, as opposed to 21% trans and 21% saturates in the USA. This illustrates the feasibility of reducing TFA in fast foods without increasing saturates. As a result of these developments, dairy and meat have become the major remaining source of TFA in Europe. The question whether these ruminant TFA have the same effect on coronary heart disease risk as industrial TFA has not been settled.

  18. Studies on the trans-fatty acids and the stability of the fats present in Indian bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariff, R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fat is one of the most important ingredients in baked products which is highly susceptible to heat and moisture. Therefore, this study has been conducted to assess the thermoxidative changes occurring in the fat as well as the extent to which trans-fatty acids are present. Fats were extracted from products like rusk, white bread, sweet bun, dilkhush, pizza, plain cake, vegetable roll, gluco-biscuits and wafers. These fats and control shortening samples were taken for study. The totox value was found to be high (4.0-30.9 whereas the free fatty acid, peroxide and anisidine values were, 0.31-0.90%, 1.2-11.0 and 11.6-8.9 respectively. Since the products are baked at 180 to 200 °C polar components were determined to be between 3.3 to 5.3% showing a moderate hydrolysis and oxidative changes. Iodine value (51.0 to 73.3 and the Butyro-refractometer reading (42.2 to 55.8 showed moderate unsaturation and all the samples melted below 37 °C. Trans-fatty acid ranged from 35.5 to 46.2% as has also been confirmed by FT-IR. The products selected were considered safe but nutritionally inferior to products prepared with liquid shortenings.La grasa es uno de los ingredientes más importantes de los productos horneados altamente susceptible al calor y la humedad. Se han realizado estudios para evaluar los cambios termoxidativos ocurridos en las grasas y también la presencia de ácidos grasos trans. Las grasas se extrajeron de productos como galletas, pan blanco, pan dulce, Dilkhush, pizza, pastel, rollo vegetal, gluco-galletas y barquillos. Se utilizaron en este estudio las grasas extraidas de los mencionados productos, así como muestras control de shortening. Los valor encontrados de índice Totox fueron altos (4,0-30,9 en tanto que los porcentajes de ácidos grasos libres (%, índice de peróxido y anisidina fueron, 0,31-0,90, 1,2-11,0 y 11,6- 8,9, respectivamente. Puesto que los productos se hornean entre 180-200 °C se determinaron los componentes polares

  19. Mandatory trans fat labeling regulations and nationwide product reformulations to reduce trans fatty acid content in foods contributed to lowered concentrations of trans fat in Canadian women's breast milk samples collected in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wm Nimal; Swist, Eleonora; Zoka, Rana; Gagnon, Claude; Lillycrop, William; Pantazapoulos, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Recent efforts in Canada to reduce industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods include mandated inclusion of TFA content on food labels and recommendations by Health Canada that encourage the food industry to voluntarily limit TFA content in all vegetable oils and soft margarines and in all other prepackaged foods to labeling regulations introduced in 2003 and recommendations by Health Canada in 2007 instructing the food manufacturers and restaurants to limit TFAs in foods have resulted in significant reductions in TFAs in the diets of Canadian breastfeeding mothers and their breast milk. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Perfil de ácidos graxos trans de óleo e gordura hidrogenada de soja no processo de fritura Fatty acids trans profile of oil and hidrogenated soy fat in frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Abrão Assef Sanibal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as alterações dos ácidos graxos e a formação de isômeros trans, durante o aquecimento de óleo de soja (OS e gordura parcialmente hidrogenada de soja (GPHS no processo de fritura de batata por 100 horas com reposição lipídica. O perfil de ácidos graxos foi avaliado através de cromatografia gasosa em coluna capilar de 100m. Os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados trans foram os predominantes entre os isômeros trans. A partir de 10 horas de fritura, o OS formou 2,1% de isômeros mono trans e ao final de 50 horas este valor passou a 14,3% contra uma diminuição do total de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, que passou de 59,9% antes do processamento para 32,6% após 50h de fritura. Entretanto, a GPHS apresentou 20,2% de ácidos graxos mono trans antes de ser submetida à fritura e após 50 horas apresentou uma concentração de 28%. Houve também, uma diminuição do total de ácidos graxos essenciais séries ômega6 e ômega3, de 12,8% para 7,3% no mesmo período. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que isômeros trans são formados no óleo e na gordura durante o processo de fritura, sendo que a formação de isômeros trans, ocorreu em menor proporção na GPHS, confirmando a sua maior estabilidade em relação ao OS. Estes resultados indicam a importância de se identificar os ácidos graxos trans nos óleos e gorduras ulizadas em processos de fritura.The objective of this study, was to examine the alterations of the fatty acids profile and the formation of trans fatty acids isomers during heating of soy oil (SO and partially hydrogenated soy fat (PHSF in the process of french frying. The fatty acids profile was examined by gas chromatography with a 100m capillary column. The fatty acids trans monounsaturated were the predominant among trans isomers. The isomers trans monounsaturated corresponded to 2.1% of the total, after 10 hours of frying, and 14.3% after 50h - frying. Poliunsaturated fatty acids

  1. Limiting trans Fats in Foods: Use of Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils in Prepacked Foods in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribar, Maša; Pivk Kupirovič, Urška; Žmitek, Katja

    2018-01-01

    Consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia. In the absence of regulatory requirements, a number of awareness campaigns were launched in Slovenia since 2015, with the common goal of lowering the use of partially hydrogenated oils (PHO), which are considered a major source of TFAs. To determine if this goal had been reached, we performed an assessment of the exposure of the population to prepacked foods containing PHOs in years 2015 and 2017. Altogether, data on the composition of 22,629 prepacked foods was collected from food labels, using a specifically developed smartphone application. Furthermore, the food categories with the most frequent use of PHOs were identified. The proportion of PHO-containing products was determined for each specific food category, and adjusted with the market share data. The results showed that in 2015, vegetable cream substitutes, soups, and biscuits were the categories with the highest penetration of declared PHO content. In 2017, the proportion of products with PHO decreased considerably. In vegetable cream substitutes the percentage of PHO containing items dropped from 30 down to 4%, in soups it decreased from 21 to 5%, in biscuits from 17 to 8%, and in crisps and snacks from 10 to 4%. However, PHO content remained notable among cakes, muffins, pastries, and biscuits. We can conclude that the voluntary guidelines and regular public communication of the risks related to the TFA consumption has had a

  2. Limiting trans Fats in Foods: Use of Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils in Prepacked Foods in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zupanič

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFAs is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia. In the absence of regulatory requirements, a number of awareness campaigns were launched in Slovenia since 2015, with the common goal of lowering the use of partially hydrogenated oils (PHO, which are considered a major source of TFAs. To determine if this goal had been reached, we performed an assessment of the exposure of the population to prepacked foods containing PHOs in years 2015 and 2017. Altogether, data on the composition of 22,629 prepacked foods was collected from food labels, using a specifically developed smartphone application. Furthermore, the food categories with the most frequent use of PHOs were identified. The proportion of PHO-containing products was determined for each specific food category, and adjusted with the market share data. The results showed that in 2015, vegetable cream substitutes, soups, and biscuits were the categories with the highest penetration of declared PHO content. In 2017, the proportion of products with PHO decreased considerably. In vegetable cream substitutes the percentage of PHO containing items dropped from 30 down to 4%, in soups it decreased from 21 to 5%, in biscuits from 17 to 8%, and in crisps and snacks from 10 to 4%. However, PHO content remained notable among cakes, muffins, pastries, and biscuits. We can conclude that the voluntary guidelines and regular public communication of the risks related to the TFA

  3. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Nazari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian′s junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. Results: In this study stearic acid (C18:0 and palmitic (C16:0 acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%. Conclusion: The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

  4. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Bahar; Asgary, Sedigheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-10-01

    Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products. Some common brands of Iranian's junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. In this study stearic acid (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA) is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t) with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t) has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%). The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

  5. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard

    2006-01-01

    to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a six week experimental period. Treatments were total mixed rations with maize (M) or grass (G) silage differing in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and starch content, combined with a high (H) or a low (L) level......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  6. Nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil can be used as a deep fat frying medium to reduce trans-fatty acid content in french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Darla R; Thompson, Leslie D; Shriver, Brent J; Wu, Chih-Kang; Hoover, Linda C

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile, in particular trans-fatty acids, of french fries fried in nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as compared with french fries fried in partially hydrogenated canola oil and french fries fried in partially hydrogenated soybean oil. Cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated canola oil, and partially hydrogenated soybean oil were subjected to a temperature of 177 degrees C for 8 hours per day, and six batches of french fries were fried per day for 5 consecutive days. French fries were weighed before frying, cooked for 5 minutes, allowed to drain, and reweighed. Oil was not replenished and was filtered once per day. Both the oil and the french fries were evaluated to determine fatty acid profiles, trans-fatty acids, and crude fat. A randomized block design with split plot was used to analyze the data collected. Least-squares difference was used as the means separation test. No significant differences were found between fries prepared in the three oil types for crude fat. Fatty acid profiles for the french fries remained stable. The french fries prepared in cottonseed oil were significantly lower in trans-fatty acids. The combined total of the trans-fatty acid content and saturated fatty acid content were lower in french fries prepared in cottonseed oil. Because deep fat frying remains a popular cooking technique, health professionals should educate the public and the food service industry on the benefits of using nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as an alternative to the commonly used hydrogenated oils.

  7. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  8. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected to promote...

  9. A UniChem and electron momentum spectroscopy investigations into the valence electronic structure of trans 1,3 butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalewicz, M.T. [CSIRO, Supercomputing Support Group, Carlton, VIC (Australia). Division of Information Technology; Winkler, D.A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Clayton, VIC (Australia). Div. of Chemical Physics; Brunger, M.J.; McCarthy, L.E. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Physical Sciences; Von Niessen, W. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Physical Sciences

    1996-09-01

    The experimental (e,2e) coincidence spectroscopy, known as electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) was applied to the trans 1,3 butadiene (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}) molecule with detailed binding energy spectra and orbital momentum distributions (MDs) being measured. A small selection of this data is presented. The usage of UniChem computational chemistry codes for the Flinders-developed AMOLD program allows to calculate theoretical MDs for each orbital, to help elucidate the valence electronic structure of butadiene. The results of the many-body Green`s function calculation is also presented, to the ADC(3) level, for the binding energies and spectroscopic factors of the respective orbitals of C{sub 4}H{sub 6}. A critical comparison between the experimental and theoretical MDs allows to determine the optimum wavefunction from the basis sets studied. The determination of the wavefunction then allows to make further use of the UniChem package to derive butadiene`s chemically interesting molecular properties. A summary of these results and comparison of them with the previous results of other workers is presented. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. A UniChem and electron momentum spectroscopy investigations into the valence electronic structure of trans 1,3 butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalewicz, M.T.; Winkler, D.A.; Brunger, M.J.; McCarthy, L.E.; Von Niessen, W.

    1996-09-01

    The experimental (e,2e) coincidence spectroscopy, known as electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) was applied to the trans 1,3 butadiene (C 4 H 6 ) molecule with detailed binding energy spectra and orbital momentum distributions (MDs) being measured. A small selection of this data is presented. The usage of UniChem computational chemistry codes for the Flinders-developed AMOLD program allows to calculate theoretical MDs for each orbital, to help elucidate the valence electronic structure of butadiene. The results of the many-body Green's function calculation is also presented, to the ADC(3) level, for the binding energies and spectroscopic factors of the respective orbitals of C 4 H 6 . A critical comparison between the experimental and theoretical MDs allows to determine the optimum wavefunction from the basis sets studied. The determination of the wavefunction then allows to make further use of the UniChem package to derive butadiene's chemically interesting molecular properties. A summary of these results and comparison of them with the previous results of other workers is presented. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  12. Cross-generational trans fat intake modifies BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus: Impact on memory loss in a mania animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizol, Fabíola; Dias, Verônica T; Roversi, Katiane; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Kuhn, Fábio T; Roversi, Karine; Pase, Camila S; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Veit, Juliana C; Piccolo, Jaqueline; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Rocha, João B T; Bürger, Marilise E

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have described the influence of dietary fatty acids (FA) on mania-like behavior of first generation animals. Here, two sequential generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA, control group), fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans FA) from pregnancy and during lactation. In adulthood, half of each group was exposed to an amphetamine (AMPH)-induced mania animal model for behavioral, biochemical and molecular assessments. FO supplementation was associated with lower reactive species (RS) generation and protein carbonyl (PC) levels and increased dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, while HVF increased RS and PC levels, thus decreasing catalase (CAT) activity and DAT levels in hippocampus after AMPH treatment. AMPH impaired short- (1 h) and long- (24 h) term memory in the HVF group. AMPH exposure was able to reduce hippocampal BDNF- mRNA expression, which was increased in FO. While HVF was related to higher trans FA (TFA) incorporation in hippocampus, FO was associated with increased percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) together with lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Interestingly, our data showed a positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and short- and long-term memory (r(2)  = 0.53; P = 0.000/r(2)  = 0.32; P = 0.011, respectively), as well as a negative correlation between PC and DAT levels (r(2)  = 0.23; P = 0.015). Our findings confirm that provision of n-3 or TFA during development over two generations is able to change the neuronal membrane lipid composition, protecting or impairing the hippocampus, respectively, thus affecting neurothrophic factor expression such as BDNF mRNA. In this context, chronic consumption of trans fats over two generations can facilitate the development of mania-like behavior, so leading to memory impairment and emotionality, which are related to neuropsychiatric conditions. © 2014 Wiley

  13. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari, Bahar; Asgary, Sedigheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian′s junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in...

  14. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root from trans-Himalaya with rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Amol B; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chaurasia, Om P; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2013-07-30

    A rapid method was developed to determine both types of vitamins in Rhodiola imbricata root for the accurate quantification of free vitamin forms. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was optimized for the sequential analysis of nine water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, two B3 vitamins, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12) and six fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D2, D3, K1, and K2). Both types of vitamins were separated by ion-suppression reversed-phase liquid chromatography with gradient elution within 30 min and detected in positive ion mode. Deviations in the intra- and inter-day precision were always below 0.6% and 0.3% for recoveries and retention time. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values of retention time for water- and fat-soluble vitamin were ranged between 0.02-0.20% and 0.01-0.15%, respectively. The mean recoveries were ranged between 88.95 and 107.07%. Sensitivity and specificity of this method allowed the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the analytes at ppb levels. The linear range was achieved for fat- and water-soluble vitamins at 100-1000 ppb and 10-100 ppb. Vitamin B-complex and vitamin E were detected as the principle vitamins in the root of this adaptogen which would be of great interest to develop novel foods from the Indian trans-Himalaya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trans-membrane electron transfer in red blood cells immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chunmei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Zhenkun; Bao, Ning; Gu, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the trans-membrane electron transfer in human red blood cells (RBCs) immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electron transfer results from the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) in the RBCs. The electron transfer rate (k s ) of Hb in RBCs is 0.42 s −1 , and <1.13 s −1 for Hb directly immobilized in the chitosan film. Only Hb molecules in RBCs that are closest to the plasma membrane and the surface of the electrode can undergo electron transfer to the electrode. The immobilized RBCs displayed sensitive electrocatalytic response to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. It is believed that this cellular biosensor is of potential significance in studies on the physiological status of RBCs based on observing their electron transfer on the modified electrode. (author)

  16. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  17. Approaching an experimental electron density model of the biologically active trans -epoxysuccinyl amide group-Substituent effects vs. crystal packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ming W.; Stewart, Scott G.; Sobolev, Alexandre N.; Dittrich, Birger; Schirmeister, Tanja; Luger, Peter; Hesse, Malte; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Spackman, Peter R.; Spackman, Mark A.; Grabowsky, Simon (Heinrich-Heine); (Freie); (UC); (Bremen); (JG-UM); (UWA)

    2017-01-24

    The trans-epoxysuccinyl amide group as a biologically active moiety in cysteine protease inhibitors such as loxistatin acid E64c has been used as a benchmark system for theoretical studies of environmental effects on the electron density of small active ingredients in relation to their biological activity. Here, the synthesis and the electronic properties of the smallest possible active site model compound are reported to close the gap between the unknown experimental electron density of trans-epoxysuccinyl amides and the well-known function of related drugs. Intramolecular substituent effects are separated from intermolecular crystal packing effects on the electron density, which allows us to predict the conditions under which an experimental electron density investigation on trans-epoxysuccinyl amides will be possible. In this context, the special importance of the carboxylic acid function in the model compound for both crystal packing and biological activity is revealed through the novel tool of model energy analysis.

  18. Low Trans Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although hydrogenation has been the technology of choice for fat formulation for many years recent concerns over the health and nutrition of trans fatty acids have had a profound effect on the edible oil industry. Since Jan. 1, 2006, TFA has been required on nutrition labels along with saturated an...

  19. Multi-band tight-binding calculation of electronic transport in Fe/trans-polyacetylene/Fe tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi Ravan, B

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the electronic transport characteristics of Fe/trans-polyacetylene/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) are investigated using multi-band tight-binding calculations within the framework of nonequilibrium Green function theory. A CH 2 radical is added to different positions on the polymer chain and its effects on the tunnelling magnetoresistance of the MTJ are studied. The ferromagnetic electrodes are assumed to be single-band and their tight-binding parameters are chosen in such a way as to simulate the ab initio density functional calculations of the band structure of bcc-Fe along its [001] crystallographic direction. In building the Hamiltonian of the trans-polyacetylene (t-PA) chain, we have assumed an s orbital on the H atoms and one s and three p(p x ,p y ,p z ) orbitals on the C atoms, and the dimerization effects are taken into account. It is found that moving the radical out of the centre of the polymer chain enhances the tunnelling magnetoresistance of the MTJ.

  20. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, A.B.; Dalila, A.R.; Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N.; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe 3 C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe 3 C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm −1 at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm −2 , respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters

  1. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, A.B., E-mail: absuriani@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Dalila, A.R. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Soga, T.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe{sub 3}C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe{sub 3}C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm{sup −1} at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm{sup −2}, respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters.

  2. Density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of trans and cis structures of thiothixene as a nano-drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori Tahneh, Akram; Bagheri Novir, Samaneh; Balali, Ebrahim

    2017-11-25

    The geometrical structure, electronic and optical properties, electronic absorption spectra, vibrational frequencies, natural charge distribution, MEP analysis and thermodynamic properties of the trans and cis structures of the drug thiothixene were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) methods with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The results of the calculations demonstrate that the cis structure of thiothixene has appropriate quantum properties that can act as an active medicine. The relative energies of trans and cis structures of thiothixene shows that the cis structure is more stable than the trans structure, with a small energy difference. TDDFT calculations show that the cis structure of thiothixene has the best absorption properties. The calculated NLO properties show that the NLO properties of the cis structure of thiothixene are higher than the trans structure, and the fact that the chemical hardness of the cis structure is lower than that of the trans structure that indicates that the reactivity and charge transfer of the cis isomer of thiothixene is higher than that of trans thiothixene. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps of both structures of thiothixene demonstrate that the oxygen atoms of the molecule are appropriate areas for electrophilic reactions. The vibrational frequencies of the two conformations of thiothixene demonstrate that both structures of thiothixene have almost similar modes of vibrations. The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that these quantities increase with enhancing temperature due to the enhancement of molecular vibrational intensities with temperature. Graphical abstract Trans/Cis isomerization of thiothixene drug.

  3. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  4. A trans world journey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Bysted, Anette

    2006-01-01

    to a maximum of 2% of fat content from 2004. We assessed the potential exposure of consumers to IP-TFA by analysing popular foods in Denmark, and in 25 other countries. Fifty-five servings of French fries and chicken nuggets, 87 packages of microwave popcorn, and 393 samples of biscuits....../cakes/wafers with "partially hydrogenated vegetable fat" listed high on the food label were bought between November 2004, and February 2006. The content of IP-TFA was analysed by standardized methodology. We defined a "high trans menu" as a large size serving of French fries and nuggets, 100 g of microwave popcorn, and 100 g......A high intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and a daily intake as low as possible is required to minimize health risks. To achieve this at the individual level in Denmark, legislation limited IP-TFA in foods...

  5. Trans-Regional technologies and the Lapita problem: characterisation of volcanic glass inclusions by electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grave, P.; Nockolds, C.; White, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Analysis of pre-modern pottery of the Pacific has long attempted to formulate measures independent of style for constructing archaeologically meaningful groups. However, the variable character of fabrics and the longevity of production (Lapita and post-Lapita wares from 3000 years ago to the present) have tended to obscure differences due to changes in production practices and resources through time and differences relating to the exchange of ceramics between islands or regions. In this poster we outline a preliminary study that employs an economical and robust technique to distinguish both within- and between-region groups. This is achieved with electron microprobe analysis of small volcanic glass fragments present in wares tempered with volcanic sands, and interpretation based on Principal Components Analysis. The method builds on the chemical groupings for glass from different volcanic complexes in the Pacific established through high energy ion beam (PIXE-PIGME) analysis. The purpose of this study is to characterise a selection of samples of pottery from the Duke of York's peninsula using electron microprobe analysis of very small glass fragments in the sections that ranged in size from around 0.05 mm to 1 mm.. The study involved the identification and elemental characterisation of individual fragments of glass in a section. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify structure latent in the dataset. The results of the study show that clear characterisation is possible to enable the wider application of the technique to Lapita and post Lapita ceramics produced originating in volcanic areas of the Pacific

  6. Higher content of C18:1 trans fatty acids in early human milk fat of Roma breast-feeding women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marhol, Petr; Dlouhý, P.; Rambousková, J.; Pokorný, R.; Wiererová, O.; Hrnčířová, D.; Procházka, B.; Anděl, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2007), s. 461-467 ISSN 0250-6807 Grant - others:GA Mzd(CZ) NJ6120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : trans fatty acids * roma * human milk Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.831, year: 2007

  7. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  9. Trans* Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T J; Simmons, Symone L

    2017-06-01

    Focusing on emerging literature on trans* and gender-nonconforming students and their leadership, this chapter outlines the ways trans* students are engaged in leadership in educational institutions and outside of them and discusses implications for staff and faculty regarding how to support and engage these students and their leadership. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Technical aspects of trans reduction in margarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Duijn Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The opinion of nutritional science on the effect of trans fatty acids on blood cholesterol has drastically changed during the last decade. As a reaction to these new findings, the European margarine industry decided in the mid nineties to eliminate trans containing components from their margarine fat phase compositions. This excluded practically the use of partially hydrogenated oils and fats. Trans-free margarines have been introduced with optimised fat crystal structures stabilising a maximum of water in oil emulsion with a minimum of solid fat phase. These fat crystal structures are formed by fat phase components obtained from interesterification and/or fractionation of non-hydrogenated and/or fully hydrogenated feedstocks.

  11. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from colored fat-tailed fluctuations: An electronic analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Peña Rosselló

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to optimize piezoelectric energy harvesting from strongly col-ored fat-tailed fluctuations, we have recently studied the performance ofa monostable inertial device under a noise whose statistics depends on aparameter q (bounded for q 1.We have studied the interplay between the potential shape (interpolatingbetween square-well and harmonic-like behaviors and the noise’s statis-tics and spectrum, and showed that its output power grows as q increasesabove 1. We now report a real experiment on an electronic analog of theproposed system, which sheds light on its operating principle. Received: 20 Novembre 2014, Accepted: 7 September 2015; Edited by: C. A. Condat, G. J. Sibona; DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.070014 Cite as: J I Peña Rosselló, R Deza, J . Deza, H S Wio, Papers in Physics 7, 070014 (2015

  12. Trans-Spatial Utopias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2018-01-01

    The "trans-" perspectives offered in this special issue are heady stuff. Post-structuralism (philosophy) meets the digital age (electronics), meets globalization (economics), and meets translingual practice (linguistics) to create a perfectly utopian or placeless space for future exploration. I want to first add my voice to the…

  13. Identification of a potential biomarker panel for the intake of the common dietary trans fat elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroager, Toke Peter; Nielsen, Lone Vendel; Bak, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    system, and the cells were maintained for seven days in serum-free medium containing 100 μM elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1), oleic acid (cis∆9-C18:1) or stearic acid (C18:0). The secretomes were analyzed by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), difference in gel electrophoresis......Trans fatty acid intake has been correlated to an unfavorable plasma lipoprotein profile and an increased cardiovascular disease risk. The present study aimed to identify a plasma protein biomarker panel related to human intake of elaidic acid. The human liver cell line HepG2-SF was used as a model...

  14. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  15. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    % of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has......Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60...

  16. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  17. Electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors: A first-principles investigation using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. S. de; Ferreira da Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of semilocal exchange and correlation effects on the electronic properties of III-nitride semiconductors considering zinc-blende and wurtzite crystal structures. We find that the inclusion of such effects through the use of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential yields an excellent description of the electronic structures of these materials giving energy band gaps which are systematically larger than the ones obtained with standard functionals such as the generalized gradient approximation. The discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical band gaps is then significantly reduced with semilocal exchange and correlation effects. However, the effective masses are overestimated in the zinc-blende nitrides, but no systematic trend is found in the wurtzite compounds. New results for energy band gaps and effective masses of zinc-blende and wurtzite indium nitrides are presented

  18. Inhibition of fat cell differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes by all-trans retinoic acid: Integrative analysis of transcriptomic and phenotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Stoecker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of adipogenesis is controlled in a highly orchestrated manner, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. In developing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, this program can be interrupted by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA. To examine this inhibiting impact by ATRA, we generated large-scale transcriptomic data on the microRNA and mRNA level. Non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs represent a field in RNA turnover, which is very important for understanding the regulation of mRNA gene expression. High throughput mRNA and microRNA expression profiling was performed using mRNA hybridisation microarray technology and multiplexed expression assay for microRNA quantification. After quantitative measurements we merged expression data sets, integrated the results and analysed the molecular regulation of in vitro adipogenesis. For this purpose, we applied local enrichment analysis on the integrative microRNA-mRNA network determined by a linear regression approach. This approach includes the target predictions of TargetScan Mouse 5.2 and 23 pre-selected, significantly regulated microRNAs as well as Affymetrix microarray mRNA data. We found that the cellular lipid metabolism is negatively affected by ATRA. Furthermore, we were able to show that microRNA 27a and/or microRNA 96 are important regulators of gap junction signalling, the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton as well as the citric acid cycle, which represent the most affected pathways with regard to inhibitory effects of ATRA in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In conclusion, the experimental workflow and the integrative microRNA–mRNA data analysis shown in this study represent a possibility for illustrating interactions in highly orchestrated biological processes. Further the applied global microRNA–mRNA interaction network may also be used for the pre-selection of potential new biomarkers with regard to obesity or for the identification of new pharmaceutical targets.

  19. Experimentally calibrated computational chemistry of tryptophan hydroxylase: Trans influence, hydrogen-bonding, and 18-electron rule govern O-2-activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lærke Tvedebrink; Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Boesen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    with the experimental value (0.25 mm/s) which we propose as the structure of the hydroxylating intermediate, with the tryptophan substrate well located for further reaction 3.5 Å from the ferryl group. Based on the optimized transition states, the activation barriers for the two paths (glu and his) are similar, so......Insight into the nature of oxygen activation in tryptophan hydroxylase has been obtained from density functional computations. Conformations of O2-bound intermediates have been studied with oxygen trans to glutamate and histidine, respectively. An O2-adduct with O2 trans to histidine (Ohis...... towards the cofactor and a more activated O–O bond (1.33 Å) than in Oglu (1.30 Å). It is shown that the cofactor can hydrogen bond to O2 and activate the O–O bond further (from 1.33 to 1.38 Å). The Ohis intermediate leads to a ferryl intermediate (Fhis) with an isomer shift of 0.34 mm/s, also consistent...

  20. Biscoitos de polvilho do comércio do estado de São Paulo, Brasil: composição da gordura com destaque para os ácidos graxos trans | Cassava biscuits from the market of São Paulo State, Brazil: fat composition with emphasis on trans fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Separovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A redução dos níveis de ácidos graxos trans (AGT em produtos de panificação tem sido uma meta do setor produtivo brasileiro. A fim de avaliar a composição da gordura de biscoitos de polvilho, foram analisados produtos comerciais do estado de São Paulo, em 2009 (14 amostras e 2013 (11 amostras. A gordura foi determinada por gravimetria (hidrólise prévia e os ácidos graxos, por cromatografia em fase gasosa. Em ambos os períodos, os níveis médios de gordura total (17 e 18% e AGT (3% foram elevados. Pelo menos um dos componentes variou mais do que 20% do declarado, em 86% (2009 e 55% (2013 das amostras. Das 25 amostras analisadas, 20 continham gordura hidrogenada e altos teores de AGT; três amostras (com óleos de palma/ láuricos apresentaram baixos teores de AGT, porém elevados de ácidos graxos saturados (AGS. Outras duas amostras, contendo óleo vegetal, apresentaram quantidades insignificantes de AGT e consideráveis de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados, benéficos à saúde, porém susceptíveis à oxidação. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de continuidade no monitoramento deste produto e do desenvolvimento de alternativas tecnológicas para adequá-lo às recomendações de redução dos componentes relacionados ao risco de doenças cardiovasculares, especialmente os AGT. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- To reduce levels of trans fatty acids (TFA in bakery products has been a goal of the productive Brazilian sector. In order to assess the fat composition of cassava biscuits, fourteen samples in 2009 and eleven samples in 2013 from the market of São Paulo state were analyzed. Fat was determined by gravimetric method (with previous hydrolysis and fatty acids by gas chromatography. In both periods, the average contents of total fat (17 and 18% and TFA (3% were high. At least one of the components was more than 20% of the declared on the label in 86% (2009 and 55% (2013

  1. Influence of bone and fat on dose distribution in electron beams in a semi-infinite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordo, A.

    1983-12-01

    Hitherto, physical and theoretical aspects of the influence of heterogeneities in radiotherapy by electron beams had not been enough considered. We have developped an experimental method which permitted us to analyze the effect of the hard bone and the fat on the depth dose distributions when an infinite medium is irradiated by high energy electron beams. We have incorporated the KR. HOGSTROM's algorithm in a treatment planning system (TP11; AECL). This algorithm sums the dose distribution of individual pencil beams. A comparison between calculated and measured isodose lines obtained in a heterogeneous medium, shows us the performance and limits of this algorithm [fr

  2. Insights in the electronic structure and redox reaction energy in LiFePO4 battery material from an accurate Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Rafael B.; Almeida, J. de S; Ferreira da Silva, A.; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The main goals of this paper are to investigate the accuracy of the Tran-Blaha modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential to predict the electronic structure of lithium iron phosphate and the related redox reaction energy with the lithium deintercalation process. The computed electronic structures show that the TB-mBJ method is able to partially localize Fe-3d electrons in LiFePO 4 and FePO 4 which usually is a problem for the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) due to the self interaction error. The energy band gap is also improved by the TB-mBJ calculations in comparison with the GGA results. It turned out, however, that the redox reaction energy evaluated by the TB-mBJ technique is not in good agreement with the measured one. It is speculated that this disagreement in the computed redox energy and the experimental value is due to the lack of a formal expression to evaluate the exchange and correlation energy. Therefore, the TB-mBJ is an efficient method to improve the prediction of the electronic structures coming form the standard GGA functional in LiFePO 4 and FePO 4 . However, it does not appear to have the same efficiency for evaluating the redox reaction energies for the investigated system

  3. Discriminating aging and protein-to-fat ratio in Cheddar cheese using sensory analysis and a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkowitz, Jackie B; Ross, Carolyn F; Diako, Charles; Smith, Denise M

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the flavor and taste attributes of full-fat Cheddar cheeses with different protein-to-fat ratios (PFR) over aging time using a descriptive sensory analysis panel and a consumer panel, and to correlate these attributes with instrumental parameters obtained by the potentiometric electronic tongue. Three Cheddar cheese formulations (PFR of 0.74, 0.85, and 1.01) were produced in triplicate and composition was verified. Cheese was aged at 7.2°C and evaluated at 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 mo by a trained panel (n = 10) for 8 flavor and 5 taste attributes and using an electronic tongue for 7 nonvolatile taste attributes. Cheese aged for 12 mo was also evaluated by a consumer sensory panel for liking and intensity attributes. Principal component analysis was performed to discriminate cheese based on aging time and PFR, whereas correlation between sensory and instrumental attributes was assessed using partial least squares regression. Descriptive sensory analysis of flavor and taste attributes differentiated Cheddar cheeses over aging time, but not among PFR formulations. The electronic tongue distinguished changes among cheese samples due to PFR formulation and aging time. The electronic tongue proved successful in characterizing the nonvolatile flavor components in Cheddar cheese and correlated with taste perceptions measured by descriptive sensory analysis. Consumer evaluations showed distinctive attribute profiles for the 3 PFR Cheddar cheese formulations. Overall, higher fat content was associated with increased flavor intensities in Cheddar cheese and drove consumer acceptability and purchase intent ratings. The electronic tongue detected smaller changes in tastes (bitter, metallic, salty, sour, spicy, sweet, and umami) of the 3 PFR formulations over time when compared with the trained panelists, who detected no differences, suggesting that the electronic tongue may be more sensitive to tastants than humans and may have the

  4. Combining results of two GC separations partly achieves determination of all cis and trans 16:1, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 except CLA isomers of milk fat as demonstrated using Ag-ion SPE fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, John K G; Hernandez, Marta; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Kraft, Jana; Dugan, Michael E R

    2008-03-01

    Milk fat is a complex mixture of geometric and positional isomers of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, including short-, long- and branch-chain fatty acids (FAs). There has been partial success to resolve this mixture of FAs using different GC temperature programs, or a combination of GC isothermal and temperature programs. To overcome the problem associated with overlapping isomers prior silver-ion separation was recommended. However, this procedure is time consuming and not practical for routine analysis. In addition, previous methods focused mainly on the trans and cis isomers of 18:1. The present method takes advantage of differences in the relative elution times between different types of FAs. The method involved analyzing each milk fat using the same highly polar 100-m capillary column and GC instrument, and conducting two separations using temperature programs that plateau at 175 and 150 degrees C. The relative shift among the geometric and positional isomers at these two temperature settings was enough to permit identification of most of the trans and cis 16:1, 18:1 and 20:1, the c/t-18:2 and the c/c/t-18:3 isomers found in milk fat. The identity of these FAs was confirmed by prior separation of the total fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of milk fat using Ag(+)-SPE columns, and comparing the fractions to the total milk fat. The Ag(+)-SPE technique was modified to obtain pure saturated, trans- and cis-monounsaturated and diunsaturated FAMEs. By combining the results from these two separate GC analyses, knowing the elution order, it was possible to determine most of the geometric and positional isomers of 16:1, 18:1, 20:1, 18:2 and 18:3 without a prior silver-ion separation. Only few minor FAs could not be resolved, notable the conjugated linoleic acid isomers that still required the complimentary Ag(+)-HPLC separation. The two GC temperature programs have been successfully used to routinely analyze most FA isomers in total milk and beef fats in about 200

  5. Trans monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids have similar effects on postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Siebelink, E.; Bots, M.L.; Tol, van A.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Several studies suggest that a fatty meal impairs flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a measur9e of endothelial function. We tested whether the impairment was greater for trans fats than for saturated fats. We did this because we previously showed that replacement of saturated fats by trans

  6. Fat Necrosis After Partial-Breast Irradiation With Brachytherapy or Electron Irradiation Versus Standard Whole-Breast Radiotherapy-4-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevey, Katalin; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Szabo, Eva; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Janvary, Levente; Froehlich, Georgina; Kasler, Miklos; Polgar, Csaba

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and whole-breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomized to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy HDR-BT (n = 88) or 50 Gy ELE (n = 40). The incidence of fat necrosis, its impact on cosmetic outcome, accompanying radiologic features, and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: The 4-year actuarial rate of fat necrosis was 31.1% for all patients, and 31.9%, 36.5%, and 17.7% after WBI, HDR-BT and ELE, respectively (p WBI/HDR-BT = 0.26; p WBI/ELE = 0.11; p ELE/HDR-BT = 0.025). The respective rate of asymptomatic fat necrosis was 20.2%, 25.3%, and 10% of patients. The incidence of symptomatic fat necrosis was not significantly different after WBI (8.5%), HDR-BT (11.4%), and ELE (7.5%). Symptomatic fat necrosis was significantly associated with a worse cosmetic outcome, whereas asymptomatic fat necrosis was not. Fat necrosis was detectable with mammography and/or ultrasound in each case. Additional imaging examinations were required in 21% of cases and aspiration cytology in 42%. Conclusions: Asymptomatic fat necrosis is a common adverse event of breast-conserving therapy, having no significant clinical relevance in the majority of the cases. The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic fat necrosis is similar after conventional WBI and accelerated partial-breast HDR-BT

  7. Ruminant and industrial trans-fatty acid uptake in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Riya; LaVallee, Renee; Maddaford, Thane G; Devaney, Brittany; Bassett, Chantal M C; Edel, Andrea L; Pierce, Grant N

    2016-05-01

    Dietary trans-fats are strongly associated with heart disease. However, the capacity for the tissues of the body, and specifically the heart, to take up trans-fats is unknown. It is also unknown if different trans-fats have different uptake capacities in the heart and other tissues of the body. Diets of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were supplemented for 14weeks with foods that contained 1.5% of the trans-fat elaidic acid or vaccenic acid. Tissues were extracted and frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then lipids were analyzed by gas chromatography for fatty acid content. Isolated cardiomyocytes were also exposed to elaidic or vaccenic acid in cell culture media for 24h. Dietary supplementation with vaccenic or elaidic acid resulted in a 20-fold higher accumulation of these TFAs in fat deposits in the body in comparison to liver. Liver tissue accumulated about twice as much per gram tissue as heart. Similar quantities of both elaidic acid and vaccenic acid were taken up by the tissues. Isolated cardiomyocytes exhibited an unusually large uptake of trans-fat, and this was dependent upon both the concentration and duration of exposure to the trans-fats but not upon the type of trans-fat. Expression levels of CD36 and FATP4 were not significantly changed during dietary interventions or exposure of cells to trans-fats. We conclude that fat, liver and heart (including cardiomyocytes) are all capable of accumulating trans-fat in response to dietary supplementation without changes in fatty acid transport protein expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trans-Planckian wimpzillas

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, E W; Tkachev, I I

    2007-01-01

    Two previously proposed conjectures--gravitational trans-Planckian particle creation in the expanding universe, and the existence of ultra-heavy stable particles with masses up to the Planck scale (wimpzillas)--are combined in a proposal for trans-Planckian particle creation of wimpzillas. It is shown that the trans-Planckian particle creation parameter should be rather small to avoid overproduction of such particles. This ensures that wimpzillas are mainly created at the end of primordial inflation. Conditions under which trans-Planckian wimpzillas can constitute the present dark matter are determined.

  9. Americans' awareness, knowledge, and behaviors regarding fats: 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Groom, Allison; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, epidemiologic and clinical studies, public and regulatory policy activity, and media coverage have focused on issues related to trans fats. To help increase awareness and understanding of trans fats and other fats, the American Heart Association (AHA) launched the "Face the Fats" national consumer education campaign in April 2007. The AHA commissioned a quantitative tracking survey between 2006 and 2007 to measure changes in consumer awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related fats and oils and their perceived impact on heart disease. The survey was conducted by Cogent Research. Data were collected during March 2006 and May 2007. At both time points, the survey included a representative sample of the American population age 18 to 65 years (n=1,000). The sampling plan for the survey was designed based on the 2000 and 2003 US Census. The margin of error was +/-3.10 percentage points. Awareness of trans fats increased during the 1-year study period. In 2007, 92% of respondents were aware of trans fats, an increase from 84% in 2006 (Pincreased for trans fats (73% in 2007 vs 63% in 2006; Pfood sources of different fats remained low. On an unaided basis, 21% could name three food sources of trans fats in 2007, up from 17% in 2006 (Pfood sources of saturated fat remained unchanged at 30% in 2007. Significantly more respondents in 2007 reported behavioral changes related to trans fat information, such as buying food products because they show "zero trans fat" on labels or packages (37% in 2007 vs. 32% in 2006; Pincreased and attained awareness levels similar to saturated fats. The increased awareness is associated with improved self-reported behaviors in grocery shopping. Nonetheless, overall knowledge, especially regarding food sources of saturated and trans fats, remains relatively low, underscoring the need for heightened consumer education activities. The positive change in consumer awareness about trans fats is likely attributable to the wide range of

  10. Trans as Contested Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Denne artikel rejser en række epistemologiske og metodologiske spørgsmål vedrørende læsningen af trans som identitetskategori. Disse spørgsmål er stærkt underbelyste i en skandinavisk akademisk kontekst, om end der el- lers i stigende grad produceres analyser af trans identitetsnarrativer. Artikl...

  11. FACTS ABOUT TRANS FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  12. Detection of amyloid in abdominal fat pad aspirates in early amyloidosis: Role of electron microscopy and Congo red stained cell block sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Devata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA of the abdominal fat pad is a minimally invasive procedure to demonstrate tissue deposits of amyloid. However, protocols to evaluate amyloid in fat pad aspirates are not standardized, especially for detecting scant amyloid in early disease. Materials and Methods: We studied abdominal fat pad aspirates from 33 randomly selected patients in whom subsequent tissue biopsy, autopsy, and/or medical history for confirmation of amyloidosis (AL were also available. All these cases were suspected to have early AL, but had negative results on abdominal fat pad aspirates evaluated by polarizing microscopy of Congo Red stained sections (CRPM. The results with CRPM between four reviewers were compared in 12 cases for studying inter observer reproducibility. 24 cases were also evaluated by ultrastructural study with electron microscopy (EM. Results: Nine of thirty-three (27% cases reported negative by polarizing microscopy had amyloidosis. Reanalysis of 12 mixed positive-negative cases, showed considerable inter-observer variability with frequent lack of agreement between four observers by CRPM alone (Cohen′s Kappa index of 0.1, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.36. EM showed amyloid in the walls of small blood vessels in fibroadipose tissue in four out of nine cases (44% with amyloidosis. Conclusion: In addition to poor inter-observer reproducibility, CRPM alone in cases with scant amyloid led to frequent false negative results (9 out of 9, 100%. For improved detection of AL, routine ultrastructural evaluation with EM of fat pad aspirates by evaluating at least 15 small blood vessels in the aspirated fibroadipose tissue is recommended. Given the high false negative rate for CRPM alone in early disease, routine reflex evaluation with EM is highly recommended to avert the invasive option of biopsying various organs in cases with high clinical suspicion for AL.

  13. Cis By Trans

    OpenAIRE

    Rodovalho,Amara Moira

    2017-01-01

    Cis, trans: above all, metaphors. Cisjordan, region skirting the Jordan River. Cisplatin, Uruguay’s ancient name, region occupying one of the banks of the Prata River. Trans- Amazonian, that which crosses the Amazon; transatlantic, that which crosses the Atlantic. Cisalpine, transalpine. The geometric isomerism of Organic Chemistry, where “cis” are atoms that, when molecules are divided in half, remain on the same side, and “trans” those remaining on opposite sides. Ev...

  14. Obtenção de gorduras low trans por interesterificação quimica

    OpenAIRE

    Miluska Castillo Caceres

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: As gorduras trans, principalmente presentes nos alimentos industrializados como biscoitos, gorduras para fritura, margarinas, entre outros, são resultados da hidrogenação parcial, processo utilizado pela indústria há mais de 100 anos Abstract:Trans fats, most contained within food industrialized and biscuits, fats for frying, margarine and others, are the result of partial hydrogenation, a process used by the industry for more than 100 years

  15. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers.

  16. The electronic spectra of benzo[b]thiete and transient o-thiobenzoquinonemethide. Spectral assignments on the basis of the electronic spectra of aniline, thiophenol, thioanisole, all-trans-octatetraene and transient o-xylylene in conjunction with quantum-chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweig, Armin; Diehl, Frank; Kesper, Karl; Meyer, Hermann

    1989-07-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of benzo[b]thiete ( 1) and of transient o-thiobenzoquinonemethide ( 2) have been obtained. Semiempirical valence-electron calculations using the CNDO/S SECI, CNDO/S PERTCI and LNDO/S PERTCI methods and correlation diagrams using suitable reference compounds ad aniline, thiophenol, thioanisole, all-trans-octatetraene and o-xylylene are applied to the interpretation of the spectra. The results clearly reveal 1 as a typically donor-substituted benzene derivative and 2 as a polyene-like system closely related to o-xylylene.

  17. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  18. Ácidos grasos trans y su rol en la leche de vacas lecheras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Garnsworthy, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Lipids obtained from dairy products are an important part of the human diet in many countries. Approximately 75% of the total consumption of fat from ruminant animals comes from bovine milk fat. Trans fatty acids (tFA) are produced during biohydrogenation of mono- and poly-unsaturated FA in the r...

  19. Repair Activity of trans-Resveratrol toward 2'-Deoxyguanosine Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; An, Ping; Li, Shujin; Zhou, Liping

    2018-04-26

    In the present study, the repair activity of trans-resveratrol toward 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) radicals in polar and nonpolar solvents was studied using density functional theory. The hydrogen transfer/proton coupled electron transfer and single electron transfer (SET) mechanisms between trans-resveratrol and dGuo-radicals were considered. Taking into consideration the molar fraction of neutral trans-resveratrol (ROH) and anionic trans-resveratrol (RO - ), the overall rate constants for repairing dGuo-radicals by trans-resveratrol are 9.94 × 10 8 and 2.01 × 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 in polar and nonpolar solvents, respectively, and the overall rate constant of repairing cation radical (dGuo •+ ) by trans-resveratrol via an SET mechanism is 7.17 × 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The repair activity of RO - toward dGuo-radicals is better than that of ROH, but the repair activity of ROH toward dGuo •+ is better than that of RO - . Unfortunately, neither ROH nor RO - can repair the 2'-deoxyribose radicals of dGuo. It can therefore be concluded that trans-resveratrol is an effective antioxidant for repairing base radicals of dGuo and dGuo •+ . The study can help us understand the repair activity of trans-resveratrol toward dGuo radicals.

  20. Change in trans fatty acid content of fast-food purchases associated with New York City's restaurant regulation: a pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Sonia Y; Cobb, Laura K; Curtis, Christine J; Konty, Kevin J; Silver, Lynn D

    2012-07-17

    Dietary trans fat increases risk for coronary heart disease. In 2006, New York City (NYC) passed the first regulation in the United States restricting trans fat use in restaurants. To assess the effect of the NYC regulation on the trans and saturated fat content of fast-food purchases. Cross-sectional study that included purchase receipts matched to available nutritional information and brief surveys of adult lunchtime restaurant customers conducted in 2007 and 2009, before and after implementation of the regulation. 168 randomly selected NYC restaurant locations of 11 fast-food chains. Adult restaurant customers interviewed in 2007 and 2009. Change in mean grams of trans fat, saturated fat, trans plus saturated fat, and trans fat per 1000 kcal per purchase, overall and by chain type. The final sample included 6969 purchases in 2007 and 7885 purchases in 2009. Overall, mean trans fat per purchase decreased by 2.4 g (95% CI, -2.8 to -2.0 g; P restaurant was located was not associated with changes. Fast-food restaurants that were included may not be representative of all NYC restaurants. The introduction of a local restaurant regulation was associated with a substantial and statistically significant decrease in the trans fat content of purchases at fast-food chains, without a commensurate increase in saturated fat. Restaurant patrons from high- and low-poverty neighborhoods benefited equally. However, federal regulation will be necessary to fully eliminate population exposure to industrial trans fat sources. City of New York and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Healthy Eating Research program.

  1. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-05

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid in ewe milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2005-11-01

    Ewe milk fat from five different herds was studied to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Research was carried out by combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 4,4-dimethyloxazolyne derivatives (DMOX) with silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC). Reconstructed mass spectral profiles of CLA characteristic ions from DMOX were used to identify positional isomers and Ag+-HPLC to quantify them. Total CLA content varied from 0.57 to 0.97 g/100 g of total fatty acids. FAME and DMOX were separated into a complex mixture of minor isomers and major rumenic acid (9-cis 11-trans C18:2) by GC-MS using a 100-m polar capillary column. Rumenic acid would represent more than 75% of total CLA. 11-trans 13-trans, 11-13 cis/trans plus trans/cis and 7-9 cis/trans plus trans/cis were the main CLA isomers after rumenic acid. Minor amounts of 8-10 and 10-12 C18:2 isomers were also found. Although most of the isomers were present in each herd's milk, differences in content were observed for some CLA species.

  3. Fat body, hemolymph and ovary routes for delivery of substances to ovary in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides: differences among castes through the use of electron-opaque tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Berger, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    The yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vg), in bees is synthesized in the fat body trophocytes, delivered to the hemolymph and ultimately absorbed from there during the vitellogenic phase of oocytes in the active ovary. The routes tracing the material exchange that occurs between the trophocytes and the hemolymph, in addition to the transportation from the hemolymph to the ovarian follicles, were marked by alkaline phosphatase and lanthanum nitrate (LN). Active ovaries from nurse workers and physogastric queens, as well as inactive ovaries of virgin queens, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The LN permitted better visualization of the routes of exchanges between the organs and the hemolymph. Both methods demonstrate the apparent differences between the phases of the ovary and the bee caste. In inactive ovaries of the virgin queens, the routes from the follicular epithelium to the oocyte remain closed; conversely, they are open in active ovaries of the nurse workers and physogastric queens. The differences between the methods and classes of bees are discussed.

  4. Cardiology Centre Patients’ Awareness of the Negative Effects of Trans Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plociņa Lāsma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to promote public awareness of the negative effects on health — trans fatty acid effects on cardiovascular disease. The study included 70 patients of the Latvian Centre of Cardiology, Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital (PSCUH. The PSCUH research institute gave permission to conduct the study. The patients answered questions about their awareness of trans fatty acids. The questionnaire used was obtained from the study “Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population” and modified for survey of the cardiology unit patients. The majority (74% of the respondents had heard and read something about trans fatty acids, but 62% women and 54% men were poorly informed about trans fatty acids and their negative effect on cardiovascular diseases. Unclear issues for patients were discussed after the questionnaire.

  5. Perfil nutricional de alimentos com alegação de zero gordura trans Nutritional profile of foods with zero trans fatty acids claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Moron Gagliardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a composição de ácidos graxos de alguns alimentos industrializados disponíveis no mercado brasileiro nos quais houve redução da quantidade de ácidos graxos trans. Verificar também se estes alimentos atendem às quantidades recomendadas de consumo de gordura saturada, após redução de gordura trans. MÉTODOS: Alimentos industrializados (margarina cremosa A e B, margarina com fitosterol, biscoito doce recheado, biscoito salgado sem recheio, batata frita e lanche com hambúrguer de fast food multinacional com alegação de 0% de gordura trans foram adquiridos em pontos comerciais e analisados em cromatógrafo gasoso. RESULTADOS: Apesar da redução nas quantidades de ácidos graxos trans, os alimentos analisados contêm grandes quantidades de gorduras saturadas principalmente o ácido palmítico. Além disso, alguns dos alimentos estudados apresentam uma razão n-3/n-6 fora do recomendado para a prevenção da aterosclerose. CONCLUSÃO: O consumo irrestrito desses alimentos tem forte potencial deletério para a saúde. O rótulo de ausência de ácidos graxos trans deve ser visto com cuidado e não significa uma liberação para o consumo irrestrito desses alimentos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the composition of fatty acids in some foods available in the Brazilian market in which there was a claimed reduction in the amount of trans fatty acids. Also evaluate whether these foods meet recommended amounts for saturated fat consumption, after reduction of trans fat amounts. METHODS: Industrialized food (creamy margarine A and B, plant sterol margarine, stuffed sweet biscuit, salty biscuit without stuffing, French fried potatoes and a burger lunch from a multinational chain of "fast food" all with the allegation of 0% trans fat content were purchased in commercial points and analyzed by gas chromatography. RESULTS: Despite the reduction in trans fatty acid amounts, analyzed foods contained large concentrations of saturated fats

  6. Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Remya, P; Sathish, U; Rani, T; Mohan, S

    2014-08-14

    The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the optimised geometry of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been determined from B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The effects of substituents (acrylyl group) on the imidazole vibrational frequencies are analysed. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of trans-3-(trans-4-imidazolyl)acrylic acid have been precisely assigned and analysed and the theoretical results are compared with the experimental vibrations. (1)H and (13)C NMR isotropic chemical shifts are calculated and the assignments made are compared with the experimental values. The energies of important MO's of the compound are also determined from DFT method. The total electron density and electrostatic potential of the compound are determined by natural bond orbital analysis. Various reactivity and selectivity descriptors such as chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the appropriate local quantities employing natural population analysis (NPA) are calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radical feminists & trans activists truce

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, F.

    2014-01-01

    #GenderWeek: Truce! When radical feminists and trans feminists empathise\\ud Feminist Times\\ud By Finn Mackay \\ud read all #GenderWeek articles.\\ud We wanted to explore the ground between the polarised, entrenched positions in the so-called “TERF-war”. Radical feminists on one pole, trans-inclusionary feminists and trans activists on the other. The disputed territory being women-only space, language and the ever changing legal framework surrounding gender.\\ud Entrenchment leads to stalemate. S...

  8. Ácidos graxos trans: implicações nutricionais e fontes na dieta Trans fatty acids: nutritional implications and sources in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Antunes Martin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revisa as principais fontes de ácidos graxos trans na dieta e as implicações nutricionais da ingestão elevada destes isômeros. São apresentados resumidamente os métodos analíticos utilizados na identificação e quantificação dos ácidos graxos trans, sendo abordados as suas vantagens e desvantagens. Os alimentos que empregam gordura parcialmente hidrogenada na sua produção, são fontes importantes de isômeros trans na dieta da maior parte da população em países industrializados. Este estudo compara os níveis de ácidos graxos trans em gorduras hidrogenadas, margarinas e batatas frita, analisados em diversos países, incluindo o Brasil. Esta avaliação indica a presença de níveis elevados de isômeros trans em alimentos produzidos no Brasil.This article review the main sources of trans fatty acids in the diet and nutritional implications of the high intake of these isomers. Analytical methods for the identification and quantification of trans fatty acids are presented briefly with regard to advantages and drawbacks of each method. Foods make with partially hidrogenated fats are important sources of trans isomers in the diets of most people in industrialized countries. It is made a comparison between levels of trans fatty acids in shortenings, margarines and potato chips evaluated in Brazil and in other countries. High levels of trans isomers are noted in Brazilian foods.

  9. Trans fatty acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dijkstra, Albert J; Hamm, Wolf; Hamilton, R. J. (Richard John)

    2008-01-01

    ... system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without ...

  10. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kochan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.

  11. Triplet State Resonance Raman Spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Grossman, W.E.L.; Killough, P.M

    1984-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of all-trans-diphenylbutadiene (DPB) in its ground state and the resonance Raman spectrum (RRS) of DPB in its short-lived electronically excited triplet state are reported. Transient spectra were obtained by a pump-probe technique using two pulsed lasers...

  12. cis–trans Isomerization of silybins A and B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Novotná

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods were developed and optimized for the preparation of the 2,3-cis- and the 10,11-cis-isomers of silybin by the Lewis acid catalyzed (BF3∙OEt2 isomerization of silybins A (1a and B (1b (trans-isomers. The absolute configuration of all optically pure compounds was determined by using NMR and comparing their electronic circular dichroism data with model compounds of known absolute configurations. Mechanisms for cis–trans-isomerization of silybin are proposed and supported by quantum mechanical calculations.

  13. Comparison of different methods to quantify fat classes in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Min; Hwang, Young-Ok; Tu, Ock-Ju; Jo, Han-Bin; Kim, Jung-Hun; Chae, Young-Zoo; Rhu, Kyung-Hun; Park, Seung-Kook

    2013-01-15

    The definition of fat differs in different countries; thus whether fat is listed on food labels depends on the country. Some countries list crude fat content in the 'Fat' section on the food label, whereas other countries list total fat. In this study, three methods were used for determining fat classes and content in bakery products: the Folch method, the automated Soxhlet method, and the AOAC 996.06 method. The results using these methods were compared. Fat (crude) extracted by the Folch and Soxhlet methods was gravimetrically determined and assessed by fat class using capillary gas chromatography (GC). In most samples, fat (total) content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lower than the fat (crude) content determined by the Folch or automated Soxhlet methods. Furthermore, monounsaturated fat or saturated fat content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lowest. Almost no difference was observed between fat (crude) content determined by the Folch method and that determined by the automated Soxhlet method for nearly all samples. In three samples (wheat biscuits, butter cookies-1, and chocolate chip cookies), monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was higher than that obtained by the Folch method. The polyunsaturated fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was not higher than that obtained by the Folch method in any sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  15. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also summarizes controlled feeding studies on the effects of dietary fats on metabolic mediators, such as insulin resistance. Taken together, the evidence suggests that replacing saturated fats and trans fatty acids with unsaturated (polyunsaturated and/or monounsaturated) fats has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and is likely to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. Among polyunsaturated fats, linoleic acid from the n-6 series improves insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, long-chain n-3 fatty acids do not appear to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose metabolism. In dietary practice, foods rich in vegetable oils, including non-hydrogenated margarines, nuts, and seeds, should replace foods rich in saturated fats from meats and fat-rich dairy products. Consumption of partially hydrogenated fats should be minimized. Additional controlled, long-term studies are needed to improve our knowledge on the optimal proportion of different types of fats to prevent diabetes.

  16. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  17. Teores de ácidos graxos trans de alguns alimentos consumidos no Rio de Janeiro Trans fatty acids of some foods consumed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Chiara

    2003-06-01

    acids were found in potato chips. Cream crackers had the highest values of trans fatty acids and the lowest content of unsaturated fat. In some products, the content of trans fatty acids in 100g was higher than the daily total intake recommended in several countries.

  18. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate prevents murine dietary steatohepatitis caused by trans-fatty acid plus fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Maki; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Arai, Kumiko; Kusama, Hiromi; Uchiyama, Akira; Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2015-11-01

    Excess consumption of trans-fatty acid could increase the risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, treatment targeting trans-fatty acid-induced NASH has not been examined. Here we focused on the influence of trans-fatty acid intake on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes, so we investigated the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), on trans-fatty acid-caused steatohepatitis using diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Elaidic acid (EA, trans-fatty acid) alone did not cause definitive liver injury. In contrast, EA plus low-dose fructose induced extensive apoptosis in hepatocytes with severe fat accumulation. EA plus fructose significantly increased ER stress markers such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while PBA significantly reduced this response. In vitro, EA promoted expression of GRP78 and phosphorylation of eIF2α in primary-cultured hepatocytes. EA also increased hepatocellular susceptibility to low-dose tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Treatment with PBA significantly reduced these responses. In conclusion, EA potentiates susceptibly to non-hazardous dose of fructose, and increases ER and oxidative stress. PBA improved steatohepatitis induced by EA plus fructose through amelioration of ER stress. Therefore, ER stress-targeted therapy using a chemical chaperone is a promising novel strategy for trans-fatty acid-induced steatohepatitis.

  19. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    investigated. Although decreasing during the early absorptive phase a continuous contribution of endogenous trans-C18:I and arachidonic acid was observed in plasma. Small differences were observed between the 4 dietary fats. In lymph, the transport of trans-C18:1 rose markedly after butter administration...... partly caused by the content of this fatty acid in butter, while the transport of trans-C18:1 after R/C10 was unchanged although still transported at a reasonable high rate. The transport of arachidonic acid increased after administration of both butter and R/C10. Minor changes were observed in plasma...

  20. Dinitrogen Difluoride Chemistry. Improved Synthesis of cis- and trans-N2F2, Synthesis and Characterization of N2F+Sn2F9 High-Level Electronic Structure Calculations of cis-N2F2, trans-N2F2, F2N=N, and N2F+, and Mechanism of the trans-cis Isomerization of N2F2 (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    approach developed at The University of Alabama and Washington State University for the prediction of accurate molecular thermochemistry was used to...Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian, the so-called mass-velocity and one- electron Darwin (MVD) corrections from configuration interaction singles and doubles...structure calculations can provide better values than experiment. A previous molecular orbital study by Lee and coworkers showed4 that the calculated values

  1. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  2. TransForm: TransAlta 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Financial information from TransAlta Corp. was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000 and a summary of the how the electric utility is doing in terms of power generation, independent power producers, transmission and energy marketing. The utility has changed from a regulated vertically integrated utility into one of Canada's largest non-regulated electric power generators. The utility sold its retail businesses in Alberta and New Zealand and now focuses on coal and hydro generation, gas generation, high-voltage transmission and energy marketing. The newly constructed Centralia, Washington generation facility was brought on line with 1,340 MW in May 2000, on time and on budget. This was the platform to diversify their generation into the United States. The utility reported a solid financial year with $177.9 million in earnings from continuing operations, an 83 per cent increase from 1999, driven mostly by the results of Centralia and power marketing and trading businesses. A financial loss was suffered when the Wabamum power plant in Alberta was shut down for several months to repair a boiler. The utility made excellent progress toward their goal of 15,000 megawatts by 2005 by starting with the construction of what will be one of Canada's largest cogeneration facilities at Sarnia, Ontario. TransAlta also commissioned a 360 MW cogeneration facility at Poplar Creek at Suncor's Fort McMurray oil sand facility. TransAlta also has an excellent track record in developing power generation projects internationally. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Trans-fatty acid content of food products in Spain in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re Saavedra, María Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Robledo de Dios, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the content of trans-fatty acids (TFA) in food products in Spain in 2015 and assess trends in TFA content since 2010. We analysed the fat content of 277 food products purchased in Spanish supermarkets in 2015 and calculated both the total fat and TFA content and the proportion of TFA to total fats. The results obtained in 2015 were compared to those yielded by a similar study in 2010. In 2015, the majority of food products studied had a TFA content of less than 0.2g/100g product, and a TFA/total fat ratio of less than 2%. No significant increases were found compared to 2010. Food groups with a higher TFA content were dairy products of possible natural origin. TFA content in Spain is low and has significantly fallen since 2010. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Steady-State pharmacokinetics and tolerability of trans-resveratrol 2000 mg twice daily with food, quercetin and alcohol (ethanol) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Porte, Charles; Voduc, Nha; Zhang, Guijun; Seguin, Isabelle; Tardiff, Danielle; Singhal, Neera; Cameron, D William

    2010-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol is a polyphenol, which is found in red wine and has cancer chemo-preventive properties and disease-preventive properties. The pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol have been investigated in single-dose studies and in studies with relatively low dosages. The present study aimed to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetics and tolerability of trans-resveratrol 2000 mg twice daily with food, quercetin and alcohol (ethanol). This was a two-period, open-label, single-arm, within-subject control study in eight healthy subjects. The steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol 2000 mg twice daily were studied with a standard breakfast, a high-fat breakfast, quercetin 500 mg twice daily and 5% alcohol 100 mL. Trans-resveratrol plasma concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The mean (SD) area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC(12)) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of trans-resveratrol were 3558 (2195) ng * h/mL and 1274 (790) ng/mL, respectively, after the standard breakfast. The high-fat breakfast significantly decreased the AUC(12) and C(max) by 45% and 46%, respectively, when compared with the standard breakfast. Quercetin 500 mg twice daily or 5% alcohol 100 mL did not influence trans-resveratrol pharmacokinetics. Diarrhoea was reported in six of the eight subjects. Significant but not clinically relevant changes from baseline were observed in serum potassium and total bilirubin levels. Trans-resveratrol 2000 mg twice daily resulted in adequate exposure and was well tolerated by healthy subjects, although diarrhoea was frequently observed. In order to maximize trans-resveratrol exposure, it should be taken with a standard breakfast and not with a high-fat meal. Furthermore, combined intake with quercetin or alcohol did not influence trans-resveratrol exposure.

  5. Feasibility of recommending certain replacement or alternative fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M

    2009-05-01

    Expert groups and public health authorities recommend that trans-fatty acid (TFA) intakes from industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) should be less than 1% of total energy intake. The starting point for any regulatory or nonregulatory response to this recommendation is to assess the extent of the problem by determining where in the food supply TFAs are found and the amounts consumed in the population. Unfortunately, this is a particularly difficult task using traditional methods of dietary assessment inasmuch as food composition databases with TFA data are either nonexistent or incomplete in most countries. Current evidence on estimates of intake suggests there is high variability in TFA intakes and their food sources between countries. The ubiquitous presence of PHVOs in the global food supply in bakery products, deep-fried foods, snack foods, confectionery products and table spreads attests to their commercial value and convenience. However, their common use is more the result of historical convenience from an industry infrastructure developed over 50 years based on efficient, cost-effective hydrogenation of vegetable oils rather than any inherent sensory or physical superiority of the hydrogenated fats over purpose-made zero-trans fats and oils. Current global supply of appropriate zero-trans replacement fats high in cis-unsaturated fatty acids is insufficient to meet the demand if all PHVOs in the food supply were replaced. Regulatory action needs to be coordinated with supply to maximize the opportunity for health gains by replacing partially hydrogenated fats with purpose-ready zero-trans vegetable oils low in saturates and high in cis-unsaturates rather than animal fats and tropical oils high in saturated fatty acids.

  6. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  7. Synthesis through Trans-disciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring

    2006-01-01

    synthesis is a requirement for creating successful ‘environmentally sustainable' architecture through the application of trans-disciplinarity, which leads to an increased awareness of the differences in decision-making as well as that of communication barriers between the different professions......When looking up the word ‘synthesis' in a dictionary, one comes across the following definition: "The combining of separate elements or substances to form a coherent whole."[1] Based on this definition one could argue that all great architectureis achieved through synthesis in one way or another...

  8. Trans issues in Liz Lochhead's 'Not Changed'

    OpenAIRE

    Kaličanin Milena M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is divided into four sections. In the first section entitled 'Introducing and Defining Trans (Issues)', the basic terms of transgender, transvestite, and transsexual are defined by relying on Stryker's Transgender History (2008). The second part of the paper, 'Trans Studies: In-Between Feminist and Queer Theory?', places transgender studies into an academic context by referring to the theoretical framework provided by trans theorists Stryker, Stone, and Ranck who unanimously claim t...

  9. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, in severe cases, symptoms of malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. If the condition prevents the digestion and/or absorption of fats from the diet, then excess fat is present in the stool and the ...

  10. Rumen microbiota and dietary fat: a mutual shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Combes, S; Zened, A; Meynadier, A

    2017-10-01

    Although fat content in usual ruminant diets is very low, fat supplements can be given to farm ruminants to modulate rumen activity or the fatty acid (FA) profile of meat and milk. Unsaturated FAs, which are dominant in common fat sources for ruminants, have negative effects on microbial growth, especially protozoa and fibrolytic bacteria. In turn, the rumen microbiota detoxifies unsaturated FAs (UFAs) through a biohydrogenation (BH) process, transforming dietary UFAs with cis geometrical double-bonds into mainly trans UFAs and, finally, into saturated FAs. Culture studies have provided a large amount of data regarding bacterial species and strains that are affected by UFAs or involved in lipolysis or BH, with a major focus on the Butyrivibrio genus. More recent data using molecular approaches to rumen microbiota extend and challenge these data, but further research will be necessary to improve our understanding of fat and rumen microbiota interactions. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Few atom chemistry of the trans actinide element rutherfordium (Rf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagame, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of chemical properties of the trans actinide elements - starting with element 104 (Rf) - offer the unique opportunity to obtain information about trends in the Periodic Table at the limits of nuclear stability and to assess the magnitude of the influence of relativistic effects on chemical properties. To explore experimentally the influence of relativistic effects of electron shell structure, we study the chemical properties of the trans actinide elements. So far, we have developed some experimental apparatuses for the study of chemical properties of the trans actinide elements: a beam-line safety system for the usage of the gas-jet coupled radioactive 248 Cm target chamber for the production of trans actinides, a rotating wheel catcher apparatus for the measurement of α particles and spontaneous fission decay of trans actinides and an automated rapid chemical separation apparatus based on high performance liquid chromatography. The trans actinide nuclide, the element 104, 261 Rf (t 1/2 = 78 s) has been successfully produced via the reactions of 248 Cm( 18 O,5n) at the JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) tandem accelerator. The evaluated production cross section was about 10 nb, indicating that the production rate was approximately 2 atoms per min. Because of the short half-life and the low production rate of Rf, each atom produced decays before a new atom is synthesized. It means that any chemistry to be performed must be done on an 'atom-at-a-time' basis. Therefore rapid, very efficient and selective chemical procedures are indispensable to isolate the desired trans actinide 261 Rf. To perform fast and repetitive ion-exchange separation of Rf, we have developed the apparatus AIDA (Automated Ion exchange separation system coupled with the Detection apparatus for Alpha spectroscopy). Recently, ion-exchange behavior of Rf in acidic solutions has been studied with AIDA, and the results indicate that anion-exchange behavior of Rf is quite similar

  12. Communication: An accurate calculation of the S1 C2H2 cis-trans isomerization barrier height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraban, Joshua H.; Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.

    2016-01-01

    A high level ab initio calculation of the cis-trans isomerization barrier height in the first excited singlet electronic state of acetylene is found to agree very well with a recent experimental determination.

  13. Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Trans Ova Genetics, L.C., a business located at 2938 380th Street Sioux Center, IA 51250, for alleged violations at the Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.’s facility located in 12425

  14. Unscripting Curriculum: Toward a Critical Trans Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Harper Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, Harper B. Keenan draws on his own experience as a white queer and trans educator to consider the meaning of a critical trans pedagogy. Amid dissonant narratives of equal rights and subjection, he explores how his classroom teaching is shaped by his own experience of gender conditioning as well as by the contemporary political…

  15. TransAlta: More than a utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikalson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    TransAlta Utilities Corporation is Canada's largest privately owned utility and is also a major coal mining company. In 1989, TransAlta produced 20.9% of all coal mined in Canada. A brief history of TransAlta is presented along with TransAlta's present coal operations and plans for the next three years. An overview is presented of how TransAlta Fuel Supply is organized to utilize contracted mining operation, engineering and environmental services and in-house capabilities. Recent strategic initiatives to improve organizational efficiency and the mining operations are discussed. These range from developing a common departmental vision to modifying major mining equipment. TransAlta's proactive role in clean coal combustion such as low NOx-SOx burner, integrated combined cycle gasification, and other energy research projects is reviewed. A summary is provided of recent participation of TransAlta in environmental management initiatives. Recent successes of TransAlta's unregulated subsidiary in the development of cogeneration facilities and the future of this area of business are discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs

  16. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  17. Dispersed free phytosterols as structuring agents in lipid systems with reduced saturated fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, K.R.R.; Basso, R.C.; Buscato, M.H.M.; Cardoso, L.P.; Kieckbusch, T.G.; Ribeiro, A.P.B.

    2017-01-01

    The negative effects of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids in food have been widely discussed and this has led to progressive changes in the legislation of many countries. The use of structuring agents or crystallization modifiers, as specific triacylglycerol and minor lipids have been indicated as the only viable alternative for obtaining low saturated fats with properties which are compatible with food application. In this context, phytosterols, natural products with hypocholesterolemic action, and hard fat-crystallization modulators, present a new option for structuring lipid matrices. This work characterized the effects of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and free phytosterols on the physical properties and crystallization behavior of palm oil and canola oil blends for the development of zero trans-fat bases with low levels of saturated fatty acids. The systems were evaluated for chemical composition, atherogenic index, solid fat profiles, microstructure, consistency, thermal behavior and polymorphism. [es

  18. Endoscopic treatment of trans-sellar trans-sphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome presenting with non-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, M; Ozer, A F; Aydin, A L

    2009-03-01

    Basal encephaloceles are rare, accounting for about 1.5% of all encephaloceles. The trans-sellar trans-sphenoidal encephalocele variety is the rarest. Morning glory syndrome is often associated with basal encephalocele. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrheas are the least common of these, accounting for only 3% to 5% of all CSF rhinorrheas. The authors describe the outcome of a 10-year follow-up study of a 26-year-old male patient with a spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea occurring trans-sphenoidal encephalocele associated with bilateral morning glory syndrome that was treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach. Endoscopic exploration of the sella floor was performed and closed with abdomen fat packing and muscle fascia. The postoperative course was uneventful. A follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) image at 6 months postoperatively showed extension of encephalocele in the sphenoidal sinus, which was repaired. The patient had no further CSF rhinorrhea and showed no ophthalmologic changes over a follow-up period of over 10 years. Ophthalmologic findings such as strabismus, in association with anomalies of the optic nerve, should alert the physician to the possible presence of an unrecognized skull base midline defect and encephalocele before CSF leakage is seen. The authors believe that a surgeon who has equal confidence in performing the endoscopic endonasal and conventional microscopic trans-sphenoidal approaches should choose the less invasive surgery.

  19. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  20. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Maroleanu, Adriana; Cozma, Adrian I; Ha, Vanessa; Kishibe, Teruko; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Budylowski, Patrick; Schünemann, Holger; Beyene, Joseph; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-08-11

    To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL from inception to 1 May 2015, supplemented by bibliographies of retrieved articles and previous reviews. Observational studies reporting associations of saturated fat and/or trans unsaturated fat (total, industrially manufactured, or from ruminant animals) with all cause mortality, CHD/CVD mortality, total CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study risks of bias. Multivariable relative risks were pooled. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Potential publication bias was assessed and subgroup analyses were undertaken. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate quality of evidence and certainty of conclusions. For saturated fat, three to 12 prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (five to 17 comparisons with 90,501-339,090 participants). Saturated fat intake was not associated with all cause mortality (relative risk 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.09), CVD mortality (0.97, 0.84 to 1.12), total CHD (1.06, 0.95 to 1.17), ischemic stroke (1.02, 0.90 to 1.15), or type 2 diabetes (0.95, 0.88 to 1.03). There was no convincing lack of association between saturated fat and CHD mortality (1.15, 0.97 to 1.36; P=0.10). For trans fats, one to six prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (two to seven comparisons with 12,942-230,135 participants). Total trans fat intake was associated with all cause mortality (1.34, 1.16 to 1.56), CHD mortality (1.28, 1.09 to 1.50), and total CHD (1.21, 1.10 to 1.33) but not ischemic stroke (1.07, 0.88 to 1.28) or type 2 diabetes

  1. Desenvolvimento de salgadinhos com teores reduzidos de gordura saturada e de ácidos graxos trans Development of snacks with reduced saturated and trans fatty acids contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa D. Capriles

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A gordura vegetal hidrogenada, veículo convencional para aromatização de salgadinhos, foi substituída parcial ou totalmente por óleo de canola, gerando um novo salgadinho com 73,8% de redução da gordura saturada em relação aos salgadinhos disponíveis no mercado e eliminação dos ácidos graxos trans. Foi avaliado o impacto desta substituição sobre as características sensoriais do produto. Ao se substituir totalmente a gordura, a alteração de cor, medida pela variação da somatória dos atributos de cor deltaE, foi de 2,04. A substituição da gordura em até 50% não alterou a textura significativamente (pThe hydrogenated vegetable fat normally used as a vehicle for flavoring snacks, has been partially or totally replaced by rapeseed oil, resulting in a new snack with 73,8% less saturated fat than regular snacks. This new product doesn't have any trans fatty acids in its composition. The impact of this replacement in sensorial characteristics of this product has been analyzed. In the sample where the fat had been totally replaced the color change was deltaE=2.04. It has been also noticed that replacement up to 50% did not cause any significant changes on texture (p<0.05. However, when this replacement is over 75%, a texture difference was observed as compared to the standard sample. In the sensorial analysis, the standard sample (22% fat was compared to the one flavored with 22% rapeseed oil, and the difference in texture was noticed, with the sample flavored with vegetable fat presenting better sensory acceptance. Based on our results, we concluded that the sensorial characteristics of this product were not affected practically after the replacement of regular fat by rapeseed oil, making approaches like this viable to be used on an industrial scale with the purpose to help reducing the intake of saturated and trans fatty acids by the population.

  2. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin

    2014-01-01

    at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic......OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega....../day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes...

  3. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids on Human Health: Important Aspects to Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-09-09

    The definition and evaluation of trans fatty acids (TFA) with regard to foodstuffs and health hazard are not consistent. Based on the current situation, the term should be restricted only to TFA with isolated double bonds in trans-configuration. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) should be separately assessed. Ideally, the origin of the consumed fat should be declared, i.e., ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and industrial TFA (non-ruminant; I-TFA). In ruminant fat, more than 50% of R-TFA consists of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11). In addition, natural CLA, i.e., c9,t11 CLA is also present. Both are elevated in products from organic farming. In contrast to elaidic acid (t9) and t10, which occur mainly in partially hydrogenated industrial fat, t11 is partially metabolized into c9,t11 CLA via Δ9-desaturation. This is the major metabolic criterion used to differentiate between t11 and other trans C18:1. t11 indicates health beneficial effects in several studies. Moreover, CLA in milk fat is associated with the prevention of allergy and asthma. An analysis of the few studies relating to R-TFA alone makes clear that no convincing adverse physiological effect can be attributed to R-TFA. Only extremely high R-TFA intakes cause negative change in blood lipids. In conclusion, in most European countries, the intake of R-TFA is assessed as being low to moderate. Restriction of R-TFA would unjustifiably represent a disadvantage for organic farming of milk.

  5. The Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon Tania

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, a treaty the parties have described as comprehensive and ambitious, yet also representing a balance of competing interests. The article focuses on the TPP’s chapters relating to investment, services, intellectual property and regulatory coherence, each of which provides insight into the motivations that drove the conclusion of the TPP and the negotiating dynamics that determined its final content. In areas such as investment, the TPP takes a more balanced approach than many earlier agreements, providing greater safeguards for the regulatory autonomy of states while still embodying core protections for foreign investors. In relation to intellectual property and services, the TPP goes beyond earlier agreements in several key respects, such as preventing the imposition of local presence requirements for service providers or requiring longer copyright terms than those demanded by other international treaties. The TPP chapter on regulatory coherence is one of the most novel features of the treaty, as regulatory coherence is not frequently included in earlier trade agreements, demonstrating the increased focus of states on addressing regulatory barriers to trade and investment. While all of these elements of the TPP are interesting in their own right, given the number and size of the parties involved in the agreement, they also provide valuable guidance about the direction of other ongoing and future preferential trade agreement negotiations, such as the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP and Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA.

  6. On the Electronic Structure of mer,trans-[RuCl3(1H-indazole)2(NO)], a Hypothetical Metabolite of the Antitumor Drug Candidate KP1019: An Experimental and DFT Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bučinský, L.; Buchel, G.E.; Ponec, Robert; Rapta, P.; Breza, M.; Kožíšek, J.; Gall, M.; Biskupič, S.; Fronc, M.; Schiessl, K.; Cuzan, O.; Prodius, D.; Turta, C.; Shova, S.; Zajac, D.A.; Arion, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, MAY (2013), s. 2505-2519 ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0118 Grant - others:GA SK(SK) 1/0679/11; GA SK(SK) 1/0289/12; GA SK(SK) 1/0327/12; AAIM(AT) SK-03; ASF(AT) I 374-N19 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ruthenium * electronic structure * antitumor agents Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2013

  7. Toxicological aspects of interesterified fat: Brain damages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'avila, Lívia Ferraz; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Milanesi, Laura Hautrive; Roversi, Karine; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Trevizol, Fabíola; Maurer, H Luana

    2017-07-05

    In recent years, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans isomers, being found in processed foods. Studies involving IF have shown deleterious influences on the metabolic system, similarly to HVF, whereas no studies regarding its influence on the central nervous system (CNS) were performed. Rats from first generation born and maintained under supplementation (3g/Kg, p.o.) of soybean-oil or IF until adulthood were assessed on memory, biochemical and molecular markers in the hippocampus. IF group showed higher saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid and lower docosahexaenoic acid incorporation in the hippocampus. In addition, IF supplementation impaired short and long-term memory, which were related to increased reactive species generation and protein carbonyl levels, decreased catalase activity, BDNF and TrkB levels in the hippocampus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that lifelong IF consumption may be related to brain oxidative damage, memory impairments and neurotrophins modifications, which collectively may be present indifferent neurological disorders. In fact, the use of IF in foods was intended to avoid damage from HVF consumption; however this substitute should be urgently reviewed, since this fat can be as harmful as trans fat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-06-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the "biscuits, wafers and cookies" group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry.

  9. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  10. Effects of induced subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat content and milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Videau, Y; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2008-06-01

    Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Diets with 20% and 34% wheat induced a marginal and a severe subacute ruminal acidosis respectively. After 11 days, diets with wheat strongly reduced the milk yield and milk fat content, increased the proportions of C8:0 to C13:0 even- or odd-chain fatty acids, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids but decreased the proportions of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 fatty acids. Wheat also increased the proportions of trans-5 to trans-10 C18:1, the latter exhibiting a 10-fold increase with 34% of wheat compared with value during the initial 0% wheat period. There was also an increase of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 fatty acid and a decrease of trans-11 to trans-16 C18:1 fatty acids. The evolution during adaptation or after return to a 0% wheat diet was rapid for pH but much slower for the fatty acid profile. The mean ruminal pH was closely related to milk fat content, the proportion of odd-chain fatty acids (linear relationship) and the ratio of trans-10 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 (nonlinear relationship). Such changes in fatty acid profile suggested a possible use for non-invasive diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis.

  11. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  12. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis9,trans11 and trans10,cis12 in ruminant and non-ruminant meats available in the Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Cicognini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers are considered healthy factors due to their anticarcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic and lipolytic effect. A recommended daily intake from 0.8 to 3 g CLA/day/person has been proposed to obtain biological effects in humans. The aim of this work was to provide data on cis9,trans11 (c9,t11 CLA and trans10,cis12 (t10,c12 CLA contents in meats collected from Italian largescale retail trade and completing a food CLA database. In a first trial, beef loin meats were characterised for label information available for consumers: origin (i.e., Ireland, France- Italy, Piedmont and sex of animals. No differences were observed for c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA contents (mg/g fat of loin meat from male or female. Piedmontese meat showed lower (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA level (mg/g fat than Irish and French-Italian meats, whereas similar t10,c12 CLA contents were measured in Piedmontese, Irish and French-Italian meats. Successively, meat samples from different animal species (male and female beef, veal, suckling lamb, belly beef, canned beef meat, pork and horse were characterised for their contents in c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. Lamb meat had the highest (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA content (mg/g fat. The c9,t11 CLA was lower than 2 mg/g fat in veal, pork and horse meats. Low t10,c12 CLA amounts were found in all analysed meat samples. These data provided information to estimate the average daily intake of CLA from meats in an Italian cohort, which can be used in epidemiological studies.

  13. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  14. Effect of Persian and almond gums as fat replacers on the physicochemical, rheological, and microstructural attributes of low-fat Iranian White cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooyandeh, Hossein; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Rostamabadi, Hadis; Hojjati, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    The effect of Persian and almond gums (0, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/w)) as fat replacers and milk fat (0.4, 0.9, and 1.4% (w/w)) on physicochemical and rheological characteristics and microstructure of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied. Persian and almond gums both effectively increased moisture-to-protein (M:P) ratio of low-fat cheese samples which in turn led to a significant reduction in the hardness parameters fracture stress and Young's and storage (G') moduli ( p  Persian gum was more pronounced ( p  Persian gum and 0.12% almond gum would result in a low-fat cheese with textural properties similar to its full-fat counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the fat replacers produced full-fat-like structure in the low-fat Iranian White cheese, when incorporated at the optimum levels.

  15. "There's no chasing involved": cis/trans relationships, "tranny chasers," and the future of a sex-positive trans politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Avery Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to a small, but growing, body of work on trans sexualities and partnerships, and provides a much-needed inquiry into the complex and contested politics of desire when we take trans identities, bodies, and sexualities into account. Using digital ethnographic data from YouTube videos along with in-person observational data from LGBTQ and trans conferences in the U.S., Tompkins argues that a sex-positive trans politics cannot emerge in trans and trans-allied communities if the rhetoric of the "tranny chaser" continues to inform discourses of desire and attraction to trans people.

  16. Effect of Trans, Trans-Farnesol on Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Several Closely Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Miller, Andrew N

    2015-12-01

    Bat white-nose syndrome, caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has dramatically reduced the populations of many hibernating North American bat species. The search for effective biological control agents targeting P. destructans is of great importance. We report that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol, which is also a Candida albicans quorum sensing compound, prevented in vitro conidial germination for at least 14 days and inhibited growth of preexisting hyphae of five P. destructans isolates in filtered potato dextrose broth at 10 °C. Depending on the inoculation concentrations, both spore and hyphal inhibition occurred upon exposure to concentrations as low as 15-20 µM trans, trans-farnesol. In contrast, most North American Pseudogymnoascus isolates were more tolerant to the exposure of trans, trans-farnesol. Our results suggest that some Candida isolates may have the potential to inhibit the growth of P. destructans and that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol has the potential to be utilized as a biological control agent.

  17. Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH) x -chains where the π-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment

  18. Contenidos de isómeros trans de los ácidos grasos en productos cárnicos. (III Tejido adiposo y grasa intramuscular de vacuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluch, M. C.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available We give the results obtained for the determination of trans fatty acids in subcutaneous and intramuscular fats from different veal carcasses, using gas chromatography. FA composition differs clearly between both tissues, showing mean values of 58.7% SFA, 39.1% MUFA and 2.7% PUFA in the adipose tissue, and of 44.7% SFA, 46.1% MUFA and 9.4% PUFA in the muscle. Trans fatty acid values obtained in muscle and adipose tissue show statistically significant differences (mean values of 7% total trans fatty acids in intramuscular fat and 10.5% in adipose tissue fat. Besides, we observed a clearly different distribution for C 16: 1t, that didn't show these differences, while C 18: 1t showed a similar distribution than total trans fatty acids. Related to the factors that could determine the trans fatty acid contents in veal carcasses, we found that the race showed more differences between groups than the origin of the animal and their commercial category. On the other hand, correlations we found between trans fatty acids and the total of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids showed an opposite sign according to the type of tissue (muscular or adipose. Thus, an increase in the trans fatty acid content was associated with a parallel increase of saturated and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in the intramuscular fat. On the contrary, an increase of trans fatty acid content in adipose fat was correlated to a decrease of saturated and an increase of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents.

    Se presentan los resultados obtenidos para la determinación de ácidos grasos en una serie de muestras de tejidos subcutáneo y muscular, procedentes de canales de vacuno, por aplicación de la cromatografía en fase gaseosa, para los que se obtuvieron unos valores medios de 58.7% de ácidos saturados, 39.1 % de monoinsaturados y 2.7% de polinsaturados, en el tejido adiposo, y de 44.7% de saturados, 46.1% de monoinsaturados y 9.4% de

  19. Cis-trans photoisomerization of abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabham, D.E.; Biggs, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    An important regulator of numerous physiological processes in higher plants is abscisic acid (ABA), which is photoisomerized from the more biologically active cis isomer to the nearly inactive trans isomer by natural sunlight. It is possible that this photoisomerization is a UV control mechanism in functions regulated by ABA. The quantum yields of both the cis to trans and trans to cis photoisomerizations were measured under various conditions of pH and oxygen concentration at room temperature. The yield for photoisomerization of cis-ABA ranged from 0.25 at pH 3.0 to 0.11 at pH 7.0. Oxygen partially quenched the process. The quantum yield varied only slightly with wavelength. The quantum yield of photolysis of cis-ABA was reported for pH 3.0 as 0.06. This yield also varied slightly with wavelength and was relatively insensitive to oxygen. This relatively high yield explains the loss of potency of ABA during UV irradiation. Phosphorescence of cis- and trans-ABA was observed in methanol at 77 K. Onset of the emission was at 350 nm. The emission spectra were the same for both isomers. From these results a mechanism of UV action on plants based on the photoisomerization of the inactive trans-ABA to the biologically active cis isomer is proposed. (author)

  20. Trans Women Doing Sex in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin J; Weinberg, Martin S; Rosenberger, Joshua G

    2016-10-01

    This research investigates the sexuality of trans women (individuals who were assigned male status at birth who currently identify as women), by focusing on the "bodily techniques" (Crossley, 2006) they use in "doing" sexuality. The "doing sexuality" framework not only is modeled after the "doing gender" approach of West and Zimmerman (1987), but also utilizes the idea of "sexual embodiment" to emphasize the agency of trans women as they conceptualize and organize their sexuality in a socially recognized way. This is often difficult as they confront discrimination from medical and legal professionals as well as intimate partners who may find it difficult to adapt to the trans woman's atypical body and conception of gender. However, with a study group of 25 trans women from San Francisco, we found the study participants to be adept at overcoming such hurdles and developing techniques to "do" their sexuality. At the same time, we found trans women's agency constrained by the erotic habitus (Green, 2008) of the wider society. The interplay between innovation and cultural tradition provides an opportunity to fashion a more general model of "doing" sexuality.

  1. Trans issues in Liz Lochhead's 'Not Changed'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Milena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is divided into four sections. In the first section entitled 'Introducing and Defining Trans (Issues', the basic terms of transgender, transvestite, and transsexual are defined by relying on Stryker's Transgender History (2008. The second part of the paper, 'Trans Studies: In-Between Feminist and Queer Theory?', places transgender studies into an academic context by referring to the theoretical framework provided by trans theorists Stryker, Stone, and Ranck who unanimously claim that transgender studies should have a place of its own within the academia and that trans theory should solely be written by transsexuals. These ideas are applied in the interpretation of Lochhead's story 'Not Changed' in the third segment of the paper. The critical insights of Butler (Gender Trouble, 1990; Undoing Gender, 2004 are found to be most helpful in the interpretation of Lochhead's story about Michael who has willingly undergone Hormone Replacement Therapy to become transsexual Michele. Finally, in the concluding remarks, Lochhead's story is viewed as a trans woman manifesto, urging both non-transsexual and transsexual persons to embrace new beginnings in their relationship.

  2. A decade of developments in the area of fat supplementation research with beef cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B W; Moss, G E; Rule, D C

    2008-04-01

    Supplementing ruminant animal diets with fat has been investigated as a means to influence a variety of physiological processes or to alter fatty acid composition of food products derived from ruminant animals. Several digestion experiments have been conducted with beef cattle and sheep to elucidate the effects of supplemental fat on utilization of other dietary components. Negative associative effects are not likely to be observed in ruminants consuming forage-based diets with supplemental fat at forage diets. For ruminants fed high-concentrate diets, supplementing fat at 6% of diet DM is expected to have minimal impacts on utilization of other dietary components. Although there is greater potential to supply the ruminant animal with unsaturated fatty acids from dietary origin if fat is added to high-concentrate diets, incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids results in an increase in duodenal flow of 18:1 trans fatty acids regardless of basal diet consumed by the animal. The biohydrogenation intermediate 18:1 trans-11 (trans-vaccenic acid) is the likely precursor to cis-9, trans-11 CLA because the magnitude of increase in CLA content in tissues or milk of ruminants fed fat is much greater than the increase in CLA presented to the small intestine of ruminants fed fat supplements. Duodenal flow of trans-vaccenic acid is also substantially greater than CLA. Increasing unsaturated fatty acids status of ruminants imparts physiological responses that are separate than the energy value of supplemental fat. Manipulating maternal diet to improve unsaturated fatty acid status of the neonate has practical benefits for animals experiencing stress due to exposure to cold environments or conditions which mount an immune response. Supplementing fat to provide an additional 16 to 18 g/d of 18:2n-6 to the small intestine of beef cows for the first 60 to 90 d of lactation will have negative impacts on reproduction and may impair immune function of the

  3. The Utilization of Chicken Fat as Alternative Raw Material for Biodiesel Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gugule

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study of biodiesel production of chicken fat through estrification-transesterification reactions has been conducted. The separation of the chicken fat was conducted using heating technique, while the esterification-transesterification was conducted using ethanol reagent with chloride acid and hydroxide kalium catalyses. The identification results were identified chromatographically and spectroscopically and the chemical properties (peroxide number, acid number and saponification number were determined. The results of the study showed that the ethyl ester resulting from the chicken fat was dominated by ethyl miristic component (1.25%, ethyl palmitic (22.38%, ethyl palmitoleic (3.35%, ethyl stearic (7.56%, ethyl oleic (45.83%, and ethyl linoleic (17.54%. Moreover, the percentage yield of ethyl ester from es-trans reaction of chicken fat was 66-70 %. The ethyl ester had the same characteristic as biodiesel quality standard. Key Words: chicken fat, esterification, transesterification, biodiesel

  4. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  5. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They're mainly found in fish such as salmon, trout and herring, avocados, olives, walnuts and liquid ... fats are found in many fried foods and baked goods such as pastries, pizza dough, pie crust, ...

  6. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to ... sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower oil instead of butter and solid fats.

  7. Effect of a trans fatty acid-enriched diet on biochemical and inflammatory parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Rafael; Almeida, Roberto Farina; Machado, Letiane; Duarte, Maria Marta Medeiros Frescura; Souza, Débora Guerini; Machado, Priscila; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Quincozes-Santos, André; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2017-04-01

    Recent data regarding trans fatty acids (TFAs) have implicated these lipids as particularly deleterious to human health, causing systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and possibly inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). We aimed to clarify the impact of partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO) with different TFA concentrations on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum and hepatic parameters in adult Wistar rats. Wistar rats (n = 15/group) were fed either a normolipidic diet or a hyperlipidic diet for 90 days. The normolipidic and hyperlipidic diets had the same ingredients except for fat compositions, concentrations and calories. We used lard in the cis fatty acid group and PHSO in the trans fatty acid group. The intervention groups were as follows: (1) low lard (LL), (2) high lard (HL), (3) low partially hydrogenated soybean oil (LPHSO) and (4) high partially hydrogenated soybean oil (HPHSO). Body weight, lipid profiles and the inflammatory responses in the CSF, serum and liver tissue were analyzed. Surprisingly, with the PHSO diet we observed a worse metabolic response that was associated with oxidative stress in hepatic tissue as well as impaired serum and CSF fluid parameters at both PHSO concentrations. In many analyses, there were no significant differences between the LPHSO and HPHSO diets. Dietary supplementation with PHSO impaired inflammatory parameters in CSF and blood, induced insulin resistance, altered lipid profiles and caused hepatic damage. Overall, these findings suggest that fat composition is more important than the quantity of fat consumed in terms of cis and trans fatty acid diets.

  8. The effect of replacing fat with oat bran on fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, İsmail; Dağlıoğlu, Orhan

    2003-10-01

    Oat bran was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. The effect of oat bran addition on the fatty acid composition, trans fatty acids, total fat, some physicochemical and sensory properties of the samples was studied. Meatballs were produced with four different formulations; the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% oat bran. Control samples were formulated with 25% fat addition as in commercial production. The major fatty acids were cis-oleic, palmitic and stearic acid in all the meatball samples, those with oat bran added as well as the control. Meatballs containing oat bran had lower concentrations of total fat and total trans fatty acids than the control samples. Meatballs made with 20% oat bran had the highest protein, salt and ash contents, L value (lightness), b value (yellowness), and the lowest moisture content and a value (redness). There was no significant difference among the meatball samples with respect to sensory properties, and all samples had high acceptability.

  9. Effects of rye bran addition on fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ismail

    2004-06-01

    Rye bran was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. The effect of rye bran addition on the fatty acid composition, trans fatty acids, total fat, some physico-chemical and sensory properties of the samples was studied. Meatballs were produced with four different formulations including 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% rye bran addition. Control samples were formulated with 10% fat addition. Meatballs containing rye bran had lower concentrations of total fat and total trans fatty acids than the control samples. Meatballs made with addition of 20% rye bran had the highest protein, ash contents, L value (lightness), b value (yellowness), and the lowest moisture, salt content and weight losses and a value (redness). There was a significant difference among the meatball samples in respect to sensory properties and 5%, 10% rye bran added meatballs and control samples had high acceptability.

  10. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  11. Comprehensive profiling of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in milk from different animal species by LC-DAD-MS/MS hyphenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Caretti, Fulvia; Bellante, Simona; Ventura, Salvatore; Canepari, Silvia; Curini, Roberta

    2013-02-27

    This paper describes a novel and efficient analytical method to define the profile of fat-soluble micronutrients in milk from different animal species. Overnight cold saponification was optimized as a simultaneous extraction procedure. Analytes were separated by nonaqueous reversed-phase (NARP) chromatography: carotenoids on a C(30) column and fat-soluble vitamins on a tandem C(18) column system. Besides 12 target analytes for which standards are available (all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin, all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, phylloquinone, and menaquinone-4), the DAD-MS combined detection allowed the provisional identification of other carotenoids on the basis of the expected retention times, the absorbance spectra, and the mass spectrometric data. Retinol and α-tocopherol were the most abundant fat-soluble micronutrients and the only ones found in donkey's milk along with γ-tocopherol. Ewe's milk also proved to be a good source of vitamin K vitamers. Bovine milk showed a large variety of carotenoids that were absent in milk samples from other species with the only exception of all-trans-lutein and all-trans-zeaxanthin.

  12. Physics of Trans-Planckian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Germani, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    We study aspects of the phenomenon of gravitational UV-self-completeness and its implications for deformations of Einstein gravity. In a ghost-free theory flowing to Einstein gravity in the IR trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist. The only physical meaning of a trans-Planckian pole is the one of a classical state (Black Hole) which is fully described by the light IR quantum degrees of freedom and gives exponentially-suppressed contributions to virtual processes. In this sense Einstein gravity is UV self-complete, although not Wilsonian. We show that this UV/IR correspondence puts a severe constraint on any attempt of conventional Wilsonian UV-completion of trans-Planckian gravity. In particular, there is no well-defined energy domain in which gravity could become asymptotically weak or safe.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic and TD-DFT quantum mechanical study of azo-azomethine dyes. A laser induced trans-cis-trans photoisomerization cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Anton; Kostadinov, Anton; Ivanov, Deyan; Dimov, Deyan; Stoyanov, Simeon; Nedelchev, Lian; Nazarova, Dimana; Yancheva, Denitsa

    2018-03-05

    This paper describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and quantum mechanical calculations of three azo-azomethine dyes. The dyes were synthesized via condensation reaction between 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and three different 4-aminobenzene azo dyes. Quantum chemical calculations on the optimized molecular geometry and electron densities of the trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers and their vibrational frequencies have been computed by using DFT/B3LYP density-functional theory with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in vacuo. The thermodynamic parameters such as total electronic energy E (RB3LYP), enthalpy H 298 (sum of electronic and thermal enthalpies), free Gibbs energy G 298 (sum of electronic and thermal free Gibbs energies) and dipole moment μ were computed for trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers in order to estimate the ΔE trans→cis , Δμ trans→cis, ΔH trans→cis , ΔG trans→cis and ΔS trans→cis values. After molecular geometry optimization the electronic spectra have been obtained by TD-DFT calculations at same basis set and correlated with the spectra of vapour deposited nanosized films of the dyes. The NBO analysis was performed in order to understand the intramolecular charge transfer and energy of resonance stabilization. Solvatochromism was investigated by UV-VIS spectroscopy in five different organic solvents with increasing polarity. The dynamic photoisomerization experiments have been performed in DMF by pump lasers λ=355nm (mostly E→Z) and λ=491nm (mostly Z→E) in spectral region 300nm - 800nm at equal concentrations and times of illumination in order to investigate the photodynamical trans-cis-trans properties of the CHN and NN chromophore groups of the dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective Preparation of trans-Carveol over Ceria Supported Mesoporous Materials MCM-41 and SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman F. Salakhutdinov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-modified mesoporous silica materials MCM-41 and SBA-15, namely 32 wt % Ce–Si–MCM-41, 16 wt % Ce–H–MCM-41 and 20 wt % Ce–Si–SBA-15, were prepared, characterized and studied in the selective preparation of trans-carveol by α-pinene oxide isomerization. The characterizations of these catalysts were performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption and FTIR pyridine adsorption. Selective preparation of trans-carveol was carried out in the liquid phase in a batch reactor. The activity and the selectivity of catalyst were observed to be influenced by their acidity, basicity and morphology of the mesoporous materials. The formation of trans-carveol is moreover strongly influenced by the basicity of the used solvent and in order to achieve high yields of this desired alcohol it is necessary to use polar basic solvent.

  15. A modern trans-ionospheric propagation sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, G. J.; Klobuchar, J. A.; Ronn, A. E.; Bedard, M. G.

    1989-09-01

    One of the most important potential problems with modern military systems which utilize spacecraft is the effect of the ionosphere on the radio signals which pass to and from the spacecraft. Such systems include active communications and navigation satellites as well as both ground-based and potential space-based ranging systems. The major effects the ionosphere can have on such systems are the additional time delay the electrons in the earth's ionosphere add to the free space path delay, the short term rate of change of this additional delay, amplitude scintillation or fading effects the signal encounters due to irregularities in the ionosphere, and Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio waves transmitted through the ionosphere. While some of these effects were studied adequate models of these effects on military systems still do not exist. A modern trans-ionospheric sensing system, called TISS, is being procured which will consist of a number of stations located throughout the world, making real time measurements of the time delay of the ionosphere, and its rate of change, as well as amplitude scintillation, along several different viewing directions from each station. These trans-ionospheric measurements will be used to allow models, which currently provide only monthly propagation parameters. The real-time specifications of these parameters can then be used as decision aids in both the tactical and the strategic military environments. The TISS will include first order artificial intelligence design to aid in gathering the most appropriate sets of available real-time trans-ionospheric propagation data, and will communicate these data sets to the Air Weather Service Forecasting Center where they will be tailored to specific military customers.

  16. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Tveit, Ann; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm for 6 h and urine was collected for 48 h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using 19 F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t 1/2 1/2 < 6 h). ► Glutathione adduct as predominant in vitro metabolite in all tested species. ► Toxic metabolites could not be detected in any great extent

  17. Trans-fatty acids in cooking oils in Bogota, Colombia: changes in the food supply from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Meghan; Villamor, Eduardo; Marin, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake in Colombia is low because fish consumption is limited. Vegetable oils with high n-3 fatty acid content are recommended, but their concentrations of trans fats were high in previous studies. Thus, regular monitoring of the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is required. Our objective was to quantify the fatty acid composition in commercially available oils in Bogota, Colombia and determine if composition changed from 2008 to 2013. Cross-sectional study. We obtained samples of all commercially available oils reported in a survey of low- and middle-income families with a child participating in the Bogota School Children Cohort. Bogota, Colombia. Not applicable. Sunflower oil had the highest trans-fatty acid content (2.18%). Canola oil had the lowest proportion of trans-fatty acids (0.40%) and the highest n-3 fatty acid content (9.37%). In terms of percentage reduction from 2008 to 2013 in 18:1 and 18:2 trans-fatty acids, canola oil had 89% and 65% reduction, mixed oils had 44% and 48% reduction, and sunflower oil had 25% and 51 % reduction, respectively. Soyabean oil became widely available in 2013. The content of trans-fatty acids decreased in all oils from 2008 to 2013, suggesting a voluntary reduction by industry. We believe that regular monitoring of the fatty acid composition of oils is warranted.

  18. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M.; Tveit, Ann [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962-1057 (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm for 6 h and urine was collected for 48 h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using {sup 19}F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t{sub 1/2} < 6 h) and the extent of biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd was determined as approximately 0.01% of received dose in rabbits and approximately 0.002% in rats. trans-HCFO-1233zd undergoes both oxidative biotransformation and glutathione conjugation at very low rates. The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals. - Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► Glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P-450 dependent

  19. trans Fatty acids in the Canadian food supply: an updated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Scourboutakos, Mary J; Au, Jennifer T C; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2014-10-01

    Dietary trans fatty acids (TFAs) increase the risk of heart disease. In 2007, Canada set voluntary TFA limits for industrial TFAs added to food and encouraged substitution of TFAs with unsaturated fats during reformulation. No longitudinal follow-up assessment of TFA amounts in foods has occurred in Canada since termination of a government-led Trans Fat Monitoring Program (TFMP). The objective was to conduct an updated assessment and longitudinally evaluate TFA amounts in the food supply and to determine whether saturated fats have replaced TFAs in reformulation. This was a cross-sectional study that used 3 databases: TFMP (Health Canada, 2005-2009; n = 921), the University of Toronto Food Label Information Program (2010-2011; n = 5544), and the Restaurant Database (2010; n = 4272). Outcomes were TFAs as a percentage of fat, proportion of foods meeting TFA limits, and saturated fat amounts in foods with high or low TFAs. The proportion of foods meeting TFA limits improved from 75% in 2005-2009 to 97% in 2010-2011, particularly in the following packaged foods: croissants (25% to 100%), pies (36% to 98%), cakes (43% to 90%), and garlic spreads (33% to 100%). Most restaurant categories assessed by the TFMP had 100% of foods meeting TFA limits. Some categories had a large proportion that exceeded TFA limits: dairy-free cheeses (100%), frosting (72.0%), lard and shortening (66.7%), coffee whiteners (66.7%), and restaurant-prepared biscuits and scones (47.4%). Saturated fat amounts were significantly higher (P foods with the lowest TFAs, such as cookies, brownies and squares, cakes with pudding/mousse, dessert toppings, and lard and shortening. There has been an impressive improvement in TFA amounts in the Canadian food supply since the termination of the TFMP. However, action by the food industry is required to reduce TFAs in foods that exceed the recommended TFA limits and to minimize the use of saturated fats in replacing TFAs during reformulation. © 2014 American

  20. Powdered activated carbon adsorption of two fishy odorants in water: Trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption of two fishy odorants, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal (HDE) and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (DDE), was investigated. Both the pseudo first-order and the pseudo second-order kinetic models well described the kinetics curves, and DDE was more readily removed by PAC. In isotherm tests, both Freundlich and Modified Freundlich isotherms fitted the experimental data well. PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for DDE than for HDE, which could be ascribed to the difference in their hydrophobicity. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) indicated an exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process. PAC dosage, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM) presence were found to influence the adsorption process. With increasing PAC dosage, the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order rate constants both increased. The value of pH had little influence on HDE or DDE molecules but altered the surface charge of PAC, and the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH9. The presence of NOM, especially the fraction with molecular weight less than 1k Dalton, hindered the adsorption. The study showed that preloaded NOM impaired the adsorption capacity of HDE or DDE more severely than simultaneously fed NOM did. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Trans-kingdom cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Marijn; Constantin, Maria-Ermioni; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the mobility of small RNA (sRNA) molecules from the perspective of trans-kingdom gene silencing. Mobility of sRNA molecules within organisms is a well-known phenomenon, facilitating gene silencing between cells and tissues. sRNA signals are also transmitted between organism...

  2. The european Trans-Tools transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland

  3. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  4. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  5. Tautomeric preferences of the cis and trans isomers of axitinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M. Saeed; Taherpour, Avat Arman

    2018-05-01

    The tautomeric preferences of axitinib, a potent anticancer drug, as tyrosine kinase inhibitor have been investigated using quantum chemical calculations and docking methods. The energy differences between the two tautomers of trans-isomer are around 4 and 3 kcal mol-1 in vacuo and water, respectively, and for its cis-isomer (major photochemical isomerization product) this equilibrium reversed completely in favour of the second tautomer (not considered previously), which is about 7-8 kcal mol-1 more stable in both gas and aqueous media. The results indicate a very high activation energy for proton exchange for both [1,2] and [1,5] H-shift (around 50 kcal mol-1) in the gas phase, but inclusion of protic solvents (e.g. water) decrease this barrier to around 14 and 35 kcal mol-1 for the both hydrogen shift processes, respectively. In order to have better insight about the electronic structure of axitinib tautomers, the NBO, HOMO-LUMO, NICS and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces (MESP) calculations have been carried out. Docking investigations on the two more stable tautomers revealed that binding of the trans isomer of tautomer I to the active site of the receptor is the most favourable in the terms of energy and structure. This more stability could be attributed to the more hydrogen bonding of this tautomer with the protein residues in comparison to the second tautomer.

  6. 2012: no trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorena, Diana; Echarte, Andrea; Ollé, Rebeca; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2013-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are strongly correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Current dietary recommendations exclude bakery products from frequent consumption basically due to their traditionally high content of TFA. The aim of this work was to analyse the lipid profile of different bakery products currently commercialised in Spain and with a conventionally high fat and TFA content. Premium and store brands for each product were included in the study. No significant amounts of TFA were found in any of the analysed products, regardless the brand. TFA content ranged between 0.17 g and 0.22 g/100 g product (mean=0.19 g/100 g product). Expressed on percentage of fatty acids, the maximum value was 0.87 g/100 g fatty acids and the mean value was 0.68%. These data are significantly lower than those observed in previously published papers for these types of products, and highlighted the importance of updating food composition databases in order to accurately estimate the real and current intake of TFA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential energy profile, structural, vibrational and reactivity descriptors of trans-2-methoxycinnamic acid by FTIR, FT-Raman and quantum chemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Anitha, R.; Thenmozhi, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2016-06-01

    The stable conformers of trans-2-methoxycinnamic acid (trans-2MCA) are determined by potential energy profile analysis. The energies of the s-cis and s-trans conformers of trans-2MCA determined by B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method are -612.9788331 Hartrees and -612.9780953 Hartrees, respectively. The vibrational and electronic investigations of the stable s-cis and s-trans conformers of trans-2-methoxycinnamic acid have been carried out extensively with FTIR and FT-Raman spectral techniques. The s-cis conformer (I) with a (C16-C17-C18-O19) dihedral angle equal to 0° is found to be more favoured relative to the one s-trans (II) with (C16-C17-C18-O19) = 180°, possibly due to delocalization, hydrogen bonding and steric repulsion effects between the methoxy and acrylic acid groups. The DFT studies are performed with B3LYP method by utilizing 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets to determine the structure, thermodynamic properties, vibrational characteristics and chemical shifts of the compound. The total dipole moments of the conformers determined by B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method are 3.35 D and 4.87 D for s-cis and s-trans, respectively. It reveals the higher polarity of s-trans conformer of trans-2MCA molecule. The electronic and steric influence of the methoxy group on the skeletal frequencies has been analysed. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals and the LUMO-HOMO energy gap have been determined. The MEP of s-cis conformer lie in the range +1.374e × 10-2 to -1.374e × 10-2 while for s-trans it is +1.591e × 10-2 to -1.591e × 10-2. The total electron density of s-cis conformer lie in the range +5.273e × 10-2 to -5.273e × 10-2 while for s-trans it is +5.403e × 10-2 to -5.403e × 10-2. The MEP and total electron density shows that the s-cis conformer is less polar, less reactive and more stable than the s-trans conformer. All the reactivity descriptors of the molecule have been discussed. Intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energies have analysed

  8. Trans-Kullo jagatakse tükkideks / Kadrin Karner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karner, Kadrin

    2008-01-01

    Primos OÜ omanik ja Trans-Kullo osanik Endel Siff ütles, et Trans-Kullo on aktsionäride erinevate ärihuvide tõttu läinud jagunemisele, mis võib lõppeda ettevõtte likvideerimisega. Lisa: Trans-Kullo

  9. Margarines and Fast-Food French Fries: Low Content of trans Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiasarán, Iciar; Abella, Elena; Gatta, Giulia; Ansorena, Diana

    2017-06-28

    The lipid fraction of margarines and fast food French fries, two types of foods traditionally high in trans fatty acids (TFA), is assessed. TFA data reported worldwide during the last 20 years have been gathered and show that some countries still report high TFA amounts in these products. The content of TFA was analysed in margarines (two store and four premium brands) and French-fries from fast-food restaurants (five chains). All samples were collected in Pamplona (Navarra, Spain). The margarines showed mean values of 0.68% and 0.43% (g TFA/100 g fat) for the store and premium brands, respectively. The French fries' values ranged from 0.49% to 0.89%. All samples were lower than the 2% set by some European countries as the maximum legal content of TFA in fats, and contained less than 0.5 g/serving, so they could also be considered " trans free products". This work confirmed that the presence of TFA is not significant in the two analysed products and contributes updated food composition tables, key tools for epidemiological and nutrition studies.

  10. Stearic acid: a possible substitute for trans fatty acids from industrial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavella, Marcelo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trans isomers, contained in partially hydrogenated oils, which are used in the food industry, have been questioned and nowadays trends are heading towards reducing their consumption. The food industry is facing a dilemma, since in order to remove trans fatty acids, hydrogenated fats should be eliminated and replaced by fats rich in saturated fatty acids. Scientific research has shown that saturated fatty acids have negative effects on the lipid profile and its consumption is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. Therefore it is recommended to avoid their consumption. Nevertheless, not all fatty acids behave in the same way, with stearic acid (18:0 the exception. Stearic acid has a low level of intestinal absorption and its intake does not negatively modify the lipid profile. For this reason, it is considered a “neutral” fatty acid with regard to cardiovascular health. B-100 apolipoprotein, whose levels determine plasma VLDL and LDL concentration (triglycerides and cholesterol carriers, respectively, is not modified by diets which provide up to 7% of the energy as stearic acid. Markers of cardiovascular risk, such as activation of platelet aggregation factors or C-reactive protein levels, are not modified by diets providing stearic acid, as occurs with other saturated fatty acids. The confirmation of the “neutral” effect of stearic acid represents a perspective for the development of fats with high contents of this fatty acid to replace hydrogenated fats containing trans isomers. The present review discusses these aspects.Los isómeros trans que contienen los aceites parcialmente hidrogenados de origen industrial, han sido cuestionados y la recomendación es reducir su consumo. La industria de alimentos se enfrenta a un dilema, ya que para disminuir los isómeros trans debe reducir los aceites parcialmente hidrogenados y reemplazarlos por grasas ricas en ácidos grasos saturados. La investigación ha demostrado que los

  11. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend

  12. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  13. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  14. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  15. Consumo de ácidos grasos trans y riesgo cardiovascular Consumption of trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manzur J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos con configuración trans poco se encuentran en los alimentos de manera natural, sino que se incorporan a éstos como consecuencia de modificaciones principalmente debidas a los procesos industriales de hidrogenación a que se someten los aceites para convertirlos en grasas sólidas. Aún cuando su estructura incluye dobles enlaces, el tipo de configuración permite un comportamiento biológico similar al de los ácidos grasos saturados, con efectos negativos sobre múltiples funciones celulares. La evidencia demuestra que son perjudiciales para la salud, en especial a lo que se refiere a riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, razón por la cual es importante disminuir su consumo. Teniendo en consideración la evidencia obtenida de investigaciones sobre las alteraciones del metabolismo producidas por los ácidos grasos trans, es posible plantear una precaución lógica hacia el consumo de dietas ricas en dichos ácidos. Sus efectos deletéreos serían incluso peores en aquellas poblaciones que consumen bajas cantidades de ácidos grasos esenciales. De ahí surge la importancia de iniciar con prontitud políticas sanitarias orientadas a controlar la aterosclerosis en nuestro país. Las mismas deben estar necesariamente sustentadas sobre un conocimiento profundo de las características o condiciones particulares a las que nuestra población se encuentra sometida. Sólo así podrá darse inicio a una intervención efectiva sobre nuestros cuestionados hábitos alimentarios.Trans fatty acids are scarcely found naturally in food; they are incorporated to it as a result of modifications mainly due to hydrogenation industrial processes to which oils are submitted in order to obtain solid fats. Even when its structure includes double bonds, the type of configuration allows a biological behavior similar to that of saturated fatty acids, with negative effects on multiple cellular functions. The evidence shows that they are harmful to health

  16. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  17. Adiponectin release and insulin receptor targeting share trans-Golgi-dependent endosomal trafficking routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rödiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. Methods: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT−/− mice were metabolically characterized. In vitro experiments on mature 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse adipocytes were conducted to validate the impact of ARFRP1 on localization of adiponectin and the insulin receptor. Finally, secretion and transferrin-based uptake and recycling assays were performed with HeLa and HeLa M-C1 cells. Results: We identified the ARFRP1-based sorting machinery to be involved in vesicle trafficking relying on the endosomal compartment for cell surface delivery. Secretion of adiponectin from fat depots was selectively reduced in Arfrp1iAT−/− mice, and Arfrp1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed an accumulation of adiponectin in Rab11-positive endosomes. Plasma adiponectin deficiency of Arfrp1iAT−/− mice resulted in deteriorated hepatic insulin sensitivity, increased gluconeogenesis and elevated fasting blood glucose levels. Additionally, the insulin receptor, undergoing endocytic recycling after ligand binding, was less abundant at the plasma membrane of adipocytes lacking Arfrp1. This had detrimental effects on adipose insulin signaling, followed by insufficient suppression of basal lipolytic activity and impaired adipose tissue expansion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adiponectin secretion and insulin receptor surface targeting utilize the same post-Golgi trafficking pathways that are essential for an appropriate systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Keywords: Adiponectin, ARFRP1, Exocytosis, Insulin receptor, trans-Golgi

  18. Hydrogenation impairs the hypolipidemic effect of corn oil in humans. Hydrogenation, trans fatty acids, and plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, A H; Ausman, L M; Carrasco, W; Jenner, J L; Ordovas, J M; Schaefer, E J

    1993-02-01

    The effects of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of replacing corn oil with corn-oil margarine in stick form as two thirds of the fat in the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 2 diet were assessed in 14 middle-aged and elderly women and men (age range, 44-78 years) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] range, 133-219 mg/dl [3.45-5.67 mmol/l] at screening). During each 32-day study phase, subjects received all their food and drink from a metabolic kitchen. Subjects were first studied while being fed a diet approximating the composition of the current US diet (baseline), which contained 35% of calories as fat (13% saturated fatty acids [SFAs], 12% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFAs; 0.8% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]) and 128 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. This baseline phase was followed by a corn oil-enriched diet containing 30% fat (6% SFA, 11% MUFA [0.4% 18:1n-9 trans], and 10% PUFA) and 83 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal, and then a corn-oil margarine-enriched diet containing 30% fat (8% SFA, 12% MUFA [4.2% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% PUFA) and 77 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. All diets were isocaloric. Mean fasting LDL-C and apolipoprotein (apo) B levels were 153 mg/dl (3.96 mmol/l) and 101 mg/dl on the baseline diet, 17% and 20% lower (both p oil-enriched diet, and 10% and 10% lower (both p < 0.01) on the margarine-enriched diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Trans-sphenoidal excision of craniopharyngiomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal R

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas have been by and large excised by the transcranial route. Since 1982, 11 patients have been operated by the traus-sphensidal route in the department. The clinical features with which they were presented, diagnostic investigations, details of surgical procedures and follow-up analysis is being presented here. A retrospective study of radiological investigation was done to determine the features that help decide the choice of surgical approach to these lesions. Only lesions that were primarily intrasellar, cystic and those that expanded the sella could be treated by the trans-sphenoidal route. Associated suprasellar extensions could also be removed. Predominantly calcified or firm, fleshy tumours lent themselves poorly to removal by the trans-sphenoidal route.

  20. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  1. Siegel discs via trans-quasiconformal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    2014-01-01

    kompleksstruktur kan integreres, det vil sige definerer en kompleksstruktur. I denne komplekse struktur er den nye afbildning holomorf og har en Siegel disk. Der findes imidlertid masser af tilfælde hvor dette ikke lader sig gøre, men hvor man istedet kan finde en trans-kvasikonform udvidelse til enheds-disken af...... mængde af rotationstal med fuldt mål på cirklen har konjugationen en trans-kvasi-konform udvidelse til disken. Dette er et skridt i beviset for at for næsten alle (i Lebeguemåls forstand) rotations tal, er randen af Siegel-disken for et kvadratisk polynomium med en Siegel disk med et sådant rotationstal...

  2. Trans-triquetral Perilunate fracture dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    John-Henry Rhind; Abhinav Gulihar; Andrew Smith

    2018-01-01

    Perilunate dislocations and perilunate fracture dislocations are rare and serious injuries. Perilunate dislocations represent less than 10% of all carpal injuries of which 61% represent transcaphoid fractures. Because of their rarity, up to 25% of perilunate dislocations are initially missed on first assessment. We present the case of a 66-year-old-gentleman who sustained an isolated trans-triquetral perilunate fracture dislocation while walking his dog. This was diagnosed in the emergency de...

  3. The TransPetro emergency response system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, A.T.F.; Cardoso, V.F.; Carbone, R.; Berardinelli, R.P. [Petrobras-TransPetro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, M.T.M.; Casanova, M.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica, TeCGraf

    2004-07-01

    Petrobras-TransPetro developed the TransPetro Emergency Response System in response to emergency situations at large oil pipelines or at terminal facilities located in sea or river harbour areas. The standard of excellence includes full compliance with environmental regulations set by the federal government. A distributed workflow management software called InfoPAE forms the basis of the system in which actions are defined, along with geographic and conventional data. The first prototype of InfoPAE was installed in 1999. Currently it is operational in nearly 80 installations. The basic concepts and functionality of the TransPetro Emergency Response System were outlined in this paper with reference to the mitigative actions that are based on an evaluation of the organization of the emergency teams; the communication procedures; characterization of the installations; definition of accidental scenarios; environmental sensitivity maps; simulation of oil spill trajectories and dispersion behaviour; geographical data of the area surrounding the installations; and, other conventional data related to the installations, including available equipment. The emergency response team can take action as soon as an accident is detected. The action plan involves characterizing several scenarios and delegating mitigative actions to specific sub-teams, each with access to geographic data on the region where the emergency occurred. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Physics of trans-Planckian gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Folkerts, Sarah; Germani, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    We study the field theoretical description of a generic theory of gravity flowing to Einstein general relativity in IR. We prove that, if ghost-free, in the weakly-coupled regime such a theory can never become weaker than general relativity. Using this fact, as a by-product, we suggest that in a ghost-free theory of gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist. The only physical meaning of a trans-Planckian pole is the one of a classical state (black hole) which is described by the light IR quantum degrees of freedom and gives exponentially-suppressed contributions to virtual processes. In this picture Einstein gravity is UV self-complete, although not Wilsonian, and sub-Planckian distances are unobservable in any healthy theory of gravity. We then finally show that this UV/IR correspondence puts a severe constraint on any attempt of conventional Wilsonian UV-completion of trans-Planckian gravity. Specifically, there is no well-defined energy domain in which gravity could become asymptotically weak or safe.

  5. TransAlta 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report presents financial information from TransAlta Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the electric utility has performed in terms of power generation, independent power producers, transmission and energy marketing. TransAlta is one of the largest non-regulated power generation and wholesale marketing companies in Canada. It's assets include coal-fired, gas-fired, hydro and renewable generation facilities in Canada, the United States, Mexico and Australia. Reported earnings in 2003 were $1.26 per share compared to $1.17 in 2002. The strong first quarter was followed by harsh market conditions, low water levels which affected hydro production, and pricing restrictions in Ontario that reduced contribution from the Sarnia plant. This report outlines the utility's progress in increasing revenue and producing more power. In 2003, unplanned outages were reduced by 7 per cent and injury frequency rate was reduced by 27 per cent. The installation of 114 wind turbines in Fort Macleod, Alberta, increased TransAlta's renewable energy capacity to 3.7 per cent in 2003. The wind farm produces 75 MW of electricity, enough to power more than 32,500 homes annually. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. refs., tabs., figs

  6. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  7. TransCanada Corporation 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    TransCanada is a leading North American energy company dealing with natural gas transmission, power generation and marketing opportunities. Financial information from TransCanada was presented in this annual report along with a review of its operations in 2004 and a summary of how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2004, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations and maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. Achievements in 2004 included the acquisition of the Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline System and the North Baja Pipeline System; the purchase of hydroelectric generation assets in New England with a total generating capacity of more than 500 MW; and the completed construction of two new gas-fired cogeneration plants, the 165 MW MacKay River facility in Alberta and the 90 MW Grandview facility in New Brunswick. The challenges in 2004 included the performance of the company's existing asset-based businesses and the new initiatives to produce another year of solid operating and financial results. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  8. Optimize fat Replacers in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HassaniMoosaAbadi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: In order to solve some problems related to the elimination or reduction of fat , cardiovascular diseases prevention and health improvement, it is possible to use fat alternatives in communities’ food, furthermore, the obtained results indicated that the production of low-calorie foods is similar to the texture of high fat products.

  9. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trans-Cultural, Trans-Language Practices: Potentialities for Rethinking Doctoral Education Pedagogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojni Choy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in doctoral enrolments of Asian international students in Australian universities. While policies have been developed to meet the needs of these students, there seems to be some confusion around the terms internationalisation, globalisation, bi-cultural, inter-cultural, multi-cultural, and trans-cultural within these policies. In this paper, we define these terms and advocate for a policy position which orients to a futurist definition of culture. We then review the work of Michael Singh and his research team at Western Sydney University who have responded to this rapid increase in Asian international student doctoral enrolments in Australian universities by developing pedagogic principles around notions of trans-language and trans-cultural practices. In the final section of the paper, we then draw on our own experiences of doctoral supervision in Australian universities to reflect on our positioning within the pedagogic principles around trans-language and trans-cultural practices.

  11. Effect of hemicellulose from rice bran on low fat meatballs chemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Yu, Wenjian

    2015-11-01

    The paper study the functional properties of hemicellulose B (RBHB) and rice bran insoluble dietary fibre (RBDF) to develop an acceptable low fat meat product enriched with high content fibre from defatted rice bran. Meatballs were produced with three different formulations including 2%, 4% and 6% RBHB or RBDF addition. The total trans fatty acids were lower and the ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids to total saturated fatty acids was higher in the samples with added RBHB than in the control meatballs. Meatballs containing RBHB had lower concentrations of total fat and total trans fatty acids than the control samples. Sensory evaluations revealed that meatballs with 2%, 4% and 6% RBHB were overall acceptable. This confirms that the RBHB preparation from defatted rice bran has great potential in food applications, especially in development of functional foods including functional meat products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism of trans-vinylene groups formation in the radiolysis of polyethylene and n-alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzov, S.M.; Sukhov, F.F.; Slovokhotova, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared spectra of polyethylene and some n-alkanes were studied after their irradiation at 20 K with 1-MeV electrons and subsequent heating to 160 K. The mechanism of trans-vinylene groups formation is suggested, which takes into account the decay of excited states of molecules in primary processes and the intra-chain recombination of free radicals in post-irradiation reactions. (author)

  13. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  14. Sexual desire in trans persons: associations with sex reassignment treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Van Hoorde, Birgit; Heylens, Gunter; De Cuypere, Griet; Monstrey, Stan; Weyers, Steven; Hoebeke, Piet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids and genital surgery are known to affect sexual desire, but little research has focused on the effects of cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery on sexual desire in trans persons. This study aims to explore associations between sex reassignment therapy (SRT) and sexual desire in a large cohort of trans persons. A cross-sectional single specialized center study including 214 trans women (male-to-female trans persons) and 138 trans men (female-to-male trans persons). Questionnaires assessing demographics, medical history, frequency of sexual desire, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), and treatment satisfaction. In retrospect, 62.4% of trans women reported a decrease in sexual desire after SRT. Seventy-three percent of trans women never or rarely experienced spontaneous and responsive sexual desire. A third reported associated personal or relational distress resulting in a prevalence of HSDD of 22%. Respondents who had undergone vaginoplasty experienced more spontaneous sexual desire compared with those who planned this surgery but had not yet undergone it (P = 0.03). In retrospect, the majority of trans men (71.0%) reported an increase in sexual desire after SRT. Thirty percent of trans men never or rarely felt sexual desire; 39.7% from time to time, and 30.6% often or always. Five percent of trans men met the criteria for HSDD. Trans men who were less satisfied with the phalloplasty had a higher prevalence of HSDD (P = 0.02). Trans persons who were more satisfied with the hormonal therapy had a lower prevalence of HSDD (P = 0.02). HSDD was more prevalent in trans women compared with trans men. The majority of trans women reported a decrease in sexual desire after SRT, whereas the opposite was observed in trans men. Our results show a significant sexual impact of surgical interventions and both hormonal and surgical treatment satisfaction on the sexual desire in trans persons. © 2013 International Society for Sexual

  15. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  16. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with fat consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Rapley, Melyssa; Chung, Mei

    2016-10-04

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students' demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student's t-test. Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01)). Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively). Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting), nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.

  17. Effect of modified dairy fat on postprandial and fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandström, B.; Hermansen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid profile of milk fat can be modified by cow feeding strategies. Our aim was postprandially and after 4 wk to compare the effect of a modified milk fat(M diet) [with 16% of the cholesterolemic saturated fatty acid (C12-16) replaced by mainly oleic and stearic acids] with the effect of D...... diet than M diet (interaction effect, diet x timesP stearic acids may havebeen obscured by the high content of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids in milk fat...... diet, including aconventional Danish milk fat on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. A side effect of the cow feeding regime was a 5% (w/w) increase in trans fatty acid in M diet.Eighteen subjects were fed for two periods of 4 wk strictly controlled isoenergetic test diets with 40% of energy from total fat...

  18. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Nuclear reactions: Science and trans-science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a collection of essays written by Weinberg over the span of his scientific and administrative career. A sound theorist, he was introduced to nuclear physics as part of the Manhattan project, and assumed administrative responsibilities during that project. His career has allowed him to make valuable contributions in a broad range of fields. These essays touch on topics of interest to him, concern to the country, and of profound import for society as it exists today. They are grouped into five sections: science and trans-science; scientific administration; strategic defense and arms control; time, energy and resources; nuclear energy

  20. TRAN-STAT: statistics for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1984-09-01

    This issue of TRAN-STAT discusses statistical methods for assessing the uncertainty in predictions of pollutant transport models, particularly for radionuclides. Emphasis is placed on radionuclide transport models but the statistical assessment techniques also apply in general to other types of pollutants. The report begins with an outline of why an assessment of prediction uncertainties is important. This is followed by an introduction to several methods currently used in these assessments. This in turn is followed by more detailed discussion of the methods, including examples. 43 references, 2 figures

  1. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco B., Rodrigo; Gil G., Jesús H.; García P., Carlos M.; Durango R., Diego L.

    2012-01-01

    The biotransformation of trans-cinnamic acid by whole cells of the Colombian native phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum was studied. Initially, fungitoxicity of this compound against C. acutatum was evaluated; trans-cinnamic acid exhibited a moderate to weak toxicity against the microorganism and apparently a detoxification mechanism was present. Then, in order to study such mechanism and explore the capacity of this fungus to biotransform trans-cinnamic acid into value-added produ...

  2. Trans-nationalisation Processes in the Ukrainian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bolharova Natalya K.; Panevnyk Tetyana M.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers main processes of trans-nationalisation of Ukrainian economy, identifies specific features of trans-national production and explains some theoretical aspects of these issues. It provides main stages of theoretical comprehension of activity of trans-national corporations (TNC), specific features of the theory of competitive advantages of TNC and specifies the basic ones of them. The article conducts analysis of flows of direct foreign investments into the Ukrainian econom...

  3. Trans*Forming College Masculinities: Carving out Trans*Masculine Pathways through the Threshold of Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Men and masculinities studies are gaining prominence in higher education literature, illuminating how cisgender college men understand and grapple with masculinity. Additionally, the increased visibility of trans* students has fueled the expanding scholarship and attention to their experiences, often however centering on white gender-conforming…

  4. Trans advanced surface laser ablation (TransPRK) outcomes using SmartPulseTechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Kymionis, George D

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate early visual rehabilitation, post-operative pain, epithelial healing and haze after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) using the SmartPulseTechnology (SPT) of Schwind Amaris (Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, Germany). This was a retrospective comparative evaluation of a cohort of myopic patients undergoing TransPRK with SPT (group 1), with one matched control group that underwent conventional TransPRK (group 2). All cases had a 6-month post-operative follow-up including visual acuity and slit-lamp examination. Subjective evaluation of pain was recorded post-operatively. 49 eyes of 25 patients in group 1 and 40 eyes of 20 patients in group 2 were enrolled. The patients' visual rehabilitation was significantly faster in group 1, one day and one week post-operatively (P0.05). TransPRK using SPT provides promising results in the early post-operative period. Visual rehabilitation, re-epithelialization and pain were faster in the early post-operative period in group 1 in comparison with group 2. Haze formation was not significantly different between the two groups; however, it was consistently less in group 1. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trans-nationalizing the African Public Sphere: What Role for Trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-03-09

    Mar 9, 2011 ... At a time when the notion of 'trans-national public spheres' is gaining .... ple refer specifically to the language and its speakers in Senegal and Mauri- .... of the Pulaar language and the improvement of the social and economic.

  6. A trans European Union difference in the decline in trans fatty acids in popular foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The objec...

  7. Consumption Safety of Pastries, Confectioneries, and Potato Products as Related to Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żbikowska, Anna; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Kowalska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    To determine the content of the main groups of fatty acids in pastries, confectionery, and potato products, paying special attention to trans fatty acids and the products of fat oxidation and hydrolysis, as factors affecting the safety of consumption. A total of 157 products were collected in Poland in 2009-2010. In fats extracted from samples, products of oxidation and hydrolysis were assayed using peroxide (PV), anisidine (AnV), and acid (AV) values. The fatty acid (FA) composition, especially the trans FAs (TFAs) content, was determined by gas chromatography. When assessing the TFA intake, Household Budget Surveys were considered. Highest content of fat was found for wafers with filling and crisps (32.3% and 29.3%, respectively). In 4 out of 9 groups of pastry and confectionery products studied, the quality of fat was decreased due to an excessive oxidation, as evidenced by a substantial content of secondary products of fat oxidation. The extracted fat was rich in SFA (on average, 50 g SFA/100 g FA) except fries and mixes. A great diversity of TFA content in fat of the products was found (0.1-24.8 g TFA/100 g FA). Wafers were characterized by the highest average content of TFA in the group of pastries (1.94 g TFA/100 g of product). Products of natural origin supplied 0.496 g of TFA per day, and those of industrial origin supplied about 1.5 g. The average TFA consumption, about 2 g/day, does not seem to affect health. However, an excessive consumption of pastry and confectionery products may present a risk, due not only to TFA but also to a high consumption of toxic secondary oxidation lipid products. Moreover, because 75% of TFAs in the diet were isomers of industrial origin, their further limitation and monitoring of their level in food seems highly recommendable.

  8. Production and characterisation of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched Burrata cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Antonio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Gomes, Tommaso F; Loizzo, Pasqua; Cassone, Angela; Faccia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Burrata is an Italian fresh 'pasta filata' cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA.

  9. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  10. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Is there such a thing as Tech Trans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This short paper is an attempt to start a discussion on some basic issues within the concept of Tech Trans especially the relationship between flow and structure within the concept. The background to this paper is first of all an academic interest in the relationship between flow and structure...... explores the concept of Tech Trans, show rooms and innovation systems, and it suggests that the notion of Tech Trans should be defined in the fix point of vertical and horizontal innovation. Finally this paper suggests a mathematical formula for evaluating Tech Trans....

  12. Attention modulates trans-saccadic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Emma E M; Schütz, Alexander C

    2018-01-01

    With every saccade, humans must reconcile the low resolution peripheral information available before a saccade, with the high resolution foveal information acquired after the saccade. While research has shown that we are able to integrate peripheral and foveal vision in a near-optimal manner, it is still unclear which mechanisms may underpin this important perceptual process. One potential mechanism that may moderate this integration process is visual attention. Pre-saccadic attention is a well documented phenomenon, whereby visual attention shifts to the location of an upcoming saccade before the saccade is executed. While it plays an important role in other peri-saccadic processes such as predictive remapping, the role of attention in the integration process is as yet unknown. This study aimed to determine whether the presentation of an attentional distractor during a saccade impaired trans-saccadic integration, and to measure the time-course of this impairment. Results showed that presenting an attentional distractor impaired integration performance both before saccade onset, and during the saccade, in selected subjects who showed integration in the absence of a distractor. This suggests that visual attention may be a mechanism that facilitates trans-saccadic integration. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Homologous SV40 RNA trans-splicing: Special case or prime example of viral RNA trans-splicing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Poddar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date the Simian Virus 40 (SV40 is the only proven example of a virus that recruits the mechanism of RNA trans-splicing to diversify its sequences and gene products. Thereby, two identical viral transcripts are efficiently joined by homologous trans-splicing triggering the formation of a highly transforming 100 kDa super T antigen. Sequences of other viruses including HIV-1 and the human adenovirus type 5 were reported to be involved in heterologous trans-splicing towards cellular or viral sequences but the meaning of these events remains unclear. We computationally and experimentally investigated molecular features associated with viral RNA trans-splicing and identified a common pattern: Viral RNA trans-splicing occurs between strong cryptic or regular viral splice sites and strong regular or cryptic splice sites of the trans-splice partner sequences. The majority of these splice sites are supported by exonic splice enhancers. Splice sites that could compete with the trans-splicing sites for cis-splice reactions are weaker or inexistent. Finally, all but one of the trans-splice reactions seem to be facilitated by one or more complementary binding domains of 11 to 16 nucleotides in length which, however occur with a statistical probability close to one for the given length of the involved sequences. The chimeric RNAs generated via heterologous viral RNA trans-splicing either did not lead to fusion proteins or led to proteins of unknown function. Our data suggest that distinct viral RNAs are highly susceptible to trans-splicing and that heterologous viral trans-splicing, unlike homologous SV40 trans-splicing, represents a chance event.

  14. Influence of a vegetable fat blend on the texture, microstructure and sensory properties of kashar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkci, N.; Kesenkas, H.; Seckin, A. K.; Kinik, O.; Gonc, S.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of using a commercial vegetable fat blend in Kashar cheese was investigated. Kashar cheeses were manufactured by replacing the milk fat (MF) with a vegetable fat (VF) blend. Kashar cheeses from whole milk were also manufactured to compare textural, microstructural, meltability, color and sensory characteristics during a ripening period of 90 days. The use of vegetable fat decreased the meltability, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese; while increasing adhesiveness where springiness was not affected. Differences became less notable toward the end of ripening. Scanning electron micrographs displayed VF cheese with a compact network with small and uniform fat globules embedded in the protein matrix. The MF cheese exhibited an open protein matrix containing milk fat globules of various sizes and forms. The color analysis demonstrated significant differences between cheeses. Finally, all sensory characteristics of the cheese were affected by the vegetable fat blend. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. Evaluation of the influence of different heat-treatment methods on fatty acids content particulary trans isomers in french fries

    OpenAIRE

    Mojska, H.; Malecka, K.; Gielecinska, I.; Sitek, A.; Pawlicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment methods on trans fatty acids content in French fries. French fries were heat-treated by using a deep fryer, a frying pan, an oven and a microwave. The fatty acids content was analyzed by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography using MS detector (GC/MS). The highest increase in fat was determined in French fries prepared in deep fryer in comparison to raw French fries, whereas the lowest by using oven and micro...

  16. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. trans-11 18:1 Vaccenic Acid (TVA Has a Direct Anti-Carcinogenic Effect on MCF-7 Human Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Na Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trans vaccenic acid (TVA; trans-11 18:1 is a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid and it is the predominant trans isomer found in ruminant fats. TVA can be converted into cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA, a CLA isomer that has many beneficial effects, by stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 in the mammary gland. The health benefits associated with CLA are well documented, but it is unclear whether trans fatty acids (TFAs from ruminant products have healthy effects. Therefore, the effects of TVA on the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells were investigated in the present study. Results showed that TVA inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells but not MCF-10A cells by down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 as well as procaspase-9. In addition, the suppressive effect of TVA was confirmed in SCD1-depleted MCF-7 cells. Our results suggested that TVA exerts a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 cells. These findings provided a better understanding of the research on the anti-carcinogenic effects of TVA and this may facilitate the manufacture of TVA/c9, t11-CLA fortified ruminant products.

  18. Trans-Fatty Acids Aggravate Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in C57BL/6 Mice, Possibly by Suppressing the IRS1 Dependent Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaona; Shen, Cheng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiangwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Han, Shasha; Wang, Peng; Dong, Zhen; Ma, Xin; Hu, Kai; Sun, Aijun; Ge, Junbo

    2016-05-30

    Trans-fatty acid consumption has been reported as a risk factor for metabolic disorders and targeted organ damages. Nonetheless, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of trans-fatty acids in obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were fed with four different diets for 20 weeks: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low trans-fatty acids diet (LTD) and high trans-fatty acid diet (HTD). The diet-induced metabolic disorders were assessed by evaluating body weight, glucose tolerance test, hepatic steatosis and plasma lipid profiles post 20-week diet. Histological (H&E, Oil-Red-O) staining and western blot analysis were employed to assess liver steatosis and potential signaling pathways. After 20-weeks of diet, the body weights of the four groups were 29.61 ± 1.89 g (ND), 39.04 ± 4.27 g (HFD), 34.09 ± 2.62 g (LTD) and 43.78 ± 4.27 g (HTD) (p steatosis compared with HFD group possibly through regulating adipose triglyceride lipase. The group consuming the HTD also exhibited significantly reduced levels of IRS1, phosphor-PKC and phosphor-AKT. These results support our hypothesis that consumption of a diet high in trans-fatty acids induces higher rates of obesity, IR and hepatic steatosis in male C57BL/6 mice, possibly by suppressing the IRS1dependent pathway.

  19. FROM ADVANCE TO TRANS-PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kislov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For several decades, the gap of vocational education with quickly changing realities in labour market, in the field of technologies and socio-economic sphere, and the need for the advancing vocational training, have been considered as the topical and steadily growing problems. Numerous attempts to overcome the presented above problems by means of fundamentalization and predictive methods have not led to anything so far. It is obvious that other education opportunities for in-demand, highly skilled, competitive specialists are needed.The aims of the publication are to discuss the potential of trans-professional education; to come up with arguments in favour of its introduction as the most perspective direction which might allow university and college graduates: to be guided better on labour market; to be more confident in unstable, unpredictable reality; to adapt quickly to dynamically changing situations in the world of professions.Methodology and research methods. The research paper is based on comparative analysis that provided an opportunity to find out the conceptual grounds of traditional mono-professional education and trans-professional education appropriate for challenges of modern Russia.Results and scientific novelty. It is emphasized that mono-professionalism as a paradigm reference point of professional education content is called for global reconsideration; for many years, preservation of traditional forms and methods have prevented mono-professionalism of good intentions to give it the advancing character, especially, at its initial stage.For the first time, trans-professional education has been considered as a result of considerably heterogeneous (as opposed to homogeneous bi- and polyprofessional training; the essence of that training consists in learning not related specialties concerned to one professional group, but professions that are absolutely far apart. Such approach will promote not only expansion of

  20. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, John K G; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhou, Jianqiang; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dugan, Michael E R

    2004-06-01

    The chemistry of conjugated fatty acids, specifically octadecadienoic acids (18:2; commonly referred to as conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA), has provided many challenges to lipid analysts because of their unique physical properties and the many possible positional and geometric isomers. After the acid-labile properties of CLAs during analytic procedures were overcome, it became evident that natural products, specifically dairy fats, contain one dominant (c9,t11-CLA), 3 intermediate (t7,c9-, t9,c11-, and t11,c13-CLA), and up to 20 more minor CLA isomers. The best analytic techniques to date include a combination of gas chromatography that uses 100-m highly polar capillary columns, silver ion-HPLC, and a combination of silver ion-thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography to analyze the CLA and trans 18:1 isomers, because some of them serve as precursors of CLA in biological systems. These analytic techniques have assisted commercial suppliers to prepare pure CLA isomers and have permitted the evaluation of individual CLA isomers for their nutritional and biological activity in animal and human systems. It is increasingly evident that different CLA isomers have distinctly different physiologic and biochemical properties. These techniques are essential to evaluate dairy fats for their CLA content, to design experimental diets to increase the amount of CLA in dairy fats, and to determine the CLA profile in these CLA-enriched dairy fats. These improved techniques are used to evaluate the CLA profile in pork products from pigs fed different commercial CLA mixtures.

  1. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  2. Sodium, sugar, and fat content of complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Bates, Marlana; Yuan, Keming; Scanlon, Kelley S; Pehrsson, Pamela; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2017-06-01

    Background: As part of a healthy diet, limiting intakes of excess sodium, added sugars, saturated fat, and trans fat has been recommended. The American Heart Association recommends that children aged sugars. Objective: We sought to determine commercial complementary infant-toddler food categories that were of potential concern because of the sodium, added sugar, saturated fat, or trans fat content. Design: Nutrition label information (e.g., serving size, sodium, saturated fat, trans fat) for 1032 infant and toddler foods was collected from manufacturers' websites and stores from May to July 2015 for 24 brands, which accounted for >95% of infant-toddler food sales. The presence of added sugars was determined from the ingredient list. Reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) categories were used to group foods and standardize serving sizes. A high sodium content was evaluated on the basis of the Upper Intake Level for children aged 1-3 y and the number of potential servings per day ([i.e., 1500 mg/7 servings (>210 mg/RACC)], a sodium amount >200 mg/100 g, or a mean sodium density >1000 mg/1000 kcal. Results: In 2015, most commercial infant-only vegetables, fruit, dinners, and cereals were low in sodium, contained no saturated fat, and did not contain added sugars. On average, toddler meals contained 2233 mg Na/1000 kcal, and 84% of the meals had >210 mg Na/RACC (170 g), whereas 69% of infant-toddler savory snacks had >200 mg Na/100 g. More than 70% of toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler grain- or dairy-based desserts contained ≥1 sources of added sugar. Approximately 70% of toddler meals contained saturated fat (mean: 1.9 g/RACC), and no commercial infant-toddler foods contained trans fats. Conclusion: Most commercial toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler snacks and desserts have high sodium contents or contain added sugars, suggesting a need for continued public health efforts to support parents

  3. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut butter and peanut oil Polyunsaturated fat: Polyunsaturated fat, another type of unsaturated fat, protects your heart. Sources of ... paste • safflower oil • walnuts • salad dressings Omega-3 fats: This type of fat helps prevent clogging of the arteries. ...

  4. Shifting Paradigms: Moving beyond "Trans 101" in Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eli R.

    2010-01-01

    Trans-inclusive sexuality education can be complex, confusing, and outright intimidating for even the most seasoned sexuality educator to teach. Historically, standalone "Trans 101" sessions have successfully raised awareness about the highly marginalized transgender community. However, their potential success has been limited by being taught in…

  5. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border relations between Nigeria and Niger republic. ... cordial relations between her and her immediate neighbours and thus stem the scourge of smuggling and other trans-border crimes which have negatively affected the Nigerian economy and her international image.

  6. TransPlanckian Particles and the Quantization of Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1999-01-01

    Trans-Planckian particles are elementary particles accelerated such that their energies surpass the Planck value. There are several reasons to believe that trans-Planckian particles do not represent independent degrees of freedom in Hilbert space, but they are controlled by the cis-Planckian

  7. Relative Stability of cis- and trans-Hydrindanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Tori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative stabilities of several cis- and trans-hydrindanones were compared using both isomerization experiments and MM2 calculations. The generally believed rule that cis-hydrindanones are more stable than trans-isomers is applicable, but is not always true. This review introduces examples, mainly from studies in our laboratory, to explain these facts.

  8. Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A

    2008-09-24

    Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet.

  9. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

  10. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The principal problem in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning is the length of time required to obtain meaningful data. Patient movement and radioisotope migration during the scanning period can cause distortion of the image. The object of this invention is to reduce the scanning time without degrading the images obtained. A system is described in which a scintillation camera detector is moved to an orbit about the cranial-caudal axis relative to the patient. A collimator is used in which lead septa are arranged so as to admit gamma rays travelling perpendicular to this axis with high spatial resolution and those travelling in the direction of the axis with low spatial resolution, thus increasing the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable without sacrificing spatial resolution. (author)

  11. Trans Ocean Gas CNG transportation development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation is on the rise due to increased global demand for natural gas. However, the challenge of transporting LNG lies in finding suitable locations for import terminals. Compressed natural gas (CNG) transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets not practical for LNG or pipelines. The founder of Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. Financial support is needed to perform verification testing and for regulatory approval. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy

  13. Becoming lesbian: Monique Wittig's queer-trans-feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kevin

    2018-04-03

    Inspired by Lynne Huffer's queer feminist genealogy, this article explores queer-trans-feminism as a project that would bring together queer, feminist, and transgender theory and politics into a shared critical lineage. I suggest that Monique Wittig is a neglected thinker who could re-enliven connections and debates within queer, feminist, and trans theory and politics. Utilizing recent historiographies of queer and feminist theory, I imagine what it would mean to hold on to the figure of the lesbian as a figure for queer-trans-feminist politics rather than render the lesbian anachronistic. I then explore the implications of Wittig's notion that "lesbians are not women" for a queer-trans-feminism. I argue that Wittig's critique of the language of the social sciences offers queer-trans-feminist scholars a source for contemporary self-critique and coalition.

  14. A canonical discriminant analysis to study the association between milk fatty acids of ruminal origin and milk fat depression in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G; Dimauro, C; Serra, A; Macciotta, N P P; Mele, M

    2018-04-04

    Although milk fat depression (MFD) has been observed and described since the beginning of the last century, all the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Some fatty acids (FA) originating during rumen biohydrogenation have been proposed as causative elements of MFD. However, contradictory results were obtained when studying the effect of single FA on MFD. An alternative could be the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of many FA using a multivariate approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual milk FA of ruminal origin and MFD using canonical discriminant analysis, a multivariate technique able to distinguish 2 or more groups on the basis of a pool of variables. In a commercial dairy herd, a diet containing 26% starch on a DM basis induced an unintentional MFD syndrome in 14 cows out of 40. Milk yielded by these 14 animals showed a fat content lower than 50% of the ordinary value, whereas milk production and protein content were normal. The remaining 26 cows secreted typical milk fat content and therefore were considered the control group, even though they ate the same diet. The stepwise discriminant analysis selected 14 milk FA of ruminal origin most able to distinguish the 2 groups. This restricted pool of FA was used, as variables, in a run of the canonical discriminant analysis that was able to significantly discriminate between the 2 groups. Out of the 14 FA, 5 conjugated linoleic acid isomers (C18:2 trans-10,trans-12, C18:2 trans-8,trans-10, C18:2 trans-11,cis-13, C18:2 cis-9,cis-11, C18:2 cis-10,cis-12) and C15:0 iso were more related to the control group, whereas C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, C16:1 trans-6-7, C16:1 trans-9, C18:1 trans-6-8, C18:1 trans-9, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:3n-3 were positively associated with the MFD group, allowing a complete discrimination. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that (1) the shift of ruminal biohydrogenation from C18

  15. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of N-trans-Caffeoyldopamine and N-trans-Feruloyldopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dizdar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids and their derivatives found in nature are well-known for their potential biological activity. In this study, two amides derived from trans-caffeic/ferulic acid and dopamine were synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, mass spectrometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compounds were tested for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE from Electrophorus electricus and for antioxidant activity by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH• and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS•+, reducing ferric ions, and ferrous ions chelation. N-trans-Feruloyldopamine displayed the highest inhibitory effect on AChE with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 8.52 μM. In addition, an in silico study was done to determine the most favorable AChE cluster with the synthesized compounds. Further, these clusters were investigated for binding positions at the lowest free binding energy. Both synthesized hydroxycinnamates were found to be better antioxidants than the parent acids in in vitro tests applied. N-trans-Caffeoyldopamine showed the best antioxidant activity in the three tested methods—against non-biological stable free radicals IC50 5.95 μM for DPPH•, 0.24 μM for the ABTS•+ method, and for reducing power (ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE 822.45 μmol/mmol—while for chelation activity against Fe2+ ions N-trans-feruloyldopamine had slightly better antioxidant activity (IC50 3.17 mM.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of uniformly sized core-shell imprinted microspheres for the separation trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohui; Liu Li; Li Hui; Yao Shouzhuo

    2009-01-01

    A novel core-shell molecularly imprinting microspheres (MIMs) with trans-resveratrol as the template molecule; acrylamide (AA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker, was prepared based on SiO 2 microspheres with surface imprinting technique. These core-shell trans-resveratrol imprinted microspheres were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that these core-shell imprinted microspheres, which take on perfect spherical shape with average shell thickness of 150 nm, exhibit especially selective recognition for trans-resveratrol. These imprinted microspheres were applied as solid-phase extraction materials for selective extraction of trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed extracting solution successfully.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of uniformly sized core-shell imprinted microspheres for the separation trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhaohui, E-mail: zhaohuizhang77@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou, 416000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Liu Li; Li Hui [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou, 416000 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A novel core-shell molecularly imprinting microspheres (MIMs) with trans-resveratrol as the template molecule; acrylamide (AA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker, was prepared based on SiO{sub 2} microspheres with surface imprinting technique. These core-shell trans-resveratrol imprinted microspheres were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that these core-shell imprinted microspheres, which take on perfect spherical shape with average shell thickness of 150 nm, exhibit especially selective recognition for trans-resveratrol. These imprinted microspheres were applied as solid-phase extraction materials for selective extraction of trans-resveratrol from giant knotweed extracting solution successfully.

  18. PBPK modeling of the cis- and trans-permethrin isomers and their major urinary metabolites in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Modèles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Sorbonne University, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, UMR 7338 Biomechanics and Bioengineering, Centre de recherche Royallieu CS 60319,60203 Compiègnee Cedex (France); Desmots, Sophie [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Toxicologie Expérimentale (TOXI), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Le Grand, Rozenn [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Limoges, Service de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie — Pharmacovigilance, 2, avenue Martin Luther King, 87042 Limoges (France); Lestremau, François [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Innovation pour la Mesure (NOVA), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Zeman, Florence A. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Unité Modèles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), Parc ALATA BP2, 60550, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Leclerc, Eric [Sorbonne University, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, UMR 7338 Biomechanics and Bioengineering, Centre de recherche Royallieu CS 60319,60203 Compiègnee Cedex (France); Moesch, Christian [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Limoges, Service de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie — Pharmacovigilance, 2, avenue Martin Luther King, 87042 Limoges (France); and others

    2016-03-01

    Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, is suspected to induce neuronal and hormonal disturbances in humans. The widespread exposure of the populations has been confirmed by the detection of the urinary metabolites of permethrin in biomonitoring studies. Permethrin is a chiral molecule presenting two forms, the cis and the trans isomers. Because in vitro studies indicated a metabolic interaction between the trans and cis isomers of permethrin, we adapted and calibrated a PBPK model for trans- and cis-permethrin separately in rats. The model also describes the toxicokinetics of three urinary metabolites, cis- and trans-3-(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (cis- and trans-DCCA), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and 4′OH-phenoxybenzoic acid (4′-OH-PBA). In vivo experiments performed in Sprague–Dawley rats were used to calibrate the PBPK model in a Bayesian framework. The model captured well the toxicokinetics of permethrin isomers and their metabolites including the rapid absorption, the accumulation in fat, the extensive metabolism of the parent compounds, and the rapid elimination of metabolites in urine. Average hepatic clearances in rats were estimated to be 2.4 and 5.7 L/h/kg for cis- and trans-permethrin, respectively. High concentrations of the metabolite 4′-OH-PBA were measured in urine compared to cis- and trans-DCCA and 3-PBA. The confidence in the extended PBPK model was then confirmed by good predictions of published experimental data obtained using the isomers mixture. The extended PBPK model could be extrapolated to humans to predict the internal dose of exposure to permethrin from biomonitoring data in urine. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of isomers of permethrin and its urinary metabolites was developed. • A quantitative link was established for permethrin and its biomarkers of exposure. • The bayesian framework allows getting confidence interval on the estimated parameters. • The PBPK model can be extrapolated

  19. PBPK modeling of the cis- and trans-permethrin isomers and their major urinary metabolites in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie; Desmots, Sophie; Le Grand, Rozenn; Lestremau, François; Zeman, Florence A.; Leclerc, Eric; Moesch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, is suspected to induce neuronal and hormonal disturbances in humans. The widespread exposure of the populations has been confirmed by the detection of the urinary metabolites of permethrin in biomonitoring studies. Permethrin is a chiral molecule presenting two forms, the cis and the trans isomers. Because in vitro studies indicated a metabolic interaction between the trans and cis isomers of permethrin, we adapted and calibrated a PBPK model for trans- and cis-permethrin separately in rats. The model also describes the toxicokinetics of three urinary metabolites, cis- and trans-3-(2,2 dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (cis- and trans-DCCA), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and 4′OH-phenoxybenzoic acid (4′-OH-PBA). In vivo experiments performed in Sprague–Dawley rats were used to calibrate the PBPK model in a Bayesian framework. The model captured well the toxicokinetics of permethrin isomers and their metabolites including the rapid absorption, the accumulation in fat, the extensive metabolism of the parent compounds, and the rapid elimination of metabolites in urine. Average hepatic clearances in rats were estimated to be 2.4 and 5.7 L/h/kg for cis- and trans-permethrin, respectively. High concentrations of the metabolite 4′-OH-PBA were measured in urine compared to cis- and trans-DCCA and 3-PBA. The confidence in the extended PBPK model was then confirmed by good predictions of published experimental data obtained using the isomers mixture. The extended PBPK model could be extrapolated to humans to predict the internal dose of exposure to permethrin from biomonitoring data in urine. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of isomers of permethrin and its urinary metabolites was developed. • A quantitative link was established for permethrin and its biomarkers of exposure. • The bayesian framework allows getting confidence interval on the estimated parameters. • The PBPK model can be extrapolated

  20. Muffins Elaborated with Optimized Monoglycerides Oleogels: From Solid Fat Replacer Obtention to Product Quality Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Anabella S; Carrín, María E; Palla, Camila A

    2018-05-22

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using oleogels from high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and monoglycerides as solid fat replacers in a sweet bakery product. Firstly, a methodology to obtain oleogels with desired properties based on mathematical models able to describe relationships between process and product characteristics variables followed by multi-objective optimization was applied. Later, muffins were prepared with the optimized oleogels and their physicochemical and textural properties were compared with those of muffins formulated using a commercial margarine (Control) or only HOSO. Furthermore, the amount of oil released from muffins over time (1, 7, and 10 days) was measured to evaluate their stability. The replacement of commercial margarine with the optimized oleogels in muffin formulation led to the obtention of products with greater spreadability, higher specific volume, similar hardness values, and a more connected and homogeneous crumb structure. Moreover, these products showed a reduction of oil migration of around 50% in contrast to the Control muffins after 10 days of storage, which indicated that the optimized oleogels can be used satisfactorily to decrease oil loss in this sweet baked product. Fat replacement with the optimized monoglycerides oleogels not only had a positive impact on the quality of the muffins, but also allowed to improve their nutritional profile (without trans fat and low in saturated fat). The food industry demands new ways to reduce the use of saturated and trans fats in food formulations. To contribute to this search, oleogels from high oleic sunflower oil and saturated monoglycerides were prepared under optimized conditions in order to obtain a product with similar functionality to margarine, and its potential application as a semisolid fat ingredient in muffins was evaluated. Muffins formulated with oleogels showed an improved quality compare with those obtained using a commercial margarine with the added

  1. Balancing functional and nutritional quality of oils and fats: Current requirements and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Bremt Karen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils and fats play an important role in the structure, aroma and stability of a wide variety of food products, as well as in their nutritional properties. For Puratos, a producer of ingredients for bakery, patisserie and chocolate sector, functionality and taste are of utmost importance, but the company also wants to contribute to the balanced diet of consumers. Vegetable oils and fats are used in margarines and releasing agents, vegetable creams, compound chocolate, fillings and emulsifiers. Each application requires an oil or fat with specific physicochemical properties in order to ensure the optimal structure, stability and taste of the end product. Traditionally, (partially hydrogenated vegetable oils deliver important functional characteristics concerning crystallization behaviour, directly linked with the workability, melting properties, stability and mouth feel of the food product. However, due to negative nutritional implications, trans fats are to be replaced by healthier alternatives, preferably not by saturated fats. Consumers – and in some regions, legal instances – demand transfree or hydro-free products while not compromising on taste. Alternative fats and oils will be discussed concerning their functional and nutritional properties.

  2. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  3. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited

  4. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. The prototype cameras for trans-Neptunian automatic occultation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Hu, Yen-Sang; Geary, John C.; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Amato, Stephen M.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Pratlong, Jerome; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Lehner, Matthew; Norton, Timothy; Jorden, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is a three robotic telescope project to detect the stellar occultation events generated by TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs). TAOS II project aims to monitor about 10000 stars simultaneously at 20Hz to enable statistically significant event rate. The TAOS II camera is designed to cover the 1.7 degrees diameter field of view of the 1.3m telescope with 10 mosaic 4.5k×2k CMOS sensors. The new CMOS sensor (CIS 113) has a back illumination thinned structure and high sensitivity to provide similar performance to that of the back-illumination thinned CCDs. Due to the requirements of high performance and high speed, the development of the new CMOS sensor is still in progress. Before the science arrays are delivered, a prototype camera is developed to help on the commissioning of the robotic telescope system. The prototype camera uses the small format e2v CIS 107 device but with the same dewar and also the similar control electronics as the TAOS II science camera. The sensors, mounted on a single Invar plate, are cooled to the operation temperature of about 200K as the science array by a cryogenic cooler. The Invar plate is connected to the dewar body through a supporting ring with three G10 bipods. The control electronics consists of analog part and a Xilinx FPGA based digital circuit. One FPGA is needed to control and process the signal from a CMOS sensor for 20Hz region of interests (ROI) readout.

  6. Trans and cis influences and effects in cobalamins and in their simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De March, Matteo; Demitri, Nicola; Geremia, Silvano; Hickey, Neal; Randaccio, Lucio

    2012-11-01

    The interligand interactions in coordination compounds have been principally interpreted in terms of cis and trans influences and effects, which can be defined as the ability of a ligand X to affect the bond of another ligand, cis or trans to X, to the metal. This review analyzes these effects/influences in cobalamins (XCbl) and their simple models cobaloximes, LCo(chel)X. Important properties of these complexes, such as geometry, stability, and reactivity, can be rationalized in terms of steric and electronic factors of the ligands. Experimental evidence of normal and inverse trans influence is described in alkylcobaloximes for the first time. The study of simple B(12) models has complemented that on the more complex cobalamins, with particular emphasis on the properties of the axial L-Co-X moiety. Some of the conclusions reached for the axial fragment of simple models have also been qualitatively detected in cobalamins and have furnished new insight into the as yet unestablished mechanism for the homolytic cleavage of the Co - C bond in the AdoCbl-based enzymes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Feng Piao; Yang Shi; Pu-Jun Gao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721and to explore the mechanism of its effect.METHODS: SMMC-7721 cells were divided into two groups, one treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days and the other as a control group. Light microscope and electron microscope were used to observe the morphological changes. Telomerase activity was analyzed with silver-stained telomere repeated assay protocal (TRAP). Expression of Caspase-3 was demonstrated with western blot.RESULTS: ATRA-treated cells showed differentiation features including small and pyknotic nuclei, densely stained chromatin and fewer microvilli. Besides, ATRA could inhibit the activity of telomerase, promote the expression of Caspase-3 and its activation.CONCLUSION: Telomerase activity and Caspase-3expression are changed in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 treated with all-trans retinioc acid.The inhibition of telomerase activity and the activation of Caspase-3 may be the key steps through which ATRA inhibits the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cell line.

  8. The LINKS motif zippers trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines into a biosynthetic megacomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Darren C; Wagner, Drew T; Meinke, Jessica L; Zogzas, Charles E; Gay, Glen R; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T

    2016-03-01

    Polyketides such as the clinically-valuable antibacterial agent mupirocin are constructed by architecturally-sophisticated assembly lines known as trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases. Organelle-sized megacomplexes composed of several copies of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines have been observed by others through transmission electron microscopy to be located at the Bacillus subtilis plasma membrane, where the synthesis and export of the antibacterial polyketide bacillaene takes place. In this work we analyze ten crystal structures of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases ketosynthase domains, seven of which are reported here for the first time, to characterize a motif capable of zippering assembly lines into a megacomplex. While each of the three-helix LINKS (Laterally-INteracting Ketosynthase Sequence) motifs is observed to similarly dock with a spatially-reversed copy of itself through hydrophobic and ionic interactions, the amino acid sequences of this motif are not conserved. Such a code is appropriate for mediating homotypic contacts between assembly lines to ensure the ordered self-assembly of a noncovalent, yet tightly-knit, enzymatic network. LINKS-mediated lateral interactions would also have the effect of bolstering the vertical association of the polypeptides that comprise a polyketide synthase assembly line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Velasco B.; Jesús H. Gil G.; Carlos M. García P.; Diego L. Durango R.

    2012-01-01

    Se estudió la biotransformación de ácido trans-cinámico mediante células completas del hongo fitopatógeno nativo colombiano Colletotrichum acutatum. Inicialmente, se evaluó la fungitoxicidad de este compuesto contraC. acutatum; el ácido trans-cinámico exhibió una toxicidad moderada a débil contra el microorganismo y aparentemente se presentó un mecanismo de detoxificación. Luego, para estudiar tal mecanismo y explorar la capacidad de este hongo para biotransformar el ácido trans-cinámico en ...

  10. Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Neelakantan, Nithya; Wu, Yi; Lote-Oke, Rashmi; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils, but studies have reported inconsistent effects of palm oil on blood lipids. We systematically reviewed the effect of palm oil consumption on blood lipids compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for trials of at least 2 wk duration that compared the effects of palm oil consumption with any of the predefined comparison oils: vegetable oils low in saturated fat, trans fat-containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats. Data were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis. Palm oil significantly increased LDL cholesterol by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.13, 0.35 mmol/L; I(2) = 83.2%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat. This effect was observed in randomized trials (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.42 mmol/L) but not in nonrandomized trials (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.20 mmol/L; P-difference = 0.02). Among randomized trials, only modest heterogeneity in study results remained after considering the test oil dose and the comparison oil type (I(2) = 27.5%). Palm oil increased HDL cholesterol by 0.02 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04 mmol/L; I(2) = 49.8%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat and by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11 mmol/L; I(2) = 47.8%) compared with trans fat-containing oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat-containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Serum trans-fatty acids level are positively associated with lower food security among american adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2018-03-07

    In the current study we aimed to assess whether the food security is associated with serum trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and dietary fat. Analyses were restricted to participants (from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) with data available on serum and diet TFAs and food security status from 2009 to 2010. All statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and linear regression) accounted for the survey design and sample weights. We included 3876 participants, overall (48.6%) participants were men, and (51.4%) were women, generally (69.0%) had high food security. Subjects with higher food security had a higher level of education as well (p security (all p security. Further, age, sex, race, education, and energy intake adjusted mean of dietary fatty acids show that total polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in subjects with higher food security (p = 0.026) while, cholesterol consumption is higher in subjects with lower food security (p = 0.039). Our findings provide more evidence on the association between food insecurity and the higher level of TFAs in serum and different type of fat in the diet.

  12. Substitution of trans fatty acids in foods on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Mikkelsen, Aase Ærendahl; Leth, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Three surveys of the content of trans fatty acids (TFA) in foods on the Danish market were carried out before and after the Danish regulation was introduced in January 2004 restricting the use of industrially produced (IP)-TFA to a maximum of 2 g per 100 g fat in any food product. For this purpose......, food samples were collected in 2002-3, 2004-5, and 2006-7. Of these, 60 paired samples (defined as samples included in two of the three investigations and with higher levels of IP-TFA in the first determination than in the second) were identified. Comparisons of the fatty acid profiles showed that......, in 68% of the products (e.g. sweets, cakes and cookies as well as fast food such as pie and tortilla), IP-TFA were mainly substituted with saturated fatty acids (SFA). In some cases, the SFA source was coconut fat, whereas in other products, palm oil was added instead of partially hydrogenated oils...

  13. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children

    OpenAIRE

    Kraak, V.; Vandevijvere, S.; Sacks, G.; Brinsden, H.; Hawkes, C.; Barquera, S.; Lobstein, T.; Swinburn, S.

    2016-01-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 – by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries – to help decrease...

  14. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children

    OpenAIRE

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Sim?n; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-01-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease...

  15. Conserving Coherence and Storing Energy during Internal Conversion: Photoinduced Dynamics of cis- and trans-Azobenzene Radical Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Munkerup, Kristin

    2017-10-24

    Light harvesting via energy storage in azobenzene has been a key topic for decades, and the process of energy distribution over the molecular degrees of freedom following photoexcitation remains to be understood. Dynamics of a photoexcited system can exhibit high degrees of non-ergodicity when it is driven by just a few degrees of freedom. Typically, an internal conversion leads to the loss of such localization of dynamics, as the intramolecular energy becomes statistically redistributed over all molecular degrees of freedom. Here, we present a unique case where the excitation energy remains localized even subsequent to internal conversion. Strong-field ionization is used to prepare cis- and trans-azobenzene radical cations on the D1 surface with little excess energy, at the equilibrium neutral geometry. These D1 ions are preferably formed because in this case D1 and D0 switch place in the presence of the strong laser field. The post-ionization dynamics is dictated by the potential energy landscape. The D1 surface is steep downhill along the cis/trans isomerization coordinate and towards a common minimum shared by the two isomers in the region of D1/D0 conical intersection. Coherent cis/trans torsional motion along this coordinate is manifested in the ion transients by a cosine modulation. In this scenario, D0 becomes populated with molecules that are energized mainly along the cis-trans isomerization coordinate, with the kinetic energy above the cis-trans inter-conversion barrier. These activated azobenzene molecules easily cycle back and forth along the D0 surface, and give rise to several periods of modulated signal before coherence is lost. This persistent localization of the internal energy during internal conversion is provided by the steep downhill potential energy surface, small initial internal energy content, and a strong hole-lone pair interaction that drives the molecule along the cis-trans isomerization coordinate to facilitate the transition between

  16. Vibrational spectra and assignments for cis- and trans-1,2-difluorocyclopropane and three deuterium substituted modifications of each isomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, N.C.; Hu Chao, T.N.; Cuellar, E.; Hendriksen, D.E.; Koepke, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared spectra under a variety of experimental conditions and Raman spectra for the liquid phase have been recorded for the cis and trans isomers of 1,2-difluorocyclopropane and the 1,2-d 2 , 3,3-d 2 , and d 4 deuterated modifications. Almost all of the 168 fundamentals of this set of eight molecules have been observed and assigned convincingly. For cis-1,2-difluorocyclopropane-d 0 the fundamentals are (a') 3105, 3063, 3023, 1450, 1365, 1224, 1135, 1047, 862, 784, 468, 209 cm -1 ; (a'') 3055, 1346, 1150, 1089, 1060, 993, 739, 621, 319 cm -1 . For trans-1,2-difluorocyclopropane-d 0 the fundamentals are (a) 3070, 3021, 1457, 1380, 1203, 1132, 1068, 961, 842, 415, 279 cm -1 ; (b) 3110, 3070, 1304, 1161, 1072, 1005, 937, 783, 452, 303 cm -1 . Only the 1089-cm -1 mode in the cis and the 937-cm -1 mode in the trans are in doubt. Group frequency descriptions are discussed qualitatively, and attention is drawn to the fundamentals near 1450 cm -1 which are characteristic of fluorocyclopropanes and appear to be largely due to ring stretching. From previously published equilibrium data for the cis-to-trans isomerization and the fundamental frequencies of the two isomers, an electronic energy difference of -2800 +- 200 cal/mol has been calculated. In contrast, the trans isomer of 1,2-difluoroethylene has an energy 1100 cal/mol greater than the cis, and the trans rotamer of 1,2-difluoroethane has an energy about 600 cal/mol greater than the gauche. (auth)

  17. Maternal intake of trans-unsaturated or interesterified fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation modifies mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of adult offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Patricia C; Chicaybam, Gustavo; Ramos-Filho, Dionizio M; Dos Santos, Raísa M A R; Mairink, Caroline; Sardinha, Fátima L C; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Galina, Antonio; Tavares-do-Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2017-07-01

    The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received the control diet until day 110. Plasma glucose and TAG and liver FA profiles were ascertained. Liver mitochondrial function was accessed with high-resolution respirometry by measuring VO2, fluorimetry for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The results showed that the IG offspring presented a 20 % increase in plasma glucose and both the IG and TG offspring presented a 2- and 1·9-fold increase in TAG, respectively, when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA and PUFA contents decreased in the TG and IG offspring when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA content also decreased in the PG offspring. These modifications in FA composition possibly affected liver mitochondrial function, as respiration was impaired in the TG offspring and H2O2 production was higher in the IG offspring. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced by approximately 40 and 55 % in the TG and IG offspring, respectively. In conclusion, maternal consumption of trans-unsaturated and interesterified fat affected offspring health by compromising mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism in the liver.

  18. A rumen unprotected conjugated linoleic acid supplement inhibits milk fat synthesis and improves energy balance in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, M; Gama, M A S; Dresch, R; Harvatine, K J; Oliveira, D E

    2013-07-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplements in a rumen-protected form has been shown to cause milk fat depression (MFD) in cows, ewes, and goats. Methyl esters of CLA were shown to be as effective as FFA in inducing MFD when infused postruminally, but their efficacy as a feed supplement has not been addressed in studies with lactating ruminants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement as methyl esters on performance, milk composition, and energy status of dairy goats. Eighteen multiparous Toggenburg goats were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a crossover experimental design (14 d treatment periods separated by a 7 d washout interval): 30 g/d of calcium salts of fatty acids (Control) or 30 g/d of a rumen unprotected CLA supplement containing 29.9% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA as methyl esters (CLA). Lipid supplements were mixed into a concentrate and fed individually to animals 3 times a day as a total mixed ration component. The DMI, milk yield, milk protein and lactose content and secretion, and somatic cell count were unaffected by CLA treatment. On the other hand, milk fat content and yield were reduced by 19.9 and 17.9% in CLA-fed goats. Reduced milk fat yield in CLA-fed goats was a consequence of a lower secretion of both preformed and de novo synthesized fatty acids. The CLA treatment also changed the milk fatty acid profile, which included a reduction in the concentration of SFA (2.5%), increased MUFA and PUFA (5.6 and 5.4%, respectively), and a pronounced increase (1576%) in milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Consistent with the high milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA content, all desaturase indexes were reduced in milk fat from CLA-fed goats. The MFD induced by CLA reduced the energy required for milk production by 22%, which was accompanied by an improvement in the estimated energy balance (P rumen biohydrogenation and indirect comparisons with data obtained from other studies suggest equivalent MFD

  19. Ionising radiation and trans-generational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, I.; Niksic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Indirect monitoring of the impact posed by ionising radiation to the genome instability of the descendants, consequent to the irradiation of one of their parents, boils down to the investigation of changes occurring exclusively in the mini-satellite loci of the cells constituting the gametal developmental line. The resultant mini-satellite mutations are expressed in their percentages, and equal to the ratio of the number of mutated alleles in that particular generation over the total number of alleles present. The impact of ionising radiation to the irradiated parent's offspring was first noticed on haematopoietic mouse stem-cells. Even though an irradiated cell of a female parent lacks any mutations whatsoever, daughter cells present with the increased mutation rates. The observed phenomenon of the so called trans-generational instability has been defined as the occurrence of mutations in the genome of individuals originating from the irradiated ancestors. Due to the aforementioned, one can conclude that these mutations need not be present in the irradiated parental cells, and do not necessarily vanish in the next few generations, but may result in the increase in mutation rates observed in the latter. The results of the investigations performed on the animal model, as well as of those carried out in human population, point to the occurrence of significant changes to be found on mini-satellite loci of the descending generation, while the mechanism underlying those changes hasn't been completely clarified yet, and, therefore, calls for the further investigation. (author)

  20. Crystallinity and the effect of ionizing radiation in polyethylene. V. Distribution of trans-vinylene and trans, trans conjugated double bonds in linear polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, G.N.

    1975-01-01

    Freeze-dried chain folded single crystals and the single crystals without amorphous surface layers (crystalline cores) of different thicknesses of linear polyethylene were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays up to 600 Mrad. Concentration of trans-vinylene double bonds and conjugated diene produced during irradiation of the crystals was measured by infrared. Concentrations of trans-vinylene and of the conjugated diene were independent of thickness of crystalline core which suggest that the double bonds were randomly distributed in the crystalline parts of the crystals. Concentrations of trans-vinylene and of conjugated double bonds were lower in chain-folded crystals than in the crystalline cores and this suggests that the folds (amorphous surface layers) are less preferential sites for formation of the double bonds. The zero-order growth and first-order decay kinetics of trans-vinylene double bonds was studied by the equation derived by Dole et al. The equation is strictly obeyed up to 300 Mrad and the results then deviate. Since there is the decay of trans-vinylene double bonds and though there are no crosslinks in the crystalline cores, it has been suggested that the decay of the double bond does not result in the crosslinks

  1. DESENVOLVIMENTO, LIBERDADE E GÊNERO: EXPERIÊNCIAS TRANS / DEVELOPMENT, FREEDOM AND GENDER: TRANS EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanny Soeiro Sousa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay seeks to make an examination on how the gender category influences in the development process, based on the concept of development as freedom by Amartya Sen. In view of this purpose, we analyze the main human rights violations suffered by travesties and transsexuals due to the female and male identity construction in contrast to social norms establishing hierarchical positions of men and women as constituents of male and female categories. In other words, conflicts made in the wake of gender relations. This study is the result of a literature review and analysis of data on homophobic violence against trans experience.

  2. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  3. Fat in the dural sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, S.; Ando, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Ito, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fat density in the dural sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in eight cases. Of the eight cases, five had fat deposit in the torcular Herophili, and three in the superior sagittal sinus. This finding was incidentally found by CT and there was no common underlying disease in these cases. It is suggested that this finding represents normal adipose tissue in the dural sinus. (orig.)

  4. Finding a Trans-Affirmative Provider: Challenges Faced by Trans and Gender Diverse Psychologists and Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Lore M; Singh, Anneliese A

    2017-08-01

    This article explores some of the challenges faced by trans and gender diverse (TGD) individuals who not only are attempting to access trans-affirmative care, but who are also members of the very profession from which they are seeking services. The authors explore challenges related to finding supervision, accessing care for assessment services, and finding a provider for personal counseling. With each example, the authors unpack the challenges and also address the implications for training for all involved. Based on these challenges that TGD psychologists and trainees face in attempting to access care, the authors provide recommendations related to trans-affirmative training for psychologists. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Naturally occurring and process-induced trans fatty acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHOKRI

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, butter oil. INTRODUCTION ... important role in determining risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) than ... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade, supplied by.

  6. Trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P. C.; Li, D.

    2012-01-01

    Transformer based Z-source (trans-Z-source) inverters are recently proposed by extending the traditional Z-source inverter with higher buck-boost capability as well as reducing the passive components at the same time. Multi-Level Z-source inverters are single-stage topological solutions used...... for buck-boost energy conversion with all the favourable advantages of multi-level switching retained. This paper presents three-level trans-Z-source Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter topology, which achieves both the advantages of trans-Z-source and three-level NPC inverter configuration. With proper...... modulation scheme, the three-level trans-Z-source inverter can function with minimum of six device commutations per half carrier cycle (same as the traditional buck NPC inverter), while maintaining to produce the designed volt-sec average and inductive voltage boosting at ac output terminals. The designed...

  7. READING COLONIZATION IN CONRAD'S TRANS-RACIAL LOVE PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lilyana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is about a close look at Conrad's trans-racial romance related to the Victorian period. Trans-racial love between white men and non-white women becomes a popular theme in the early works of Josep Conrad, a famous writer of the late Victorian period. Using a closely technical reading in the three of Conrad's works Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly, and An Outcast of the Island, we can show that such a trans-racial romance is not merely meant for appreciating equivalence. In turn, the trans-racial romance of Conrad's can be understood as the reflection of the Western colonization on the East where the white men take a role as subjects who had dominately explored while the non-white women as objects who are passively being explored. Key words: colonization, race, romance plot, subject, object, and dominance

  8. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  9. TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECT LIGHTCURVES V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes a collection of published lightcurves of trans-Neptunian objects published through December 2002. The collection includes lightcurves of 18...

  10. Electron Affinity of trans-2-C4F8 from Electron Attachment-Detachment Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-04

    0.989, for DFT results. b Hartree units; G3(MP2) formalism and B3LYP/6-31+G(3df)// B3LYP/6-31+G(3df) + ZPE for DFT results. c Difference between the...units; G3(MP2) formalism and B3LYP/6-31+G(3df)// B3LYP/6-31+G(3df) + ZPE for DFT results. c Difference between the anion total energy at 0 K and that

  11. Polarization in high Psub(trans) and cumulative hadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The final hadron polarization in the high Psub(trans) processes is analyzed in the parton hard scattering picture. Scaling assumption allows a correct qualitative description to be given for the Psub(trans)-behaviour of polarization or escape angle behaviour in cumulative production. The energy scaling and weak dependence on the beam and target type is predicted. A method is proposed for measuring the polarization of hadron jets

  12. Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Sforza, Stefano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ghidini, Cristiana; Caporaso, Nicola; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2005-05-01

    Many in vitro studies demonstrated significant biological effects of trans-resveratrol. Thus, understanding the rate of intestinal absorption and metabolization in vivo of trans-resveratrol is the prerequisite to evaluate its potential health impact. Bioavailability studies mainly in animals or in humans using the pure compound at very high doses were performed. In this work, trans-resveratrol bioavailability from a moderate consumption of red wine in 25 healthy humans has been studied by three different experiments. The wine ingestion was associated to three different dietary approaches: fasting, a standard meal, a meal with high and low amount of lipids. Trans-resveratrol 3- and 4'-glucuronides were synthesized, purified, and characterized as pure standards. Bioavailability data were obtained by measuring the concentration of free, 3-glucuronide and 4'-glucuronide trans-resveratrol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection, in serum samples taken at different times after red wine administration. Free trans-resveratrol was found, in trace amounts, only in some serum samples collected 30 min after red wine ingestion while after longer times resveratrol glucuronides predominated. Trans-resveratrol bioavailability was shown to be independent from the meal or its lipid content. The finding in human serum of trans-resveratrol glucuronides, rather than the free form of the compound, with a high interindividual variability, raises some doubts about the health effects of dietary resveratrol consumption and suggests that the benefits associated to red wine consumption could be probably due to the whole antioxidant pool present in red wine.

  13. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  14. [The fat content and fatty acids composition in selected products of the convenience food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewicka, Maria; Grajeta, Halina; Kleczkowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    An increasing pace of life and a lack of time for meals preparation at home, observed in many countries worldwide, have led to an increased consumption of convenient food products. This term refers to highly processed food products that are either ready-to-eat or may be consumed after short culinary processing. Convenience foods include: dinner courses, salads, cereals, creams, broths, pizzas, roasts, as well as frozen products ready-to-eat after short heat treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the fat content and fatty acids composition of frozen products belonging to convenience food. Material for analysis comprised of 30 following food products: fish and seafood products, pizza, casseroles and meat products. The fat content was determined using Folch method and the fatty acids composition using gas chromatography technique. The analyzed products contained from 1.2% to 26.9% of fat. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) content ranged from 8.7% to 53.2%, while the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)--from 24.0% to 68.7% of total fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage accounted for 8,1% to 48,8% and trans isomers--for 0.2% to 6.1% of total fatty acids. The fat and fatty acid contents showed large differences in products depending on their composition and preparation techniques declared by the producer. Most of the analyzed fish and seafood products were characterized by the fat content ranged from 11% to 14% with the high percentage of fatty acids favorable from nutritional point of view, MUFA and PUFA. The composition of fatty acids from pizza and casseroles was less favorable, due to high proportion of SFA and also trans isomers.

  15. Fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging for the postoperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akada, Kiyohiro

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of the early post operative evaluation of pituitary adenomas with fat-suppressed MR imaging was studied. Thirty patients with pituitary adenoma, who underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery were analyzed. These include 22 with macroadenoma (3 recurrent cases) and 8 with microadenoma (2 recurrent cases). In all cases after adenoma resection, fat tissue was placed into the sella turcica to prevent postoperative cerebro-spinal fluid leakage and infections. T1-weighted and Gd DTPA-enhanced MR images were obtained using a 1.5-T superconductive MRI system (Shimadzu Co., Ltd.) by a standard technique and also by a fat suppression technique (chemical shift selective presaturation: CHESS) after surgery. It was difficult to discriminate between hematoma, fat tissue and pituitary posterior lobe on T1-weighted images within 1 month after surgery because of high-signal intensity. However, these regions could be distinguished one another by the CHESS technique. Normal pituitary anterior lobe could be identified in 86% of macroadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study, whereas it was identified only in 23% by standard technique. Normal anterior lobe was identified in 100% of microadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study. The residual tumors were found to invade into the supra sella or cavernous sinus, and these lesions could be distinguished from the surrounding tissue by the CHESS dynamic study in 83%, whereas only 33% could be distinguished by the standard technique. Although the fat tissue showed a time-sequence decrease in volume, high-signal intensity sometimes lasted long in association with degenerative granulation. In conclusion, CHESS dynamic MR Imaging study is useful for detection of the normal pituitary lobe and residual adenomas after trans-sphenoidal surgery. (author)

  16. COMPARISON OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE FIELD OF NUTRITIONAL FATS AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the knowledge in the field of trans fatty acids (TFAs and nutritional recommendations related to fats among students at the University of Life Sciences in Warsaw (SGGW and Wageningen (WUR. The research was done using a questionnaire composed of 16 questions among 194 students from SGGW and WUR in 2012.In Poland 96% and in Holland 89% of students had heard the name “trans fat”. More than half of the questionnaire respondents knew industrial sources of TFAs. After comparing the results of the research, in which students succeeded, it was concluded that differences in the level of knowledge were statistically not significant (p<0.05. Eating habits for fatty pastry products representing a potential source of TFAs were similar. WUR students’ purchase of pastry products was dependent on price, whereas that of Polish students depended on information and ingredients listed on the package.

  17. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of trans-cranial and trans-sphenoidal approaches for vision improvement due to pitutary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabai SA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve visual disturbance, optic nerve decompression can be performed via transcranial or tran-sphenoidal approaches. Although the surgical exposure in transcranial approach is favourable, yet the optic nerve's presence in the field may make it vulnerable to damage. Of fighty patients with different types of pituitary adenomas, 35 cases with medium-sized (1-3 cm tumors have been studied in a randomized clinical trial during a three year period, to compare the applicability of these approaches. While short hospital stay with better visual outcome was observed in fifteen trans-sphenoidal cases, in comparison to 20 trans-cranial cases, however the preoperative visual status and underlying disorders were similar in both groups. Decompressing the optic apparatus, trans-sphenoidally, seems beneficial, where there are no contraindications for the procedure in medium-sized pituitary adenomas

  19. Excited-state Raman spectroscopy with and without actinic excitation: S1 Raman spectra of trans-azobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobryakov, A. L.; Quick, M.; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.; Ernsting, N. P.; Kovalenko, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy can record excited-state spectra in the absence of actinic excitation, if the Raman pump is in resonance with an electronic transition. The approach is illustrated by recording S 1 and S 0 spectra of trans-azobenzene in n-hexane. The S 1 spectra were also measured conventionally, upon nπ* (S 0 → S 1 ) actinic excitation. The results are discussed and compared to earlier reports

  20. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  1. PUTAS Y TRANS. ¿ESTÁN LAS MUJERES TRANS EN LAS NARRATIVAS SOBRE LA PROSTITUCIÓN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza García Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo evidencia los principales resultados de la investigación cualitativa titulada: Putas y trans. Narrativas sobre mujeres trans en España –desarrollada en 2010–, la cual estudió su presencia en textos académicos sobre prostitución en España, producidos entre los años 2000-2009. El análisis de contenido de 34 narrativas evidenció que las referencias a mujeres trans resulta escasa en ellas, aun siendo ellas quienes tienen mayor presencia en la prostitución, en proporción con las mujeres biológicas. Solo nueve textos mencionan la experiencia trans al interior de la prostitución y, entre estos, el asunto solo aparece asertivamente descrito cuando son las propias mujeres trans quienes escriben. AbstractThis paper shows the results of a qualitative research entitled: Hookers and Trans Women: Narratives about trans women in Spain. This study was developed in 2010 and it is based on presence of trans women in the academic texts of prostitution in Spain produced between 2000 and 2009. The content analysis of thirty four narratives showed that the references to in transsexual women in these texts were few, although they have more presence into prostitution, in relation to the biological women. Only nine texts show an experience of prostitution and among these, transexperience only is described assertively when transsexual women write the texts themselves.

  2. Characterization of hydrogenated fats for margarine manufacturing purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi, Renato

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight samples of hydrogenated vegetable fats were characterized by their fatty acid composition, trans isomers content and thermal behaviour, using gas chromatography (GC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC techniques, respectively. Fatty acid composition showed some variations In relation to the unsaturated fatty acids. Trans isomer content, values varied from 22.8% to 35.6%. Solid fat content values were measured using AOCS and lUPAC methods, which differ In the tempering procedures. Values obtained by IUPAC method were higher than the AOCS ones, only at lower temperatures (10 and 21,1°C. Samples were divided Into three groups according to their solids profile: superior (C/E/G/H intermediate (F and Inferior (A/B/D. Melting and crystallization curves were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Melting enthalpies ranged from 51.3 to 76.5 J.g-1 and crystallization enthalpies varied from -34.2 to -18.9 J.g-1 Characteristic temperatures showed little differences between the samples and each of them showed a characteristic DSC curve. All samples showed a great melting range as expected for hydrogenated fats used for margarines manufacture.

    Ocho muestras de aceites vegetales hidrogenados fueron caracterizados por su composición en ácidos grasos, contenido de isómeros trans y comportamiento térmico, usando las técnicas de cromatografía gaseosa (CG, espectroscopía Infrarrojo (IR, Resonancia Magnética Nuclear Pulsante (pRMN, Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC, respectivamente. La composición en ácidos grasos mostró algunas variaciones respecto a los ácidos grasos insaturados. El contenido en isómeros trans varió de valores de 22,8 a 35,6%. El valor del contenido en grasa sólido fue medido usando los métodos de la AOCS y lUPAC, que difieren en los procedimientos de atemperado. Los valores obtenidos por el método l

  3. Reasons for decision in the matter of Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc. (formerly Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc.) : tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007 Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc. (now Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc.) submitted a series of applications to the National Energy Board for revisions to the Trans Mountain Tariffs. They were filed in response to apportionment concerns on the Trans Mountain pipeline. Four of the applications involved pronounced and contentious changes to the capacity allocation procedures on the pipeline system. For ease of reference, the Board amalgamated its 4 decisions on these applications into a single document. A map of the Trans Mountain pipeline system as a whole was presented along with a detailed map indicating the delivery locations served by the system in the lower mainland of British Columbia and the state of Washington. The issues considered by the Board in each of these decisions included capacity allocation for Westridge Dock; capacity allocations to export destinations; common carriage requirements; and the need for creating a new barge subcategory. Relevant sections of the National Energy Board Act referred to in the decisions were highlighted. This document also listed the Trans Mountain Tariffs that have introduced notable revisions to the capacity allocation procedures on the system since September 2003. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 appendices

  4. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. II. Fatty acid flow to the omasum and milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveneau, C; Ribeiro, C V D M; Eastridge, M L; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Feeding animal-vegetable (AV) fat or medium-chain fatty acids (FA) to dairy cows can decrease ruminal protozoal counts. However, combining moderate to large amounts of AV fat with monensin (tradename: Rumensin, R) could increase the risk for milk fat depression (MFD), whereas it is not known if diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO; rich in medium-chain FA) with R would cause MFD. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with R (12 g/909 kg) and either control (no fat), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. Diets were balanced to have 21.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 16.8% crude protein, and 42% nonfiber carbohydrates. Omasal flows of FA were characterized by an increased percentage of trans 18:1 for AV fat and CNO diets compared with the control, a higher percentage of 12:0 and 14:0 for CNO, and higher cis 18:1 for AV fat. Milk FA composition reflected the changes observed for omasal FA digesta flow. The de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland was decreased by the main effects of R compared without R (averaged over fat treatments) and for added fat (AV fat and CNO) versus control (averaged over R). The percentages of 6:0, 8:0, and 10:0 in milk fat were lower for R and for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. The percentage of trans 18:1 FA in milk fat also higher for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. Against our hypotheses, the feeding of CNO did not prevent MFD, and few interactions between R and fat source were detected. The feeding of CNO did compromise ruminal biohydrogenation, with accumulation of trans 18:1 in the rumen and in milk fat. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Fat Quantification in the Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver disease is characterized histologically by hepatic steatosis, the abnormal accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. It is classified into alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is an increasingly important cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis in these conditions is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as hepatic steatosis is potentially reversible if diagnosed early. The criterion standard for assessing hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy, which is limited by sampling error, its invasive nature, and associated morbidity. As such, noninvasive imaging-based methods of assessing hepatic steatosis are needed. Ultrasound and computed tomography are able to suggest the presence of hepatic steatosis based on imaging features, but are unable to accurately quantify hepatic fat content. Since Dixon's seminal work in 1984, magnetic resonance imaging has been used to compute the signal fat fraction from chemical shift-encoded imaging, commonly implemented as out-of-phase and in-phase imaging. However, signal fat fraction is confounded by several factors that limit its accuracy and reproducibility. Recently, advanced chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging methods have been developed that address these confounders and are able to measure the proton density fat fraction, a standardized, accurate, and reproducible biomarker of fat content. The use of these methods in the liver, as well as in other abdominal organs such as the pancreas, adrenal glands, and adipose tissue will be discussed in this review.

  7. 'Homens trans': novos matizes na aquarela das masculinidades? 'Trans men': new colours in the masculinities picture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute de forma exploratória a emergência de uma nova categoria identitária no Brasil, a de 'homem trans'. Essa se constrói diferenciando-se da identidade lésbica e, também, de expressões de gênero de outros grupos que tiveram seus corpos assignados como femininos ao nascimento, mas que contestam essa assignação sem, contudo, se afirmarem 'homens' de forma constante. Afirma-se que a emergência dos 'homens trans' tem sido potencializada pelo estabelecimento do processo transexualizador no SUS. Discutem-se o uso do termo "homem trans" e algumas características comuns a tais sujeitos. Problematizam-se a complexidade de seus processos de autorreconhecimento e construção de masculinidades, sua rápida capacidade de indiferenciação a partir de modificações corporais e, alguns dos efeitos políticos e subjetivos, da visibilidade e da indiferenciação.The article discusses in an exploratory form the emergence of a new identity category in Brazil, namely "transmen". This identity is constructed as a differentiation from the lesbian identity and also from gender expressions of other groups that had their bodies assigned as female upon birth, but that later refuted this assignment without, however, affirming themselves as "men" on a permanent way. The article claims that the emergence of "transmen" has been made possible by the establishment of the transexualization process in the Public Health Care System. Furthermore, the article discusses the use of the term "transman" and some common characteristics related to those persons. The author critiques their complex processes of self-knowledge and construction of masculinities, as well as their quick capacity for non-differentiation from the stand-point of bodily modifications. Finally, the author discusses the political and subjective consequences of their visibility and non-differentiation.

  8. Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, R K; Macgibbon, A K; Black, P N; Kanwar, J R; Rowan, A; Vale, M; Krissansen, G W

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that a reduction in the Western diet of anti-inflammatory unsaturated lipids, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has contributed to the increase in the frequency and severity of allergic diseases. We investigated whether feeding milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acids (VAs) ('enriched' milk fat), produced by supplementing the diet of pasture-fed cows with fish and sunflower oil, will prevent development of allergic airway responses. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing soybean oil and diets supplemented with milk lipids. They were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 14 and 28, and challenged intranasally with OVA on day 42. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and serum samples were collected 6 days after the intranasal challenge. Feeding of enriched milk fat led to marked suppression of airway inflammation as evidenced by reductions in eosinophilia and lymphocytosis in the airways, compared with feeding of normal milk fat and control diet. Enriched milk fat significantly reduced circulating allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, together with reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IL-5 and CCL11. Treatment significantly inhibited changes in the airway including airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. The two major components of enriched milk fat, cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and VA, inhibited airway inflammation when fed together to mice, whereas alone they were not effective. Milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and VAs suppresses inflammation and changes to the airways in an animal model of allergic airway disease.

  9. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Duncan M.; Lyon, Robert; Watson, David G.; Barski, Oleg A.; McGarvie, Gail; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V max of 2141 ± 500 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 11 ± 4 μM. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K I of 3.1 ± 0.57 μM. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V max of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 15 ± 2 μM and was not inhibited by pyrazole

  10. Spectroscopy of odd Z trans-fermium nuclei: the nuclear structure of Md251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatillon, A.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the structure of trans-fermium nuclei (Z 100) with odd proton number, which remained largely unexplored. These nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions with small cross sections below 1 μb. The experimental methods of Recoil-Tagging and Recoil-Decay-Tagging were used for their identification. In order to identify the active orbitals in this mass region, 255 Lr, 251 M1d and 247 Es nuclei have been studied by decay spectroscopy at the University of Jyvaskyla and at GANIL with the LISE spectrometer and the α-electron detector BEST coupled to four CLover detectors from the EXOGAM array. New states have been observed in each of the isotopes, and their configuration has been proposed. The collective properties were also studied in two experiments using prompt γ and electron spectroscopy, combining the JUROGAM and SACRED arrays, respectively, with the recoil separator RITU and the GREAT spectrometer at its focal plane. A rotational band has been observed for the first time in a proton-odd trans-fermium nucleus. The interpretation of this collective structure is based on the theoretical HFB calculations. (author)

  11. Trans, Switzerland: new drinking-water hydropower station; Gemeinde Trans (GR) - Neubau Trinkwasserkraftwerk - Bauprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadient, N.; Scherrer, I.

    2008-10-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the construction project for the realisation of a hydropower installation that uses the water of the drinking-water mains in Trans, Grisons, Switzerland, to generate electricity. Figures are presented on the head of water available, the proposed electrical power to be installed as well as the annual production and the financing of the project. The latter has been assured by the Swiss scheme for the cost-covering remuneration of electrical energy generated using renewable resources. The construction project agreed on is described and discussed. The project is to be realised together with the refurbishment of the existing drinking-water supply system. The installations necessary and the proposed electromechanical equipment are described and discussed. Also, the supply of increased amounts of water for fire-fighting purposes are noted.

  12. Reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid: Italian Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, C; Sciarra, G; Bozzi, N; Pagliantini, M; Perico, A; Bavazzano, P; Leandri, A; Carrieri, M; Scapellato, M L; Bettinelli, M; Bartolucci, G B

    2008-08-01

    This article reports the results of a study, conducted in the framework of the scientific activities of the Italian Society for Reference Values, aimed at defining reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in the general population not occupationally exposed to benzene. t,t-MA concentrations detected in 376 subjects of the resident population in three areas of Italy, two in central (Florence and southern Tuscany) and one in northern Italy (Padua), by three laboratories, compared by repeated interlaboratory controls, showed an interval of 14.4-225.0 microg/L (5th-95th percentile) and a geometric mean of 52.5 microg/L. The concentrations measured were influenced by tobacco smoking in a statistically significant way: Geometric mean concentrations were 44.8 microg/L and 76.1 microg/Ll in nonsmokers (264 subjects) and smokers (112 subjects), respectively. In the nonsmoking population, a significant influence of gender was found when concentrations were corrected for urinary creatinine, geometric mean concentrations being 36.7 microg/g creatinine in males (128 subjects) and 44.7 microg/g creatinine in females (136 subjects). The place of residence of subjects did not seem to influence urinary excretion of the metabolite, although personal inhalation exposure to benzene over a 24-h period showed slightly higher concentrations in Padua and Florence (geometric means of 6.5 microg/m(3) and 6.6 microg/m(3), respectively) than in southern Tuscany (geometric mean of 3.9 microg/m(3)). Concentration of t,t-MA in urine samples collected at the end of personal air sampling showed little relationship to personal inhalation exposure to benzene, confirming the importance of other factors in determining excretion of t,t-MA when concentrations in personal air samples are very low.

  13. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because they und......LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  14. Disintegration of aerobic granules induced by trans-2-decenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-Jie; Xiao, Xiang; He, Yan-Rong; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One current major hurdle to practical implementation of aerobic granule technology is the frequent occurrence of granule disintegration during long-term operation. However, the mechanism behind this is largely unclear today. Here, 2-decenoic acid, which has been previously demonstrated to be released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and disperse biofilms, was found to also induce the disintegration of aerobic granules. A comparison of the solution compositions from samples of only trans-2-decenoic acid, only aerobic granules, and granules added with trans-2-decenoic acid shows that bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were stripped from granule surface upon trans-2-decenoic acid dosing. Due to the possible toxicity of trans-2-decenoic acid at a saturation concentration, the disintegrated granules and the milky suspension in the disintegration test showed a significantly lower oxygen uptake rate than the un-integrated granules. This work suggests that trans-2-decenoic acid released by microbes might play a critical role in regulating the disintegration of aerobic granules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  16. A simplified study of trans-mitral Doppler patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas George

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans-mitral Doppler produces complex patterns with a great deal of variability. There are several confusing numerical measures and indices to study these patterns. However trans-mitral Doppler produces readymade data visualization by pattern generation which could be interpreted by pattern analysis. By following a systematic approach we could create an order and use this tool to study cardiac function. Presentation of the hypothesis In this new approach we eliminate the variables and apply pattern recognition as the main criterion of study. Proper terminologies are also devised to avoid confusion. In this way we can get some meaningful information. Testing the hypothesis Trans-mitral Doppler should be seen as patterns rather than the amplitude. The hypothesis can be proven by logical deduction, extrapolation and elimination of variables. Trans-mitral flow is also analyzed vis-à-vis the Starling's Law applied to the left atrium. Implications of the hypothesis Trans-mitral Doppler patterns are not just useful for evaluating diastolic function. They are also useful to evaluate systolic function. By following this schema we could get useful diagnostic information and therapeutic options using simple pattern recognition with minimal measurements. This simplified but practical approach will be useful in day to day clinical practice and help in understanding cardiac function better. This will also standardize research and improve communication.

  17. Trans-nationalisation Processes in the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolharova Natalya K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main processes of trans-nationalisation of Ukrainian economy, identifies specific features of trans-national production and explains some theoretical aspects of these issues. It provides main stages of theoretical comprehension of activity of trans-national corporations (TNC, specific features of the theory of competitive advantages of TNC and specifies the basic ones of them. The article conducts analysis of flows of direct foreign investments into the Ukrainian economy. It shows distribution of direct foreign investments into Ukraine by main countries-investors, regions-recipients and types of economic activity. It conducts review and analysis of the modern state of trans-national corporations of foreign origin in the Ukrainian market. It considers functioning of domestic TNC in Ukraine and main tendencies of entering of Ukrainian companies into the world environment and also identifies directions of further development of these phenomena. Prospects of further studies in this direction are identification of the degree of trans-nationalisation processes in the Ukrainian economy and identification of the positive effect, in particular, synergy from integration and globalisation.

  18. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  19. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Souza, Rodrigo; Apgaua, Bruno Tavares; Milhomens, João Daniel; Albuquerque, Francisco Tadeu Motta; Carneiro, Luiz Antônio; Mendes, Márcio Henrique; Garcia, Tiago Carvalho; Paiva, Clerisson; Ladeia, Felipe; Jeunon, Deiler Célio

    2016-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH=7.21; PCO2=51mmHg; PO2=52mmHg; BE=-8; HCO3=18mEqL(-1), and lactate=6.0mmolL(-1). Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP=55mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF=60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale=3). A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction). The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2009-01-01

    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose ...... of this paper is to report scenarios, which quantify the impacts for India of regional cooperation to materialize trans-country pipelines. The analysis covers time period from 2005 to 2030.......India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose...

  1. In Search of a Trans-national Climate Change Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassus Saint-Genies, Geraud de

    2016-01-01

    Private entities engagement in the battle against climate change is a well-established fact, and a source of intense and diversified normative activity. A certain type of climate rules has thus arisen, with a private origin and an international scope, as they transcend the borders of existing territories. In this context, one could wonder about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law, as a relatively autonomous body of law, which would exist at the margins of international and national climate change law. Building on the discussions that have been conducted about the trans-national law in other areas of regulations, this study intends to provide answers about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law

  2. Mechanically induced cis to trans reisomerization of azobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turansky, Robert; Konopka, Martin; Stich, Ivan; Marx, Dominik

    2007-03-01

    Using density functional techniques we study mechanochemistry of the azobenzene molecule. Azobenzene is an optically switchable molecule. Laser light is normally used to achieve molecular switching between the cis and trans isomers. We use mechanochemistry to achieve the switching. Thiolate-gold bond can used to exert mechanical energy on the molecule bonded between two gold electrodes in static AFM apparatus. Our model consists of two realistic gold electrodes bridged by dithioazobenzene. We find that pulling the transisomer leads just to formation of gold nanowires and mechanical breakage of the electrodes. However, mechanochemistry with modest applied forces leads to cis trans reisomerization via rotation mechanism. Contrary, use of simple constraints instead of realistic gold electrodes, leads to cis trans reisomerization, albeit with significantly larger applied forces and via inversion mechanism. Important experimental and theoretical ramifications of these simulations will be discussed.

  3. Asymmetrically doped one-dimensional trans-polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Heron

    2009-01-01

    More than 30 years ago [H. Shirakawa, E.J. Louis, A.G. MacDiarmid, C.K. Chiang, A.J. Heeger, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 578 (1977); S. Etemad, A.J. Heeger, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 33 (1982) 443] it was discovered that doped trans-polyacetylene (CH) x , a one-dimensional (1D) conjugated polymer, exhibits electrical conductivity. In this work we show that an asymmetrically doped 1D trans-polymer has non-conventional properties, as compared to symmetrically doped systems. Depending on the level of asymmetry between the chemical potentials of the two involved fermionic species, the polymer can be in a partially or fully spin polarized state. Some possible experimental consequences of doped 1D trans-polymers used as 1D organic polarized conductors are discussed.

  4. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  5. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  6. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  7. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Quin Kelly E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  9. Peel Region TransHelp's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    TransHelp was founded in the Peel Region of Ontario in 1981 to provide paratransit service to individuals unable to use conventional transit. The TransHelp vehicle fleet consists of 40 buses that make over 220,000 one way trips annually. Each vehicle has a typical life span of between 375,000 and 425,000 km. TransHelp vehicles spend much of their time idling in emissions-sensitive areas, such as outside hospitals. In order to reduce fuel costs, TransHelp adopted the use of propane to fuel its vehicles. However, difficulties were experienced with this technology, particularly on V-10 engines where increased maintenance was a problem. SFI Technologies Inc. provided a solution with their SEQUIN System which allows seamless transitioning between gasoline and propane under all conditions without any operator involvement in fuel selection. The technology favours propane as the fuel of choice and automatically switches between propane and gasoline based on the ideal conditions at the time of operation. The technology has received certification from the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States and the Canadian Standards Association. The use of the SEQUIN System has proven to successful for TransHelp. It has allowed the use of propane to be continued, meaning that vehicle emissions are greatly reduced relative to gasoline or diesel fuelled vehicles. TransHelp has realized a fuel savings of 15-20 per cent over gasoline and receives an additional federal transit rebate of 15 per cent for the conversion cost.

  10. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  11. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  12. The development of a novel cooking method (alternate roasting with its own fat) for chicken to improve nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Park, H G; Kim, J H; Jung, H; Kim, J K; Oh, S S; Shin, D H; Lim, E J; Kim, Y J

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a novel cooking method for fried meat products, to improve their nutritional value, and to provide superior taste and texture. We used the fat derived from each individual meat source during radiant heat roasting (alternate roasting with its own fat: AROF) without deep-fat frying (DFF), first without any air flow and subsequently with an exposure to air flow. We then compared these roasted chicken samples to breaded fried chicken samples that were deep-fat fried in 3 types of fat: soybean oil (SB), partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PSB), and lard. The final fat contents of both the skin and lean parts of the AROF samples of chicken were less than half of those of the DFF groups. The total trans-fatty acids (TFA) contents were significantly lower in the AROF samples compared to the DFF samples. The cholesterol levels of the samples did not show any significant differences among the tested groups, except for the sample fried in lard, which was significantly higher. Moreover, the sensory evaluation results showed that the crispy texture of the AROF samples was not significantly different from that of the DFF samples (P chicken and other meat products and improve their nutritional value.

  13. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU) –1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α –1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies

  14. Science and trans-science in standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majone, G.

    1984-01-01

    Standard-setting is a blending of scientific, trans-scientific, and political elements which result in a number of consequences. Health standards, for example, are influenced by biological and philosophical assumptions and scientific traditions, with the dose-response function treated as a trans-scientific question because of scientific uncertainties. Costs and benefits and other values besides health, safety, or environment also enter into the balancing of regulatory decisions and keep regulations from a purely scientific knowledge is desirable. Recommendations that industry be self-regulatory reflect a shift in emphasis from legal enforcement to information-based compliance

  15. Trans women and Michfest: An ethnophenomenology of attendees' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Kozlowski, Christine; Shattell, Mona; Todd, Nathan R

    2016-01-01

    The rise of queer and transgender studies has greatly contributed to feminist and lesbian understandings of sex, gender, and sexuality and also has resulted in rifts, tensions, and border wars. One such tension is around the inclusion of trans women in women-only space, such as the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival (Michfest). In this ethnophenomenological study, we interviewed and surveyed 43 cisgender women who attended Michfest in 2013. Participants had a variety of perspectives on trans inclusion and on the dialogue surrounding it, and these paralleled intersections, frictions, and tensions between feminism, queer theory, and transgender studies.

  16. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathon, Bertrand; Clemenceau, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator. Describe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semiology, neuroimaging, electroencephalography) point to the mesial temporal structures. The trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach is a minimally invasive and safe technique that allows disconnection of the temporal stem and resection of temporomesial structures.

  17. A "Trans-Dyadic" Perspective on the Goldwater Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-11-01

    The Goldwater Rule has been debated, redefined, and debated further since the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States. This column offers a perspective on the Goldwater Rule that moves beyond psychiatry's current preoccupation with precision DSM-5 diagnosis of individuals, which ethically requires consent or other legal authorization for release of diagnostic information to others, and into the realm of leadership as seen through the "trans-dyadic" lens of psychoanalytic understanding of large group processes on a societal level. Concepts from large group psychology are introduced to illustrate "trans-dyadic" perspectives on leadership that do not challenge the Goldwater Rule.

  18. Trans-dinitroglycoluril isomers-A DFT treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemi Türker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Isomers of trans-1,4-Dinitroglycoluril (trans-DINGU and their 1,3-tautomers are considered within the constraints of B3LYP/6-31++G (d,p and B3LYP/CC-PVTZ levels of DFT calculations. Additionally, the interactions of these isomers and proton in vacuum are investigated. The data have revealed that two of the three isomers undergo CH bond cleavage as the result of interaction with proton in vacuum. The total energies, some structural properties, the calculated IR and UV spectra are discussed.

  19. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  20. Trans-Fatty Acids Aggravate Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in C57BL/6 Mice, Possibly by Suppressing the IRS1 Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acid consumption has been reported as a risk factor for metabolic disorders and targeted organ damages. Nonetheless, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of trans-fatty acids in obesity, insulin resistance (IR and hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were fed with four different diets for 20 weeks: normal diet (ND, high fat diet (HFD, low trans-fatty acids diet (LTD and high trans-fatty acid diet (HTD. The diet-induced metabolic disorders were assessed by evaluating body weight, glucose tolerance test, hepatic steatosis and plasma lipid profiles post 20-week diet. Histological (H&E, Oil-Red-O staining and western blot analysis were employed to assess liver steatosis and potential signaling pathways. After 20-weeks of diet, the body weights of the four groups were 29.61 ± 1.89 g (ND, 39.04 ± 4.27 g (HFD, 34.09 ± 2.62 g (LTD and 43.78 ± 4.27 g (HTD (p < 0.05, respectively. HFD intake significantly impaired glucose tolerance, which was impaired further in the mice consuming the HTD diet. The effect was further exacerbated by HTD diet. Moreover, the HTD group exhibited significantly more severe liver steatosis compared with HFD group possibly through regulating adipose triglyceride lipase. The group consuming the HTD also exhibited significantly reduced levels of IRS1, phosphor-PKC and phosphor-AKT. These results support our hypothesis that consumption of a diet high in trans-fatty acids induces higher rates of obesity, IR and hepatic steatosis in male C57BL/6 mice, possibly by suppressing the IRS1dependent pathway.

  1. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guan-Nan; Li Zuo-Wei; Sun Cheng-Lin; Ou Yang Shun-Li; Wang Wei-Wei; Men Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  3. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  4. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  5. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  6. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation...

  7. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Wijk, R.A. de; Huntjens, L.A.H.; Engelen, L.; Polet, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat

  8. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  9. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective

  10. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  11. Saturated and trans fatty acids content in unpackaged traditional bakery products in Santa Fe city, Argentina: nutrition labeling relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Emilse; González, Marcela Aída; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; Williner, María Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported the relationship between the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and trans fatty acids (t-FA) and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since 2006, the MERCOSUR countries require that the mandatory nutrition labeling should include information not only about the content of SFA but also about the content of t-FA. This does not apply to fractionated products at the point of retail, such as bakery products. This paper aimed to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid profile in unpackaged traditional bakery products (breads, biscuits and pastries) in Santa Fe, Argentina. Except for French bread, the contribution of t-FA and SFA to the total FA consumption from baked products was high. On the other hand, due to the high variability detected in the FA composition of bakery products between bakeries, it would be necessary to implement regulations making nutrition labeling mandatory in these products.

  12. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    or quality of foods previously containing high amounts of IP-TFA. Various public health organizations, including the World Health Organization, have recommended reducing the consumption of IP-TFA, and efforts have been made in several countries to comply, through the mandatory TFA labelling of prepackaged......Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price...... food, societal pressure and industrial initiatives to lower the content of IP-TFA in foods. Yet still, high concentrations of IP-TFA are found in popular foods in several countries including Norway and Sweden. This indicates that millions of people currently have intakes of IP-TFA that increase...

  13. Exploración estocástica de las superficies de energía potencial de dímeros cis-trans y trans-trans del ácido fórmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said F. Figueredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential energy surface (PES of cis-trans and trans-trans formic acid dimers were sampled using a stochastic method, and the geometries, energies, and vibrational frequencies were computed at B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p level of theory. The results show that molar free energy of dimerization deviated up to 108.4% when basis set superposition error (BSSE and zero-point energy (ZPE were not considered. For cis-trans dimers, C=O and O - H bond weakened, whereas C - O bonds strengthened due to dimerization. Also, trans-trans FA dimers did not show a trend regarding strengthening or weakening of the C=O, O - H and C - O bonds.

  14. Absorption and distribution of deuterium-labeled trans- and cis-11-octadecenoic acid in human plasma and lipoprotein lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; DeJarlais, W.J.; Gulley, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Triglycerides of deuterium-labeled trans-11-, trans-11-cis-11- and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (11t-18:1-2H, 11c-18:1-2H) were simultaneously fed to two young adult male subjects. Plasma lipids from blood samples collected periodically for 48 hr were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicate the delta 11-18:1-2H acids and 9c-18:1-2H were equally well absorbed; relative turnover rates were higher for the delta 11-18-1-2H acids in plasma triglycerides; incorporation of the delta 11-18:1-2H acids into plasma phosphatidylcholine was similar to 9c-18:1-2H, but distribution at the 1- and 2-acyl positions was substantially different; esterification of cholesterol with 11t-18:1 was extremely low; chain shortening of the delta 11-18:1-2H acids was 2-3 times greater than for 9c-18:1-2H; no evidence for desaturation or elongation of the 18:1-2H acids was detected; and a 40% isotopic dilution of the 18:1-2H acids in the chylomicron triglyceride fraction indicated the presence of a substantial intestinal triglyceride pool. Based on our present knowledge, these metabolic results for delta 11-18:1 acids present in hydrogenated oils and animal fats indicate that the delta 11 isomers are no more likely than 9c-18:1 to contribute to dietary fat-related health problems

  15. Current issues surrounding the definition of trans-fatty acids: implications for health, industry and food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-10-01

    The definition of trans-fatty acids (TFA) was established by the Codex Alimentarius to guide nutritional and legislative regulations to reduce TFA consumption. Currently, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is excluded from the TFA definition based on evidence (primarily preclinical studies) implying health benefits on weight management and cancer prevention. While the efficacy of CLA supplements remains inconsistent in randomised clinical trials, evidence has emerged to associate supplemental CLA with negative health outcomes, including increased subclinical inflammation and oxidative stress (particularly at high doses). This has resulted in concerns regarding the correctness of excluding CLA from the TFA definition. Here we review recent clinical and preclinical literature on health implications of CLA and ruminant TFA, and highlight several issues surrounding the current Codex definition of TFA and how it may influence interpretation for public health. We find that CLA derived from ruminant foods differ from commercial CLA supplements in their isomer composition/distribution, consumption level and bioactivity. We conclude that health concerns associated with the use of supplemental CLA do not repudiate the exclusion of all forms of CLA from the Codex TFA definition, particularly when using the definition for food-related purposes. Given the emerging differential bioactivity of TFA from industrial v. ruminant sources, we advocate that regional nutrition guidelines/policies should focus on eliminating industrial forms of trans-fat from processed foods as opposed to all TFA per se.

  16. Trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction in three cleft patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Martini, M.; Nadjmi, N.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Jagtman, A.K.; Bergé, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The trans-sinusoidal maxillary distractor (TS-MD) was used to achieve maxillary advancement in three patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. After preoperative computer-aided planning of the distraction vectors, each TS-MD was bent on a stereolithographic model of the maxilla of the patient.

  17. The trans influence in mer-trichloronitridobis(triphenylarsine)ruthenium(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The title compound, mer-[RuCl(3)N(C(18)H(15)As)(2)], is the first structurally characterized example of a nitride complex in which ruthenium is six-coordinated to monodentate ligands only. The Ru[triple-bond]N bond length [1.6161 (15) A] is relatively long, and the trans influence of the nitride...

  18. Transient nerve damage following intubation for trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, KA; Eindhoven, GB; Wierda, JMKH

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of transient lingual and hypoglossal nerve damage following intubation for a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Clinical features: A 56-yr-old acromegalic man was scheduled for trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy. He had been treated with octreotide six months previously which

  19. transPLANT Resources for Triticeae Genomic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Spannagl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequences of many important Triticeae species, including bread wheat ( L. and barley ( L., remained uncharacterized for a long time because their high repeat content, large sizes, and polyploidy. As a result of improvements in sequencing technologies and novel analyses strategies, several of these have recently been deciphered. These efforts have generated new insights into Triticeae biology and genome organization and have important implications for downstream usage by breeders, experimental biologists, and comparative genomicists. transPLANT ( is an EU-funded project aimed at constructing hardware, software, and data infrastructure for genome-scale research in the life sciences. Since the Triticeae data are intrinsically complex, heterogenous, and distributed, the transPLANT consortium has undertaken efforts to develop common data formats and tools that enable the exchange and integration of data from distributed resources. Here we present an overview of the individual Triticeae genome resources hosted by transPLANT partners, introduce the objectives of transPLANT, and outline common developments and interfaces supporting integrated data access.

  20. Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal drainage of petrous apex cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex are rare lesions that pose challenging surgical decisions and approaches when attempting surgical drainage. In this article we present 2 cases of successful surgical management using an endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach and review the requirements and considerations ...

  1. Trans-umbilical Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trans-umbilical Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis without Raising Skin-flaps: An Easy-to-use Modification Applied to the Series of 164 Patients from a Rural Institute of Central India. Priyadarshan Anand Jategaonkar, Sudeep Pradeep Yadav1. INTRODUCTION. Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is widely ...

  2. Hybrid e-learning tool TransLearning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Marjoleine G.; Kupper, Frank; Beers, P.J.; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning and storytelling approaches can support informal vicarious learning within geographically widely distributed multi-stakeholder collaboration networks. This case study evaluates hybrid e-learning and video-storytelling approach ‘TransLearning’ by investigation into how its storytelling

  3. Participatory Disease Surveillance in the Detection of Trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the detection of trans-boundary animal diseases using participatory disease surveillance in Borno State. Participatory epidemiology is an emerging field that is based on the use of participatory techniques for harvesting qualitative epidemiological intelligence contained within community observations, ...

  4. The Evolution of Trans-Skeletal Method Osteosynthesis | Omeonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to give a brief overview of the history of trans-skeletal method ostheosynthesis as it relates to the evolution of the Ilizarov external fixation device. BODY: The pin frame external fixators originated from the idea of bone reduction with pins fixed to fragments before applying the plaster ...

  5. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the

  6. Improvement of arbutin trans-epidermal delivery using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the ability of radiofrequency (RF) microporation to promote trans-epidermal delivery of arbutin. Methods: To investigate the enhancing effect of RF microchannels on skin permeation of arbutin, in vitro skin permeability studies were performed with RF microporation-treated Hartley albino guinea pig skin ...

  7. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  8. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  9. Desire to eat high- and low-fat foods following a low-fat dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Frederick G; Vander Weg, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    This study examined changes in desires to eat high-fat and low-fat foods across an obesity treatment program. The hypotheses under examination were (1) preferences for low-fat foods would increase across time and (2) preferences for high-fat foods would decrease across time. Single-group, prospective examination of desires to eat 48 foods, categorized according to fat content, before and after the 16-week treatment program. University clinic, Memphis, Tennessee. 118 obese (mean weight = 194.4 lbs) women (mean age = 45.24 years) participating in an obesity treatment program. A 16-week cognitive-behavioral program for obesity. Desires to eat 48 foods varying in fat content and whether or not participants actually ate these foods. Analysis of variance, multiple regression, and paired t tests. The results indicate that during the program, preferences for low-fat foods increased, whereas preferences for high-fat foods decreased. These changes mirrored the changes in consumption of both low-fat and high-fat foods. Within a behavioral economic perspective, the reinforcement value of low-fat foods may increase following a low-fat dietary intervention, whereas the reinforcing properties of high-fat foods may decline. This is desirable as low-fat foods hold many advantages over high-fat foods in terms of weight maintenance.

  10. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...

  12. Phasor power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of power electronics, focusing on the switched transformer concept and phasor transformation techniques as employed in the analysis and design of power electronic circuits. Phasor transformations, as introduced in this book, make the time-varying nature of a switching converter simple and easy to handle, transforming it into an equivalent time-invariant circuit. The book starts with an introduction to the philosophy and fundamental principles of power electronics. The switched transformer concept, which is applicable to any switching converter, is introduced, and it is shown how DC-DC converters analyses are then so straightforward that very little equational manipulation is needed. Then the phasor transformation techniques are comprehensively explained over three parts. Single phase and multi-phase AC systems are dealt with through the single phase phasor transformation and circuit DQ transformation, respectively. A general unified phasor tran...

  13. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation...

  14. "It's a Hard Line to Walk": Black Non-Binary Trans* Collegians' Perspectives on Passing, Realness, and Trans*-Normativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolazzo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Being labeled as "abnormal, or deviant, or not being one of the rest of us" has real effects for one's life chances. Trans* people are one such group who have continually been codified as abnormal, abject, weird, deceptive, and social pariahs. The purpose of the following study was to explore how the concepts of passing, realness, and…

  15. 77 FR 22576 - Possible Revocation of Ocean Transportation Intermediary License No. 021899-Trans World Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Intermediary License No. 021899--Trans World Logistics Corporation; Order To Show Cause Trans World Logistics Corporation (Trans World Logistics) is an Indiana corporation, incorporated in October 2006. Records... Logistics maintains its principal offices at 702 Penny Lane, Plainfield, Indiana. BCL records identify the...

  16. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  17. Reprogramming Acyl Carrier Protein Interactions of an Acyl-CoA Promiscuous trans-Acyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Zhixia; Musiol-Kroll, Ewa Maria; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Protein interactions between acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and trans-acting acyltransferase domains (trans-ATs) are critical for regioselective extender unit installation by many polyketide synthases, yet little is known regarding the specificity of these interactions, particularly for trans-ATs w...

  18. Sexualidade e experiências trans: do hospital à alcova Sexuality and trans experiences: from the hospital to the bedroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Bento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Depois dos estudos das masculinidades, não é possível pensar a produção das identidades de gênero sem referenciá-las ao caráter relacional. Esta mudança deveu-se à incorporação da perspectiva relacional nesse campo de estudos e à crítica ao conceito de gênero assentado em uma suposta natureza feminina e masculina para construir as interpretações sobre o lugar dos corpos da ordem de gênero. Os objetivos desse artigo são: 1 apontar como um determinado conceito de gênero pode visibilizar múltiplas expressões de gênero, a exemplo das identidades trans (transexuais, travestis, cross dress, drag queen, drag king, transgêneros ou invisibilizá-las e contribuir para sua patologização. O segundo objetivo será apresentar narrativas de homens trans e de mulheres trans, que nos contarão suas vivências sexuais. Os saberes médicos-psi advogam a inexistência de sexualidade em seus corpos, sendo este um dos indicadores para produção do diagnóstico de transexua­lidade. Tentarei argumentar que a base teórica que sustenta a patologização das identidades trans e a afirmação que as pessoas trans são assexuadas tem como fundamento uma concepção que atrela e condiciona as identidades de gênero às estruturas biológicas.In the aftermath of studies on masculinity, it is impossible to consider the production of gender identities without linking them to the relationship aspect. This change was due to the incorporation of the relationship perspective in this field of study and criticism of the concept of gender founded upon an alleged concept of femininity and masculinity to create interpretations of the place of bodies in the gender order. The objectives of this paper are: 1 to show how a given concept of gender can render multiple expressions of gender visible, like the trans identities (transsexuals, transvestites, cross dressers, drag queens, drag kings, transgenders or sublimate them and contribute to their pathologization

  19. Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation: evidence from a randomized trial in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal B.

    2011-01-01

    -blind parallel intervention study with the objective to examine the effect of IP-TFA intake on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Fifty-two healthy overweight postmenopausal women (49 completers) were randomly assigned to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil...... (15.7 g/day IP-TFA) or control oil without IP-TFA. After 16 weeks, IP-TFA intake increased baseline-adjusted serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α by 12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5–20; P = 0.002] more in the IP-TFA group compared with controls. Plasma soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 were also...

  20. Comparison of two derivatization methods for the analysis of fatty acids and trans fatty acids in bakery products using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Jumat; Omar, Talal A; Salih, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl) and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMS-DM) method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs) from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r) between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99) and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P = 0.05) can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs), specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R) and higher variation (from 84% to 112%), especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%), and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp.) than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples.

  1. Comparison of Two Derivatization Methods for the Analysis of Fatty Acids and Trans Fatty Acids in Bakery Products Using Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Jumat; Omar, Talal A.; Salih, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl) and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane (TMS–DM) method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs) from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r) between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99) and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P = 0.05) can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs), specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R) and higher variation (from 84% to 112%), especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%), and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp.) than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples. PMID:24719581

  2. Comparison of Two Derivatization Methods for the Analysis of Fatty Acids and Trans Fatty Acids in Bakery Products Using Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumat Salimon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different procedures for the methylation of fatty acids (FAs and trans fatty acids (TFAs in food fats were compared using gas chromatography (GC-FID. The base-catalyzed followed by an acid-catalyzed method (KOCH3/HCl and the base-catalyzed followed by (trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMS–DM method were used to prepare FA methyl esters (FAMEs from lipids extracted from food products. In general, both methods were suitable for the determination of cis/trans FAs. The correlation coefficients (r between the methods were relatively small (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and had a high level of agreement for the most abundant FAs. The significant differences (P=0.05 can be observed for unsaturated FAs (UFAs, specifically for TFAs. The results from the KOCH3/HCl method showed the lowest recovery values (%R and higher variation (from 84% to 112%, especially for UFAs. The TMS-DM method had higher R values, less variation (from 90% to 106%, and more balance between variation and %RSD values in intraday and interday measurements (less than 4% and 6%, resp. than the KOCH3/HCl method, except for C12:0, C14:0, and C18:0. Nevertheless, the KOCH3/HCl method required shorter time and was less expensive than the TMS-DM method which is more convenient for an accurate and thorough analysis of rich cis/trans UFA samples.

  3. Concentration Effect on Quenching of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence by All-Trans-β-Carotene in Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Absorption, fluorescence spectra of chlorophyll a (Chl-a and all-trans-β-carotene (β-Car mixing solution are investigated in different polarity and polarizability solvents. The carotenoids regulate the energy flow in photosynthesis by interaction with chlorophyll, leading to an observable reduction of Chl-a fluorescence. The fluorescence red shifts with the increasing solvent polarizability. The energy transfer in the Chl-a and β-Car system is proposed. The electron transfer should be dominant in quenching Chl-a fluorescence rather than the energy transfer in this system. Polar solvent with large polarizability shows high quenching efficiency. When dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, Chl-a presents red shift of absorption and blue shift of fluorescence spectra with increasing β-Car concentration, which implies a Chl-a conformational change.

  4. Unhealthy Fat in Street and Snack Foods in Low-Socioeconomic Settings in India: A Case Study of the Food Environments of Rural Villages and an Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vidhu; Downs, Shauna M; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Lock, Karen; Singh, Archna

    2016-04-01

    To describe the food environment in rural villages and an urban slum setting in India with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in these foods. Cross-sectional. Two low-income villages in Haryana and an urban slum in Delhi. Street vendors (n = 44) were surveyed and the nutritional content of snacks (n = 49) sold by vendors was analyzed. Vendors' awareness and perception of fats and oils, as well as the type of snacks sold, along with the content and quality of fat present in the snacks. Descriptive statistics of vendor survey and gas chromatography to measure fatty acid content in snacks. A variety of snacks were sold, including those in unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8 g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings. Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids). Interventions need to target the manufacturers of oils and fats used in freshly prepared products to improve the quality of foods available in the food environment of low-socioeconomic groups in India. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of the type of fat and air humidity on chosen properties of the lipid fraction in the process of baking shortbread pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz, K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The results from his study reveal that the type of fat used during the baking of shortbreads had a noticeable influence on the properties of lipid fractions as well as the correlation among these properties (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. For low-trans fats, the correlation between acid value and peroxide value was inversely proportional; for transcontaining fats this correlation was directly proportional. An increase in air humidity during baking caused a decrease in the melting temperature of the fractions of fats used in the process, compared to fats from pastries baked in dry air. This may be indicative of a product with a high degree of unsaturation in the lipid fraction.

    Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el tipo de grasa utilizada en el horneado de mantecadas tienen una influencia evidente en las propiedades de la fracción lipídica y una correlación entre estas propiedades (acidez, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados. Para grasas bajas en trans la correlación entre la acidez y el índice de peróxido es inversamente proporcional, para grasas conteniendo trans esta correlación fue directamente proporcional. Un aumento de la humedad del aire durante el horneado causa una disminución de la temperatura de fusión de las fracciones de grasas utilizadas en el proceso, en comparación con las grasas de repostería horneadas en aire seco. Esto puede indicar la presencia de productos con alto grado de insaturación en las fracciones lipídicas.

  6. Decreased expression of CD36 in circumvallate taste buds of high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Li-Hong; Ban, Xiang; Liu, Dian-Xin; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2011-10-01

    Mammals spontaneously prefer lipid rich foods. Overconsumption of high-fat diet leads to obesity and related diseases. Recent findings indicate that taste may participate in the orosensory perception of dietary lipids and the fatty taste may contribute to a preference for and excessive consumption of dietary fat. CD36, a trans-membrane glycoprotein, which is located in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae of rodents, appears to be a plausible receptor for this fatty taste. Obese subjects present a stronger preference for fatty foods, though the mechanisms involved are complex and are not fully investigated. Our data from immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR showed that the expression levels of CD36 in circumvallate taste buds were significantly lower in high-fat diet induced obese rats as compared with that of control rats fed a normal diet. These results suggest that decreased expression of CD36 in circumvallate taste buds of high-fat diet induced obese rats may be associated with diminished fatty taste sensitivity and in order to compensate the preference for dietary fat, rats consume more fatty foods. Therapeutic strategies designed to alter or manipulate CD36 expression or function in taste buds may have important implications in treating obesity and related diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Accurate millimetre and submillimetre rest frequencies for cis- and trans-dithioformic acid, HCSSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudenzano, D.; Laas, J.; Bizzocchi, L.; Lattanzi, V.; Endres, C.; Giuliano, B. M.; Spezzano, S.; Palumbo, M. E.; Caselli, P.

    2018-04-01

    Context. A better understanding of sulphur chemistry is needed to solve the interstellar sulphur depletion problem. A way to achieve this goal is to study new S-bearing molecules in the laboratory, obtaining accurate rest frequencies for an astronomical search. We focus on dithioformic acid, HCSSH, which is the sulphur analogue of formic acid. Aims: The aim of this study is to provide an accurate line list of the two HCSSH trans and cis isomers in their electronic ground state and a comprehensive centrifugal distortion analysis with an extension of measurements in the millimetre and submillimetre range. Methods: We studied the two isomers in the laboratory using an absorption spectrometer employing the frequency-modulation technique. The molecules were produced directly within a free-space cell by glow discharge of a gas mixture. We measured lines belonging to the electronic ground state up to 478 GHz, with a total number of 204 and 139 new rotational transitions, respectively, for trans and cis isomers. The final dataset also includes lines in the centimetre range available from literature. Results: The extension of the measurements in the mm and submm range lead to an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters. This allows us to predict frequencies with estimated uncertainties as low as 5 kHz at 1 mm wavelength. Hence, the new dataset provided by this study can be used for astronomical search. Frequency lists are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/A56

  8. She's always a woman: Butch lesbian trans women in the lesbian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    While the visibility and acceptance of trans women have grown globally in recent years, this progress has primarily been within a traditional, heteronormative narrative. But a growing number of trans women identify as butch lesbians and challenge this heteronormative narrative. The existence of butch trans women has created a debate on where they fit within queer and lesbian communities and how their gender performance fits within traditional butch/femme understandings of lesbian or queer relationships. This article seeks to explore the intersections of gender identity and sexual orientation that butch trans women experience when they engage with lesbian and trans communities.

  9. The Portuguese Cinema, Trans-temporality and the Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Castelo Branco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Lourenço has focused some of his research on the historical-mythical relationship of the Portuguese with their country, claiming that they have been living in a kind of hyper-identity, incorporating an obsession with the past, which co-exists with a waiting utopian by future, as is demonstrates the Sebastianism myth. Focused on the representations of trans-temporality, identity, collective memory and myth, The Portuguese Cinema, Trans-temporality and the Myth, concentrated especially in Eduardo Lourenço's work to propose a research on how the identity myths – created and disseminated by Portuguese literature over the centuries – earned imagistic representations in the twentieth and twenty-first century’s, through a cinema that built or deconstructed these historical and patriotic mythological, inscribing image capacities to continually rebuild one mythologized common heritage.

  10. LA POLITIZACIÓN DEL CUERPO: SUBJETIVIDADES TRANS EN RESISTENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Roberto Escobar C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga por la experiencia del cuerpo trans (transgénero o transexual, cuya “artificialidad” interpela los órdenes del sujeto en la modernidad. El estudio se ubica en el contexto de dos ciudades latinoamericanas: México D. F. y Bogotá. Se plantea un vínculo entre la corporalidad trans, la biografía y los nombramientos de unas subjetividades que devienen tensión al orden somático moderno, tanto en sus versiones de docilidad y disciplinamiento, como también de hiperestesia y consumo. Así, la intervención singular sobre un cuerpo se torna en politización macro en el ámbito de lo público.

  11. Experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the intimate relationship experiences of the cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine-identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners' self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified.

  12. Lightlike Hypersurfaces in Indefinite Trans-Sasakian Manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massamba, Fortune

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with lightlike hypersurfaces of indefinite trans-Sasakian manifolds of type (α, β), tangent to the structure vector field. Characterization Theorems on parallel vector fields, integrable distributions, minimal distributions, Ricci-semi symmetric, geodesibility of lightlike hypersurfaces are obtained. The geometric configuration of lightlike hypersurfaces is established. We prove, under some conditions, that there are no parallel and totally contact umbilical lightlike hypersurfaces of trans-Sasakian space forms, tangent to the structure vector field. We show that there exists a totally umbilical distribution in an Einstein parallel lightlike hypersurface which does not contain the structure vector field. We characterize the normal bundle along any totally contact umbilical leaf of an integrable screen distribution. We finally prove that the geometry of any leaf of an integrable distribution is closely related to the geometry of a normal bundle and its image under φ-bar. (author)

  13. Interdisciplinary research and trans-disciplinary validity claims

    CERN Document Server

    Gethmann, C F; Hanekamp, G; Kaiser, M; Kamp, G; Lingner, S; Quante, M; Thiele, F

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity has seemingly become a paradigm for modern and meaningful research. Clearly, the interdisciplinary modus of deliberation enables to unfold relevant but quite different disciplinary perspectives to the reflection of broader scientific questions or societal problems. However, whether the comprehensive results of interdisciplinary reflection prove to be valid or to be acceptable in trans-disciplinary terms depends upon certain preconditions, which have to be fulfilled for securing scientific quality and social trust in advisory contexts. The present book is written by experts and practitioners of interdisciplinary research and policy advice. It analyses topical and methodological approaches towards interdisciplinarity, starting with the current role of scientific research in society. The volume continues with contributions to the issues of knowledge and acting and to trans-disciplinary deliberation. The final conclusions address the scientific system as substantial actor itself as well as the...

  14. Extended SVM algorithms for multilevel trans-Z-source inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Baghbany Oskouei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests extended algorithms for multilevel trans-Z-source inverter. These algorithms are based on space vector modulation (SVM, which works with high switching frequency and does not generate the mean value of the desired load voltage in every switching interval. In this topology the output voltage is not limited to dc voltage source similar to traditional cascaded multilevel inverter and can be increased with trans-Z-network shoot-through state control. Besides, it is more reliable against short circuit, and due to several number of dc sources in each phase of this topology, it is possible to use it in hybrid renewable energy. Proposed SVM algorithms include the following: Combined modulation algorithm (SVPWM and shoot-through implementation in dwell times of voltage vectors algorithm. These algorithms are compared from viewpoint of simplicity, accuracy, number of switching, and THD. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the expected representations.

  15. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Jung, Se Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  16. Brief Communication: Sexual dimorphic expression of myostatin and follistatin like-3 in a rat trans-generational under-nutrition model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Murray D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The detrimental effects of maternal under-nutrition during gestation on fetal development are well known with an increased propensity of metabolic disorders identified in the adult offspring. Understanding exactly how and by which molecular pathways inadequate nutrition can impact upon offspring phenotype is critical and necessary for the development of treatment methods and ultimately prevention of any negative health effects. Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle development, has recently been shown to effect glucose homeostasis and fat deposition. The involvement of myostatin in glucose metabolism and adipogenesis thus supports its ability to act in the continued alterations to the postnatal phenotype of the offspring. This hypothesis was examined in the current study using a trans-generational gestationally under-nourished rat model exposed to a high-fat (HF diet post-weaning. The body weight, body fat, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of the offspring, both male and female, were investigated in relation to the protein expression of myostatin and its main inhibitor; follistatin like-3 (FSTL-3, in skeletal muscle of mature offspring. Sexual dimorphism was clearly evident in the majority of these measures, including myostatin and FSTL-3 expression. Generally males displayed higher (P myostatin precursor and dimer expression than females, which was especially apparent (P in both chow and HF trans-generationally undernourished (UNAD groups. In females only, myostatin precursor and dimer expression was altered by both trans-generational under-nutrition and postnatal diet. Overall FSTL-3 expression did not differ between sexes, although difference between sexes within certain treatments and diets were evident. Most notably, HF fed UNAD females had higher (P FSTL-3 expression than HF fed UNAD males. The former group also displayed higher (P FSTL-3 expression compared to all other female groups. In summary, myostatin may prove

  17. Trans* and gender variant citizenship and the state in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Monro, Surya; Van der Ros, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has seen the expansion of trans identities that are gender queer, non-binary, androgynous, or multiply-sexed and gendered in Western Europe. These developments mark a shift from a uniformly gender-binaried system to one that encompasses some degree of gender pluralism, as reflected to an extent in policy changes in some European countries. However, gender binarism is still prevalent. This article uses the case of Norway to demonstrate a contrast between the citizenship statuse...

  18. Relic dark energy from the trans-Planckian regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini, Laura; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Kanti, Panagiota

    2001-01-01

    As yet, there is no underlying fundamental theory for the trans-Planckian regime. There is a need to address the issue of how the observables in our present Universe are affected by processes that may have occurred at super-Planckian energies (referred to as the trans-Planckian regime). Specifically, we focus on the impact the trans-Planckian regime has on two observables: namely, dark energy and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum. We model the trans-Planckian regime by introducing a 1-parameter family of smooth non-linear dispersion relations which modify the frequencies at very short distances. A particular feature of the family of dispersion functions chosen is the production of ultralow frequencies at very high momenta k (for k>M P ). We name the range of the ultralow energy modes (of very short distances) that have frequencies equal to or less than the current Hubble rate H 0 as the tail modes. These modes are still frozen today due to the expansion of the Universe. We calculate their energy today and show that the tail provides a strong candidate for the dark energy of the Universe. During inflation, their energy is about 122 to 123 orders of magnitude smaller than the total energy, for any random value of the free parameter in the family of dispersion relations. For this family of dispersions, we present the exact solutions and show that the CMBR spectrum is that of a (nearly) blackbody, and that the adiabatic vacuum is the only choice for the initial conditions

  19. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mathon , Bertrand; Clemenceau , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundHippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator.MethodDescribe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.ConclusionSelective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semi...

  20. Trans-acting translational regulatory RNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Robert F; Smith, Tom S; Mulroney, Thomas; Queiroz, Rayner M L; Pizzinga, Mariavittoria; Dezi, Veronica; Villenueva, Eneko; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Lilley, Kathryn S; Willis, Anne E

    2018-05-01

    The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs. Importantly, it has been shown that subsets of RBPs often work in concert, forming distinct regulatory complexes upon different cellular perturbation, creating an RBP combinatorial code, which through the translation of specific subsets of mRNAs, dictate cell fate. With the development of new methodologies, a plethora of novel RNA binding proteins have recently been identified, although the function of many of these proteins within mRNA translation is unknown. In this review we will discuss these methodologies and their shortcomings when applied to the study of translation, which need to be addressed to enable a better understanding of trans-acting translational regulatory proteins. Moreover, we discuss the protein domains that are responsible for RNA binding as well as the RNA motifs to which they bind, and the role of trans-acting ribosomal proteins in directing the translation of specific mRNAs. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes Translation > Translation Regulation Translation > Translation Mechanisms. © 2018 Medical Research Council and University of Cambridge. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Efficient hierarchical trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion of magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Enming; Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dong, Hao; Ren, Zhengyong

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops an efficient hierarchical trans-dimensional (trans-D) Bayesian algorithm to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data for subsurface geoelectrical structure, with unknown geophysical model parameterization (the number of conductivity-layer interfaces) and data-error models parameterized by an auto-regressive (AR) process to account for potential error correlations. The reversible-jump Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm, which adds/removes interfaces and AR parameters in birth/death steps, is applied to sample the trans-D posterior probability density for model parameterization, model parameters, error variance and AR parameters, accounting for the uncertainties of model dimension and data-error statistics in the uncertainty estimates of the conductivity profile. To provide efficient sampling over the multiple subspaces of different dimensions, advanced proposal schemes are applied. Parameter perturbations are carried out in principal-component space, defined by eigen-decomposition of the unit-lag model covariance matrix, to minimize the effect of inter-parameter correlations and provide effective perturbation directions and length scales. Parameters of new layers in birth steps are proposed from the prior, instead of focused distributions centred at existing values, to improve birth acceptance rates. Parallel tempering, based on a series of parallel interacting Markov chains with successively relaxed likelihoods, is applied to improve chain mixing over model dimensions. The trans-D inversion is applied in a simulation study to examine the resolution of model structure according to the data information content. The inversion is also applied to a measured MT data set from south-central Australia.

  2. Determination of the conjugated linoleic acid-containing triacylglycerols in New Zealand bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N P; MacGibbon, A K

    2000-07-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 233 nm was used to separate, quantify, and identify the triacylglycerols (TAG) of milk fat that contain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The absorbance at 233 nm was substantially due to CLA-TAG (chromatography of some representative TAG devoid of CLA, such as tripalmitin and triolein, showed poor responses at 233 nm, 1/800th that of CLA-TAG). A CLA molar extinction coefficient at 233 nm of 23,360 L mol(-1) cm(-1) and an HPLC UV response factor were obtained from a commercially available cis-9,trans-11-CLA standard. This molar extinction coefficient was only 86% of reported literature values. Summation of all chromatographic peaks absorbing at 233 nm using the corrected response factor gave good agreement with independent determinations of total CLA by gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometry. This agreement allowed quantification of individual CLA-TAG peaks in the HPLC separation of a typical New Zealand bovine milk fat. Three CLA-containing TAG, CLA-dipalmitin, CLA-oleoyl-palmitin and CLA-diolein, were prepared by interesterification of tripalmitin with the respective fatty acid methyl esters and used to assign individual peaks in the reversed-phase chromatography of total milk fat, of which CLA-oleoyl-palmitin was coincident with the largest UV peak. Band fractions from argentation thin-layer chromatography of total milk fat were similarly employed to identify five predominant CLA-TAG groups in total milk fat: CLA-disaturates, CLA-oleoyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-olein, and CLA-diolein.

  3. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  4. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Maureen J.

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. Here I review the possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMA...

  5. Energetics and Kinetics of trans-SNARE Zippering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebane, Aleksander A.; Shu, Tong; Krishnakumar, Shyam; Rothman, James E.; Zhang, Yongli

    Synaptic exocytosis relies on assembly of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins into a four-helix bundle to drive membrane fusion. Complementary SNAREs anchored to the synaptic vesicle (v-SNARE) and the plasma membrane (t-SNARE) associate from their N-termini, transiting a half-assembled intermediate (trans-SNARE), and ending at their C-termini with a rapid power stroke that leads to membrane fusion. Although cytosolic SNARE assembly has been characterized, it remains unknown how membranes modulate the energetics and kinetics of SNARE assembly. Here, we present optical tweezers measurements on folding of single membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers. To our knowledge, this is the first such report. We measured the energetics, kinetics, and assembly intermediates of trans-SNAREs formed between a t-SNARE inserted into a bead-supported bilayer and a v-SNARE in a nanodisc. We found that the repulsive force of the apposed membranes increases the lifetime of the half-assembled intermediate. Our findings provide a single-molecule platform to study the regulation of trans-SNARE assembly by proteins that act on the half-assembled state, and thus reveal the mechanistic basis of the speed and high fidelity of synaptic transmission. This work was supported by US National Institutes of Health Grants F31 GM119312-01 (to A.A.R) and R01 GM093341 (to Y.Z.).

  6. Trans-Saharan geopolitics. The game and the stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    2010-01-01

    The geopolitics of energy exports from the trans-Saharan region are similar to the Caspian great game' at the end of the last century. In North/West Africa as in West/Central Asia, the question of control over hydrocarbon reserves and lines of access to those reserves lies at the source of various conflicts. Rivalries are expressed through open and complex conflicts in which powers confront one another over oil-rich zones through proxy ethnic, religious or cultural groups, as dictated by the colossal economic interests at stake. The increasing number of conflicts - the Niger Delta, Darfur, the Azawak, etc. - is an illustration of this. The shock waves from this rivalry undermine regional peace and security, as well as the security of international energy supplies. The question here is to understand the game and the stakes of this trans-Saharan chess-board, to study its principal features and its energetic consequences. The national oil companies and states of the region can work around or through the geopolitical rifts caused by local rivalries and extra-regional appetites. There is therefore a need to understand the ways in which the players in the trans-Saharan 'great game' interact with one another, an to identifies the effects these interactions may have in the field of energy, in terms of potential reserves and transport projects. The TSGP is presented as an illustration of this geopolitical dynamics. (author)

  7. Excited-state Raman spectroscopy with and without actinic excitation: S{sub 1} Raman spectra of trans-azobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobryakov, A. L.; Quick, M.; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.; Ernsting, N. P.; Kovalenko, S. A. [Department of Chemistry, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-14

    We show that femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy can record excited-state spectra in the absence of actinic excitation, if the Raman pump is in resonance with an electronic transition. The approach is illustrated by recording S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} spectra of trans-azobenzene in n-hexane. The S{sub 1} spectra were also measured conventionally, upon nπ* (S{sub 0} → S{sub 1}) actinic excitation. The results are discussed and compared to earlier reports.

  8. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  9. Formation of trans-caffeoyl-CoA from trans-4-coumaroyl-CoA by Zn2+-dependent enzymes in cultured plant cells and its activation by an elicitor-induced pH shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneusel, R.; Matern, U.; Nicolaij, K.

    1989-01-01

    A novel hydroxylase activity catalyzing the formation of trans-caffeoyl-CoA from trans-4-coumaroyl-CoA was identified in crude extracts from cultured parsley cells. The extracts were less active (Vmax/Km) in converting trans-4-coumaric to trans-caffeic acid. Optimal hydroxylase activity was found at

  10. Effects of emulsion droplet sizes on the crystallisation of milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Sharma, Ranjan; Palmer, Martin; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2014-02-15

    The crystallisation properties of milk fat emulsions containing dairy-based ingredients as functions of emulsion droplet size, cooling rate, and emulsifier type were investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Anhydrous milk fat and its fractions (stearin and olein) were emulsified with whey protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and Tween80 by homogenisation to produce emulsions in various size ranges (0.13-3.10 μm). Particle size, cooling rate, and types of emulsifier all had an influence on the crystallisation properties of fat in the emulsions. In general, the crystallisation temperature of emulsified fats decreased with decreasing average droplet size and was of an exponent function of size, indicating that the influence of particle size on crystallisation temperature is more pronounced in the sub-micron range. This particle size effect was also verified by electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of gas chromatographic and gravimetric methods for quantization of total fat and fatty acids in foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to determine total fat (TF and fatty acids (FA, including trans fatty acids (TFA, in diverse foodstuffs were evaluated, incorporating gravimetric methods and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID, in accordance with a modified AOAC 996.06 method. Concentrations of TF and FA obtained through these different procedures diverged (p< 0.05 and TFA concentrations varied beyond 20 % of the reference values. The modified AOAC 996.06 method satisfied both accuracy and precision, was fast and employed small amounts of low toxicity solvents. Therefore, the results showed that this methodology is viable to be adopted in Brazil for nutritional labeling purposes.

  12. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  13. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  14. Structural modification of trans-cinnamic acid using Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Velasco B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biotransformación de ácido trans-cinámico mediante células completas del hongo fitopatógeno nativo colombiano Colletotrichum acutatum. Inicialmente, se evaluó la fungitoxicidad de este compuesto contraC. acutatum; el ácido trans-cinámico exhibió una toxicidad moderada a débil contra el microorganismo y aparentemente se presentó un mecanismo de detoxificación. Luego, para estudiar tal mecanismo y explorar la capacidad de este hongo para biotransformar el ácido trans-cinámico en productos con valor agregado, el microorganismo se incubó con el sustrato usando tres medios de cultivo diferentes (Czapeck-Dox, Sabouraud y PDB a condiciones ambientales. Usando el medio Czapeck-Dox, los cultivos completos de C.acutatum redujeron el ácido trans-cinámico, primero a aldehídos (transcinamaldehido y 3-fenilpropanal, luego a alcoholes (alcohol cinamílico y 3-fenil-1-propanol. Posteriormente, estos alcoholes fueron transformados a los correspondientes ésteres de acetilo. Sin embargo, algunos de estos productos estuvieron ausentes o presentes a una concentración diferente cuando se cambió el medio de cultivo. Los resultados sugieren un mecanismo de detoxificación en el cual el sistema carbonílico α,β-insaturado es afectado.Por otra parte, los productos metabólicos formados son compuestos útiles usados como fragancias y sabores. Por consiguiente, el metabolismo del ácido trans-cinámico usando C. acutatum puede proporcionar nuevos blancos metabólicos para controlar C. acutatum así como también una forma simple y eficiente para obtener sabores y perfumes, tales como el alcohol cinamílico y el 3-fenil-1-propanol, y sus ésteres de acetilo.

  15. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM...

  16. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wechem, S.N. van; Brug, J.; Assema, P. van; Kistemaker, C.; Riedstra, M.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the nationwide Fat Watch campaign aiming at a reduction in fat consumption was organized from 1991 onwards. This study describes the effects of the first three consecutive campaign years on attention to fat, diet and health, attitudes, self-efficacy expectations and intentions

  17. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention:

  18. Comparison of the patient radiation exposure during coronary angiography and angioplasty procedures using trans-radial and trans-femoral access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tarighatnia

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained in this study, no differences were found in patients’ radiation dose in both access groups, therefore with regard to comparatively more clinical advantages associated with the Trans-radial access technique it might be a good substitute for Trans-femoral access.

  19. Low Energy Electron Cooler for NICA Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, A P

    2017-01-01

    BINP has developed an electron cooler to increase the ion accumulation efficiency in the NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) heavy ion booster (JINR, Dubna). Adjustment of the cooler magnetic system provides highly homogeneous magnetic field in the cooling section B trans/B long ≤ 4∙10-5 which is vital for efficient electron cooling. First experiments with an electron beam performed at BINP demonstrated the target DC current of 500 mA and electron energy 6 keV.

  20. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  1. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  2. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Hydrogenated fat intake during pregnancy and lactation modifies serum lipid profile and adipokine mRNA in 21-day-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Luciana P; Oyama, Lila M; Bueno, Allain A; Biz, Carolina; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether feeding pregnant and lactating rats hydrogenated fats rich in trans-fatty acids modifies the plasma lipid profiles and the expression of adipokines involved with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in their 21-d-old offspring. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were fed with a control diet (C group) or one enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T group). After delivery, male offspring were weighed weekly and killed at day 21 of life by decapitation. Blood and retroperitoneal, epididymal, and subcutaneous white adipose tissues were collected. Offspring of T-group rats had increased serum triacylglycerols and cholesterol, white adipose tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression, and carcass lipid content and decreased blood leptin and adiponectin and adiponectin gene expression. Ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat by the mother during gestation and lactation alters the blood lipid profiles and the expression of proinflammatory adipokynes by the adipose tissue of offspring aged 21 d.

  4. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.

    2017-02-01

    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  5. A fat gluino in disguise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  6. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  7. In-situ chemical analyses of trans-polyisoprene by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy in a rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Ei-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Akio

    2002-10-01

    The localization of polyisoprene in young stem tissues of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver was investigated by histochemical staining and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy. The fibrous structures were stained with Oil Red O. FT-IR microspectroscopic analysis proved that the fibrous structures were trans-polyisoprene. Granular structures stained with the dye, and characteristic absorptions at 2,960 cm(-1) and 1,430 cm(-1) in FT-IR suggested that trans-polyisoprene accumulated in the vicinity of the cambium layer. We have thus successfully shown for the first time the localization of trans-polyisoprene in plant tissues, and our histological investigation allowed us to presume the main sites of biosynthesis and accumulation of trans-rubber. Furthermore, a new technical approach, the preparation of sections using an electronic freezing unit and the in situ analysis of polyisoprene using FT-IR microspectroscopy, is demonstrated to be a promising method for determining the accumulation of polyisoprene as well as other metabolites.

  8. Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction followed by acetylation and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the reliable determination of trans-resveratrol in wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R.; Garcia-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I., E-mail: isaac.rodriguez@usc.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2010-07-12

    This work presents an advantageous analytical procedure for the accurate determination of free trans-resveratrol in red and white wines. The proposed method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE), acetylation of the analyte in aqueous media and further determination by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry detection (MS). The use of a mixed-mode SPE sorbent provides an improvement in the selectivity of the extraction step; moreover, the presence of several intense ions in the electron impact mass spectra of its acetyl derivative guarantees the unambiguous identification of trans-resveratrol. Considering a sample intake of 10 mL, the method provides a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.8 ng mL{sup -1} and linear responses for concentrations up to 2.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, referred to wine samples. The average recovery, estimated with samples fortified at different concentrations in the above range, was 99.6% and the inter-day precision stayed below 8%. Trans-resveratrol levels in the analyzed wines varied from 3.4 to 1810 ng mL{sup -1}. Cis-resveratrol was also found in all samples. In most cases, equal or higher responses were measured for this latter form than for the trans-isomer. The reduced form of resveratrol, dihydro-resveratrol, was systematically identified in red wines.

  9. Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction followed by acetylation and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the reliable determination of trans-resveratrol in wine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, R.; Garcia-Lopez, M.; Rodriguez, I.; Cela, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents an advantageous analytical procedure for the accurate determination of free trans-resveratrol in red and white wines. The proposed method involves solid-phase extraction (SPE), acetylation of the analyte in aqueous media and further determination by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry detection (MS). The use of a mixed-mode SPE sorbent provides an improvement in the selectivity of the extraction step; moreover, the presence of several intense ions in the electron impact mass spectra of its acetyl derivative guarantees the unambiguous identification of trans-resveratrol. Considering a sample intake of 10 mL, the method provides a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.8 ng mL -1 and linear responses for concentrations up to 2.5 μg mL -1 , referred to wine samples. The average recovery, estimated with samples fortified at different concentrations in the above range, was 99.6% and the inter-day precision stayed below 8%. Trans-resveratrol levels in the analyzed wines varied from 3.4 to 1810 ng mL -1 . Cis-resveratrol was also found in all samples. In most cases, equal or higher responses were measured for this latter form than for the trans-isomer. The reduced form of resveratrol, dihydro-resveratrol, was systematically identified in red wines.

  10. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  11. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  12. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  13. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  14. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  15. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  16. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  17. Large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Walstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    Compression and wire-cutting experiments on dispersions of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil with varying fraction solid fat were carried out to establish which parameters are important for the large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks. Compression experiments showed that the

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  19. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P [Department of Electrical Eng., State University of Santa Catarina, Joinville (Brazil)

    2012-12-20

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  20. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  1. Oxygen atom transfer from a trans-dioxoruthenium(VI) complex to nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wai-Lun; Lam, William W Y; Ng, Siu-Mui; Tsang, Wenny Y K; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2012-01-02

    In aqueous acidic solutions trans-[Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) (L=1,12-dimethyl-3,4:9,10-dibenzo-1,12-diaza-5,8-dioxacyclopentadecane) is rapidly reduced by excess NO to give trans-[Ru(L)(NO)(OH)](2+). When ≤1 mol equiv NO is used, the intermediate Ru(IV) species, trans-[Ru(IV)(L)(O)(OH(2))](2+), can be detected. The reaction of [Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) with NO is first order with respect to [Ru(VI)] and [NO], k(2)=(4.13±0.21)×10(1) M(-1) s(-1) at 298.0 K. ΔH(≠) and ΔS(≠) are (12.0±0.3) kcal mol(-1) and -(11±1) cal mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. In CH(3)CN, ΔH(≠) and ΔS(≠) have the same values as in H(2)O; this suggests that the mechanism is the same in both solvents. In CH(3)CN, the reaction of [Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) with NO produces a blue-green species with λ(max) at approximately 650 nm, which is characteristic of N(2)O(3). N(2)O(3) is formed by coupling of NO(2) with excess NO; it is relatively stable in CH(3)CN, but undergoes rapid hydrolysis in H(2)O. A mechanism that involves oxygen atom transfer from [Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) to NO to produce NO(2) is proposed. The kinetics of the reaction of [Ru(IV)(L)(O)(OH(2))](2+) with NO has also been investigated. In this case, the data are consistent with initial one-electron O(-) transfer from Ru(IV) to NO to produce the nitrito species [Ru(III)(L)(ONO)(OH(2))](2+) (k(2)>10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), followed by a reaction with another molecule of NO to give [Ru(L)(NO)(OH)](2+) and NO(2)(-) (k(2)=54.7 M(-1) s(-1)). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dual-task related gait changes in individuals with trans-tibial lower extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Susan W; Frengopoulos, Courtney; Holmes, Jeffrey; Viana, Ricardo; Payne, Michael W C

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of gait and mobility are major rehabilitation goals following lower extremity amputations. However, when living in the community many daily activities require the multitasking of motor and cognitive tasks. The dual-task paradigm can be used to evaluate the concurrent performance of mobility and cognitive tasks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual-task gait testing in older adults with trans-tibial amputations. Twenty-four people (15 men, mean age ± SD, 62.72 ± 8.59) with trans-tibial amputation walked on an electronic walkway at i) self-selected comfortable pace and ii) self-selected comfortable pace while counting backwards by threes from a number randomly selected between 100 and 150. Cognitive performance, in the form of corrected response rate, was also evaluated as a single-task. The dual-task testing produced poorer performance in velocity (single-task = 58.15 ± 23.16 cm/s, dual-task = 50.92 ± 21.16 cm/s, p = 0.008), cadence (single-task = 76.65 ± 15.84 steps/min, dual-task = 67.85 ± 15.76 steps/min, p = 0.002) and stride time (single-task = 1094 ± 458.28 ms, dual-task = 1241.44 ± 513.73 ms, p = 0.005). Step length, stance time and single limb support time symmetry were also affected, such that less time was spent on the amputated limb during the dual-task testing. Dual-task testing demonstrated interference resulting in a poor performance in both gait and cognitive performance in trans-tibial amputees. Further research is suggested to evaluate the change in cognition-mobility effects over time and the relationship of this value to future adverse events such as falls and successful outcomes such as community ambulation and reintegration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  5. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  6. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of prenatal exposure to trans-fatty acids for development of childhood haematopoietic neoplasms (EnTrance): a natural societal experiment and a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Huybrechts, Inge; Frederiksen, Peder; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Chajes, Veronique; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-01-24

    Little is known about the causes of childhood cancer, partly as not many children develop cancer, although childhood cancer is a leading cause of death by disease in the young. The young age of the children suggests that risk factors for childhood cancer may be present during pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that exposure to trans-fat, a type of unsaturated fat common in industrially produced foods (iTFA), has adverse health effects in adults, including the risk of developing cancer. Haematopoietic neoplasms are the most common cancer types among European children under the age of 15 years. This study will bring new knowledge as to whether trans-fat and other fatty acids may also increase the risk of developing haematopoietic neoplasms during childhood. We will investigate if the Danish iTFA legislation ban, which radically reduced the use of iTFA in foodstuffs, influenced the risk of childhood haematopoietic neoplasms in children born either before or after the change in legislation, adjusting for relevant secular trends. Further, in a case-control study, we will examine if levels of fatty acids in dried blood spots from newborns can predict the risk of developing childhood haematopoietic neoplasms. Permission from the Danish Data Protection Agency and the Ethical Committee has been granted. The results from this study will provide important information about fatty acids in the mother's diet as a contributor to development of haematopoietic neoplasms during childhood, which may result in relevant preventive action. Not relevant.

  8. Kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of iodide and bromide in aqueous solutions by a trans-dioxoruthenium(VI) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, William W Y; Man, Wai-Lun; Wang, Yi-Ning; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2008-08-04

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of I (-) and Br (-) by trans-[Ru (VI)(N 2O 2)(O) 2] (2+) have been investigated in aqueous solutions. The reactions have the following stoichiometry: trans-[Ru (VI)(N 2O 2)(O) 2] (2+) + 3X (-) + 2H (+) --> trans-[Ru (IV)(N 2O 2)(O)(OH 2)] (2+) + X 3 (-) (X = Br, I). In the oxidation of I (-) the I 3 (-)is produced in two distinct phases. The first phase produces 45% of I 3 (-) with the rate law d[I 3 (-)]/dt = ( k a + k b[H (+)])[Ru (VI)][I (-)]. The remaining I 3 (-) is produced in the second phase which is much slower, and it follows first-order kinetics but the rate constant is independent of [I (-)], [H (+)], and ionic strength. In the proposed mechanism the first phase involves formation of a charge-transfer complex between Ru (VI) and I (-), which then undergoes a parallel acid-catalyzed oxygen atom transfer to produce [Ru (IV)(N 2O 2)(O)(OHI)] (2+), and a one electron transfer to give [Ru (V)(N 2O 2)(O)(OH)] (2+) and I (*). [Ru (V)(N 2O 2)(O)(OH)] (2+) is a stronger oxidant than [Ru (VI)(N 2O 2)(O) 2] (2+) and will rapidly oxidize another I (-) to I (*). In the second phase the [Ru (IV)(N 2O 2)(O)(OHI)] (2+) undergoes rate-limiting aquation to produce HOI which reacts rapidly with I (-) to produce I 2. In the oxidation of Br (-) the rate law is -d[Ru (VI)]/d t = {( k a2 + k b2[H (+)]) + ( k a3 + k b3[H (+)]) [Br (-)]}[Ru (VI)][Br (-)]. At 298.0 K and I = 0.1 M, k a2 = (2.03 +/- 0.03) x 10 (-2) M (-1) s (-1), k b2 = (1.50 +/- 0.07) x 10 (-1) M (-2) s (-1), k a3 = (7.22 +/- 2.19) x 10 (-1) M (-2) s (-1) and k b3 = (4.85 +/- 0.04) x 10 (2) M (-3) s (-1). The proposed mechanism involves initial oxygen atom transfer from trans-[Ru (VI)(N 2O 2)(O) 2] (2+) to Br (-) to give trans-[Ru (IV)(N 2O 2)(O)(OBr)] (+), which then undergoes parallel aquation and oxidation of Br (-), and both reactions are acid-catalyzed.

  9. Absorption and emission behaviour of trans- p-coumaric acid in aqueous solutions and some organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschögl, M.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption and fluorescence behaviour of trans- p-coumaric acid ( trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is investigated in buffered aqueous solution over a wide range from pH 1 to pH 12, in un-buffered water, and in some organic solvents. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are measured. p-Coumaric acid exists in different ionic forms in aqueous solution depending on the pH. There is an equilibrium between the neutral form ( p-CAH 2) and the single anionic form ( p-CAH -) at low pH (p Kna ≈ 4.9), and between the single anionic and the double anionic form ( p-CA 2-) at high pH (p Kaa ≈ 9.35). In the organic solvents studied trans- p-coumaric acid is dissolved in its neutral form. The fluorescence quantum yield of trans- p-coumaric acid in aqueous solution is ϕF ≈ 1.4 × 10 -4 for the neutral and the single anionic form, while it is ϕF ≈ 1.3 × 10 -3 for the double anionic form. For trans- p-coumaric acid in organic solvents fluorescence quantum yields in the range from 4.8 × 10 -5 (acetonitrile) to 1.5 × 10 -4 (glycerol) were measured. The fluorescence spectra are 7700-10,000 cm -1 Stokes shifted in aqueous solution, and 5400-8200 cm -1 Stokes shifted in the studied organic solvents. Decay paths responsible for the low fluorescence quantum yields are discussed (photo-isomerisation and internal conversion for p-CA 2-, solvent-assisted intra-molecular charge-transfer or ππ ∗ to nπ ∗ transfer and internal conversion for p-CAH 2 and p-CAH -). The solvent dependence of the first ππ ∗ electronic transition frequency and of the fluorescence Stokes shift of p-CAH 2 is discussed in terms of polar solute-solvent interaction effects. Thereby the ground-state and excite-state molecular dipole moments are extracted.

  10. Absorption and emission behaviour of trans-p-coumaric acid in aqueous solutions and some organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putschoegl, M.; Zirak, P. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de

    2008-01-22

    The absorption and fluorescence behaviour of trans-p-coumaric acid (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is investigated in buffered aqueous solution over a wide range from pH 1 to pH 12, in un-buffered water, and in some organic solvents. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are measured. p-Coumaric acid exists in different ionic forms in aqueous solution depending on the pH. There is an equilibrium between the neutral form (p-CAH{sub 2}) and the single anionic form (p-CAH{sup -}) at low pH (pK{sub na} {approx} 4.9), and between the single anionic and the double anionic form (p-CA{sup 2-}) at high pH (pK{sub aa} {approx} 9.35). In the organic solvents studied trans-p-coumaric acid is dissolved in its neutral form. The fluorescence quantum yield of trans-p-coumaric acid in aqueous solution is {phi}{sub F} {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup -4} for the neutral and the single anionic form, while it is {phi}{sub F} {approx} 1.3 x 10{sup -3} for the double anionic form. For trans-p-coumaric acid in organic solvents fluorescence quantum yields in the range from 4.8 x 10{sup -5} (acetonitrile) to 1.5 x 10{sup -4} (glycerol) were measured. The fluorescence spectra are 7700-10,000 cm{sup -1} Stokes shifted in aqueous solution, and 5400-8200 cm{sup -1} Stokes shifted in the studied organic solvents. Decay paths responsible for the low fluorescence quantum yields are discussed (photo-isomerisation and internal conversion for p-CA{sup 2-}, solvent-assisted intra-molecular charge-transfer or {pi}{pi}* to n{pi}* transfer and internal conversion for p-CAH{sub 2} and p-CAH{sup -}). The solvent dependence of the first {pi}{pi}* electronic transition frequency and of the fluorescence Stokes shift of p-CAH{sub 2} is discussed in terms of polar solute-solvent interaction effects. Thereby the ground-state and excite-state molecular dipole moments are extracted.

  11. Absorption and emission behaviour of trans-p-coumaric acid in aqueous solutions and some organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putschoegl, M.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption and fluorescence behaviour of trans-p-coumaric acid (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is investigated in buffered aqueous solution over a wide range from pH 1 to pH 12, in un-buffered water, and in some organic solvents. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are measured. p-Coumaric acid exists in different ionic forms in aqueous solution depending on the pH. There is an equilibrium between the neutral form (p-CAH 2 ) and the single anionic form (p-CAH - ) at low pH (pK na ∼ 4.9), and between the single anionic and the double anionic form (p-CA 2- ) at high pH (pK aa ∼ 9.35). In the organic solvents studied trans-p-coumaric acid is dissolved in its neutral form. The fluorescence quantum yield of trans-p-coumaric acid in aqueous solution is φ F ∼ 1.4 x 10 -4 for the neutral and the single anionic form, while it is φ F ∼ 1.3 x 10 -3 for the double anionic form. For trans-p-coumaric acid in organic solvents fluorescence quantum yields in the range from 4.8 x 10 -5 (acetonitrile) to 1.5 x 10 -4 (glycerol) were measured. The fluorescence spectra are 7700-10,000 cm -1 Stokes shifted in aqueous solution, and 5400-8200 cm -1 Stokes shifted in the studied organic solvents. Decay paths responsible for the low fluorescence quantum yields are discussed (photo-isomerisation and internal conversion for p-CA 2- , solvent-assisted intra-molecular charge-transfer or ππ* to nπ* transfer and internal conversion for p-CAH 2 and p-CAH - ). The solvent dependence of the first ππ* electronic transition frequency and of the fluorescence Stokes shift of p-CAH 2 is discussed in terms of polar solute-solvent interaction effects. Thereby the ground-state and excite-state molecular dipole moments are extracted

  12. Studies in Fat Grafting: Part II. Effects of Injection Mechanics on Material Properties of Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashroo, David; Raphel, Jordan; Chung, Michael T.; Paik, Kevin J.; Parisi-Amon, Andreina; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R.; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Chris; Walmsley, Graham G.; Hu, Michael S.; Momeni, Arash; Domecus, Brian; Rimsa, Joe R.; Greenberg, Lauren; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wan, Derrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While fat grafting can address many soft tissue deficits, results remain inconsistent. In this study, we compared physical properties of fat following injection using an automated, low shear device or the modified Coleman technique. Methods Lipoaspirate was obtained from nine patients and processed for injection using either a modified Coleman technique or with an automated, low shear device. Fat was passed through a 2 mm cannula and compared to minimally processed fat. A rheometer was used to measure the storage modulus and shear rate at which tissues began to lose their solid-like properties. Viscosity was also measured and gross properties of treatment groups were qualitatively evaluated with a glass slide test. Results Fat injected through an automated, low shear device closely matched physical properties of minimally processed fat. The storage modulus (G′) of fat for the device group was greater than the modified Coleman group and the onset of breakdown was delayed. Similarly, viscosity measurement of fat from the automated device closely matched minimally processed fat and was greater than the modified Coleman group. Conclusions The physical properties of lipoaspirate processed using an automated, low shear device with a 2 mm cannula preserved the intactness of fat more than the modified Coleman technique. Our rheological data demonstrate less damage using an automated device compared to modified Coleman technique and potentially support its use for improved fat graft integrity. PMID:25028817

  13. Comparison of fat maintenance in the face with centrifuge versus filtered and washed fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilian, Ali; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Iraji, Razieh

    2014-06-01

    Autogenous fat injection of the face is a viable and lasting remedy for soft tissue loss and has become a mainstay in facial rejuvenation. Fat transfer as either a stand-alone technique or as an adjunct to other filler technique and lifting depending on patient needs. Although soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat transfer has been increasingly used by esthetic surgeon, but there is no agreement concerning the best way of processing the harvested fat before injection. This study compared the clinical results obtained using simple filtered and washed fat via metal sieve with those achieved by means of pure centrifuged fat. A prospective single-blind analysis on 32 healthy patients undergoing nasolabial fold fat transplantation from 2009 to 2011 (simple sampling). Patients assigned in two groups randomly. The face of half (16 subjects) was injected with centrifuged, another half with simple filtered and washed fat to evaluate the effect of preparation methods on fat graft viability. Objective method was used to evaluate the results, involving the evaluation of postoperative photographs (in month 1, 6 and 12) by an esthetic surgeon (according to the nasolabial scale). Subjective method was a self-assessment obtained from patients about general level of satisfaction and improvement of skin texture, statistical analysis were performed by means of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 and a value of P > 0.05 was considered as significant. There was no significant difference in the survival of grafted fat between the Group 1 (fat-processing with centrifuge at 3400 rpm for 1-min) and Group 2 (washing the fat in the sieve). Our data suggest that the centrifuge of the fat does not enhance survival of grafted fat (P > 0.05).

  14. Single-step preparation of selected biological fluids for the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, Giacomo; Longo, Salvatore; Amorini, Angela Maria; Di Pietro, Valentina; D'Urso, Serafina; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Belli, Antonio; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2017-12-08

    Fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants are of relevance in health and disease. Current methods to extract these compounds from biological fluids mainly need use of multi-steps and multi organic solvents. They are time-consuming and difficult to apply to treat simultaneously large sample number. We here describe a single-step, one solvent extraction of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids, and the chromatographic separation of all-trans-retinoic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, all-trans-retinol, astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal, γ-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene and coenzyme Q 10 . Extraction is obtained by adding one volume of biological fluid to two acetonitrile volumes, vortexing for 60s and incubating for 60min at 37°C under agitation. HPLC separation occurs in 30min using Hypersil C18, 100×4.6mm, 5μm particle size column, gradient from 70% methanol+30% H 2 O to 100% acetonitrile, flow rate of 1.0ml/min and 37°C column temperature. Compounds are revealed using highly sensitive UV-VIS diode array detector. The HPLC method suitability was assessed in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Using the present extraction and chromatographic conditions we obtained values of the fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants in serum from 50 healthy controls similar to those found in literature. Additionally, the profile of these compounds was also measured in seminal plasma from 20 healthy fertile donors. Results indicate that this simple, rapid and low cost sample processing is suitable to extract fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids and can be applied in clinical and nutritional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. TRANS-TEXTUALIZATION AND CARNIVALIZATION IN "WHISTLER," BY ONDJAKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Miranda Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to observe the phenomenon of carnivalization and trans­textuality the novel The Whistler, the Angolan writer Ondjaki. Comprise the theoretical analysis of Bakhtin’s theory on carnivalization and its im­portance for social subversion of monologic discourse established by of­ficial bodies, the theory of Gérard Genette on transtextuality pointing five possible textual relationships. An understanding of the theories and car­nivalization transtextuality pervades the concepts of animism and taboo presented the theory of Sigmund Freud.

  16. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö......This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...

  17. Graphene oxide catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the fast cis-trans isomerization of an amine-substituted azobenzene catalyzed by graphene oxide (GO, where the amine functionality facilitates the charge transfer from azobenzene to graphene oxide in contrast to non-substituted azobenzene. This catalytic effect was not observed in stilbene analogues, which strongly supports the existence of different isomerization pathways between azobenzene and stilbene. The graphene oxide catalyzed isomerization is expected to be useful as a new photoisomerization based sensing platform complementary to GO-based fluorescence quenching methods.

  18. Structural analysis of the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, G.H.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1981-07-01

    The TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) is a Type B container under development at the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratory, for use in the transportation of contact-handled transuranic waste. This report describes the numerical analyses of the container's response to end-on, side-on, and center of gravity over corner impacts on an unyielding surface following a 9 m free fall. The results of the analyses are compared to available experimental data. In general, the analytical predictions and experimental comparisons confirm the validity of the TRUPACT design concept

  19. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dieta...

  20. trans-Dichloridobis(3,4-dimethylpyridineplatinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Chernyshev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C7H9N2], the PtII atom is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two 3,4-dimethylpyridine ligands and two chloride ligands, resulting in a typical slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The crystallographic inversion centre forces the value of the C—N—N—C torsion angle to be linear and the 3,4-dimethyl-pyridine ligands to be coplanar.

  1. Upgrading Algeria-Italy trans-Mediterranean natural gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, G.

    1992-01-01

    The first trans-Mediterranean pipeline system, which went into service in 1983, had to be doubled in capacity in order to meet increased European demand for Algerian natural gas. After a brief review of the contractual, planning and construction history of the first pipeline, this paper discusses the strategies taken which led to the decision to double the line's capacity. Descriptions are then given of the different construction phases realized in Tunisia, the Sicilian Channel and Italian mainland. Focus is on construction schedules, problems and solutions. The report comes complete with details of project financing, organizing, materials supply programs, innovative technology applications, design philosophy and construction techniques

  2. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  3. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: selective endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border during fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Immerdal, Lissi

    2007-01-01

    explants. By immunofluorescence microscopy, fat absorption caused a translocation of IAP from the enterocyte brush border to the interior of the cell, whereas other brush-border enzymes were unaffected. By electron microscopy, the translocation occurred by a rapid (5 min) induction of endocytosis via...

  4. Effect of fat types on the structural and textural properties of dough and semi-sweet biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Hasmadi; Hill, Sandra E

    2014-09-01

    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.

  5. Trans-abdominal ultrasound evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of uterine leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Wei; Huang Jin; Wang Junhua; Wang Yuling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of dynamic trans-abdominal ultrasound after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Methods: The trans-abdominal ultrasound images of 63 patients before and after HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas were compared. Results: The volume and blood flow of leiomyomas were reduced after the HIFU treatment. Conclusion: Trans-abdominal ultrasound is a valuable method for evaluating the results of HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas. (authors)

  6. Epoxidation of the methamphetamine pyrolysis product, trans-phenylpropene, to trans-phenylpropylene oxide by CYP enzymes and stereoselective glutathione adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanga, Madhu; Younis, Islam R.; Tirumalai, Padma S.; Bland, Tina M.; Banaszewska, Monica; Konat, Gregory W.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Gannett, Peter M.; Callery, Patrick S.

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolytic products of smoked methamphetamine hydrochloride are well established. Among the various degradation products formed, trans-phenylpropene (trans-β-methylstyrene) is structurally similar to styrene analogues known to be bioactivated by CYP enzymes. In human liver microsomes, trans-phenylpropene was converted to the epoxide trans-phenylpropylene oxide (trans-2-methyl-3-phenyloxirane) and cinnamyl alcohol. Incubation of trans-phenylpropene with microsomes in the presence of enzyme-specific P450 enzyme inhibitors indicated the involvement of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 enzymes. Both (R,R)-phenylpropylene oxide and (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide were formed in human liver microsomal preparations. Enantiomers of trans-phenylpropylene oxide were stereoselectively and regioselectively conjugated in a Phase II drug metabolism reaction catalyzed by human liver cytosolic enzymes consisting of conjugation with glutathione. The structure of the phenylpropylene oxide-glutathione adduct is consistent with nucleophilic ring-opening by attack at the benzylic carbon. Exposure of cultured C6 glial cells to (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide produced a cytotoxic response in a concentration-dependent manner based on cell degeneration and death

  7. Gorduras em pães comercializados em Florianópolis (SC | Fats in bread products sold in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinete E. de Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O tipo de óleo/gordura utilizado na fabricação de pães interfere nas suas propriedades sensoriais e nutricionais. Assim, objetivou-se identificar os tipos de óleos/gorduras declarados nos rótulos dos pães (n = 320 comercializados em padarias e supermercados (n = 23 da região central de Florianópolis (SC. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado (x². Aproximadamente 20% dos pães estavam sendo comercializados sem rótulo, todos de fabricação própria. Na avaliação das listas dos ingredientes os óleos/gorduras mais frequentes foram: gorduras vegetais (possíveis fontes de gordura trans (32%, óleos vegetais (25% e gordura de palma (18%. No entanto, apenas 5,6% dos pães apresentaram em seus rótulos gordura trans na porção. Os pães com maior ocorrência de gordura vegetal foram: hambúrguer/hot dog (92%, bisnaguinha (92% e de forma (82%. Já o grupo de pão integral industrial se destacou por conter principalmente óleos vegetais (88%. O grupo pão doce (100%, fabricado com gordura animal e gordura vegetal hidrogenada, apresentou maiores quantidades de gordura total. Conclui-se que há necessidade de melhorias com relação à rotulagem de pães; que pães industriais, especialmente os integrais, contêm gorduras mais saudáveis discriminadas em seus rótulos; pães hambúrguer/hot dog, bisnaguinha, de forma e doce, as menos saudáveis. =============================================== The type of oils/fats used in bread manufacturing affects the sensory and nutritional properties of bread products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the types of oils/fats described on the labels of bread products (n = 320 sold in bakeries and supermarkets (n = 23 in the central region of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The chi-squared test (χ² was used to analyze the data. Approximately 20% of the bread products available were not labeled. These products were made at the in-store bakeries

  8. How important is the relative balance of fat and carbohydrate as sources of energy in relation to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2016-05-01

    Both the intake of fat, especially saturated trans fatty acids, and refined carbohydrates, particularly sugar, have been linked to increased risk of obesity, diabetes and CVD. Dietary guidelines are generally similar throughout the world, restrict both intake of SFA and added sugar to no more than 10 and 35 % energy for total fat and recommend 50 % energy from carbohydrates being derived from unrefined cereals, tubers, fruit and vegetables. Current evidence favours partial replacement of SFA with PUFA with regard to risk of CVD. The translation of these macronutrient targets into food-based dietary guidelines is more complex because some high-fat foods play an important part in meeting nutrient requirements as well as influencing the risk of chronic disease. Some of the recent controversies surrounding the significance of sugar and the type of fat in the diet are discussed. Finally, data from a recently published randomised controlled trial are presented to show the impact of following current dietary guidelines on cardiovascular risk and nutrient intake compared with a traditional UK diet.

  9. Invisible fat on CT: making it visible by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Presence of fat in a lesion significantly narrows the differential diagnosis. Small quantities of macroscopic fat and intracellular fat are invisible on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal any fatty change in a lesion and can also differentiate macroscopic fat from intracellular and intravoxel fat. Hypodensity on CT may be a sign of invisible fat and MRI can help to diagnose even minute amounts of fat in liver, pancreas, adrenal, musculoskeletal, and omental pseudolesions and lesions. This article will review the superiority of MRI over CT in demonstrating fat in abdominal lesions.

  10. [Combine fats products: methodic opportunities of it identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, E V; Kulakova, S N; Mikhaĭlov, N A

    2006-01-01

    At present time very topical problem is falsification of milk fat. The number of methods was considered to detection of milk fat authention and possibilities his difference from combined fat products. The analysis of modern approaches to valuation of milk fat authention has showed that the main method for detection of fat nature is gas chromatography analysis. The computer method of express identification of fat products is proposed for quick getting of information about accessory of examine fat to nature milk or combined fat product.

  11. Subpleural thoracic fat as defined with CT of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.J.; Glazer, H.S.; Molina, P.L.; Sagel, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Consecutive computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the chest (n=202) were reviewed to determine the location, thickness, and extent of subpleural fat. Patient age, thickness of subcutaneous fat, and adjacent pleural or parenchymal abnormalities were recorded. Subpleural fat was most often identified in the paravertebral region (48%) and in the apices (23%). Fatty deposits anterolaterally were seen in seven individuals. Subpleural fat thickness ranged from 1 to 19 mm, except in the apex, where fat sometimes filled the space. A direct relationship between subcutaneous fat thickness and a higher incidence of subpleural fat was observed in the paravertebral region. Subpleural fat occurs commonly in the paravertebral regions but is unusual in other areas

  12. Teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naohisa; Fuchinoe, Tokuro; Yahagi, Yasuji; Nakamura, Toshihiko

    1983-01-01

    Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on computed tomography(CT). We are reporting a case of teratoma with intraventricular free fat diagnosed preoperatively by CT. The case is a 19-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of contineous severe headache, nausea and vomiting. At the time of admission, her physical and neurological examination was negative except for bilateral papilledema. CT demonstrated marked enlargement of the right lateral ventricle. In addition, there was negative absorption value (-90 H.U.), suggesting free fat, within right frontal horn layering above the CSF with a fluid level. Metrizamide ventriculography demonstrated complete obstruction and revealed an irregular shadow defect at the right foramen of Monro. At surgery, yellowish cheese-like material, white hair was found on the surface of the CSF. Tumor arose from the floor of the right foramen of Monro and extended upward. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 17 days after surgery. Intraventricular free fat is likely that to be released from the teratoma cyst ruptured spontaneously when the patient complained of severe headache 40 days prior to admission. There have been several published reports of the CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors, however, teratoma with intraventricular free fat is very rare. It was concluded that fat-containing tumors should be highly suspected, when negative absorption values were found on CT. (author)

  13. Design of Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase mutants with improved trans-sialidase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyffenegger, Christian; Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Jers, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    were analyzed via kinetics for their ability to carry out trans-sialidase reaction using CGMP and D-lactose as substrates. The sialidase variants with 15 and 16 mutations, respectively, exhibited significantly improved trans-sialidase activity for D-lactose sialylation. Our results corroborate......, that computational studies of trans-glycosylation can be a valuable input in the design of novel trans-glycosidases, but also highlight the importance of experimental validation in order to assess the performance. In conclusion, two of the seven mutants displayed a dramatic switch in specificity from hydrolysis...

  14. Boycunts and bonus holes: trans men's bodies, neoliberalism, and the sexual productivity of genitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Elijah Adiv; Zimman, Lal

    2014-01-01

    Recent theorizations of trans embodiment have brought attention to the ways neoliberalism limits the productivity of nonnormatively gendered bodies. This article deals with the discursive framing of embodiment and sexual desirability among trans men and other transmasculine persons negotiating Internet-mediated homoerotic spaces. Micro-level analysis of discourse structure and macro-level analysis of socio-political context together show how trans men navigate homonormative sexual economies by linguistically recuperating their bodies' sexually productivity. Instead of undermining claims of embodied masculinity and homoerotic value, potential sites of exclusion-i.e., trans genitals-become sites of flexible accumulation that enhance rather than detract from their bearers' desirability.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV Prevalence, Sexual Partners, Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition Risk Among Trans Men, San Francisco, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-12-01

    We surveyed 122 trans men using a hybrid sampling method that included randomly selected physical and online venues and peer referral to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 0% (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval 0-3.3%). Of 366 partnerships described, 44.8% were with cisgender women, 23.8% with cisgender men, 20.8% with trans men, and 10.7% with trans women. Condomless receptive anal and front hole/vaginal sex averaged one to three episodes per six months. HIV prevalence in trans men is likely closer to heterosexual cisgender men and women in San Francisco than trans women or MSM. Prevention prioritizing trans women and MSM, coupled with individualized and relevant sexual health education for trans men with partners from these populations, may best address the HIV prevention needs of trans men. Systematic collection of transgender status in Census and health data is needed to understand other health disparities among trans men.

  17. Surgical outcomes of patients with superficial esophageal cancer. A comparison between trans-thoracic esophagectomy and trans-hiatal esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideo; Kubota, Hisako; Murakami, Haruaki

    2010-01-01

    We inspected the feasibility of minimally invasive surgery for superficial esophageal cancer, the trans-hiatal approach without thoracotomy. We examined the surgical outcomes of 33 superficial esophageal cancer whose cancer had invaded the submucosal layer and who underwent resection in our hospital between April 2003 and April 2009. The patients who had tumor invasion of within the sm1 and no metastasis to the upper and middle mediastinum lymph nodes were operated on by the trans-hiatal esophagectomy (THE). The other patients were underwent ordinary trans-thoracic esophagectomy (TTE). After the operations, we recommended adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for all patients whose tumor were histopathologically proved to involve the sm2 layer as well as the vessels and/or lymphatic duct. Of our 33 cases, nine were diagnosed as pM1 or pM2. Two were diagnosed as pM3, one of which had lymph node metastasis. Eleven cases were diagnosed as pSM1, four as pSM2, and seven as pSM3; and lymph node metastasis was observed in 4 pSM1 cases (36%), 2 pSM2 cases (50%) and 5 pSM3 cases (71.4%). The five-year survival rate in all cases was 89.6%. The five-year survival rate by operating method was 100% in THE cases or 80.9% in TTE cases. The rates by tumor depth of invasion was 100% in pM1-2 cases, 92.3% in pM3-SM1 cases and 78.8% in pSM2-3 cases. It is concluded that the surgical outcome of THE in accordance with our indication criteria is equal to that of TTE for superficial esophageal cancer. (author)

  18. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels <10% of adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed.

  19. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-08-01

    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.