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Sample records for trained subjects performed

  1. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; Leiva, Laura; Gattas, Vivien; de la Maza, María Pía; Avendaño, Marcelo; Hirsch, Sandra

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to assess the effects of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on physical performance of healthy elderly subjects. Ninety-six subjects, aged 70 years or more with 25 OH vitamin D levels of 16 ng/ml or less, were randomized to a resistance training or control group. Trained and control groups were further randomized to receive in a double blind fashion, vitamin D 400 IU plus 800 mg of calcium per day or calcium alone. Subjects were followed for nine months. Serum 25 OH vitamin D increased from 12.4+/-2.2 to 25.8+/-6.5 ng/ml among subjects supplemented with vitamin D. Trained subjects had significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength, the short physical performance test and timed up and go. The latter improved more in trained subjects supplemented with vitamin D. At the end of the follow up, gait speed was higher among subjects supplemented with vitamin (whether trained or not) than in non-supplemented subjects (838+/-147 and 768+/-127 m/12 min, respectively, p=0.02). Romberg ratio was lower among supplemented controls than non-supplemented trained subjects (128+/-40% and 144+/-37%, respectively, p=0.05). In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation improved gait speed and body sway, and training improved muscle strength.

  2. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-09-01

    To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.

  3. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  4. Effects of zeolite supplementation on parameters of intestinal barrier integrity, inflammation, redoxbiology and performance in aerobically trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Bogner, Simon; Steinbauer, Kurt; Schuetz, Burkhard; Greilberger, Joachim F; Leber, Bettina; Wagner, Bernhard; Zinser, Erwin; Petek, Thomas; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Oberwinkler, Tanja; Bachl, Norbert; Schippinger, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline compounds with microporous structures of Si-tetrahedrons. In the gut, these silicates could act as adsorbents, ion-exchangers, catalysts, detergents or anti-diarrheic agents. This study evaluated whether zeolite supplementation affects biomarkers of intestinal wall permeability and parameters of oxidation and inflammation in aerobically trained individuals, and whether it could improve their performance. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, 52 endurance trained men and women, similar in body fat, non-smokers, 20-50 years, received 1.85 g of zeolite per day for 12 weeks. Stool samples for determination of intestinal wall integrity biomarkers were collected. From blood, markers of redox biology, inflammation, and DNA damage were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. In addition, VO2max and maximum performance were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For statistical analyses a 2-factor ANOVA was used. At baseline both groups showed slightly increased stool zonulin concentrations above normal. After 12 weeks with zeolite zonulin was significantly (p zeolite group. There were no significant changes observed in the other measured parameters. Twelve weeks of zeolite supplementation exerted beneficial effects on intestinal wall integrity as indicated via decreased concentrations of the tight junction modulator zonulin. This was accompanied by mild anti-inflammatory effects in this cohort of aerobically trained subjects. Further research is needed to explore mechanistic explanations for the observations in this study.

  5. Driving monotonous routes in a train simulator: the effect of task demand on driving performance and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Naomi; Williamson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Although monotony is widely recognised as being detrimental to performance, its occurrence and effects are not yet well understood. This is despite the fact that task-related characteristics, such as monotony and low task demand, have been shown to contribute to performance decrements over time. Participants completed one of two simulated train-driving scenarios. Both were highly monotonous and differed only in terms of the level of cognitive demand required (i.e. low demand or high demand). These results highlight the seriously detrimental effects of the combination of monotony and low task demands and clearly show that even a relatively minor increase in cognitive demand can mitigate adverse monotony-related effects on performance for extended periods of time. Monotony is an inherent characteristic of transport industries, including rail, aviation and road transport, which can have adverse impact on safety, reliability and efficiency. This study highlights possible strategies for mitigating these adverse effects. Practitioner Summary: This study provides evidence for the importance of cognitive demand in mitigating monotony-related effects on performance. The results have clear implications for the rapid onset of performance deterioration in low demand monotonous tasks and demonstrate that these detrimental performance effects can be overcome with simple solutions, such as making the task more cognitively engaging.

  6. Performance evaluation of a motor-imagery-based EEG-Brain computer interface using a combined cue with heterogeneous training data in BCI-Naive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Youngbum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjects in EEG-Brain computer interface (BCI system experience difficulties when attempting to obtain the consistent performance of the actual movement by motor imagery alone. It is necessary to find the optimal conditions and stimuli combinations that affect the performance factors of the EEG-BCI system to guarantee equipment safety and trust through the performance evaluation of using motor imagery characteristics that can be utilized in the EEG-BCI testing environment. Methods The experiment was carried out with 10 experienced subjects and 32 naive subjects on an EEG-BCI system. There were 3 experiments: The experienced homogeneous experiment, the naive homogeneous experiment and the naive heterogeneous experiment. Each experiment was compared in terms of the six audio-visual cue combinations and consisted of 50 trials. The EEG data was classified using the least square linear classifier in case of the naive subjects through the common spatial pattern filter. The accuracy was calculated using the training and test data set. The p-value of the accuracy was obtained through the statistical significance test. Results In the case in which a naive subject was trained by a heterogeneous combined cue and tested by a visual cue, the result was not only the highest accuracy (p Conclusions We propose the use of this measuring methodology of a heterogeneous combined cue for training data and a visual cue for test data by the typical EEG-BCI algorithm on the EEG-BCI system to achieve effectiveness in terms of consistence, stability, cost, time, and resources management without the need for a trial and error process.

  7. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  8. body composition, and subjective assessments of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Giessing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of resistance training (RT examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n=13; females, n=17 were randomised to either a group performing low volume ‘High Intensity Training’ (HIT; n=16 or high volume ‘Body-building’ (3ST; n=14 RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant’s subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively. HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05 and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively. Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.

  9. Subjective stress factors in centrifuge training for military aircrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Wang, Jenhung; Li, Shih-Chin

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates stress-influence factors perceived by military aircrews undergoing centrifuge training, which lowers the incidence of G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) for the crews of high-performance combat aircrafts. We used questionnaires to assess the subjective stress-influence factors of crews undergoing centrifuge training. Professionals in aviation physiology identified attributes measuring the perceived stress induced by centrifuge training, which were segmented into three constructs by factor analysis, theory lecture, centrifuge equipment, and physical fitness. Considerable interpenetration was discernible between these factors and military rank, age, length of service, flight hours accrued, and type of aircraft piloted. Identifying and quantifying the perceived stressors experienced in human-use centrifuge training enables aviators, astronauts, and air forces of the world to determine which constructs perceptibly increase or alleviate the perceived stress undergone by trainees when partaking in centrifuge training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  11. Neurofeedback training for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D

    2014-01-01

    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  12. Can training improve human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waylett, W.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear industry has made a significant commitment to improve training through the implementation of performance-based training programs. Senior management expects that human performance improvement will result from this significant resource allocation. The author examines this hypothesis and discusses other issues that may interfere with enhancing human performance through training. The integration of quality improvement concepts to support training is also discussed by the author, who was a pioneer facilitator during the development of Florida Power and Light Company's Quality Improvement Program. Critical success factors are proposed based on the author's experience as a plant manager, training manager and quality facilitator

  13. Development of Subjectivity in Cadets during Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Markov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article submits the results of the research, where such personal factors as learning motivation, aggressive reactions and the choice of behavior strategy in conflict are considered as the indicators of subjectivity development. It also shows the dynamics of the subjectivity development in cadets on these indicators.

  14. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

  15. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs

  16. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  17. Increased motor cortex excitability during motor imagery in brain-computer interface trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokienko, Olesya A.; Chervyakov, Alexander V.; Kulikova, Sofia N.; Bobrov, Pavel D.; Chernikova, Liudmila A.; Frolov, Alexander A.; Piradov, Mikhail A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Motor imagery (MI) is the mental performance of movement without muscle activity. It is generally accepted that MI and motor performance have similar physiological mechanisms. Purpose: To investigate the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas during MI in subjects who were previously trained with an MI-based brain-computer interface (BCI). Subjects and Methods: Eleven healthy volunteers without neurological impairments (mean age, 36 years; range: 24–68 years) were either trained with an MI-based BCI (BCI-trained, n = 5) or received no BCI training (n = 6, controls). Subjects imagined grasping in a blocked paradigm task with alternating rest and task periods. For evaluating the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas we used functional MRI and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). Results: fMRI revealed activation in Brodmann areas 3 and 6, the cerebellum, and the thalamus during MI in all subjects. The primary motor cortex was activated only in BCI-trained subjects. The associative zones of activation were larger in non-trained subjects. During MI, motor evoked potentials recorded from two of the three targeted muscles were significantly higher only in BCI-trained subjects. The motor threshold decreased (median = 17%) during MI, which was also observed only in BCI-trained subjects. Conclusion: Previous BCI training increased motor cortex excitability during MI. These data may help to improve BCI applications, including rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy. PMID:24319425

  18. Increased motor cortex excitability during motor imagery in brain-computer interface trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya eMokienko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery (MI is the mental performance of movement without muscle activity. It is generally accepted that MI and motor performance have similar physiological mechanisms.Purpose: To investigate the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas during MI in subjects who were previously trained with an MI-based brain-computer interface (BCI.Subjects and methods: Eleven healthy volunteers without neurological impairments (mean age, 36 years; range: 24–68 years were either trained with an MI-based BCI (BCI-trained, n = 5 or received no BCI training (n = 6, controls. Subjects imagined grasping in a blocked paradigm task with alternating rest and task periods. For evaluating the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas we used functional MRI and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS.Results: fMRI revealed activation in Brodmann areas 3 and 6, the cerebellum, and the thalamus during MI in all subjects. The primary motor cortex was activated only in BCI-trained subjects. The associative zones of activation were larger in non-trained subjects. During MI, motor evoked potentials recorded from two of the three targeted muscles were significantly higher only in BCI-trained subjects. The motor threshold decreased (median = 17% during MI, which was also observed only in BCI-trained subjects.Conclusion: Previous BCI training increased motor cortex excitability during MI. These data may help to improve BCI applications, including rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy.

  19. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  20. Performance comparison of resistance-trained subjects by different methods of adjusting for body mass. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladymir Külkamp

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance (1RM of resistance-trained subjects, using different methods of adjusting for body mass (BM: ratio standard, theoretical allometric exponent (0.67, and specific allometric exponents. The study included 11 male and 11 female healthy non-athletes (mean age = 22 years engaged in regular resistance training for at least 6 months. Bench press (BP, 45° leg press (LP and arm curl (AC exercises were performed, and the participants were ranked (in descending order according to each method. The specific allometric exponents for each exercise were: for men – BP (0.73, LP (0.35, and AC (0.71; and for women – BP (1.22, LP (1.02, and AC (0.85. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no differences between the rankings. However, visual inspection indicated that the participants were often classified differently in relation to performance by the methods used. Furthermore, no adjusted strength score was equal to the absolute strength values (1RM. The results suggest that there is a range of values in which the differences between exponents do not reflect different rankings (below 0.07 points and a range in which rankings can be fundamentally different (above 0.14 points. This may be important in long-term selection of universally accepted allometric exponents, considering the range of values found in different studies. The standardization of exponents may allow the use of allometry as an additional tool in the prescription of resistance training.

  1. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Graczyk; Maria Pąchalska; Artur Ziółkowski; Grzegorz Mańko; Beata Łukaszewska; Kazimierz Kochanowicz; Andrzej Mirski; Iurii D. Kropotov

    2014-01-01

    [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneou...

  2. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  3. Effects of weight training on power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUKAB AZEEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Harris et al. declared that some researchers claim the use of 80% of 1RM is recommended toimprove power characteristics, while others suggest 50-60% of 1RM and below. Kawamori and Haff agreed withHarris et al., stating that there is inconsistency in the optimal load to produce the highest power. They claimedthat some studies that used untrained subjects, single joint exercises, and upper-body exercises reported 30-45%of 1RM, while others using trained subjects, multi-joint exercises, and lower-body exercises reported 30-70% of1RM.Method: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of weight training in the developing the powerperformance among 20 students between 16 to 18 years of age enrolled for physical education course for theacademic year 2010, were selected as subjects. Pre and post test was conducted for the group on 1RM of squats,bench press and dead lift. 45 minutes weight training program, twice a week, for 12 weeks was given to thesubjects. The statistical tools used were mean, SD, and ‘t’ –test.Results & Discussion: The analysis of the data reveals that the subjects with the training have shownimprovement in the performance of squats from pre to post test with the mean and S.D being (76.00, 26.59 and(93.75, 27.19 respectively. The improvement is quite encouraging and highly significant (p<0.0001.With regard to bench press exercise of the subjects the mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (53.00, 23.14and (70.25, 23.37. The data clearly speaks of an improved performance from pre to post scores of the studentswhich is highly significant at (p<0.0001. The mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (104.00, 28.31 and(135.00, 24.97 respectively with respect to dead lift exercise. There is an increase in the power of the studentswhich is encouraging and highly significant with (p<0.0001.Conclusions: It is concluded from this study, that there was a marked improvement in the performance of thestudents in

  4. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  5. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength, makes strength training a more effective training modality for relatively weak individuals.

  6. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...... endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p...

  7. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation

  8. Coordination Motor Skills of Military Pilots Subjected to Survival Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Survival training of military pilots in the Polish Army gains significance because polish pilots have taken part in more and more military missions. Prolonged exercise of moderate intensity with restricted sleep or sleep deprivation is known to deteriorate performance. The aim of the study was thus to determine the effects of a strenuous 36-hour exercise with restricted sleep on selected motor coordination and psychomotor indices. Thirteen military pilots aged 30-56 years were examined twice: pretraining and posttraining. The following tests were applied: running motor adjustment (15-m sprint, 3 × 5-m shuttle run, 15-m slalom, and 15-m squat), divided attention, dynamic body balance, handgrip strength differentiation. Survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength (from 672 to 630 N), corrected 50% max handgrip (from 427 to 367 N), error 50% max (from 26 to 17%), 15-m sprint (from 5.01 to 4.64 m·s), and 15-m squat (2.20 to 1.98 m·s). The training improvements took place in divided attention test (from 48.2 to 57.2%). The survival training applied to pilots only moderately affected some of their motor adjustment skills, the divided attention, and dynamic body balance remaining unaffected or even improved. Further studies aimed at designing a set of tests for coordination motor skills and of soldiers' capacity to fight for survival under conditions of isolation are needed.

  9. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechel, Ben

    such data are for evaluating theories in personnel economics and whether findings from such data generalize to the labor force at large. In this paper, we examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employees within narrowly...

  10. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  11. Cross-training policies and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Molleman, E.

    Labour flexibility is an important issue in the design and development of teams. By means of an analytical study this paper investigates the impact of cross-training on team performance. Four cross-training policies are distinguished and compared according to their effects on important performance

  12. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p < 0.05). Magnitude of changes using effect size (ES) was examined between groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) in muscle and fat mass and percentages for whole body, upper limbs and trunk for ssMMF, but only upper limbs for ssRP. Body composition ES's ranged moderate to large for ssMMF (0.56 to 1.27) and ranged small to moderate for ssRP (0.28 to 0.52). ssMMF also significantly improved (P<0.05) total abdominal fat and increased intracellular water with moderate ES's (-0.62 and 0.56, respectively). Training to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  13. Occupational performance of women subjected to mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamylle Silva de Brito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the several therapeutic approaches to combat breast cancer, mastectomy is the most feared by women, not only because of its aggressive invasive characteristics to the female body, but also because of its biological, functional, emotional, and social repercussions. The objective of the present study was to outline the occupational performance profile through the description of daily life, productive and leisure activities of women that have undergone mastectomy. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with 21 women carried out at a school hospital in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, from June to September, 2011. We used a sociodemographic questionnaire and occupational assessment by the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP. In the occupational performance evaluation, Productivity was the most compromised area, followed by Leisure. Taking care of the body after mastectomy was not a restraint to the development of the daily-life, productive and leisure activities for the operated women, although some reorganization was needed to maintain a satisfactory performance.

  14. The Validity of Subjective Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Winter, Søren C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    to provide, and are highly policy specific rendering generalization difficult. But are perceptual performance measures valid, and do they generate unbiased findings? We examine these questions in a comparative study of middle managers in schools in Texas and Denmark. The findings are remarkably similar...

  15. Subjective performance evaluation and gender discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Torres-Gonzalez, R.

    2011-01-01

    Gender discrimination continues to be a problem in organizations. It is therefore important that organizations use performance evaluation methods that ensure equal opportunities for men and women. This article reports the results of an experiment to investigate whether and, if so, how the gender of

  16. Monitoring of performance and training in rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Rowing is a strength-endurance type of sport and competition performance depends on factors such as aerobic and anaerobic power, physical power, rowing technique and tactics. Therefore, a rower has to develop several capacities in order to be successful and a valid testing battery of a rower has to include parameters that are highly related to rowing performance. Endurance training is the mainstay in rowing. For the 2000 m race, power training at high velocities should be preferred to resistance training at low velocities in order to train more specifically during the off-season. The specific training of the international rower has to be approximately 70% of the whole training time. Several studies have reported different biochemical parameters for monitoring the training of rowers. There is some evidence that plasma leptin is more sensitive to training volume changes than specific stress hormones (e.g. cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone). In rowing, the stress hormone reactions to training volume and/or intensity changes are controversial. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measures both stress and recovery, and may therefore be more effective than the previously used Borg ratio scale or the Profile of Mood States, which both focus mainly on the stress component. In the future, probably the most effective way to evaluate the training of rowers is to monitor both stress and recovery components at the same time, using both psychometric data together with the biochemical and performance parameters.

  17. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the bal...

  18. What predicts performance during clinical psychology training?

    OpenAIRE

    Scior, Katrina; Bradley, Caroline E; Potts, Henry W W; Woolf, Katherine; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While the question of who is likely to be selected for clinical psychology training has been studied, evidence on performance during training is scant. This study explored data from seven consecutive intakes of the UK's largest clinical psychology training course, aiming to identify what factors predict better or poorer outcomes. Design Longitudinal cross-sectional study using prospective and retrospective data. Method Characteristics at application were analysed in relation to a r...

  19. Which one Enhances Muscular Performance in ACL Reconstructed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Ulusoy, Burak; Atay, Ahmet Ozgur; Baltacı, Gul

    2014-01-01

    (p=0.01). However, brace decreased VJ distance (p=0.04). Kinesiotaping had no effect on quadriceps and hamstring strength (p>0.05). Only brace increased the quadriceps strength at 180 °/s (p=0.02). 40% of the subjects felt more confident with knee brace; 25% of them were more confident with kinesiotaping and the rest (35%) of them were more confident with no brace and kinesiotaping. Conclusion: Kinesiotaping enhances balance and jump performance except for increasing knee strength in ACLR subjects at 6th months after surgery when they normally return to their sport. Although, knee brace increases quadriceps strength, it has adverse effect on functional performance . Therefore, Kinesiotaping can be applied for those patients when they start their sport specific training to enhance functional performance.

  20. Self-rotations in simulated microgravity: performance effects of strategy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Leia; Newman, Dava; Willcox, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This research studies reorientation methodologies in a simulated microgravity environment using an experimental framework to reduce astronaut adaptation time and provide for a safety countermeasure during extravehicular activity. There were 20 subjects (10 men, 10 women, mean age of 23.6 +/- 3.5) who were divided into 2 groups, fully trained and minimally trained, which determined the amount of motion strategy training received. Subjects performed a total of 48 rotations about their pitch, roll, and yaw axes in a suspension system that simulated microgravity. In each trial subjects either rotated 90 degrees in pitch, 90 degrees in roll, or 180 degrees in yaw. Experimental measures include subject coordination, performance time, cognitive workload assessments, and qualitative motion control strategies. Subjects in the fully trained group had better initial performance with respect to performance time and workload scores for the pitch and yaw rotations. Further, trained subjects reached a steady-state performance time in fewer trials than those with minimal training. The subjects with minimal training tended to use motions that were common in an Earth environment since no technique was provided. For roll rotations they developed motions that would have led to significant off-axis (pitch and yaw) rotations in a true microgravity environment. We have shown that certain body axes are easier to rotate about than others and that fully trained subjects had an easier time performing the body rotations than the minimally trained subjects. This study has provided the groundwork for the development of an astronaut motion-control training program.

  1. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  2. Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. pdeviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes.

  3. Fueling strategies to optimize performance: training high or training low?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M

    2010-10-01

    Availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for the muscle and central nervous system is critical for the performance of both intermittent high-intensity work and prolonged aerobic exercise. Therefore, strategies that promote carbohydrate availability, such as ingesting carbohydrate before, during and after exercise, are critical for the performance of many sports and a key component of current sports nutrition guidelines. Guidelines for daily carbohydrate intakes have evolved from the "one size fits all" recommendation for a high-carbohydrate diets to an individualized approach to fuel needs based on the athlete's body size and exercise program. More recently, it has been suggested that athletes should train with low carbohydrate stores but restore fuel availability for competition ("train low, compete high"), based on observations that the intracellular signaling pathways underpinning adaptations to training are enhanced when exercise is undertaken with low glycogen stores. The present literature is limited to studies of "twice a day" training (low glycogen for the second session) or withholding carbohydrate intake during training sessions. Despite increasing the muscle adaptive response and reducing the reliance on carbohydrate utilization during exercise, there is no clear evidence that these strategies enhance exercise performance. Further studies on dietary periodization strategies, especially those mimicking real-life athletic practices, are needed. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  5. Is Transfer of Training Related to Firm Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Alan M.; Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to bridge the gap between micro-training research on the transfer of training and macro-training research on training and firm performance by testing the relationship between transfer of training and firm performance. Training and development professionals completed a survey about the training methods used in their…

  6. Leadership training, leadership strategies and organizational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Louise; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    Leadership is fundamentally important for improving public sector performance, but the existing literature has severe endogeneity problems. Using a field experiment with 720 Danish leaders and 23.000 employees, the LEAP (Leadership and Performance) project will try to overcome these problems. We...... use a field experiment to study the effects of leadership training and leadership strategies on organizational performance. The research question is how leadership training affect leadership strategies, and how these strategies affect performance? This paper takes three steps towards answering...... this question. First, we discuss the conceptualization of leadership strategies. Second, we present our research design and clarify how we expect the leadership training to affect leadership strategies. Third, we discuss briefly how we measure the key concepts: Leadership and performance. Our aim is to develop...

  7. Train turn restrictions and line plan performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin

    In this paper we study the impact of the `turn conditions' in end stations on the performance of a line plan. If trains have to turn on their platform in an end station, the yoccupy the platform for several minutes. A more preferred option, from a timetabling point of view, would be that a train...... in a exible and large enough shunt. Starting from a given line plan, we compare two timetables, one where trains have to turn on their platform and one where trains can turn in a shunt. We evaluate the impact on the performance of the line plan by its feasibility for timetabling,the minimum overall buffer...... disappears from the platform in its end station after dwelling and only appears again when departing for a subsequent trip. In this case, the train will not interfere with other trains that dwell on the platform during the time between these events. However, this option is only possible if the train can stay...

  8. Training efficiency and transfer success in an extended real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training of the somato-motor cortex of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor eAuer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of self-regulation of the somato-motor cortices (SMC attained by an extended functional MRI (fMRI neurofeedback training. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 12 real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback training sessions within 4 weeks, involving motor imagery of the dominant right as well as the non-dominant left hand. Target regions of interests in the SMC were individually localized prior to the training by overt finger movements. The feedback signal was defined as the difference between fMRI activation in the contra- and ipsilateral SMC and visually presented to the subjects. Training efficiency was determined by an off-line GLM analysis determining the fMRI percent signal changes in the somato-motor cortex (SMC target areas accomplished during the neurofeedback training. Transfer success was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-training transfer task, i.e. the neurofeedback paradigm without the presentation of the feedback signal. Group results show a distinct increase in feedback performance in the transfer task for the trained group compared to a matched untrained control group, as well as an increase in the time course of the training, indicating an efficient training and a successful transfer. Individual analysis revealed that the training efficiency was not only highly correlated to the transfer success but also predictive. Trainings with at least 12 efficient training runs were associated with a successful transfer outcome. A group analysis of the hemispheric contributions to the feedback performance showed that it is mainly driven by increased fMRI activation in the contralateral SMC, although some individuals relied on ipsilateral deactivation. Training and transfer results showed no difference between left and right hand imagery, with a slight indication of more ipsilateral deactivation in the early right hand trainings.

  9. Evaluating performance measures to determine training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.W.; Feiza, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This research was conceived and dedicated to helping the CECo training organization become a more integrated part of the corporate business. The target population for this study was nuclear and fossil generating station employees who directly impacted the production of electricity. The target sample (n = 150) included: instrument, mechanical, and electrical maintenance personnel; control room operators; engineers, radiation chemists, and other technical specialists; and equipment operators and attendants. A total of four instruments were utilized by this study. Three instruments were administered to the generating station personnel. These included a demographic form, a learning style profile, and a motivational style profile. The focal instrument, a performance skills rating form, was administered to supervisory personnel. Data analysis consisted of three major parts. Part one established internal consistency through Cronbach alpha statistics. Part two provides summary statistics and breakdown tables for important variables. Part three provides inferential statistics responding to the research questions. All six Performance Skills variables discriminated significantly between the trained and non-trained groups (p .001). In all cases, the mean value for the trained group exceeded the mean value for the non-trained group. Implications for further research indicate that training does have a quantifiable effect on job performance

  10. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  11. Exercise Training Reduces Peripheral Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Young Prehypertensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. METHODS Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120–139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80–89mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18–35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. RESULTS PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects. PMID:23736111

  12. Exercise training reduces peripheral arterial stiffness and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Casey, Darren P; Braith, Randy W

    2013-09-01

    Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80-89 mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18-35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

  13. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....

  14. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  15. Subjects and educational objectives of specialized training courses for power plant operators (masters). Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Presentation of training guidelines and subjects taught in a brief survey. The interdisciplinary training schemes are given in particular, including subjects and educational objectives, number of teaching hours. etc. The courses are intended to provide the basic knowledge required for cost-conscious action, law-conscious action, and efficient teamwork. (HAG) [de

  16. Enhancing Astronaut Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Bloomberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments - enhancing their ability to learn to learn. We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  17. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  18. Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Fricke, Hannes; de Marées, Markus; Linville, John W; Mester, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Special force units and military personnel undergo demanding physical exercise and might benefit from high-intensity respiratory muscle training (RMT) by increasing their endurance performance. This study examined the effects of a 6-week high-intensity RMT on running performance and oxygen uptake (VO2max) in a group of German Special Force Squad members. 17 participants were randomly assigned to a training or control group. Baseline and post-testing included a ramp test, as well as an incremental test on a treadmill, performed to physical exhaustion. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured breath by breath. Furthermore, maximum running speed (V(max)), 4 mmol x 1(-1) lactate threshold (V4) and perception of respiratory effort were determined. During pulmonary testing, sustained maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (PI(max) and PE(max)) were obtained. RMT was performed daily at approximately 90% PI(max) for 6 weeks with 2 x 30 breath cycles using an Ultrabreathe lung trainer. No statistical differences were detected between the groups for any parameter after RMT. High-intensity RMT did not show any benefits on VO2max and endurance performance and are unlikely to be of benefit to military or paramilitary training programs for an increase in endurance performance.

  19. Computer task performance by subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, Silvia Regina Pinheiro; da Silva, Talita Dias; Favero, Francis Meire; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Fregni, Felipe; Ribeiro, Denise Cardoso; de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira

    2016-01-01

    Two specific objectives were established to quantify computer task performance among people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). First, we compared simple computational task performance between subjects with DMD and age-matched typically developing (TD) subjects. Second, we examined correlations between the ability of subjects with DMD to learn the computational task and their motor functionality, age, and initial task performance. The study included 84 individuals (42 with DMD, mean age of 18±5.5 years, and 42 age-matched controls). They executed a computer maze task; all participants performed the acquisition (20 attempts) and retention (five attempts) phases, repeating the same maze. A different maze was used to verify transfer performance (five attempts). The Motor Function Measure Scale was applied, and the results were compared with maze task performance. In the acquisition phase, a significant decrease was found in movement time (MT) between the first and last acquisition block, but only for the DMD group. For the DMD group, MT during transfer was shorter than during the first acquisition block, indicating improvement from the first acquisition block to transfer. In addition, the TD group showed shorter MT than the DMD group across the study. DMD participants improved their performance after practicing a computational task; however, the difference in MT was present in all attempts among DMD and control subjects. Computational task improvement was positively influenced by the initial performance of individuals with DMD. In turn, the initial performance was influenced by their distal functionality but not their age or overall functionality.

  20. No effects of successful bidirectional SMR feedback training on objective and subjective sleep in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Wilschut, E.S.; Arns, M.; Bottenheft, C.; Valk, P.J.L.; Vermetten, H.G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the application of psychophysiological signals in more applied settings. Unidirectional sensory motor rhythm-training (SMR) has demonstrated consistent effects on sleep. In this study the main aim was to analyze to what extent participants could gain voluntary control

  1. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (T T0.1 ). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. T T0.1 was calculated using the equation, T T0.1 = P 0.1 /P Imax × T I /T tot (where P 0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, P Imax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and T I /T tot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume ( P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency ( P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output ( P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake ( P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, T T0.1 , and rate of perceived

  2. USING SECOND LIFE VIRTUAL COMPUTER WORLD AS A TRAINING TOOL FOR THE SUBJECTIVE GLOBAL ASSESSMENT (sga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clark Connery

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The SGA is a clinical tool used to assess protein energy wasting. Although well validated, it is still not widely incorporated into clinical practice. A barrier to use may be the physical assessment section. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to develop a free and effective tool to train clinicians on performing the SGA. Second Life (SL is a free virtual reality program accessed through the internet using human-like “avatars.” A museum environment was created with panels presenting SGA background information through text, images, and videos of SGA being performed. Users are able to navigate the information by logging onto a provided avatar. After the initial panels, this avatar is able to interact with avatar bots and perform animations which mimic each body assessment within the SGA. Two trial periods were conducted to assess the efficacy of this training tool. The alpha trial consisted of 3 hospital dietitians and 3 nutrition students. These subjects came to the investigators’ facility to test the program. Subjective responses were collected and used to improve the training tool. Feedback was positive regarding the information, delivery, and direction of the project; however, they did complain of difficulty with controlling the avatar. The beta trial consists of users accessing the module remotely. These users include academic and clinical dietitians. Responses are being collected via 5 surveys covering each portion of the module. While 16 dietitians responded to the beta trial, only 4 have completed the training. Current survey responses state: the use of SL is easy and enjoyable; all SGA information was clear and in a desirable format; tactile comparison objects were beneficial for understanding; the in depth description of each assessment is beneficial; the animations that the avatars perform on the bots needs improvement; a patient avatar on which users could perform the full SGA is desirable; the use of SL in the learning

  3. Predicting BCI subject performance using probabilistic spatio-temporal filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Il Suk

    Full Text Available Recently, spatio-temporal filtering to enhance decoding for Brain-Computer-Interfacing (BCI has become increasingly popular. In this work, we discuss a novel, fully Bayesian-and thereby probabilistic-framework, called Bayesian Spatio-Spectral Filter Optimization (BSSFO and apply it to a large data set of 80 non-invasive EEG-based BCI experiments. Across the full frequency range, the BSSFO framework allows to analyze which spatio-spectral parameters are common and which ones differ across the subject population. As expected, large variability of brain rhythms is observed between subjects. We have clustered subjects according to similarities in their corresponding spectral characteristics from the BSSFO model, which is found to reflect their BCI performances well. In BCI, a considerable percentage of subjects is unable to use a BCI for communication, due to their missing ability to modulate their brain rhythms-a phenomenon sometimes denoted as BCI-illiteracy or inability. Predicting individual subjects' performance preceding the actual, time-consuming BCI-experiment enhances the usage of BCIs, e.g., by detecting users with BCI inability. This work additionally contributes by using the novel BSSFO method to predict the BCI-performance using only 2 minutes and 3 channels of resting-state EEG data recorded before the actual BCI-experiment. Specifically, by grouping the individual frequency characteristics we have nicely classified them into the subject 'prototypes' (like μ - or β -rhythm type subjects or users without ability to communicate with a BCI, and then by further building a linear regression model based on the grouping we could predict subjects' performance with the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.581 with the performance later seen in the actual BCI session.

  4. MONITORING SWIMMING SPRINT PERFORMANCE DURING A TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Marinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation for a major competition is an important concern of coaches and athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution in sprint performance during a training macro cycle in age-group swimmers of both genders. The sample comprised twenty four age-group swimmers (12.0 ± 0.72 years old, 41.43 ± 6.88 kg, 1.51 ± 0.09 m. The evaluations occurred during nine weeks of swimming training in the first macro cycle. During this period the subjects performed 54 training units (6 units per week. In all weeks, the performance in two trials of a 25 m front crawl all out test, with 15 min of rest, was recorded. Only the bestperformance was used to assess the effects of training. Comparisons between the first week and the following weeks were conducted using pair-sample t-test. The significance level was set at 5%. The sprint performance did not change during the first 6 weeks of preparation. In the last three weeks the performance in the 25 m front crawl test was improved when compared with the first week, although the major changes occurred at the last week of preparation.It seems that in age-group swimmers seven weeks of specific swimming training enables improving swimmer’s sprint performance, although some differences exists between male and female swimmers. Thesedata could be used by coaches to program the training season and the evolution of the load components.

  5. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6, with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02. Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population.

  6. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  7. [Professional competences in certification in occupational medicine as a subject of postgraduate training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkowski, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    In the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, teaching programs, contents of classes and teaching personnel of all postgraduate training cycles in occupational medicine were assessed (at the end of classes using a special questionnaire) by the students in the years 1998-2001. The evaluation studies with the help of a questionnaire on the self-assessment of acquired competencies were also carried out during this period. A comparative analysis enabled to define the degree in which particular courses (training cycles) concerning directly certification in some domains of occupational medicine, performed in 2000-2001, contributed to the increased professional competencies perceived by the students. Furthermore, of the whole list of occupational medicine subjects taught in 1998-2000, those concerning directly certification were separated, characterized quantitatively and qualitatively and compared with other aspects of special training in occupational medicine. One the basis of a specific evaluation study of the testing questions, performed in 1999, the quality of some questions on certification used in the tests of knowledge in occupational medicine was described.

  8. Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Nuno da Cruz, Janir; Nan, Wenya; Wong, Chi Man; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide relatively easy, reliable and high speed communication. However, the performance is still not satisfactory, especially in some users who are not able to generate strong enough SSVEP signals. This work aims to strengthen a user’s SSVEP by alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) and consequently improve the performance of the user in using SSVEP-based BCIs. Approach. An experiment with two steps was designed and conducted. The first step was to investigate the relationship between the resting alpha activity and the SSVEP-based BCI performance, in order to determine the training parameter for the NFT. Then in the second step, half of the subjects with ‘low’ performance (i.e. BCI classification accuracy <80%) were randomly assigned to a NFT group to perform a real-time NFT, and the rest half to a non-NFT control group for comparison. Main results. The first step revealed a significant negative correlation between the BCI performance and the individual alpha band (IAB) amplitudes in the eyes-open resting condition in a total of 33 subjects. In the second step, it was found that during the IAB down-regulating NFT, on average the subjects were able to successfully decrease their IAB amplitude over training sessions. More importantly, the NFT group showed an average increase of 16.5% in the SSVEP signal SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and an average increase of 20.3% in the BCI classification accuracy, which was significant compared to the non-NFT control group. Significance. These findings indicate that the alpha down-regulating NFT can be used to improve the SSVEP signal quality and the subjects’ performance in using SSVEP-based BCIs. It could be helpful to the SSVEP related studies and would contribute to more effective SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  9. The effects of tapering on strength performance in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, M J; MacDougall, J D; Sale, D G

    1994-11-01

    The optimum pre-competition taper procedure for "strength athletes" is not known. We examined voluntary strength and evoked contractile properties of the elbow flexors over a 10 day rest only (ROT) and a 10 day reduced volume taper (RVT) in 8 resistance trained males (23 +/- 2.1 years). Following 3 wks of standardized training of the elbow flexors, subjects were randomly assigned to one of the tapers. Upon completion, they resumed training for 3 wks and completed the other taper. No arm training was performed during the ROT, while high intensity, low volume training was done every second day during the RVT. Maximum isometric (MVC), low (0.52 rad.s-1; LV) and high velocity (3.14 rad.s-1; HV) concentric peak torque, and evoked isometric twitch contractile properties were measured before and after each training phase and every 48 h during each taper. ANOVA comparison of the tapers revealed that MVC increased (p pre-taper values throughout the RVT (measurement days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10), as did LV at 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. MVC did not change over the ROT but LV was significantly higher on day 2 and lower on days 8 and 10. LV was also greater on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 during the RVT compared to the ROT. The evoked contractile properties remained largely unchanged. The data indicate that resistance-trained athletes can improve low velocity concentric strength for at least 8 days by greatly reducing training volume, but maintaining training intensity.

  10. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants' trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries.

  11. The Influence of Training Phase on Error of Measurement in Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kristie-Lee; Hopkins, Will G; Chapman, Dale W; Cronin, John B

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the coefficients of variation in jump performance for individual participants in multiple trials over time to determine the extent to which there are real differences in the error of measurement between participants. The effect of training phase on measurement error was also investigated. Six subjects participated in a resistance-training intervention for 12 wk with mean power from a countermovement jump measured 6 d/wk. Using a mixed-model meta-analysis, differences between subjects, within-subject changes between training phases, and the mean error values during different phases of training were examined. Small, substantial factor differences of 1.11 were observed between subjects; however, the finding was unclear based on the width of the confidence limits. The mean error was clearly higher during overload training than baseline training, by a factor of ×/÷ 1.3 (confidence limits 1.0-1.6). The random factor representing the interaction between subjects and training phases revealed further substantial differences of ×/÷ 1.2 (1.1-1.3), indicating that on average, the error of measurement in some subjects changes more than in others when overload training is introduced. The results from this study provide the first indication that within-subject variability in performance is substantially different between training phases and, possibly, different between individuals. The implications of these findings for monitoring individuals and estimating sample size are discussed.

  12. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...... performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...

  13. Optimal contracts based on subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated in a recent laboratory experiment (see Sebald & Walzl, 2014), individuals tend to sanction others who subjectively evaluate their performance whenever this assessment falls short of the individuals’ self-evaluation. Interestingly, this is the case even if the individuals’ earnings...

  14. The Impact of Environmental Complexity and Team Training on Team Processes and Performance in Multi-Team Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobb, Marshall

    1999-01-01

    This study examined how manipulating the level of environmental complexity and the type of team training given to subject volunteers impacted important team process behaviors and performance outcomes...

  15. Fluid electrolyte excretion during different hypokinetic body positions of trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different body positions on renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes after exposure to 364 days of decreased number of steps per day (hypokinesia, HK). The studies were performed on 18 endurance trained male volunteers aged 19-24 years who had an average of VO 2max 67 ml/kg body/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the 1st group subjected to 12 h orthostatic position (OP) and 12 h clinostatic position (CP)/day, the 2nd group exposed to 8 h orthostatic position and 14 h clinostatic position/day, and the 3rd group submitted to 10 h orthostatic position and 16 h clinostatic position/day for 364 days. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under an average of 3000 steps/day for 364 days. Diuresis and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium as well as excretion of creatine were determined in 24-h urine samples. By the end of the hypokinetic period all volunteers, regardless of their body position during HK, manifested a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes as compared to prehypokinetic period values. It was concluded that prolonged restriction of motor activity induced a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes in endurance trained subjects regardless to their body position and duration thereof per day.

  16. Neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence enhances motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaz, Anais; Solcà, Marco; Magnin, Cécile; Corbet, Tiffany; Schnider, Armin; Guggisberg, Adrian G

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback training of motor cortex activations with brain-computer interface systems can enhance recovery in stroke patients. Here we propose a new approach which trains resting-state functional connectivity associated with motor performance instead of activations related to movements. Ten healthy subjects and one stroke patient trained alpha-band coherence between their hand motor area and the rest of the brain using neurofeedback with source functional connectivity analysis and visual feedback. Seven out of ten healthy subjects were able to increase alpha-band coherence between the hand motor cortex and the rest of the brain in a single session. The patient with chronic stroke learned to enhance alpha-band coherence of his affected primary motor cortex in 7 neurofeedback sessions applied over one month. Coherence increased specifically in the targeted motor cortex and in alpha frequencies. This increase was associated with clinically meaningful and lasting improvement of motor function after stroke. These results provide proof of concept that neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence is feasible and behaviorally useful. The study presents evidence for a role of alpha-band coherence in motor learning and may lead to new strategies for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Training Sequences and their Effects on Task Performance and User Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of information technology (IT) training sequencesand examines how sequencing of conceptual and procedural training impact IT task performance, user satisfaction and users' self-efficacy. Using assimilation theory, we develop four hypotheses related to training...... sequences. These hypotheses were then tested in a database design context using a quasi-experimental study involving student subjects. Empirical results demonstrate improved far-transfer andnear-transfer task performance and higher self-efficacy for subjects trained in the conceptual-procedural sequence vs...

  18. An instrument to assess subjective task value beliefs regarding the decision to pursue postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M

    2014-02-12

    To develop and validate an instrument to assess subjective ratings of the perceived value of various postgraduate training paths followed using expectancy-value as a theoretical framework; and to explore differences in value beliefs across type of postgraduate training pursued and type of pharmacy training completed prior to postgraduate training. A survey instrument was developed to sample 4 theoretical domains of subjective task value: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and perceived cost. Retrospective self-report methodology was employed to examine respondents' (N=1,148) subjective task value beliefs specific to their highest level of postgraduate training completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to evaluate and validate value belief constructs. Intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost, and financial value constructs resulted from exploratory factor analysis. Cross-validation resulted in a 26-item instrument that demonstrated good model fit. Differences in value beliefs were noted across type of postgraduate training pursued and pharmacy training characteristics. The Postgraduate Training Value Instrument demonstrated evidence of reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument can be used to assess value beliefs regarding multiple postgraduate training options in pharmacy and potentially inform targeted recruiting of individuals to those paths best matching their own value beliefs.

  19. Gait Training Improves Performance in Healthy Adults Exposed to Novel Discordant Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Crystal D.; Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After they return to Earth, astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances that disrupt their ability to walk. We have previously shown that training with a variety of sensorimotor adaptive challenges enhances the capability of adapting to novel sensorimotor conditions. We are currently developing a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of function after gravitational transitions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trained subjects could transfer learned skills from one discordant visuo-proprioceptive environment to another. During three sessions, subjects walked at 2.5 km/h on a treadmill mounted on a motion base platform. Ten subjects trained with a combination of lateral treadmill translation and superimposed sinusoidal lateral optic flow that was presented on a large screen positioned in front of them. Ten controls completed the same training schedule while viewing only the forward optic flow with no visual or physical oscillation. Twenty minutes after the final training session, all subjects completed a 2-minute trial with a novel combination of visual and treadmill roll perturbations not previously experienced during the training (Transfer Test). Compared to the untrained group, participants who received SA training showed faster reaction times and, based on a composite score derived from stride frequency, heart rate, and reaction time, an overall enhanced performance. Our results showed that an SA training program can improve overall walking performance when subjects are exposed to novel incongruent sensory environments. This training has application for both enhancing adaptive responses in astronauts and reducing fall and injury risk in the elderly.

  20. Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbregt, H J; Keeser, D; van Eijk, L; Suiker, E M; Eichhorn, D; Karch, S; Deijen, J B; Pogarell, O

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance. 25 healthy subjects were included and randomly assigned to active or sham E-NFT. On average the subjects underwent 15 E-NFT training sessions with a training duration of 45 min. Resting-state EEG was recorded prior to E-NFT training (t1) and in a 3-year follow-up (t3). Compared to sham E-NFT, which was used for the control group, real E-NFT increased beta activity in a predictable way. This increase was maintained over a period of three years post training. However, E-NFT did not result in significantly improved cognitive performance. Based on our results, we conclude that EEG-NFT can selectively modify EEG beta activity both in short and long-term. This is a sham controlled EEG neurofeedback study demonstrating long-term effects in resting state EEG. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of a perceptual - proprioceptive training with virtual visual feedback in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vando, Stefano; Unim, Brigid; Cassarino, Salvatore A; Padulo, Johnny; Masala, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB) might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week) with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP) program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg) were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: t...

  2. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  3. Limitations of subjective cognitive load measures in simulation-based procedural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Ringsted, Charlotte; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-08-01

    The effective implementation of cognitive load theory (CLT) to optimise the instructional design of simulation-based training requires sensitive and reliable measures of cognitive load. This mixed-methods study assessed relationships between commonly used measures of total cognitive load and the extent to which these measures reflected participants' experiences of cognitive load in simulation-based procedural skills training. Two groups of medical residents (n = 38) completed three questionnaires after participating in simulation-based procedural skills training sessions: the Paas Cognitive Load Scale; the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and a cognitive load component (CLC) questionnaire we developed to assess total cognitive load as the sum of intrinsic load (how complex the task is), extraneous load (how the task is presented) and germane load (how the learner processes the task for learning). We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients to assess agreement among these instruments. Group interviews explored residents' perceptions about how the simulation sessions contributed to their total cognitive load. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Total cognitive load scores differed significantly according to the instrument used to assess them. In particular, there was poor agreement between the Paas Scale and the TLX. Quantitative and qualitative findings supported intrinsic cognitive load as synonymous with mental effort (Paas Scale), mental demand (TLX) and task difficulty and complexity (CLC questionnaire). Additional qualitative themes relating to extraneous and germane cognitive loads were not reflected in any of the questionnaires. The Paas Scale, TLX and CLC questionnaire appear to be interchangeable as measures of intrinsic cognitive load, but not of total cognitive load. A more complete understanding of the sources of extraneous and germane cognitive loads in simulation-based training contexts is

  4. The Effect of Friendship Skills Training on Friendship Quality and Subjective Well-Being of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Ali; Kul, Aykut; Çetin, Aysenur; Cihangiroglu, Ümmügülsüm

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of friendship skills training on the quality of friendship and subjective well-being of adolescents. In order to determine the experimental and control groups, the Friendship Quality Scale and the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale were administered to 311 students in 9th, 10th and 11th grade classes from…

  5. Visuospatial training improves elementary students' mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Requena, Bernardo; Newton, Robert U

    2010-09-01

    Majority of the research suggests plyometric training (PT) improves maximal strength performance as measured by 1RM, isometric MVC or slow velocity isokinetic testing. However, the effectiveness of PT depends upon various factors. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with a total of 31 effect sizes (ES) was carried out to analyse the role of various factors on the effects of PT on strength performance. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were: (a) studies using PT programs for lower limb muscles; (b) studies employing true experimental design and valid and reliable measurements; (c) studies including sufficient data to calculate ES. When subjects can adequately follow plyometric exercises, the training gains are independent of fitness level. Subjects in either good or poor physical condition, benefit equally from plyometric work, also men obtain similar strength results to women following PT. In relation to the variables of program design, training volume of less than 10 weeks and with more than 15 sessions, as well as the implementation of high-intensity programs, with more than 40 jumps per session, were the strategies that seem to maximize the probability to obtain significantly greater improvements in performance (p<0.05). In order to optimise strength enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics with weight-training would be recommended, rather than utilizing only one form (p<0.05). The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by the strength and conditioning professional with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends for PT to optimise strength gains.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON ROCKER BOARD IN SITTING IN STROKE SUBJECTS A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Rayamajhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has been considered to be the most common cause of neurological disability with very high prevalence rate. The recovery of independence following stroke is a complex process requiring the reacquisition of many skills. Since controlling the body’s position in space is essential part of functional skills, restoration of balance is a critical part of the recovery of ability after stroke. Most of the work done regarding balance training in stroke subjects has focused on task-oriented activities and training under varied sensory input and found them to be effective. Studies have also compared the effect of stable and unstable surfaces on balance in stroke subjects and found that balance training on unstable surfaces is more effective in improving static and dynamic balance. There has not been any study till date investigating the effectiveness of balance training program on rocker board which is specific for stroke subjects who have difficulty in standing. Since balance training on rocker board in sitting has proved to be effective in improving balance in subjects with spinal cord injury who have difficulty in standing, there is a need to find out if similar balance training program on rocker board in sitting is also effective for improving balance of stroke subjects. Method: A Pilot study was performed on 10 stroke subjects selected through purposive sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomization as control (CG and experimental group (EG. EG received balance training on a rocker board along with conventional physiotherapy program. The CG received only conventional physiotherapy program. Results: Post-intervention Berg balance scale score of EG and the CG was statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both the groups as compared to pre-treatment depicted through Wilcoxon signed rank analysis within the groups. Greater improvement was observed in the EG compared to the CG post-treatment, analysed through Mann

  8. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training.

  9. Performance in sports--With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Everyday listening questionnaire: correlation between subjective hearing and objective performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Martina; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Lenarz, Thomas; Buechner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Clinical experience has demonstrated that speech understanding by cochlear implant (CI) recipients has improved over recent years with the development of new technology. The Everyday Listening Questionnaire 2 (ELQ 2) was designed to collect information regarding the challenges faced by CI recipients in everyday listening. The aim of this study was to compare self-assessment of CI users using ELQ 2 with objective speech recognition measures and to compare results between users of older and newer coding strategies. During their regular clinical review appointments a group of representative adult CI recipients implanted with the Advanced Bionics implant system were asked to complete the questionnaire. The first 100 patients who agreed to participate in this survey were recruited independent of processor generation and speech coding strategy. Correlations between subjectively scored hearing performance in everyday listening situations and objectively measured speech perception abilities were examined relative to the speech coding strategies used. When subjects were grouped by strategy there were significant differences between users of older 'standard' strategies and users of the newer, currently available strategies (HiRes and HiRes 120), especially in the categories of telephone use and music perception. Significant correlations were found between certain subjective ratings and the objective speech perception data in noise. There is a good correlation between subjective and objective data. Users of more recent speech coding strategies tend to have fewer problems in difficult hearing situations.

  11. Effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters among Trinidadian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhade, Geeta; Nayak, B Shivananda; Kurhade, Arvind; Unakal, Chandrasekhar; Kurhade, Krutika

    2017-09-29

    Persistent bouts of extended exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. It has recently been demonstrated that IL-6 is produced locally in contracting skeletal muscles and acts on a wide range of tissues. Larger amounts of IL-6 are produced in response to exercise than any other cytokines. Though the majority of existing data obtained following prolonged exercise, it remains to be explained the effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters and associated changes to the duration of this type of exercise. IL-1α is produced mainly by activated macrophages, as well as neutrophils epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. It possesses metabolic, physiological, hematopoietic activities, and plays one of the central roles in the regulation of the immune responses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters among Trinidadian subjects. Sixteen healthy, nonsmoker individuals who were martial arts practitioners for last 5 15 years, aged 25.94 ±7.6.20 years (mean ± SE). Blood samples were collected to determine IL-6 and other immunological parameters at preexercise, immediately post exercise (0 Hour), 1 hour, 2 hour and 52 hours of post exercise). The IL-6 and IL-1 was measured using Human IL-6 and IL-1 β ELISA kit, blood cell count was done using automated blood cell counter and CD4, and CD3 count was performed using the automated immunofluorescence analysis by flow cytometer. The mean basal IL-6 level was 71.47 ± 4.3 and reduced to 70.1 ± 21.6 immediately after exercise and then increased to 75.70 ± 8.2 after one hour of exercise bout, returning to basal level after two hours and remained so after 52 hours. The CD4 count was decreased as low as 102.2, (much lower than immunecompromised subjects) after the bout of training but returned to normal range within 2 hours of exercise and increased even more after 52 hours. Similar trends have been

  12. Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    psychical self-regulation program developed in Russia. This program uses techniques from numerous training systems ( meditation , yoga, hypnosis, autogenic ...athletes’ activation levels through auto suggestion. ’-- These techniques (e.g., autogenic training, biofeedback, breathing exercises, progressive muscle

  13. Subjective preference evaluation of sound fields by performing singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noson, Dennis

    2003-08-01

    A model of the auditory process is proposed for performing singers, which incorporates the added signal from bone conduction, as well as the psychological distance for subjective preference of the performer from the acoustic sound field of the stage. The explanatory power of previous scientific studies of vocal stage acoustics has been limited by a lack of an underlying theory of performer preference. Ando's theory, using the autocorrelation function (ACF) for parametrizing temporal factors, was applied to interpretation of singer sound field preference determined by the pair comparison method. Melisma style singing (no lyrics) was shown to increase the preferred delay time of reflections from a mean of 14 ms with lyrics to 23 ms without (pThesis advisor: Yoichi Ando Copies of this thesis are available from the author by inquiry at BRC Acoustics, 1741 First Avenue South, Seattle, WA 98134 USA. E-mail address: dnoson@brcacoustics.com

  14. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  15. [Effects of high intensity interval training on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, María Angélica; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Martínez, Sergio; Díaz, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Exercise training may reduce blood pressure. To determine the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise protocol on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Eleven men and 27 women aged 46.4 ± 9.8 years were divided in two groups according to their blood pressure. Sixteen were classified as normotensive and 22 as hypertensive. All attended an exercise program with 3 sessions per week for a total of 24 sessions. Each session consisted of one minute of intense exercise performed on a stationary bike, followed by an inactive pause lasting two minutes. This cycle was repeated 10 times and it was thus called 1 * 2 * 10. Blood pressure, weight (kg) and body fat were assessed. In the hypertensive group, there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 145.4 ± 9.0 to 118.3 ± 15.6 mm Hg (p hypertension in a period of two months and 24 sessions.

  16. Performance Pay, Training and Labor Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Market imperfections may cause firms and workers to under-invest in specific training. This paper shows that profit sharing may be a suitable instrument to enhance specific training investments, either by enhancing wage °exibility or by increasing the returns to training. As a result, profit sharing

  17. Performance of a visuomotor walking task in an augmented reality training setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Juliet A.M.; Choi, Julia T.; Buurke, Jaap H.; Rietman, Johan S.; Reenalda, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Visual cues can be used to train walking patterns. Here, we studied the performance and learning capacities of healthy subjects executing a high-precision visuomotor walking task, in an augmented reality training set-up. A beamer was used to project visual stepping targets on the walking surface of

  18. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  19. Effects of Aerobic Training on Cognition and Brain Glucose Metabolism in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Coutinho, Artur Martins Novaes; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá; Gualano, Bruno; Duran, Fabio Luís de Souza; Prando, Silvana; Ono, Carla Rachel; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; do Vale, Patrícia Helena Figuerêdo; Nitrini, Ricardo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic training (AT) is a promising intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To evaluate the effects of AT on cognition and regional brain glucose metabolism (rBGM) in MCI patients. Subjects performed a twice-a-week, moderate intensity, AT program for 24 weeks. Assessment with ADAS-cog, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and evaluation of rBGM with positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG-PET) were performed before and after the intervention. Aerobic capacity was compared using the maximal oxygen consumption VO2max (mL/Kg/min). [18F]FDG-PET data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis with SPM8 software. Forty subjects were included, with a mean (M) age of 70.3 (5.4) years and an initial Mini-Mental State Exam score of 27.4 (1.7). Comparisons using paired t-tests revealed improvements in the ADAS-cog (M difference: -2.7 (3.7), p <  0.001) and VO2max scores (M difference: 1.8 (2.0) mL/kg/min, p <  0.001). Brain metabolic analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in the rBGM of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, pFWE = 0.04. This rBGM decrease was negatively correlated with improvement in a visuospatial function/attentional test (rho =-0.31, p = 0.04). Several other brain areas also showed increases or decreases in rBGM. Of note, there was an increase in the retrosplenial cortex, an important node of the default mode network, that was negatively correlated with the metabolic decrease in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (r =-0.51, p = 0.001). AT improved cognition and changed rBGM in areas related to cognition in subjects with MCI.

  20. Muscle oxygenation and fascicle length during passive muscle stretching in ballet-trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A; Fujita, E; Ikegawa, S; Kuno-Mizumura, M

    2011-07-01

    Muscle stretching transiently decreases muscle-blood flow corresponding to a muscle extension. It may disturb a balance between muscular oxygen demand and oxygen supply to muscles and reduce muscle oxygenation. However, muscle-stretching training may improve blood circulatory condition, resulting in the maintained muscle oxygenation during muscle stretching. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in muscle-blood volume (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) during muscle stretching determined by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ballet-trained (BT) and untrained (C) subjects. 11 BT women who regularly perform muscle stretching and 11 C women participated in this study. Fascicle lengths, tHb and TOI in the tibialis anterior muscle were measured during passive plantar flexion from ankle joint angles of 120° (baseline) to 140°, 160°, the maximal comfortable position without pain (CP), and the maximal position (MP). At 160°, the % fascicle-length change from baseline was significantly lower in the BT than the C group, however, for the changes in tHb and TOI the significant interaction effect between the 2 groups was not detected. On the other hand, although the increases in the fascicle length from baseline to CP and MP were greater in BT than C, the tHb and TOI reductions were comparable between groups. We concluded that it appears that BT can extend their muscles without excessive reduction in muscle-blood volume and muscle oxygenation at relatively same but absolutely greater muscle-stretching levels than C. The attenuation in these indices during high-level muscle stretching may be associated with the repetitive muscle stretching of long-term ballet training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Ethographic ubiquity: original fake, expanded codex, transurban subject, performative doll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Canevacci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My essay presents the emerging of fake as a concept that does not mean false, but a post-dualistic mix of false/truth. The relation between digital culture and ubiquitous subjectivity is fundamental during its process; in the same way, the relation between aura and reproducibility cannot be determined dialectically as Benjamin did. Digital auratic reproducibility is the contemporary context and communicational metropolis is characterized by spontaneous and public performance: so, my conclusion is an analysis of some “living” doll and their uncanny presence.

  2. Influence of Isometric Exercise Training on Quadriceps Muscle Architecture and Strength in Obese Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese individuals have reduced quadriceps muscle strength relative to body mass that may increase the rate of progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise training on quadriceps muscle architecture and strength in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Fortyfour obese male subjects aged 40–65 years diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into group A (n=32 and group B (n=12. Group A subjects performed a 12-week isometric exercise program. Group B subjects did not participate in any exercise program and maintained their ordinary activities for the same period. Both groups received the same conventional physical therapy program including hot packs and therapeutic ultrasonic. Muscle thickness, pennation angles and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL muscle of the affected knee were measured at rest by B-mode ultrasonography. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension torque (MVIC of the affected knee was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee pain and function were evaluated using visual analogue pain scale (VAS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC. All variables were evaluated before and the end of the intervention period for both groups. Results: at the end of the program, group A subjects showed significant improvements compared with group B subjects regarding MVIC and muscle architecture parameters (p<0.05. Also, there was significant improvement in post-test VAS and WOMAC scores in group A subjects compared to group B subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12-week quadriceps isometric training program improves knee pain and quadriceps muscle strength and architecture in obese subjects with knee OA. These results indicate that isometric training should be regarded as a proper exercise intervention for obese patients with knee OA.

  3. Effects of Cogmed working memory training on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Joseph L; Oberle, Crystal D; Rhoton, Jayson; Ney, Ashley

    2018-04-16

    Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group. Pretest and posttest measures included multiple measures of attention, working memory, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Although improvement was observed for the full training group for a digit span task, no training-related improvement was observed for any of the other measures. Results of the study suggest that WM training does not improve performance on unrelated tasks or enhance other cognitive abilities.

  4. Human subjects protection training for community workers: an example from "Faith Moves Mountains".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2007-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement on the necessity of protecting human subjects, questions regarding ethical treatment and protection of human subjects remain and are particularly vexing for community-based participatory research (CBPR). There has been a notable lack of attention paid to what type of training should be provided and how to balance "real-life" concerns with official requirements. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how, in consultation with the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) at our institution and our community partners, we developed training that overcame concerns related to instruction of community workers on protection of human subjects. We developed a training module written in lay terms and containing only information pertinent to non-key personnel and their role in the CBPR project. We designed and piloted this material in collaboration with our community partners who work with us to recruit and train lay health advisors (LHAs) and oversee the day-to-day operations of the CBPR project. The educational module was presented to the community workers as a part of a day-long training session. The written materials were a part of a notebook of information accompanied by an oral Power Point presentation. Each of the workers was given a written test to evaluate knowledge of the content presented. The test was administered by the project director, a community member herself, and then sent to our institution for grading by personnel not involved in this project. To date, all community workers have passed the written test. The community members, research partners, and the ORI are satisfied with the scope and simplicity of the training program developed. Our team's collaborative approach to community-based human subjects training contributes to advancing a grounded, feasible, and rigorous process of protecting human subjects while implementing CBPR ideals.

  5. Importance of Performing Experience in Strength Training Periodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Adrián

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proper mastering of a training means seems to be an important determinant of the quality of strength training. Aim of the paper is to examine the differences in strength in relation to squat-performing experience and to offer a way of improving performance by means of increasing the quality of squat technique. Methods 1. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their previous experience with performing squat: a group of inexperienced (n = 9; age: 21.1 years ± 2.37; height: 179.2 cm ± 8.18; weight: 70.0 kg ± 7.38 and experienced (n = 9; age: 24.0 years ± 1.07; height: 182.1 cm ± 4.14; weight: 81.2 kg ± 4.29. We carried out a test of maximal isometric strength in deep squat (ISOmax50° and a modified diagnostic set (Fitro Force Plate which consisted of repetitions of heel raised deep squats with a gradually increasing external loading (FmaxBW+(0-100%. Posture and the body segments of the participants were not corrected during these tests. Mann-Whitney U test (α=0.05 was used to evaluate the data obtained. Results 1. After comparing the differences in the maximal value of force curve in dynamic muscular mode (FmaxBW+(0-100% and the maximal isometric force in deep squat (ISOmax50° between the groups we found significantly bigger differences in the group of experienced when the resistance represented +75 % (Δ 279.0 N and +100 % of body weight (Δ 332.2 N. Methods 2. Eleven inexperienced subjects (age: 22.1 years ± 1.52; weight: 78.2 kg ± 2.84 completed a short term experiment (with 4 training sessions in weeklong microcycle. The purpose was to practise deep squat without any content of targeted strength development.

  6. Dietary glycaemic load associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Susan E; O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; O'Toole, Paul W; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Jeffery, Ian B

    2015-06-01

    Ageing is associated with loss of cognitive function and an increased risk of dementia which is expected to place growing demands on health and long-term care providers. Among multiple causative factors, evidence suggests that cognitive impairment in older subjects may be influenced by diet. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary glycaemic load (GL) and cognition in older Irish adults. Community-dwelling subjects (n 208; 94 males and 114 females; aged 64-93 years) were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive capacity was tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The data were clustered to derive patterns of dietary intake. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and Poisson regression models were used to examine the relationship between dietary GL and MMSE score. Elderly subjects consuming 'prudent' dietary patterns (high in fruit, vegetables, fish, low-fat dairy and salad dressings and low in red meat and white bread) had higher MMSE scores (better cognitive function) than those consuming 'Western' dietary pattern (high in red meat and white bread and low in fruit and vegetables; P nutritional status, residential property price, cardiovascular medications and energy intake. In this community-dwelling elderly Irish cohort, consumption of a high glycaemic diet is associated with poorer cognitive performance as assessed by the MMSE.

  7. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W.; Myers, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternate explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternate explanations both for the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across subdisciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternate models might be empirically distinguished. PMID:24304775

  8. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  9. The Effects of Assertive Training on the Performance Self-Esteem of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Jayne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    High school teachers and an experienced leader provided assertiveness training for 148 female students in high school business and homemaking classes. Significant changes in performance self-esteem scores were found between pretesting and a three-month folLow-up. Low-self-esteem subjects showed greater increases than high-self-esteem subjects.…

  10. Barbell deadlift training increases the rate of torque development and vertical jump performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Shields, JoCarol E; Luera, Micheal J; Munayer, Ibrahim K; Mota, Jacob A; Carrillo, Elias C; Olinghouse, Kendra D

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of barbell deadlift training on rapid torque characteristics of the knee extensors and flexors. A secondary aim was to analyze the relationships between training-induced changes in rapid torque and vertical jump performance. Fifty-four subjects (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 20) or training group (n = 34). Subjects in the training group performed supervised deadlift training twice per week for 10 weeks. All subjects performed isometric strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors and vertical jumps before and after the intervention. Torque-time curves were used to calculate rate of torque development (RTD) values at peak and at 50 and 200 milliseconds from torque onset. Barbell deadlift training induced significant pre- to post-increases of 18.8-49.0% for all rapid torque variables (p torque capacities in both the knee extensors and flexors. Changes in rapid torque were associated with improvements in vertical jump height, suggesting a transfer of adaptations from deadlift training to an explosive, performance-based task. Professionals may use these findings when attempting to design effective, time-efficient resistance training programs to improve explosive strength capacities in novices.

  11. Muscle coordination in healthy subjects during floor walking and stair climbing in robot assisted gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, S; Schmidt, H; Volkmar, M; Werner, C; Helmich, I; Piorko, F; Krüger, J; Hesse, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of gait rehabilitation is a restoration of an independent gait and improvement of daily life walking functions. Therefore the specific patterns, that are to be relearned, must be practiced to stimulate the learning process of the central nervous system (CNS). The Walking Simulator HapticWalker allows for the training of arbitrary gait trajectories of daily life. To evaluate the quality of the training a total of 9 subjects were investigated during free floor walking and stair climbing and during the same tasks in two different training modes on the HapticWalker: 1) with and 2) without vertical center of mass (CoM) motion. Electromyograms (EMG) of 8 gait relevant muscles were measured and muscle activation was compared for the various training modes. Besides the muscle activation as an indicator for the quality of rehabilitation training the study investigates if a cancellation of the vertical CoM movement by adaption of the footplate trajectory is feasible i.e. the muscle activation patterns for the two training modes on the HapticWalker agree. Results show no significant differences in activation timing between the training modes. This indicates the feasibility of using a passive patient suspension and emulate the vertical CoM motion by trajectory adaption of the footplates. The muscle activation timing during HapticWalker training shows important characteristics observed in physiological free walking though a few differences can still remain.

  12. Training, Development and Organisational Performance | Aigbepue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manpower training and development are based on the premise that skills need to be improved for organization to grow. Physical, social, intellectual and mental training is very essential in facilitating the level of productivity and development of personnel in an organization. Absence of these programmes result to ...

  13. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  14. Enhancing Performance Under Stress: Stress Inoculation Training for Battlefield Airmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    activi- ties, email correspondence with AETC subject matter experts identified safety issues concern- ing the current facility’s lack of capacity and...on-requests in follow-on BUD/S training. Provide a Water Training Facility for Pararescue and Combat Control Training Email correspondence with AETC...ammunition; multitask loading; and reduced resources such as minimal cover in a firefight and having to use a weapon that had been rigged to misfire

  15. Variations in leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin levels induced by aerobic exercise in young trained and untrained male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Algul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests to 64-76% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate for about 30 min. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were taken and analysed for leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Paired samples and independent samples t-tests were used to analyse data. Irisin levels increased in all the subjects (p<0.001. In both groups, nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly after the night-time exercise (p<0.05. Importantly, leptin and nesfatin-1 levels varied among the trained and untrained groups: Both leptin and nesfatin-1 levels increased in 4 (13% and 12 (40% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercises, and they increased in 9 (30% and 10 (33% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. They decreased in 5 (16% and 7 (23% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercise and in 6 (20% and 3 (10% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. Exercise may result in increased energy consumption by altering irisin levels. However, due to variations among individuals, increasing leptin and nesfatin-1 levels by reducing food intake may not be applicable.

  16. A Study of the Journey from Training to Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossett, Allison; Tobias, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    This study questioned progress in the shift from training to performance. A survey administered to 62 training and performance professionals queried respondents about concepts relevant to performance: analysis, solution systems, cross-functionality, customer and collegial expectations, and shared knowledge. Overall, results showed that…

  17. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

  18. Undergraduate Medical Academic Performance is Improved by Scientific Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…

  19. Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Chih-Hung Chang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.

  20. Performance Errors in Weight Training and Their Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John H.; Lander, Jeffrey E.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses general performance errors in weight training, also discussing each category of error separately. The paper focuses on frequency and intensity, incorrect training velocities, full range of motion, and symmetrical training. It also examines specific errors related to the bench press, squat, military press, and bent- over and seated row…

  1. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Training and performance: The mediating role of organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Barba Aragón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a general recognition in the literature that training improves a firm's performance, empirical research does not always provide evidence to support this effect. One possible explanation is that training does not have a direct effect on performance but an indirect effect by improving other organizational outcomes. This paper suggests that organizational learning is one of those variables and that it mediates the relationship between training and performance and that the adoption of a learning-oriented training enhances performances through its positive effect on organizational learning. Using a sample of Spanish firms we obtain empirical evidence, which supports the view that this mediating effect is present.

  3. From Professional Competencies to Capacity: A Study of Education and Training for Subject Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject specialists are important assets in academic and research libraries. They possess not only the specialized knowledge of a particular subject field, but also the skills in library and information services. Looming shortage of qualified subject specialists resulting from the retirement of current professionals, most likely the baby-boomer generation, persuasively suggests that education and training are in urgent need of rethinking. This empirical study was conducted within the context of Library and Information Science education and academic librarianship in North America. Survey, content analysis, and focus group were employed as data collection methods. This study aims to analyze the status of LIS education for subject specialists, education needs and personal attributes of subject specialists, and the qualifications and responsibilities of becoming subject specialists. The goal of the study is to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitude of becoming subject specialists. Results of the study may provide insight into planning of formal curriculum and on-the-job training. [Article content in Chinese

  4. Electrophysiological characteristics of motor units and muscle fibers in trained and untrained young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duez, Lene; Qerama, Erisela; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and interference pattern analysis (IPA) would be larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects, possibly due to hypertrophy of muscle fibers and/or increased central drive. Moreover, we hypothesized...... and untrained subjects in IPA power spectrum and turns per second or amplitude of the CMAPs obtained by DMS. Muscle fiber hypertrophy and/or altered central drive may account for our results, but there was no indication of changes in muscle fiber excitability. Muscle Nerve, 2010....... that the untrained muscle is less excitable compared with the trained muscle. An electromyographic (EMG) needle electrode was used to record the IPA at maximal voluntary effort. The CMAP was obtained by stimulating the musculocutaneous nerve and recording the brachial biceps muscle using surface electrodes. CMAPs...

  5. Isokinetic peak torque and flexibility changes of the hamstring muscles after eccentric training: Trained versus untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Soliman, Elsadat Saad; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of eccentric isotonic training on hamstring flexibility and eccentric and concentric isokinetic peak torque in trained and untrained subjects. Sixty healthy subjects (mean age: 21.66 ± 2.64) were divided into three equal groups, each with 20 voluntary participants. Two experimental groups (untrained and trained groups) participated in a hamstring eccentric isotonic strengthening program (five days/week) for a six-week period and one control group that was not involved in the training program. The passive knee extension range of motion and hamstring eccentric and concentric isokinetic peak torque were measured at angular velocities 60° and 120°/s for all groups before and after the training period. Two-way analysis of variance showed that there was a significant increase in the hamstring flexibility of the untrained and trained groups (25.65 ± 6.32°, 26.55 ± 5.99°, respectively), (p  0.05). Moreover, there was a significant increase in eccentric isokinetic peak torque of both the untrained and trained groups (127.25 ± 22.60Nm, 139.65 ± 19.15Nm, 125.40 ± 21.61Nm, 130.90 ± 18.71Nm, respectively), (p  0.05) at both angular velocities. On the other hand, there was no significant increase in the concentric isokinetic peak torque of the three groups (92.50 ± 20.50Nm, 79.05 ± 18.95Nm, 92.20 ± 21.96Nm, 79.85 ± 18.97Nm, 100.45 ± 25.78Nm, 83.40 ± 23.73Nm, respectively), (p > 0.05) at both angular velocities. The change scores in the hamstring flexibility (06.25 ± 1.86°) and eccentric peak torque of the untrained group (16.60 ± 4.81Nm, 17.45 ± 5.40Nm, respectively) were significantly higher (p  0.05). After a six-week period of eccentric isotonic training, the hamstring eccentric peak torque and flexibility of trained and untrained groups improved without changes in the concentric peak torque. Moreover, the improvement of untrained subjects was higher than trained

  6. Can visual arts training improve physician performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joel T; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts - a subset of medical humanities - into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation.

  7. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  8. Performance-based training: from job and task analysis to training materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.T.; Spinney, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Historically, the smoke filled room approach has been used to revise training programs: instructors would sit down and design a program based on existing training materials and any federal requirements that applied. This failure to reflect a systematic definition of required job functions, responsibilities and performance standards in training programs has resulted in generic program deficiencies: they do not provide complete training of required skills and knowledge. Recognition of this need for change, coupled with a decrease in experienced industry personnel inputs and long training pipelines, has heightened the need for efficient performance-based training programs which are derived from and referenced to job performance criteria. This paper presents the process for developing performance-based training materials based on job and task analysis products

  9. Hands-free administration of subjective workload scales: acceptability in a surgical training environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, C Melody; Lio, Cindy H; Grant, Russell; Klein, Martina I; Clarke, Duncan; Seales, W Brent; Strup, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Subjective workload measures are usually administered in a visual-manual format, either electronically or by paper and pencil. However, vocal responses to spoken queries may sometimes be preferable, for example when experimental manipulations require continuous manual responding or when participants have certain sensory/motor impairments. In the present study, we evaluated the acceptability of the hands-free administration of two subjective workload questionnaires - the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) - in a surgical training environment where manual responding is often constrained. Sixty-four undergraduates performed fifteen 90-s trials of laparoscopic training tasks (five replications of 3 tasks - cannulation, ring transfer, and rope manipulation). Half of the participants provided workload ratings using a traditional paper-and-pencil version of the NASA-TLX and MRQ; the remainder used a vocal (hands-free) version of the questionnaires. A follow-up experiment extended the evaluation of the hands-free version to actual medical students in a Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) training facility. The NASA-TLX was scored in 2 ways - (1) the traditional procedure using participant-specific weights to combine its 6 subscales, and (2) a simplified procedure - the NASA Raw Task Load Index (NASA-RTLX) - using the unweighted mean of the subscale scores. Comparison of the scores obtained from the hands-free and written administration conditions yielded coefficients of equivalence of r=0.85 (NASA-TLX) and r=0.81 (NASA-RTLX). Equivalence estimates for the individual subscales ranged from r=0.78 ("mental demand") to r=0.31 ("effort"). Both administration formats and scoring methods were equally sensitive to task and repetition effects. For the MRQ, the coefficient of equivalence for the hands-free and written versions was r=0.96 when tested on undergraduates. However, the sensitivity of the hands-free MRQ to task demands (

  10. An EMG-driven exoskeleton hand robotic training device on chronic stroke subjects: task training system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N S K; Tong, K Y; Hu, X L; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A

    2011-01-01

    An exoskeleton hand robotic training device is specially designed for persons after stroke to provide training on their impaired hand by using an exoskeleton robotic hand which is actively driven by their own muscle signals. It detects the stroke person's intention using his/her surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the hemiplegic side and assists in hand opening or hand closing functional tasks. The robotic system is made up of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module which can be adjusted to fit for different finger length. Eight chronic stroke subjects had been recruited to evaluate the effects of this device. The preliminary results showed significant improvement in hand functions (ARAT) and upper limb functions (FMA) after 20 sessions of robot-assisted hand functions task training. With the use of this light and portable robotic device, stroke patients can now practice more easily for the opening and closing of their hands at their own will, and handle functional daily living tasks at ease. A video is included together with this paper to give a demonstration of the hand robotic system on chronic stroke subjects and it will be presented in the conference. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Dynamic response of the train-track-bridge system subjected to derailment impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Dhanasekar, Manicka; Thambiratnam, David P.

    2018-04-01

    Derailments on bridges, although not frequent, when occurs due to a complex dynamic interaction of the train-track-bridge structural system, are very severe. Furthermore, the forced vibration induced by the post-derailment impacts can toss out the derailed wagons from the bridge deck with severe consequences to the traffic underneath and the safety of the occupants of the wagons. This paper presents a study of the train-track-bridge interaction during a heavy freight train crossing a concrete box girder bridge from a normal operation to a derailed state. A numerical model that considers the bridge vibration, train-track interaction and the train post-derailment behaviour is formulated based on a coupled finite-element - multi-body dynamics (FE-MBD) theory. The model is applied to predict the post-derailment behaviour of a freight train composed of one locomotive and several wagons, as well as the dynamic response of a straight single-span simply supported bridge containing ballast track subjected to derailment impacts. For this purpose, a typical derailment scenario of a heavy freight train passing over a severe track geometry defect is introduced. The dynamic derailment behaviour of the heavy freight train and the dynamic responses of the rail bridge are illustrated through numerical examples. The results exhibit the potential for tossing out of the derailed trains from the unstable increase in the yaw angle signature and a lower rate of increase of the bridge deck bending moment compared to the increase in the static axle load of the derailed wheelset.

  12. Performance of a visuomotor walking task in an augmented reality training setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarman, Juliet A M; Choi, Julia T; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S; Reenalda, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    Visual cues can be used to train walking patterns. Here, we studied the performance and learning capacities of healthy subjects executing a high-precision visuomotor walking task, in an augmented reality training set-up. A beamer was used to project visual stepping targets on the walking surface of an instrumented treadmill. Two speeds were used to manipulate task difficulty. All participants (n = 20) had to change their step length to hit visual stepping targets with a specific part of their foot, while walking on a treadmill over seven consecutive training blocks, each block composed of 100 stepping targets. Distance between stepping targets was varied between short, medium and long steps. Training blocks could either be composed of random stepping targets (no fixed sequence was present in the distance between the stepping targets) or sequenced stepping targets (repeating fixed sequence was present). Random training blocks were used to measure non-specific learning and sequenced training blocks were used to measure sequence-specific learning. Primary outcome measures were performance (% of correct hits), and learning effects (increase in performance over the training blocks: both sequence-specific and non-specific). Secondary outcome measures were the performance and stepping-error in relation to the step length (distance between stepping target). Subjects were able to score 76% and 54% at first try for lower speed (2.3 km/h) and higher speed (3.3 km/h) trials, respectively. Performance scores did not increase over the course of the trials, nor did the subjects show the ability to learn a sequenced walking task. Subjects were better able to hit targets while increasing their step length, compared to shortening it. In conclusion, augmented reality training by use of the current set-up was intuitive for the user. Suboptimal feedback presentation might have limited the learning effects of the subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivational profiles in table tennis players: Relations with performance anxiety and subjective vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tsz Lun Alan; Zhang, Tao; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2018-06-27

    Research has suggested the need to use a person-centred approach to examine multidimensionality of motivation. Guided by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the primary aim of the present study was to examine the motivational profiles in table tennis players and their composition by gender, country, training status, and competition levels (from recreational to international). The secondary aim was to examine the differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles. Participants were 281 table tennis players from multiple countries, mostly the U.S. and China. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analyses were conducted and showed three motivational profiles with distinct quantity and quality: "low", "controlled", and "self-determined". Chi-square tests of independence demonstrated significant differences in their cluster membership by country, formal training with a coach, and competition levels, but not gender. MANCOVA results indicated differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles, in which the controlled profile had the greatest anxiety symptoms. These differences are attributed to the quality over quantity of motivation, which have meaningful implications for table tennis coaches and sport psychology consultants to diagnose and intervene with players in order to reduce their performance anxiety and improve their well-being.

  14. Employee Post-Training Behaviour and Performance: Evaluating the Results of the Training Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantidis, Anastasios D.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that firms invest in training, there is considerable evidence to show that training programmes often fail to achieve the intended result of improving worker and organization performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the medium- to long-term effects of training programmes on firms by means of an integrated research model…

  15. Effectiveness of a perceptual - proprioceptive training with virtual visual feedback in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: the Wilcoxon Test showed improvements at the end of the training program compared to the baseline conditions. Basic Balance increased during the WFP (33.33% and was associated with a 19.92% decrease in center of pressure (COP lenght. The Single-leg Balance results incremented after the WFP (left 29.09% vs. right 47.92% and accompanied by a decrement in COP (left 28.71% vs. right 30.45%. The values for the Agility test increased both in WFP and COP (28.57% and 58.57%, respectively. The Stability test scores increased in the WFP (66.67% along with a consequent decrease in COP (10.53%. Finally, the Motion test values increased in the WFP (73.17%, whilst COP for this test decreased (12.02%. These results indicate that 6 weeks of virtual training produced a good adaptability. Younger participants (<20 years demonstrated to be more responsive to dynamic stimulation with respect to those >20 years.Conclusions: significant improvements in all participants were observed, indicating that virtual training can influence posture and balance in healthy people. Because of its characteristics of low cost and easy availability, a portable system for balance training for everyone offers the possibility to more readily measure motor skill and to gauge improvement.

  16. Training Attentional Control Improves Cognitive and Motor Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Vine, Sam; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2016-10-01

    Attentional control is a necessary function for the regulation of goal-directed behavior. In three experiments we investigated whether training inhibitory control using a visual search task could improve task-specific measures of attentional control and performance. In Experiment 1 results revealed that training elicited a near-transfer effect, improving performance on a cognitive (antisaccade) task assessing inhibitory control. In Experiment 2 an initial far-transfer effect of training was observed on an index of attentional control validated for tennis. The principal aim of Experiment 3 was to expand on these findings by assessing objective gaze measures of inhibitory control during the performance of a tennis task. Training improved inhibitory control and performance when pressure was elevated, confirming the mechanisms by which cognitive anxiety impacts performance. These results suggest that attentional control training can improve inhibition and reduce taskspecific distractibility with promise of transfer to more efficient sporting performance in competitive contexts.

  17. Subjective and objective performance assessment : Performance pay at Trelleborg Forsheda AB

    OpenAIRE

    Luotonen, David; Hasselström, Markus

    2009-01-01

      The purpose of this thesis is to understand the opinions and potential effects of objective and subjective assessments of performance as a basis for performance pay for blue-collar workers. The study takes a qualitative approach to find out how and why four companies - Trelleborg Forsheda, Finnveden Powertrain, Isaberg Rapid and Parker Hannifin- work with salaries, incentive system and performance assessment the way they do. The concept of individual salary is central in this thesis, and in...

  18. Performing Materiality: Rethinking the Subject-Object Relationship as a Site of Exchange in Performance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nesreen

    2011-01-01

    This thesis reconsiders the relationship between the human subject and the physical object in performance practice, which has been commonly perceived within hierarchical systems of instrumentalisation. The thesis demonstrates that in processes of performance making and reception, the role of physical objects goes beyond mimesis and direct representation. Physical objects and materials have the capacity to take active parts in a complex and multilayered performance dynamic, articulating ways o...

  19. Does Mindfulness Improve After Heart Coherence Training in Patients With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Healthy Subjects? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; de Jong, Annemieke B; Hofstra, Bert L; Preuper, Henrica R Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-07-01

    Mindfulness and heart coherence training (HCT) training are applied increasingly in the treatment of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Questionnaires have been developed to assess changes in mindfulness but no gold standard is available. Explore the relationship between changes in mindfulness scores and changes in heart coherence after 3 sessions of HCT in patients with CMP and in healthy subjects. Ten patients with CMP and 15 healthy subjects were trained in self-regulation with the use of HCT following a standardized stress relief program developed by the HeartMath Institute. A heart coherence-score (HC-score) was constructed with scores ranging from 0-100 with higher scores reflecting more heart rate variability (HRV) coherency. Change scores, Spearman correlation coefficients, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test were calculated to test relationships and differences between HC-score, the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). A new questionnaire was constructed to explore on which mindfulness-related domains patients with CMP report changes after HCT. Increases were present on HC-score in healthy subjects (Ppilot study, mindfulness as assessed by the MAAS and FFMQ does not appear to improve after HCT. HRV coherency, MAAS, and FFMQ measure different constructs and are weakly related. It is of great importance to choose and develop valid measures that reflect patients' states of mindfulness. Content and face validity of measures of mindfulness may be considered in the light of performance-based measures.

  20. Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, H.E.; Sessions, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities [10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)]. Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance

  1. The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

  2. Performance on a Surgical In-Training Examination Varies by Training Year and Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Few studies in surgery have addressed medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. As in-training examinations are ubiquitous educational tools for surgical residents in the United States, insights into examination performance may help fill this void. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between In-Service Examination performance and training characteristics in plastic surgery. This retrospective cohort study reviewed performance data for the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination for the years 2012 to 2015. Comparisons were made both within and between training pathways by means of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Data were available for 1367 independent (37.9 percent) and 2240 integrated residents (62.1 percent). Among integrated residents, performance increased with additional years of training (p 0.05). Similarly, independent resident examination performance increased by year of training (p 0.05). At each level of training (postgraduate years 4 to 6), integrated residents outperformed their independent resident colleagues (postgraduate years 1 to 3) (p < 0.001). Performance on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination increases during residency, with integrated residents outperforming independent residents. These findings may have implications for medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

  3. Training-Load Distribution in Endurance Runners: Objective Versus Subjective Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Bovenzi, Antonio; Castagna, Carlo; Sinibaldi Salimei, Paola; Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2015-11-01

    To assess the distribution of exercise intensity in long-distance recreational athletes (LDRs) preparing for a marathon and to test the hypothesis that individual perception of effort could provide training responses similar to those provided by standardized training methodologies. Seven LDRs (age 36.5 ± 3.8 y) were followed during a 5-mo training period culminating with a city marathon. Heart rate at 2.0 and 4.0 mmol/L and maximal heart rate were used to establish 3 intensity training zones. Internal training load (TL) was assessed by training zones and TRIMPi methods. These were compared with the session-rating-of-perceived-exertion (RPE) method. Total time spent in zone 1 was higher than in zones 2 and 3 (76.3% ± 6.4%, 17.3% ± 5.8%, and 6.3% ± 0.9%, respectively; P = .000 for both, ES = 0.98, ES = 0.99). TL quantified by session-RPE provided the same result. The comparison between session-RPE and training-zones-based methods showed no significant difference at the lowest intensity (P = .07, ES = 0.25). A significant correlation was observed between TL RPE and TL TRIMPi at both individual and group levels (r = .79, P marathon (r = -.83, P recreational LDRs most of the training time is spent at low intensity and that this is associated with improved performances. Session-RPE is an easy-to-use training method that provides responses similar to those obtained with standardized training methodologies.

  4. Shoulder Arthroscopy Simulator Training Improves Shoulder Arthroscopy Performance in a Cadaver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, R. Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J.P.; Gomoll, Andreas H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaver model of shoulder arthroscopy. Methods Seventeen first year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and nine of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The two groups were compared with students t-tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t-tests. Results There were no observed differences between the two groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (parthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaver model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. Clinical Relevance There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. PMID:23591380

  5. Shoulder arthroscopy simulator training improves shoulder arthroscopy performance in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, R Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J P; Gomoll, Andreas H

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaveric model of shoulder arthroscopy. Seventeen first-year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and 9 of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The 2 groups were compared by use of Student t tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t tests. There were no observed differences between the 2 groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (P arthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaveric model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,3 1Polytechnic School, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, 3Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Marathon (42 km and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods: Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results: A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat, the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion: Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. Keywords: running, performance, training indices, body fat, sports training

  7. Value of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Andreeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : assess the significance of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills. Material : two groups of coaches with different qualifications (n = 40. The first group of coaches -, experience from 1 to 10 years (n = 20; the second group - work experience from 11 to 25 years (n = 20. Gymnasts preliminary stage of basic training. Coaches are asked to answer 15 questions. Results : the content of questioning coaches gymnastics shows the relevance of the basic problems of technical training of young gymnasts (throwing and catching objects. The most difficult exercises in the training and improvement are throws and catches the ball (coefficient of concordance W = 0,814. The necessity of the development and use of new techniques for analyzing sports equipment exercises with the ball, learning and improving them. Conclusions : basic technical training and preparedness of gymnasts to perform exercises with objects represent a problem that is solved enough in theory and practice gymnastics.

  8. Performances on simulator and da Vinci robot on subjects with and without surgical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Melfi, Franca; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred; Morelli, Luca

    2017-08-17

    To assess whether previous training in surgery influences performance on da Vinci Skills Simulator and da Vinci robot. In this prospective study, thirty-seven participants (11 medical students, 17 residents, and 9 attending surgeons) without previous experience in laparoscopy and robotic surgery performed 26 exercises at da Vinci Skills Simulator. Thirty-five then executed a suture using a da Vinci robot. The overall scores on the exercises at the da Vinci Skills Simulator show a similar performance among the groups with no statistically significant pair-wise differences (p poor for the untrained groups (5 (3.5, 9)), without statistically significant difference (p < .05). This study showed, for subjects new to laparoscopy and robotic surgery, insignificant differences in the scores at the da Vinci Skills Simulator and at the da Vinci robot on inanimate models.

  9. Subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge: Implications for alternatively and traditionally trained biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravgiala, Rebekah Rae

    Theories regarding the development of expertise hold implications for alternative and traditional certification programs and the teachers they train. The literature suggests that when compared to experts in the field of teaching, the behaviors of novices differ in ways that are directly attributed to their pedagogical content knowledge. However, few studies have examined how first and second year biology teachers entering the profession from traditional and alternative training differ in their demonstration of subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge. The research problem in this multicase, naturalistic inquiry investigated how subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge was manifested among first and second year biology teachers in the task of transforming subject matter into forms that are potentially meaningful to students when explicit formal training has been and has not been imparted to them as preservice teachers. Two first year and two second year biology teachers were the subjects of this investigation. Allen and Amber obtained their certification through an alternative summer training institute in consecutive years. Tiffany and Tricia obtained their certification through a traditional, graduate level training program in consecutive years. Both programs were offered at the same northeastern state university. Participants contributed to six data gathering techniques including an initial semi-structured interview, responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Science questionnaire (Hewson & Hewson, 1989), three videotaped biology lessons, evaluation of three corresponding lesson plans, and a final semi-structured interview conducted at the end of the investigation. An informal, end-of-study survey intended to offer participants an opportunity to disclose their thoughts and needs as first year teachers was also employed. Results indicate that while conceptions of teaching science may vary slightly among participants, there is no evidence to suggest that

  10. Myocardial ischemic tolerance in rats subjected to endurance exercise training during adaptation to chronic hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alánová, Petra; Chytilová, Anna; Neckář, Jan; Hrdlička, Jaroslav; Míčová, P.; Holzerová, Kristýna; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Macháčková, Kristýna; Papoušek, František; Vašinová, Jana; Benák, Daniel; Nováková, Olga; Kolář, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 6 (2017), s. 1452-1461 ISSN 8750-7587 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S; GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-12420Y; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * exercise training * cardioprotection * cytokines * antioxidants Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 3.351, year: 2016

  11. Analysis of TIMS performance subjected to simulated wind blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.; Kuo, S.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the performance of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) when it is subjected to various wind conditions in the laboratory are described. Various wind conditions were simulated using a 24 inch fan or combinations of air jet streams blowing toward either or both of the blackbody surfaces. The fan was used to simulate a large volume of air flow at moderate speeds (up to 30 mph). The small diameter air jets were used to probe TIMS system response in reaction to localized wind perturbations. The maximum nozzle speed of the air jet was 60 mph. A range of wind directions and speeds were set up in the laboratory during the test. The majority of the wind tests were conducted under ambient conditions with the room temperature fluctuating no more than 2 C. The temperature of the high speed air jet was determined to be within 1 C of the room temperature. TIMS response was recorded on analog tape. Additional thermistor readouts of the blackbody temperatures and thermocouple readout of the ambient temperature were recorded manually to be compared with the housekeeping data recorded on the tape. Additional tests were conducted under conditions of elevated and cooled room temperatures. The room temperature was varied between 19.5 to 25.5 C in these tests. The calibration parameters needed for quantitative analysis of TIMS data were first plotted on a scanline-by-scanline basis. These parameters are the low and high blackbody temperature readings as recorded by the TIMS and their corresponding digitized count values. Using these values, the system transfer equations were calculated. This equation allows us to compute the flux for any video count by computing the slope and intercept of the straight line that relates the flux to the digital count. The actual video of the target (the lab floor in this case) was then compared with a simulated target. This simulated target was assumed to be a blackbody at emissivity of .95 degrees and the temperature was

  12. Negotiation Performance: Antecedents, Outcomes, and Training Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    informational processing system. One consequence of this fact, according to their model, is that any cognitive activity that taps this pool, such as...training these skills (Burke & Day, 1986; Falcone, 105 1985; Taylor, Russ- Eft , & Chan, 2005). In their recent meta-analysis of BMT, Taylor, Russ- Eft ...Gender differences in negotiation outcome: A meta- analysis. Personnel Psychology, 52, 653-677. Taylor, P.J., Russ- Eft , D.F., & Chan, D.W.L. (2005

  13. Plyometric Training Effects on Athletic Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Abigail A; Miltenberger, Matthew R; Lopez, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to critically analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes. A total of 7 studies were included in this review after meeting the following criteria: (a) used plyometric training programs to assess athletic performance, (b) subjects were soccer athletes aged preadolescent up to 17 years, and (c) were published from 2000 to January 2014. Study methods were assessed using the PEDro scale with scores ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed similarities and differences in methodologies and procedures among the included studies. Athletic performance consisting of kicking distance, speed, jumping ability, and agility significantly improved because of plyometric training interventions. The current evidence suggests that plyometric training should be completed 2 days per week for 8-10 weeks during soccer practice with a 72-hour rest period between plyometric training days. The initial number of foot contacts should be 50-60 per session and increase to no more than 80-120 foot contacts per session for this age group to prevent overuse injuries. A total of 3-4 plyometric training exercises should be performed 2-4 sets for 6-15 repetitions per training session. The evidence and the literature suggest that plyometric training for this age group should only be implemented using recommended safety guidelines such as those published by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the National Strength and Conditioning Association and under appropriate supervision by trained personnel.

  14. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Eccentric training for shoulder abductors improves pain, function and isokinetic performance in subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome: a case series Treino excêntrico para abdutores do ombro melhora dor, função e desempenho isocinético em sujeitos com síndrome do impacto: série de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Camargo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservative treatments have been proposed for people with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS, such as strengthening of the rotator cuff and scapular muscles and stretching of the soft tissues of the shoulder. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the effectiveness of eccentric training in the treatment of SIS. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of eccentric training for shoulder abductors on pain, function, and isokinetic performance during concentric and eccentric abduction of the shoulder in subjects with SIS. METHODS: Twenty subjects (7 females, 34.2 SD 10.2 years, 1.7 SD 0.1 m, 78.0 SD 16.3 kg with unilateral SIS completed the study protocol. Bilateral isokinetic eccentric training at 60º/s for shoulder abductors was performed for six consecutive weeks, twice a week, on alternate days. For each training day, three sets of 10 repetitions were performed with a 3-minute rest period between the sets for each side. The range of motion trained was 60° (ranging from 80° to 20°. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire was used to evaluate functional status and symptoms of the upper limbs. Peak torque, total work and acceleration time were measured during concentric and eccentric abduction of the arm at 60º/s and 180º/s using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: DASH scores, peak torque, total work and acceleration time improved (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Tratamentos conservadores têm sido propostos para pessoas com síndrome do impacto (SI do ombro, como fortalecimento do manguito rotador e dos músculos escapulares e alongamento dos tecidos moles do ombro. No entanto, são escassos os estudos que analisaram a eficácia do treinamento excêntrico no tratamento da SI. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento excêntrico para abdutores do ombro na dor, função e desempenho isocinético durante a abdução concêntrica e excêntrica do ombro em indivíduos com SI. MÉTODOS: Vinte indivíduos (sete

  16. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training...

  17. Resistance Training and Co-supplementation with Creatine and Protein in Older Subjects with Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J; Longhurst, G; Roschel, H; Gualano, B

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects co-supplementation with creatine and protein, along with resistance training, in older individuals with frailty are lacking. This is an exploratory trial from the Pro-Elderly study ("Protein Intake and Resistance Training in Aging") aimed at gathering knowledge on the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of co-supplementation with creatine and protein supplementation, combined with resistance training, in older individuals with frailty. A 14-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo controlled exploratory trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to whey protein and creatine co-supplementation (WHEY+CR) or whey protein supplementation (WHEY) group. All subjects undertook a supervised exercise training program and were assessed at baseline and after 14 weeks. Muscle function, body composition, blood parameters, and self-reported adverse events were assessed. No interaction effects (between-group differences) were observed for any dependent variables (p > 0.05 for all). However, there were main time-effects in handgrip (WHEY+CR = 26.65 ± 31.29; WHEY = 13.84 ± 14.93 Kg; p = 0.0005), timed-up-and-go (WHEY+CR = -11.20 ± 9.37; WHEY = -17.76 ± 21.74 sec; p = 0.006), and timed-stands test (WHEY+CR = 47.50 ± 35.54; WHEY = 46.87 ± 24.23 reps; p = 0.0001), suggesting that WHEY+CR and WHEY were similarly effective in improving muscle function. All of the subjects showed improvements in at least two of the three functional tests, regardless of their treatments. Body composition and blood parameters were not changed (p > 0.05). No severe adverse effects were observed. Co-supplementation with creatine and whey protein was well-tolerable and free of adverse events in older subjects with frailty undertaking resistance training. Creatine supplementation did not augment the adaptive effects of resistance training along with whey protein on body composition or muscle function in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01890382.

  18. Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious. PMID:21713182

  19. Positive performance and health effects of a football training program over 12 weeks can be maintained over a 1-year period with reduced training frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether improvements in the performance and health profile of an intensive 12-week football intervention could be maintained with a reduced training frequency. Seventeen healthy untrained males completed the study. Ten subjects trained 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks and another 52 weeks ...... unaltered for CG. In conclusion, positive adaptations in cardiovascular fitness obtained over 12 weeks of regular recreational football training can be maintained over a 1-year period with a reduced training frequency, with further development in musculo-skeletal fitness.......We examined whether improvements in the performance and health profile of an intensive 12-week football intervention could be maintained with a reduced training frequency. Seventeen healthy untrained males completed the study. Ten subjects trained 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks and another 52 weeks...... (P12 weeks. After 64 weeks, quadriceps muscle mass (11%), mean fiber area (10%) and citrate synthase activity (18%) were higher (P

  20. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (Ptraining group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  1. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  2. Enhanced balance associated with coordination training with stochastic resonance stimulation in subjects with functional ankle instability: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Cathleen N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are common injuries that often lead to functional ankle instability (FAI, which is a pathology defined by sensations of instability at the ankle and recurrent ankle sprain injury. Poor postural stability has been associated with FAI, and sports medicine clinicians rehabilitate balance deficits to prevent ankle sprains. Subsensory electrical noise known as stochastic resonance (SR stimulation has been used in conjunction with coordination training to improve dynamic postural instabilities associated with FAI. However, unlike static postural deficits, dynamic impairments have not been indicative of ankle sprain injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination training with or without SR stimulation on static postural stability. Improving postural instabilities associated with FAI has implications for increasing ankle joint stability and decreasing recurrent ankle sprains. Methods This study was conducted in a research laboratory. Thirty subjects with FAI were randomly assigned to either a: 1 conventional coordination training group (CCT; 2 SR stimulation coordination training group (SCT; or 3 control group. Training groups performed coordination exercises for six weeks. The SCT group received SR stimulation during training, while the CCT group only performed coordination training. Single leg postural stability was measured after the completion of balance training. Static postural stability was quantified on a force plate using anterior/posterior (A/P and medial/lateral (M/L center-of-pressure velocity (COPvel, M/L COP standard deviation (COPsd, M/L COP maximum excursion (COPmax, and COP area (COParea. Results Treatment effects comparing posttest to pretest COP measures were highest for the SCT group. At posttest, the SCT group had reduced A/P COPvel (2.3 ± 0.4 cm/s vs. 2.7 ± 0.6 cm/s, M/L COPvel (2.6 ± 0.5 cm/s vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 cm/s, M/L COPsd (0.63 ± 0.12 cm vs. 0.73 ± 0

  3. Know thyself: misperceptions of actual performance undermine achievement motivation, future performance, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Zou, Zhimin

    2010-09-01

    Contrary to the popular assumption that self-enhancement improves task motivation and future performance, the authors propose that both inflated and deflated self-assessments of performance are linked to an increased likelihood of practicing self-handicapping and having relatively poor performance in future tasks. Consistent with this proposal, we found that irrespective of the level of actual performance, compared with accurate self-assessment, both inflated and deflated self-assessments of task performance are associated with a greater tendency to (a) practice self-handicapping (Study 1: prefer to work under distraction; Study 2: withhold preparatory effort), (b) perform relatively poorly in a subsequent task (Study 3), (c) have relatively low academic achievement (Study 4), and (d) report a relatively low level of subjective well-being (Study 5). The authors discuss these results in terms of their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Minimal effects of visual memory training on the auditory performance of adult cochlear implant users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Sandra I.; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Auditory training has been shown to significantly improve cochlear implant (CI) users’ speech and music perception. However, it is unclear whether post-training gains in performance were due to improved auditory perception or to generally improved attention, memory and/or cognitive processing. In this study, speech and music perception, as well as auditory and visual memory were assessed in ten CI users before, during, and after training with a non-auditory task. A visual digit span (VDS) task was used for training, in which subjects recalled sequences of digits presented visually. After the VDS training, VDS performance significantly improved. However, there were no significant improvements for most auditory outcome measures (auditory digit span, phoneme recognition, sentence recognition in noise, digit recognition in noise), except for small (but significant) improvements in vocal emotion recognition and melodic contour identification. Post-training gains were much smaller with the non-auditory VDS training than observed in previous auditory training studies with CI users. The results suggest that post-training gains observed in previous studies were not solely attributable to improved attention or memory, and were more likely due to improved auditory perception. The results also suggest that CI users may require targeted auditory training to improve speech and music perception. PMID:23516087

  5. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren B

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

  6. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  7. Effects of Refresher Training on Job-Task Typewriting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Joseph D.; Schendel, Joel D.

    Two groups of 15 Administrative Specialists, 7lL Military Occupational Speciality (MOS), participated in four job-task refresher training sessions designed to enhance the typewriting of military correspondence. One group performed under a study training method which allowed use of a Correspondence Manual while arranging materials into the correct…

  8. Social Skills Training for Young Adolescents: Cognitive and Performance Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An assertiveness training curriculum that was an expansion of two previous programs with young adolescents was presented to 22 fifth graders. Results did not show that training facilitated assertiveness on the performance components. Suggestions are offered for designing programs aimed at developing adolescents' assertive behavior in ways that…

  9. Cross-Cultural Training and Workplace Performance. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report "Cross- Cultural Training and Workplace Performance" (ED503402). It contains the following materials related to the report: (1) Primary approach letters; (2) Tests for statistical significance; (3) Survey of current cross-cultural training practice; (4)…

  10. Training and plant performance: a strategic planning partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear industry as a whole, and specifically GPU Nuclear, is refocusing its attention on performance indicators. This standardized assessment of plant operational performance surfaces numerous examples of how performance-based training positively impacts plant performance. Numerous examples of high dollar savings range from scram reduction programs to reducing personnel rem exposures. The deeper the authors look the more they find that training is making a difference. The question now is, how long can they continue to afford the ever increasing demands of the pursuit of excellence. Early in 1985, the Training and Education Department at GPU Nuclear proactively began its strategic planning effort in order to address the increasing industry initiatives while facing flat or reduced commitments of resources. The Training Strategic Plan addresses detailed plans for each of the following areas: curriculum planning; program development; training and education organizational structure; training and education administrative procedures; training advisory structure and priority process; financial strategies. All of the above strategies are designed to assure training effectiveness. With the nuclear option under such strong public scrutiny, it is in the best interest of all of the nuclear utilities to assure the most cost effective approach to successful operation while achieving their standards of excellence

  11. Incidence of injury and physical performance adaptations during military training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Skov-Jensen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional...

  12. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  13. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  14. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  15. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  16. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  17. Altitude training for elite endurance performance: a 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate.

  18. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p falls).

  19. Effect of Experimental Hand Pain on Training-Induced Changes in Motor Performance and Corticospinal Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mavromatis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain influences plasticity within the sensorimotor system and the aim of this study was to assess the effect of pain on changes in motor performance and corticospinal excitability during training for a novel motor task. A total of 30 subjects were allocated to one of two groups (Pain, NoPain and performed ten training blocks of a visually-guided isometric pinch task. Each block consisted of 15 force sequences, and subjects modulated the force applied to a transducer in order to reach one of five target forces. Pain was induced by applying capsaicin cream to the thumb. Motor performance was assessed by a skill index that measured shifts in the speed–accuracy trade-off function. Neurophysiological measures were taken from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Overall, the Pain group performed better throughout the training (p = 0.03, but both groups showed similar improvements across training blocks (p < 0.001, and there was no significant interaction. Corticospinal excitability in the NoPain group increased halfway through the training, but this was not observed in the Pain group (Time × Group interaction; p = 0.01. These results suggest that, even when pain does not negatively impact on the acquisition of a novel motor task, it can affect training-related changes in corticospinal excitability.

  20. The Effects of Human Resources Training on Employee Performance in Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem KAPTANGİL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assess the extent of the influence of training programs for employees, conducted by the human resources departments as a part of large scale organizations, on the different performance elements as well as the objectives targeted by the training programs. In accordance with the stated goal, a questionnaire applied to the human resources managers or the top level executives of 350 large scale organizations. They asked what subjects they need in training programs and to specify the elements to reach out the mitigating performance as a result of training programs. It is in the results obtained, businesses in general aim to increase efficiency, to provide job satisfaction to employees with employees’ development and to prevent employees from alienation by means of work orientation. It is also deduced from the results, performance evaluation increases the adaptation of employees to progressing technologies and the commitment to organizations besides the development and job satisfaction of employees.

  1. Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophet, Wallace W.

    For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

  2. Maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in elderly hypertensive subjects following detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de; Santos, Neucilane Silveira Dos; Aguiar, Larissa Pereira; Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects after detraining. Twenty-eight elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise training program followed by 6 weeks of detraining, and were classified according to milk and dairy products intake as low milk (exercise training, there was a significant reduction (pexercise training benefits related to pressure levels, lower extremity strength and aerobic capacity, is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects following 6 weeks of detraining.

  3. the performance of a beef breeding herd subjected to continuous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nations of calf weaning mass and cow reconceDtion rate. Introduction. It is generally ... plane of nutrition averaged 32 days between calving and subsequent oestrus ... be of value in measuring performance patterns and/or determining which ...

  4. Effect of dyad training on medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students' resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills.Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022).Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance.

  5. Effect of dyad training on medical students’ cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students’ resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills. Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022). Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance. PMID:28353555

  6. Impact of laparoscopic surgery training laboratory on surgeon's performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabio C M; Barbosa, Joao Arthur B A; Marchini, Giovanni S

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been replacing the open standard technique in several procedures. Similar or even better postoperative outcomes have been described in laparoscopic or robot-assisted procedures when compared to open surgery. Moreover, minimally invasive surgery has been providing less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, and thus a faster return to daily activities. However, the learning curve required to obtain laparoscopic expertise has been a barrier in laparoscopic spreading. Laparoscopic surgery training laboratory has been developed to aid surgeons to overcome the challenging learning curve. It may include tutorials, inanimate model skills training (box models and virtual reality simulators), animal laboratory, and operating room observation. Several different laparoscopic courses are available with specific characteristics and goals. Herein, we aim to describe the activities performed in a dry and animal-model training laboratory and to evaluate the impact of different kinds of laparoscopic surgery training courses on surgeon’s performance. Several tasks are performed in dry and animal laboratory to reproduce a real surgery. A short period of training can improve laparoscopic surgical skills, although most of times it is not enough to confer laparoscopic expertise for participants. Nevertheless, this short period of training is able to increase the laparoscopic practice of surgeons in their communities. Full laparoscopic training in medical residence or fellowship programs is the best way of stimulating laparoscopic dissemination. PMID:27933135

  7. Undergraduate medical academic performance is improved by scientific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-09-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, and even English. We classified scientific training into four levels. We found that literature reading could significantly improve students' test scores in general courses. Students who received scientific training carried out experiments more effectively and published articles performed better than their untrained counterparts in biochemistry and molecular biology examinations. The questionnaire survey demonstrated that the trained students were more confident of their course learning, and displayed more interest, motivation and capability in course learning. In summary, undergraduate academic performance is improved by scientific training. Our findings shed light on the novel strategies in the management of undergraduate education in the medical school. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):379-384, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Dempsey, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the claim that inadequate training leads to performance errors. Barshi and Loukopoulos (2012) demonstrate that even a task as carefully developed and refined over many years as operating an aircraft can be significantly improved by a systematic analysis, followed by improved procedures and improved training (see also Loukopoulos, Dismukes, & Barshi, 2009a). Unfortunately, such a systematic analysis of training needs rarely occurs during the preliminary design phase, when modifications are most feasible. Training is often seen as a way to compensate for deficiencies in task and system design, which in turn increases the training load. As a result, task performance often suffers, and with it, the operators suffer and so does the mission. On the other hand, effective training can indeed compensate for such design deficiencies, and can even go beyond to compensate for failures of our imagination to anticipate all that might be needed when we send our crew members to go where no one else has gone before. Much of the research literature on training is motivated by current training practices aimed at current training needs. Although there is some experience with operations in extreme environments on Earth, there is no experience with long-duration space missions where crews must practice semi-autonomous operations, where ground support must accommodate significant communication delays, and where so little is known about the environment. Thus, we must develop robust methodologies and tools to prepare our crews for the unknown. The research necessary to support such an endeavor does not currently exist, but existing research does reveal general challenges that are relevant to long-duration, high-autonomy missions. The evidence presented here describes issues related to the risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies. Contributing factors regarding training deficiencies may pertain to organizational process and training programs for

  9. Optimal Designs for Performance Assessments: The Subject Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jay

    Much speculation abounds concerning how expensive performance assessments are or are going to be. Recent projections indicate that, in order to achieve an acceptably high generalizability coefficient, many additional tasks may need to be added, which will enlarge costs. Such projections are, to some degree, correct, and to some degree simplistic.…

  10. Performativity / Expressivity: The Mobile Micro Screen and its Subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2014-01-01

    Informed by a tradition of cinema and visual culture studies on the one hand, and science and technology studies and new materialism on the other, we mobilize Peircean semiotics in order to theorize new media technologies and related practices. Our question is, in what way performativity and

  11. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  12. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  13. Design of subjects training on reactor simulator and feasibility study - toward the empirical evaluation of interface design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Furukawa, H.; Tanabe, F.

    1998-01-01

    On-going JAERI's project for empirical evaluation of the ecological interface design concept was first described. The empirical evaluation is planned to be proceeded through three consecutive steps; designing and actual implementation of the interface on reactor simulator, verification of the interface created, and the validation by the simulator experiment. For conducting the project, three different experimental resources are prerequisite, that are, data analysis method for identifying the operator's strategies, experimental facility including reactor simulator, and experimental subjects or subjects training method. Among the three experimental resources, subjects training method was recently designed and a simulator experiment was earned out in order to examine the feasibility of the designed training method. From the experiment and analysis of the experimental records, we could conclude that it is feasible that the experimental subjects having an appropriate technical basis can gain the sufficient competence for evaluation work of the interface design concept by using the training method designed. (author)

  14. Neurofeedback training improves attention and working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinn-Rong; Hsieh, Shulan

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the frontal-midline theta (fmθ) activity uptraining protocol on attention and working memory performance of older and younger participants. Thirty-two participants were recruited. Participants within each age group were randomly assigned to either the neurofeedback training (fmθ uptraining) group or the sham-neurofeedback training group. There was a significant improvement in orienting scores in the older neurofeedback training group. In addition, there was a significant improvement in conflict scores in both the older and young neurofeedback training groups. However, alerting scores failed to increase. In addition, the fmθ training was found to improve working memory function in the older participants. The results further showed that fmθ training can modulate resting EEG for both neurofeedback groups. Our study demonstrated that fmθ uptraining improved attention and working memory performance and theta activity in the resting state for normal aging adults. In addition, younger participants also benefited from the present protocol in terms of improving their executive function. The current findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neurofeedback training in cognitive function, and suggest that the fmθ uptraining protocol is an effective intervention program for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  16. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  17. Effects of kettlebell training on postural coordination and jump performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve postural reactions to perturbation and jump performance.This single-blind randomized controlled trial involved 40 adults (n=40) from occupations with a high....... The outcome measures were postural reactions to sudden perturbation and maximal countermovement jump height.Compared to the control group, the training group significant decreased stopping time following perturbation (-109ms, 95% CI [-196:-21]). Jump height increased significantly in the training group (1.5cm...

  18. The Impact of Shift Work on Brazilian Train Drivers with Different Chronotypes: A Comparative Analysis through Objective and Subjective Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Fernandes Jr., Silvio; Stetner Antonietti, Leandro; Saba, Amanda; Paulino de Faria, Alexandre; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Tufik, Sergio; Túlio de Mello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare sleep pattern, tiredness sensation and quality of life between different chronotypes in train drivers from a Brazilian transportation company. Subjects and Methods Ninety-one train drivers, working a rotary work schedule including night shift, were divided into three groups according to their chronotype (morning types, intermediate or evening types) and were assessed for their sleep and quality of life, as characterized by a subjective questionnaire and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), applied before and immediately after the night shift. The pattern of activity and rest was measured for 10 days by actigraphy, and the chronotype was determined through the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Forty-one (45.1s%) individuals were classified as morning type, 44 (48.4s%) were classified as intermediate and 6 (6.6s%) as evening type. The evening types had a tendency to remain awake for a longer period of time before the night shift (p = 0.05) and scored worse overall for quality of life compared to morning types (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding variability in the PVT performance, even when covaried by the period of waking time before the test. There was no significant difference either in feelings of fatigue before and after starting the shift. Conclusion Although the evening type number was small, evening type individuals scored worse relative to sleep and quality of life than morning type individuals. PMID:23328130

  19. Inside the VA: How Workplace Training Evaluation Impacts Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Timica F.

    2017-01-01

    Employee performance and patient satisfaction are strong indicators of the current state of a healthcare organization. Workplace training programs are used to teach employees the knowledge and skills necessary to effectively perform on the job. Instructor-led, online, blended and independent learning events are produced to address learning needs…

  20. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

  1. Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, F R; Corazza, A V; Paolillo, A R; Borghi-Silva, A; Arena, R; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (1) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n = 10); (2) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n = 10); and (3) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n = 10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 min per session at 85-90% of maximal heart rate, which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2) and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. Quadriceps performance was measured during isokinetic exercise testing at 60°/s and 300°/s. Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (∆ = 21 ± 6 W and ∆ = 634 ± 156 J, p women.

  2. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Bogart, Laura M.; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z.; Winkler, Sabune J.; Kaberry, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (e.g., self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. OBJECTIVES This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based Institutional Review Board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. METHODS A two hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. CONCLUSIONS Local Institutional Review Boards have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners. PMID:28230554

  3. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Bogart, Laura M; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z; Winkler, Sabune J; Kaberry, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (eg, self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based institutional review board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. A 2-hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. Local IRBs have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners.

  4. Effects of horizontal plyometric training volume on soccer players' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanci, Javier; Los Arcos, Asier; Camara, Jesús; Castillo, Daniel; García, Alberto; Castagna, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dose response effect of strength and conditioning programmes, involving horizontally oriented plyometric exercises, on relevant soccer performance variables. Sixteen soccer players were randomly allocated to two 6-week plyometric training groups (G1 and G2) differing by imposed (twice a week) training volume. Post-training G1 (4.13%; d = 0.43) and G2 (2.45%; d = 0.53) moderately improved their horizontal countermovement jump performance. Significant between-group differences (p  0.05, d = trivial or small) post-training improvements in sprint, change of direction ability (CODA) and horizontal arm swing countermovement jump were reported in either group. Horizontal plyometric training was effective in promoting improvement in injury prevention variables. Doubling the volume of a horizontal plyometric training protocol was shown to have no additional effect over functional aspects of soccer players' performance.

  5. CT colonography: effect of experience and training on reader performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stuart A.; Burling, David; Morley, Simon; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve; Bassett, Paul; Atkin, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of radiologist experience and increasing exposure to CT colonography on reader performance. Three radiologists of differing general experience (consultant, research fellow, trainee) independently analysed 100 CT colonographic datasets. Readers had no prior experience of CT colonography and received feedback and training after the first 50 cases from an independent experienced radiologist. Diagnostic performance and reporting times were compared for the first and second 50 datasets and compared with the results of a radiologist experienced in CT colonography. Before training only the consultant reader achieved statistical equivalence with the reference standard for detection of larger polyps. After training, detection rates ranged between 25 and 58% for larger polyps. Only the trainee significantly improved after training (P=0.007), with performance of other readers unchanged or even worse. Reporting times following training were reduced significantly for the consultant and fellow (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), but increased for the trainee (P<0.001). In comparison to the consultant reader, the odds of detection of larger polyps was 0.36 (CI 0.16, 0.82) for the fellow and 0.36 (CI 0.14, 0.91) for the trainee. There is considerable variation in the ability to report CT colonography. Prior experience in gastrointestinal radiology is a distinct advantage. Competence cannot be assumed even after directed training via a database of 50 cases. (orig.)

  6. Whole-body vibration training effects on the physical performance of basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Serge S; Pensini, Manuela; Espinosa, Julien; Garrandes, Frederic; Legros, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training added to the conventional training of basketball players. Eighteen competitive basketball players (13 male symbol, 5 female symbol, 18-24 years old) were randomly assigned to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 10; 7 male symbol and 3 female symbol) or a control group (CG, n = 8; 6 male symbol and 2 female symbol). During the 4-week period, all subjects maintained their conventional basketball training program. The members of WBVG were additionally trained 3 times a week for 20 minutes on a vibration platform (10 unloaded static lower limb exercises, 40-Hz, 4-mm, Silverplate). Testing was performed before and after the 4-week period and comprised strength assessment, vertical jump performance, and a 10-m sprint test. The maximal voluntary isometric strength of the knee extensors significantly increased (p training, as did squat jump (SJ) height (p training program added to the conventional training of basketball players during the preseason is an effective short-term stimulus to enhance knee extensor strength and slightly SJ performance.

  7. Effects of a carbohydrate and protein recovery beverage on performance in trained weightlifters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Taber

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous investigations have examined nutrient timing with untrained subject and less is known about effects in trained subjects. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a carbohydrate and protein supplement (CHO+PROT on performance measures in trained weightlifters. METHODS: 10 trained weightlifters (30.8±5.1 years, 177.4 ±4.0 cm, 94.3 ± 12.4 kg, training age = 5.3 ± 2.9 years completed a 12 week training program utilizing block periodization. Using a double blind placebo design, jump height, scaled peak power measured in vertical jumps and peak force and rate of force development measured in isometric mid-thigh pulls were compared between groups using a series of 2x4 (group x time repeated measures ANOVA’s. RESULTS: No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed between treatment and placebo groups in respect to measures of jump height and peak power with weighted and unweighted jumps. Likewise, no statistical differences (p > 0.05 were observed for peak force or rate of force development with isometric mid-thigh pulls. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that a CHO+PROT supplement provided no additional performance benefits compared to a placebo within a 12 week block periodization protocol in trained weightlifters.

  8. Perceiving space and optical cues via a visuo-tactile sensory substitution system: a methodological approach for training of blind subjects for navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segond, Hervé; Weiss, Déborah; Kawalec, Magdalena; Sampaio, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    A methodological approach to perceptual learning was used to allow both early blind subjects (experimental group) and blindfolded sighted subjects (control group) to experience optical information and spatial phenomena, on the basis of visuo-tactile information transmitted by a 64-taxel pneumatic sensory substitution device. The learning process allowed the subjects to develop abilities in spatial localisation, shape recognition (with generalisation to different points of view), and monocular depth cue interpretation. During the training phase, early blind people initially experienced more difficulties than blindfolded sighted subjects (having previous perceptual experience of perspective) with interpreting and using monocular depth cues. The amelioration of the performance for all blind subjects during training sessions and the quite similar level of performance reached by two groups in the final navigation tasks suggested that early blind people were able to develop and apply cognitive understanding of depth cues. Both groups showed generalisation of the learning from the initial phases to cue identification in the maze, and subjectively experienced shapes facing them. Subjects' performance depended not only on their perceptual experience but also on their previous spatial competencies.

  9. Effects of two plyometric training programmes of different intensity on vertical jump performance in high school athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sankey, Sean P.; Jones, Paul A.; Bampouras, Theodoros

    2008-01-01

    Although plyometric training is a significant component of most conditioning programme designs, little research exists with regards to the design/structure of specific plyometric training interventions and the intensity involved. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intensity\\ud manipulation on a 6-week plyometric training programmes on vertical jump performance. Eighteen healthy adolescent male subjects were randomly allocated to a periodised plyometric intensity (INCR), a cons...

  10. Rhabdomyolysis After Performing Blood Flow Restriction Training: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Shogo; Suzuki, Yukio; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    Tabata, S, Suzuki, Y, Azuma, K, and Matsumoto, H. Rhabdomyolysis after performing blood flow restriction training: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2064-2068, 2016-Rhabdomyolysis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition related to resistance training. Despite numerous reports of low-intensity blood flow restriction (BFR) training inducing muscle hypertrophy and increasing strength, few reports of rhabdomyolysis related to BFR training have been published. Here, we report a 30-year-old obese Japanese man admitted to our hospital the day after his first BFR training session with complaints of severe muscle pain in his upper and lower extremities, high fever, and pharyngeal pain. He was diagnosed with acute rhabdomyolysis based on a serum creatine phosphokinase level of 56,475 U·L and a urine myoglobin level of >3,000 ng·ml, and with acute tonsillitis based on a white blood cell count of 17,390 and C-reactive protein level of 10.43 mg·dl. A number of factors are suspected to be related to the onset and exacerbation of rhabdomyolysis, including excessive muscular training with BFR, bacterial infection, and medication. After 10 days of hospitalization with intravenous fluids and antibacterial drugs, he recovered without complications. This case indicates that BFR training should be conducted with careful consideration of the physical condition and strength of the individual to prevent serious complications, such as rhabdomyolysis.

  11. Training improves laparoscopic tasks performance and decreases operator workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jesse S L; Lu, Jirong; Tan, Wee Boon; Lomanto, Davide

    2016-05-01

    It has been postulated that increased operator workload during task performance may increase fatigue and surgical errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a validated tool for self-assessment for workload. Our study aims to assess the relationship of workload and performance of novices in simulated laparoscopic tasks of different complexity levels before and after training. Forty-seven novices without prior laparoscopic experience were recruited in a trial to investigate whether training improves task performance as well as mental workload. The participants were tested on three standard tasks (ring transfer, precision cutting and intracorporeal suturing) in increasing complexity based on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum. Following a period of training and rest, participants were tested again. Test scores were computed from time taken and time penalties for precision errors. Test scores and NASA-TLX scores were recorded pre- and post-training and analysed using paired t tests. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse differences in NASA-TLX scores between the three tasks. NASA-TLX score was lowest with ring transfer and highest with intracorporeal suturing. This was statistically significant in both pre-training (p NASA-TLX scores mirror the changes in test scores for the three tasks. Workload scores decreased significantly after training for all three tasks (ring transfer = 2.93, p NASA-TLX score is an accurate reflection of the complexity of simulated laparoscopic tasks in the FLS curriculum. This also correlates with the relationship of test scores between the three tasks. Simulation training improves both performance score and workload score across the tasks.

  12. Resting metabolic rate does not change in response to different types of training in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Brinkløv, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær

    2017-01-01

    , total body mass (TBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic...... control, or FFM and changes in RMR. Conclusion: Neither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D when no overall changes in body composition are seen. If training occurs concomitant with a reduction in fat mass, however, RMR...

  13. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  14. [Effects of training on static and dynamic balance in elderly subjects who have had a fall or not].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulotte, C; Thévenon, A; Fabre, C

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of a physical training program on static and dynamic balance during single and dual task conditions in elderly subjects who have had a fall or not. Two groups, comprising a total of 33 elderly subjects, were trained: 16 who had a fall were 69.2 +/- 5.0 years old and 17 who had not had a fall were 67.3 +/- 3.8 years. All subjects underwent an unipedal test with eyes open and eyes closed, followed by gait assessment during single and dual motor task conditions, before and after a physical training program. All subjects showed a significant decrease, by six times for subjects who had fallen and four times by those who had not, in the number of touch-downs in the unipedal test with eyes open (P < 0.05), and by 2.5 and 2 times, respectively, with eyes closed (P < 0.05) after the training program. All subjects showed a significant increase in speed (P < 0.05), cadence (P < 0.05) and stride length (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in the single support time (P < 0.05) and stride time (P < 0.05) in gait assessment during single and dual task conditions after the training program. During the training program, no subjects fell. The physical training program improved static balance and quality of gait in elderly subjects who had had a fall and those who had not, which could contribute to minimizing and/or retarding the effects of aging and maintaining physical independence.

  15. The 10-20-30 training concept improves performance and health profile in moderately trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bangsbo, Jens

    2012-01-01

    % of maximal intensity] for 30, 20 and 10 s, respectively, in 3-4 5-min intervals interspersed by 2 min of recovery, reducing training volume by 54% (14±0.9 vs. 30.4±2.3 km(.)week(-1)) while CON continued the normal training. After the intervention period VO(2)-max in 10-20-30 was 4% higher, and performance...

  16. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Plyometric Training on Single and Double Leg Jumping Performance and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Kaloheri, Olga; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Brown, Lee E

    2017-04-18

    This study compared the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on single and double-leg jumping performance, maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD). Fifteen moderately trained subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (U, n=7) or bilateral group (B, n=8). Both groups performed maximal effort plyometric leg exercises two times per week for 6 weeks. The B group performed all exercises with both legs, while the U group performed half the repetitions with each leg, so that total exercise volume was the same. Jumping performance was assessed by countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ), while maximal isometric leg press strength and RFD were measured before and after training for each leg separately and both legs together. CMJ improvement with both legs was not significantly different between U (12.1±7.2%) and B (11.0±5.5%) groups. However, the sum of right and left leg CMJ only improved in the U group (19.0±7.1%, pplyometric training was more effective at increasing both single and double-leg jumping performance, isometric leg press maximal force and RFD when compared to bilateral training.

  17. Subjects and educational objectives of specialized training courses for shift supervisors in nuclear power plants. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Presentation of subjects taught, curricula, educational objectives of training courses for shift supervisors in nuclear power plants. The curricula for nuclear engineering fundamentals include subjects such as nuclear physics, reactor physics, reactor safety, radiation protection, legal provisions, job safety, reactor technology, applied thermohydraulics and thermodynamics, materials. (HAG) [de

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  19. Culturally Relevant Human Subjects Protection Training: A Case Study in Community-Engaged Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha

    2018-02-01

    Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.

  20. No difference between mechanical perturbation training with compliant surface and manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after ACL rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya; Logerstedt, David; Failla, Mathew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-27

    Manual perturbation training improves dynamic knee stability and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACL-rupture). However, it is limited to static standing position and does not allow time-specific perturbations at different phase of functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administering mechanical perturbation training including compliant surface provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional measures after an acute ACL-rupture. Sixteen level I/II athletes with ACL-ruptures participated in this preliminary study. Eight patients received mechanical (Mechanical) and eight subjects received manual perturbation training (Manual). All patients completed a functional testing (isometric quadriceps strength, single-legged hop tests) and patient-reported measures (Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), Global Rating Score (GRS), International Knee Documentation Committee 2000 (IKDC 2000) at pre- and post-training. 2 × 2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. No significant group-by-time interactions were found for all measures (p > 0.18). Main effects of time were found for single hop (Pre-testing: 85.14% ± 21.07; Post-testing: 92.49% ± 17.55), triple hop (Pre-testing: 84.64% ± 14.17; Post-testing: 96.64% ± 11.14), KOS-ADLS (Pre-testing: 81.13% ± 11.12; Post-testing: 88.63% ± 12.63), GRS (Pre-testing: 68.63% ± 15.73; Post-testing: 78.81% ± 13.85), and IKDC 2000 (Pre-testing: 66.66% ± 9.85; Post-testing: 76.05% ± 14.62) (p training using compliant surfaces induce effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee functional performance after acute ACL-rupture. The clinical significance is both modes of training improve patients' functional-performance and limb-to-limb movement symmetry, and enhancing the patients' self-reported of knee functional measures after ACL rupture. Mechanical

  1. The Effects of Training on Anxiety and Task Performance in Simulated Suborbital Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Rebecca S; Bonato, Frederick; Seaton, Kimberly; Bubka, Andrea; Vardiman, Johnené L; Mathers, Charles; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2017-07-01

    In commercial spaceflight, anxiety could become mission-impacting, causing negative experiences or endangering the flight itself. We studied layperson response to four varied-length training programs (ranging from 1 h-2 d of preparation) prior to centrifuge simulation of launch and re-entry acceleration profiles expected during suborbital spaceflight. We examined subject task execution, evaluating performance in high-stress conditions. We sought to identify any trends in demographics, hemodynamics, or similar factors in subjects with the highest anxiety or poorest tolerance of the experience. Volunteers participated in one of four centrifuge training programs of varied complexity and duration, culminating in two simulated suborbital spaceflights. At most, subjects underwent seven centrifuge runs over 2 d, including two +Gz runs (peak +3.5 Gz, Run 2) and two +Gx runs (peak +6.0 Gx, Run 4) followed by three runs approximating suborbital spaceflight profiles (combined +Gx and +Gz, peak +6.0 Gx and +4.0 Gz). Two cohorts also received dedicated anxiety-mitigation training. Subjects were evaluated on their performance on various tasks, including a simulated emergency. Participating in 2-7 centrifuge exposures were 148 subjects (105 men, 43 women, age range 19-72 yr, mean 39.4 ± 13.2 yr, body mass index range 17.3-38.1, mean 25.1 ± 3.7). There were 10 subjects who withdrew or limited their G exposure; history of motion sickness was associated with opting out. Shorter length training programs were associated with elevated hemodynamic responses. Single-directional G training did not significantly improve tolerance. Training programs appear best when high fidelity and sequential exposures may improve tolerance of physical/psychological flight stressors. The studied variables did not predict anxiety-related responses to these centrifuge profiles.Blue RS, Bonato F, Seaton K, Bubka A, Vardiman JL, Mathers C, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM. The effects of training on anxiety

  2. Minimal effects of visual memory training on auditory performance of adult cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Sandra I; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Auditory training has been shown to significantly improve cochlear implant (CI) users' speech and music perception. However, it is unclear whether posttraining gains in performance were due to improved auditory perception or to generally improved attention, memory, and/or cognitive processing. In this study, speech and music perception, as well as auditory and visual memory, were assessed in 10 CI users before, during, and after training with a nonauditory task. A visual digit span (VDS) task was used for training, in which subjects recalled sequences of digits presented visually. After the VDS training, VDS performance significantly improved. However, there were no significant improvements for most auditory outcome measures (auditory digit span, phoneme recognition, sentence recognition in noise, digit recognition in noise), except for small (but significant) improvements in vocal emotion recognition and melodic contour identification. Posttraining gains were much smaller with the nonauditory VDS training than observed in previous auditory training studies with CI users. The results suggest that posttraining gains observed in previous studies were not solely attributable to improved attention or memory and were more likely due to improved auditory perception. The results also suggest that CI users may require targeted auditory training to improve speech and music perception.

  3. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  4. Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ninaus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level. 

  5. Subjective education in analytic training: drawing on values from the art academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Kernberg and others have observed that psychoanalytic education has tended to promote the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and clinical technique within an atmosphere of indoctrination rather than of exploration. As a corrective, he proposed four models that correspond to values in psychoanalytic education: the art academy, the technical trade school, the religious seminary and the university. He commended models of the university and art academy to our collective attention because of their combined effectiveness in providing for the objective and subjective education of candidates: the university model for its capacity to provide a critical sense of a wide range of theories in an atmosphere tolerating debate and difference, and the art academy model for its capacity to facilitate the expression of individual creativity. In this paper, I will explore the art academy model for correspondences between artistic and analytic trainings that can enhance the development of the creative subjectivity of psychoanalytic candidates. I will draw additional correspondences between analytic and artistic learning that can enhance psychoanalytic education.

  6. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyett, James C; Giersch, Gabrielle E W; Womack, Christopher J; Saunders, Michael J; Hughey, Christine A; Daley, Hannah M; Luden, Nicholas D

    2016-10-14

    This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as 'trained' ( n = 7) and 'untrained' ( n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT). The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening) and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo). Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, 'very likely') and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, 'likely'). Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, 'likely'; 1.0% ± 1.7%, 'likely', respectively), but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, 'likely'). Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  7. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    For non-reactor nuclear facilities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) does not require that nuclear criticality safety engineers demonstrate qualification for their job. It is likely, however, that more formalism will be required in the future. Current DOE requirements for those positions which do have to demonstrate qualification indicate that qualification should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis is incompletely developed in some areas

  8. The peacock train does not handicap cursorial locomotor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Nathan K.; Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated traits, like the peacock train, are recognized as classic examples of sexual selection. The evolution of sexual traits is often considered paradoxical as, although they enhance reproductive success, they are widely presumed to hinder movement and survival. Many exaggerated traits represent an additional mechanical load that must be carried by the animal and therefore may influence the metabolic cost of locomotion and constrain locomotor performance. Here we conducted respirometry experiments on peacocks and demonstrate that the exaggerated sexually selected train does not compromise locomotor performance in terms of the metabolic cost of locomotion and its kinematics. Indeed, peacocks with trains had a lower absolute and mass specific metabolic cost of locomotion. Our findings suggest that adaptations that mitigate any costs associated with exaggerated morphology are central in the evolution of sexually selected traits. PMID:27805067

  9. Individual Training, Performance Improvement, and the Future for Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human competence is a vital element for any organization that expects to survive and then thrive. Developing individual performance ability is necessary but not sufficient because trained people alone will not make an organization successful. We must determine what people should deliver and why it should be delivered in order to add measurable…

  10. Visuospatial ability factors and performance variables in laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus

  11. Training volume and performance of young Spanish national and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the volume of training of young national and international level swimmers, how it evolves andits relationship with performance. The sample comprised of 202 swimmers (11to 18 years old), selected by the Royal Spanish Swimming Federation. The volumes of pool and ...

  12. Performance measurement system for training simulators. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhold, G. Jr.; Roth, D.R.

    1978-05-01

    In the first project phase, the project team has designed, installed, and test run on the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant training simulator a performance measurement system capable of automatic recording of statistical information on operator actions and plant response. Key plant variables and operator actions were monitored and analyzed by the simulator computer for a selected set of four operating and casualty drills. The project has the following objectives: (1) To provide an empirical data base for statistical analysis of operator reliability and for allocation of safety and control functions between operators and automated controls; (2) To develop a method for evaluation of the effectiveness of control room designs and operating procedures; and (3) To develop a system for scoring aspects of operator performance to assist in training evaluations and to support operator selection research. The performance measurement system has shown potential for meeting the research objectives. However, the cost of training simulator time is high; to keep research program costs reasonable, the measurement system is being designed to be an integral part of operator training programs. In the pilot implementation, participating instructors judged the measurement system to be a valuable and objective extension of their abilities to monitor trainee performance

  13. Assessment of mental training in improving performance serve in volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Montiel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to investigate the effects of mental training on volleyball players service performance. Six male volleyball players aged from 18 to 25 years old of a team from the interior of São Paulo’s state were studied. The service performance was evaluated in three different championships of the same season. The services were scored in game situations at the same time of the intervention process. The measure means indicated service performance increased with the mental training practice, with more services performed correctly and less mistakes at the end of the intervention process. The mistakes dimished significantly from the baseline to the final of the intervention process and from the start of the intervention process to its final.

  14. Visual and kinesthetic locomotor imagery training integrated with auditory step rhythm for walking performance of patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Oh, Duck-Won; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2011-02-01

    To compare the effect of visual and kinesthetic locomotor imagery training on walking performance and to determine the clinical feasibility of incorporating auditory step rhythm into the training. Randomized crossover trial. Laboratory of a Department of Physical Therapy. Fifteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis. Four locomotor imagery trainings on walking performance: visual locomotor imagery training, kinesthetic locomotor imagery training, visual locomotor imagery training with auditory step rhythm and kinesthetic locomotor imagery training with auditory step rhythm. The timed up-and-go test and electromyographic and kinematic analyses of the affected lower limb during one gait cycle. After the interventions, significant differences were found in the timed up-and-go test results between the visual locomotor imagery training (25.69 ± 16.16 to 23.97 ± 14.30) and the kinesthetic locomotor imagery training with auditory step rhythm (22.68 ± 12.35 to 15.77 ± 8.58) (P kinesthetic locomotor imagery training exhibited significantly increased activation in a greater number of muscles and increased angular displacement of the knee and ankle joints compared with the visual locomotor imagery training, and these effects were more prominent when auditory step rhythm was integrated into each form of locomotor imagery training. The activation of the hamstring during the swing phase and the gastrocnemius during the stance phase, as well as kinematic data of the knee joint, were significantly different for posttest values between the visual locomotor imagery training and the kinesthetic locomotor imagery training with auditory step rhythm (P kinesthetic locomotor imagery training than in the visual locomotor imagery training. The auditory step rhythm together with the locomotor imagery training produces a greater positive effect in improving the walking performance of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.

  15. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of plyometric training on jumping performance in junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matavulj, D; Kukolj, M; Ugarkovic, D; Tihanyi, J; Jaric, S

    2001-06-01

    Although the plyometric training has proved its efficiency, it remains generally unknown whether a limited amount of plyometric training could improve movements in subjects who already demonstrate high level of performance. Three different training regimens were performed in order to study effects of plyometric training on elite junior basketball players. While control group (CG) participated only in the regular midseason training activity, another two groups performed a limited amount of plyometric training employing drop jumps from the height of either 50 cm (EG-50) or 100 cm (EG-100). The height of the maximal vertical jump (CMJ), as well as the maximal voluntary force (F) and the rate of force development (RFD) of hip and knee extensors were tested prior to and after the training. An increase in CMJ (4.8 and 5.6 cm in EG-50 and EG-100, respectively), as well as in F of hip extensors and RFD of knee extensors was observed in both experimental groups, while no significant changes were recorded in CG. When the pretest scores were used as a covariate, both experimental groups demonstrated higher increase in CMJ and RFD of knee extensors then CG. However, no differences were observed between EG-50 and EG-100. The multiple correlation between four isometric parameters and CMJ revealed R2=0.29. A limited amount of plyometric training could improve jumping performance in elite junior basketball players and this improvement could be partly related with an increase in F of hip extensors and RFD of knee extensors. However, neither of the two initial heights of the applied drop jumps proved to be more effective.

  17. The role of taekwondo training on the subjective wellbeing of adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Emru Tadesse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of taekwondo (TKD training on the subjective well-being (SWB of adolescents (12-18 years old in Addis Ababa city. A cross-sectional survey method was used; self-administered questionnaire was the main data collection tool. A total number of 162 adolescents (108 TKD adolescents from four randomly selected TKD clubs and 54 non-TKD adolescents from a randomly selected public high school, participated in the study. The study sought to determine TKD adolescents’ level of SWB as measured by the Personal Wellbeing Index – School Children (PWI-SC. Besides, adolescents in different groups (TKD adolescents in three groups according to rank/belt level and TKD adolescents and non-TKD adolescents were compared based on their score of PWI-SC. Results of the study showed that: (1 TKD adolescents had high level (mean points of SWB as measured by the PWI-SC, i.e., 81.95 (95%CI: 79.70 to 84.20; (2 there was no significant difference in SWB among the three groups of TKD adolescents (lower, middle and high level belts (F(2, 81 = 1.58, p > .05.; and (3 when compared with non-TKD adolescents, TKD adolescents were found to have a significantly higher mean points of SWB, (t = 4.25(77.97, p < 0.001; d = 0.79. Overall, the results of this study indicated the training of TKD can have a positive contribution to adolescents’ well-being.

  18. EFFICIENCY OF COMPUTER-GENERATED TRAINING EXERCISES OF THE SUBJECT «INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PHARMACY BASED ON COGNITIVE PROTOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a research to corroborate a hypothesis that wor king on training exercises based on prototypes of human cognitive structures helps enhance student’s knowledge digestion and engagement in learning process, gain a higher level of t h eir progress in studies and achieve a better academic performance. The results of t he research confirmed the hypothesis of better and more rapid digestion of declarative knowledge on the subject of “Information Technologies in Pharmacy”, represented in the tor m of prototypes of human cognitive structures. The results of the entrance test controls showed better on average by 10 % (p<0.05 theoretical achievements of students in the experimental group who wor ked on training exercises in the format of cognitive structures. Drowning a ch art of students’ perfor mance in control and experimental groups for ten lessons and a trend line (linear regression on it allowed us to hi ghlight the si gnificant difference in the inclinations of the lines with indices of 0.067 and 0.111 in the control and experimental group, respectively. This indicated a stable acceleration of knowledge by students in t he experimental group in comparison with the control group and proved an enhanced academic perfor mance among the groups of students.

  19. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  20. Recruitment of occipital cortex during sensory substitution training linked to subjective experience of seeing in people with blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz

    Full Text Available Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported 'visual qualia', the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG. None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid.

  1. Recruitment of occipital cortex during sensory substitution training linked to subjective experience of seeing in people with blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Tomás; Poch, Joaquín; Santos, Juan M; Requena, Carmen; Martínez, Ana M; Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Turrero, Agustín; Barcia, Juan; Nogales, Ramón; Calvo, Agustín; Martínez, José M; Córdoba, José L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported 'visual qualia', the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG). None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid.

  2. Training and assessment of psychomotor skills for performing laparoscopic surgery using BEST-IRIS virtual reality training simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makam, Ramesh; Rajan, C S; Brendon, Tulip; Shreedhar, V; Saleem, K; Shrivastava, Sangeeta; Sudarshan, R; Naidu, Prakash

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a pilot study that examined the performance of people training on a Virtual Reality based BEST-IRIS Laparoscopic Surgery Training Simulator. The performance of experienced surgeons was examined and compared to the performance of residents. The purpose of this study is to validate the BEST-IRIS training simulator. It appeared to be a useful training and assessment tool.

  3. Repetition Performance And Blood Lactate Responses Adopting Different Recovery Periods Between Training Sessions In Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; de Souza, João A A A; Simão, Roberto; de Araújo Farias, Déborah; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different recovery periods (24h, 48h, and 72h) between repeated resistance training (RT) sessions for the upper body muscles on repetition performance and blood lactate responses in trained men. Sixteen recreationally trained men (age: 26.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 179 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 82.6 ± 4.0 kg, 4.5 ± 2.2 years of RT experience) participated in this study. Eight-repetition maximum (8-RM) loads were determined for the bench press (BP), 30° incline bench press (BP30), and 45° incline bench press (BP45) exercises. To assess the effects of different recovery periods between repeated training sessions, three protocols were performed in randomized order, including: 24 hours (P24); 48 hours (P48); and 72 hours (P72). Each RT session consisted of performing four repetition maximum sets of BP, BP30, and BP45 with 8-RM loads and 2-minute rest intervals between sets. Blood lactate levels were measured pre-session (PRE), immediately post-session (POST), 3 minutes post-session (P3), and 5 minutes post-session (P5). For the P24 protocol, significant decreases in repetition performance were found between sessions for the BP, BP30, and BP45 exercises, respectively. When considering session 2 only, the total work (repetition x sets) was significantly higher in P48 and P72 versus P24 for the BP30 and BP45 exercises. Blood lactate levels (i.e. POST, P3, and P5) significantly increased for session 2 under the P24 compared to the P48 and P72 protocols, respectively. Therefore, coaches and practitioners who need to accomplish a higher training volume for the upper body muscles should adopt recovery periods longer than 24 hours between sessions that train the same or similar muscle groups.

  4. Muscle adaptations and performance enhancements of soccer training for untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Christensen, Jesper F.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physical demands of small-sided soccer games in untrained middle-age males and muscle adaptations and performance effects over 12 weeks of recreational soccer training in comparison with continuous running. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (20-43 years) were randomized into a soccer....... Blood lactate during running at 11 km/h was lowered (p soccer organized as small-sided games stimulates both aerobic and anaerobic...

  5. Laterality and performance of agility-trained dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Bertino, Daniele; Quaranta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between lateralised behaviour and performance were investigated in 19 agility-trained dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to performance during typical agility obstacles (jump/A-frame and weave poles). In addition, because recent behavioural studies reported that visual stimuli of emotional valence presented to one visual hemifield at a time affect visually guided motor responses in dogs, the possibility that the position of the owner respectively in the left and in the right canine visual hemifield might be associated with quality of performance during agility was considered. Dogs' temperament was also measured by an owner-rated questionnaire. The most relevant finding was that agility-trained dogs displayed longer latencies to complete the obstacles with the owner located in their left visual hemifield compared to the right. Interestingly, the results showed that this phenomenon was significantly linked to both dogs' trainability and the strength of paw preference.

  6. Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wee Kian; Paton, Carl D; Garnham, Andrew P; Burke, Louise M; Carey, Andrew L; Hawley, John A

    2008-11-01

    We determined the effects of a cycle training program in which selected sessions were performed with low muscle glycogen content on training capacity and subsequent endurance performance, whole body substrate oxidation during submaximal exercise, and several mitochondrial enzymes and signaling proteins with putative roles in promoting training adaptation. Seven endurance-trained cyclists/triathletes trained daily (High) alternating between 100-min steady-state aerobic rides (AT) one day, followed by a high-intensity interval training session (HIT; 8 x 5 min at maximum self-selected effort) the next day. Another seven subjects trained twice every second day (Low), first undertaking AT, then 1-2 h later, the HIT. These training schedules were maintained for 3 wk. Forty-eight hours before and after the first and last training sessions, all subjects completed a 60-min steady-state ride (60SS) followed by a 60-min performance trial. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after 60SS, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout this ride. Resting muscle glycogen concentration (412 +/- 51 vs. 577 +/- 34 micromol/g dry wt), rates of whole body fat oxidation during 60SS (1,261 +/- 247 vs. 1,698 +/- 174 micromol.kg(-1).60 min(-1)), the maximal activities of citrate synthase (45 +/- 2 vs. 54 +/- 1 mmol.kg dry wt(-1).min(-1)), and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (18 +/- 2 vs. 23 +/- 2 mmol.kg dry wt(-1).min(-1)) along with the total protein content of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV were increased only in Low (all P every second day compromised high-intensity training capacity. While selected markers of training adaptation were enhanced with twice a day training, the performance of a 1-h time trial undertaken after a 60-min steady-state ride was similar after once daily or twice every second day training programs.

  7. Nordic Walking May Safely Increase the Intensity of Exercise Training in Healthy Subjects and in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejczak, Andrzej; Josiak, Krystian; Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Kinga; Rudzińska, Eliza; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Piepoli, Massimo F; Woźniewski, Marek; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) improves the exercise capacity and quality of life, and may also reduce mortality and hospitalizations. The greatest benefits are achieved through high-intensity aerobic exercises resulting in a stronger cardiorespiratory response. Nordic walking (NW), a walking technique using two poles and mimicking the movements performed while cross-country skiing, is associated with the involvement of more muscle groups than in the case of classic walking, and should therefore make it possible to increase exercise intensity, resulting in more effective training for patients with HF. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and safety of the NW technique, and to compare the effort intensity while walking with and without the NW technique in both healthy subjects and in patients with chronic HF. The study involved 12 healthy individuals (aged 30 ± 10 years, 5 men) and 12 men with stable chronic systolic HF (aged 63 ± 11 years, all categorized in New York Heart Association class II, median LVEF 30%, median peak VO(2) 18.25 mL/kg/min). All the participants completed two randomly assigned submaximal walking tests (one with NW poles and one without) conducted on a level treadmill for 6 min at a constant speed of 5 km/h. Walking with the NW technique was feasible, safe and well tolerated in all subjects. In both the control group and the chronic HF group, walking with the NW technique increased peak VO(2), RER, VE, PET CO(2), HR and SBP over walking without the poles; and the fatigue grade according to the abridged Borg scale was higher. Dyspnea did not increase significantly with the NW technique. The NW technique can increase the intensity of aerobic training in a safe and well-tolerated way in both healthy individuals and in patients with chronic HF.

  8. A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p basketball players.

  9. Subjective Performance Evaluation in the Public Sector: Evidence from School Inspections. CEE DP 135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iftikhar

    2012-01-01

    Performance measurement in the public sector is largely based on objective metrics, which may be subject to gaming behaviour. This paper investigates a novel subjective performance evaluation system where independent inspectors visit schools at very short notice, publicly disclose their findings and sanction schools rated fail. First, I…

  10. Assertiveness Skills Training Efficiency on College Students’ Persuasive Subjective Norms against Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The prevalence of substance abuse among college students is increasing drastically and requires immediate skill-based substance abuse intervention such as assertive skills. The purpose of this study was to develope the healthy behavior to change the subjective norms of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse. Materials & Methods: A pre and post nonequivalent control group design study carried out on college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. The data-gathering tool consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing the variables of moral , descriptive , and injunctive norms. After the diagnostic evaluation, assertive skills promoting program was applied to persuade the participants against substances abuse. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at baseline and 2 months after the intervention. Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for moral norms (t= -3.36, P<0.001, descriptive norms (t= -3.07, P<0.003, and injunctive norms for persuading substance abuse (t=-3.79, P<0.000.Conclusion: These findings suggest that assertive skills training would be an efficient tool in drug abuse prevention programs among adolescents that should also be included in the comprehensive school health programs. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(3:40-49

  11. A Wearable System for Gait Training in Subjects with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Casamassima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system for gait training and rehabilitation for Parkinson’s disease (PD patients in a daily life setting is presented. It is based on a wearable architecture aimed at the provision of real-time auditory feedback. Recent studies have, in fact, shown that PD patients can receive benefit from a motor therapy based on auditory cueing and feedback, as happens in traditional rehabilitation contexts with verbal instructions given by clinical operators. To this extent, a system based on a wireless body sensor network and a smartphone has been developed. The system enables real-time extraction of gait spatio-temporal features and their comparison with a patient’s reference walking parameters captured in the lab under clinical operator supervision. Feedback is returned to the user in form of vocal messages, encouraging the user to keep her/his walking behavior or to correct it. This paper describes the overall concept, the proposed usage scenario and the parameters estimated for the gait analysis. It also presents, in detail, the hardware-software architecture of the system and the evaluation of system reliability by testing it on a few subjects.

  12. Effects of Training Structure and the Passage of Time on Trained and Derived Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eilifsen, Christoffer; Arntzen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Conditional discriminations established using a linear series training structure were shown in a previous study to be intact when unreinforced trials assessing such performance were presented interspersed among stimulus equivalence test trials. Experimenter-defined correct performance on these trials was seen both for participants responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence and for some participants who did not. The goal of the current study was to investigate the status of previously ...

  13. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Boyett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1 were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as ‘trained’ (n = 7 and ‘untrained’ (n = 7. Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT. The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, ‘very likely’ and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, ‘likely’. Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, ‘likely’; 1.0% ± 1.7%, ‘likely’, respectively, but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, ‘likely’. Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts.

  14. Physiological and performance changes from the addition of a sprint interval program to wrestling training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Curby, David G; Bayati, Mahdi; Bahraminejad, Morteza; Mäestu, Jarek

    2011-09-01

    Increasing the level of physical fitness for competition is the primary goal of any conditioning program for wrestlers. Wrestlers often need to peak for competitions several times over an annual training cycle. Additionally, the scheduling of these competitions does not always match an ideal periodization plan and may require a modified training program to achieve a high level of competitive fitness in a short-time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of sprint-interval training (SIT) program, on selected aerobic and anaerobic performance indices, and hormonal and hematological adaptations, when added to the traditional Iranian training of wrestlers in their preseason phase. Fifteen trained wrestlers were assigned to either an experimental (EXP) or a control (CON) group. Both groups followed a traditional preparation phase consisting of learning and drilling technique, live wrestling and weight training for 4 weeks. In addition, the EXP group performed a running-based SIT protocol. The SIT consisted of 6 35-m sprints at maximum effort with a 10-second recovery between each sprint. The SIT protocol was performed in 2 sessions per week, for the 4 weeks of the study. Before and after the 4-week training program, pre and posttesting was performed on each subject on the following: a graded exercise test (GXT) to determine VO(2)max, the velocity associated with V(2)max (νVO(2)max), maximal ventilation, and peak oxygen pulse; a time to exhaustion test (T(max)) at their νVO(2)max; and 4 successive Wingate tests with a 4-minute recovery between each trial for the determination of peak and mean power output (PPO, MPO). Resting blood samples were also collected at the beginning of each pre and posttesting period, before and after the 4-week training program. The EXP group showed significant improvements in VO(2)max (+5.4%), peak oxygen pulse (+7.7%) and T(max) (+32.2%) compared with pretesting. The EXP group produced significant increases

  15. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, new entrants to the practice of nuclear criticality safety have learned their job primarily by on-the-job training (OJT) often by association with an experienced nuclear criticality safety engineer who probably also learned their job by OJT. Typically, the new entrant learned what he/she needed to know to solve a particular problem and accumulated experience as more problems were solved. It is likely that more formalism will be required in the future. Current US Department of Energy requirements for those positions which have to demonstrate qualification indicate that it should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis i's incompletely developed in some areas. Details of this analysis are provided in this report

  16. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMP MOD ) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMP MOD ), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  17. Implications of current educational policies in the Physical Education teachers’ training: a study on the teacher’s subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bernardo Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to problematize the ontology that underlies the official documents related to the physical education teachers’ training. The theoretical and methodological framework for such questioning is dialectical materialism. The reasoning of the official documents cited is confined to training “Competence”, linked to “reflective practice”. Explicitly or implicitly, such training policy seeks to meet the guidelines and requirements of flexible accumulation, in turn, based on productive restructuring, and its political expression, the neoliberalism. The teleologically oriented training towards such relations of production, although it seems avant-garde, is seeded by a conservatism that is evident in not facing social contradictions. The results revealed that the teachers’ subjectivity is limited in favor of an adaptive training to the alienation process.

  18. Agility in Team Sports: Testing, Training and Factors Affecting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective

  19. HIIT enhances endurance performance and aerobic characteristics more than high-volume training in trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ), power output at [Formula: see text]O 2max (W[Formula: see text]O 2max ), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (W max ) and force (F max ). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HR max . Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O 2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (W LT ) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.

  20. Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ninaus; Gonçalo Pereira; René Stefitz; Rui Prada; Ana Paiva; Christa Neuper; Guilherme Wood

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participan...

  1. Effects of Koto Performance Seminar on Music Teacher Training

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 真; 平山, 裕基

    2017-01-01

    Music teachers need to have wide range of knowledge and teaching skills. This includes knowledge of world music such as Japanese traditional music, methods of instruction and performance skill. The department of Music Culture Education in Hiroshima University provides a variety of lectures and seminars on Japanese traditional music as a part of music teacher training, of which playing the koto (a long Japanese zither with 13 strings) is especially stressed as a continuous learning opportunity...

  2. Supervised Versus Home Exercise Training Programs on Functional Balance in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Enas Fawzy; Shanb, Alsayed Abd Elhameed

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in physical capabilities and a disturbance of both postural control and daily living activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supervised versus home exercise programs on muscle strength, balance and functional activities in older participants. Forty older participants were equally assigned to a supervised exercise program (group-I) or a home exercise program (group-II). Each participant performed the exercise program for 35-45 minutes, two times per week for four months. Balance indices and isometric muscle strength were measured with the Biodex Balance System and Hand-Held Dynamometer. Functional activities were evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the timed get-up-and-go test (TUG). The mean values of the Biodex balance indices and the BBS improved significantly after both the supervised and home exercise programs ( P training programs significantly increased balance performance. The supervised program was superior to the home program in restoring functional activities and isometric muscle strength in older participants.

  3. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  4. Ultrasound of the acute abdomen performed by surgeons in training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J.P.; Grantcharov, T.P.; Eriksen, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    , specificity and kappa-agreement of the surgeon performed ultrasound examination was 1.00 (0.77-1.00), 0.96 (0.79-0.99), 0.94 (0.3-1.00) and 0.40 (0.12-0.77), 0.97 (0.83-0.99), 0.44 (0.00-0.96); respectively. Visualization of the common bile duct was poor having 73% non-diagnostic surgeon-performed ultrasound...... perform valid abdominal ultrasound examinations of patients referred with acute abdominal pain. METHODS: Patients referred with acute abdominal pain had an ultrasound examination by a surgeon in training as well as by an experienced consultant radiologist whose results served as the gold standard. All...... participating surgeons were without any pre-existing ultrasound experience and received one hour of introduction to abdominal ultrasound. RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent 40 surgeon performed and 30 radiologist performed ultrasound examinations. Regarding gallstone and cholecholecystitis the sensitivity...

  5. Autogenic-feedback training improves pilot performance during emergency flying conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  6. Insulin and fiber type in the offspring of T2DM subjects with resistance training and detraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, Katherine L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Perry, Tracy L

    2012-01-01

    Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated....

  7. Effects of a resistance training program performed with an interocclusal splint for community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hirase, Tatsuya; Inokuchi, Shigeru; Matsusaka, Nobuou; Nakahara, Kazumi; Okita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine whether resistance training for elderly community-dwellers performed with an interocclusal splint resulted in greater lower extremity muscle strength and better balance than resistance training performed without an interocclusal splint. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-eight elderly persons using Japanese community day centers were randomly divided into two groups: an intervention group (n=45), which performed resistance training with an interocclusal splint; and a control g...

  8. Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavanela, Plinio M; Crewther, Blair T; Lodo, Leandro; Florindo, Alex A; Miyabara, Elen H; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a workplace-based resistance training intervention on different health-, fitness-, and work-related measures in untrained men (bus drivers). The subjects were recruited from a bus company and divided into a training (n = 48) and control (n = 48) groups after initial prescreening. The training group performed a 24-week resistance training program, whereas the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Each group was assessed for body composition, blood pressure (BP), pain incidence, muscular endurance, and flexibility before and after the 24-week period. Work absenteeism was also recorded during this period and after a 12-week follow-up phase. In general, no body composition changes were identified in either group. In the training group, a significant reduction in BP and pain incidence, along with improvements in muscle endurance and flexibility were seen after 24 weeks (p workplace improved different aspects of health and fitness in untrained men, thereby potentially providing other work-related benefits. Thus, both employers and employees may benefit from the setup, promotion, and support of a work-based physical activity program involving resistance training.

  9. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, P.; Schmitt, L.; Brugniaux, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect may last for up to 2 weeks after LHTL intervention. Eighteen swimmers trained for 13 days at 1,200 m while sleeping/living at 1,200 m in ambient air (control, n=9) or in hypoxic rooms (LHTL, n=9, 5 days at simulated altitude of 2......The "living high-training low" model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of its potential benefit. This study tested whether......,500 m followed by 8 days at simulated altitude of 3,000 m, 16 h day(-1)). Measures were done before 1-2 days (POST-1) and 2 weeks after intervention (POST-15). Aerobic performance was assessed from two swimming trials, exploring .VO(2max) and endurance performance (2,000-m time trial), respectively...

  10. A Comparison of Robotic Simulation Performance on Basic Virtual Reality Skills: Simulator Subjective Versus Objective Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ariel K; Smith, Roger; Julian, Danielle; Tanaka, Alyssa; Mattingly, Patricia

    To answer the question of whether there is a difference between robotic virtual reality simulator performance assessment and validated human reviewers. Current surgical education relies heavily on simulation. Several assessment tools are available to the trainee, including the actual robotic simulator assessment metrics and the Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) metrics, both of which have been independently validated. GEARS is a rating scale through which human evaluators can score trainees' performances on 6 domains: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, force sensitivity, autonomy, and robotic control. Each domain is scored on a 5-point Likert scale with anchors. We used 2 common robotic simulators, the dV-Trainer (dVT; Mimic Technologies Inc., Seattle, WA) and the da Vinci Skills Simulator (dVSS; Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), to compare the performance metrics of robotic surgical simulators with the GEARS for a basic robotic task on each simulator. A prospective single-blinded randomized study. A surgical education and training center. Surgeons and surgeons in training. Demographic information was collected including sex, age, level of training, specialty, and previous surgical and simulator experience. Subjects performed 2 trials of ring and rail 1 (RR1) on each of the 2 simulators (dVSS and dVT) after undergoing randomization and warm-up exercises. The second RR1 trial simulator performance was recorded, and the deidentified videos were sent to human reviewers using GEARS. Eight different simulator assessment metrics were identified and paired with a similar performance metric in the GEARS tool. The GEARS evaluation scores and simulator assessment scores were paired and a Spearman rho calculated for their level of correlation. Seventy-four subjects were enrolled in this randomized study with 9 subjects excluded for missing or incomplete data. There was a strong correlation between the GEARS score and the simulator metric

  11. Sleep, training load and performance in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, J; Mariman, A; Boone, J; Delesie, L; Tobback, E; Vogelaers, D; Bourgois, J G

    2018-03-01

    Training load (TL) and recovery should be in optimal balance to obtain maximal performance gains. We aimed to study sleep as a recovery technique and its relationship with TL and performance in elite athletes. Twenty-six elite female artistic gymnasts were divided into an under 13 (n = 6), an under 14 (n = 6), a junior (n = 7; 14-15y) and a senior (=World Championship (WC) competitors, n = 7; ≥16y) category. Sleep, through sleep logs, and training parameters, using the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) scale, were monitored to calculate total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), TL, monotony and strain. Performance of WC competitors was evaluated through coach and WC qualification ranking. For the entire group, TST (effect sizes (ES) = -1.12, confidence intervals (CI) = -60:-47, P performance. Optimizing sleep and TL may therefore represent strategies to enhance performance.

  12. A Single Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia; Meston, Cindy

    2017-10-03

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has recently been associated with female sexual function (Stanton, Lorenz, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). Below-average HRV was identified as a possible risk factor for sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Based on this newly established relationship between HRV and female sexual function, the present study examined the effect of autogenic training to increase HRV on acute physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. Specifically, vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), an index of genital sexual arousal, and subjective sexual arousal were assessed in 33 sexually functional women, aged 18 to 27, before and after a short session of autogenic training. Autogenic training, a relaxation technique that restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, has been shown to significantly increase HRV (Miu, Heilman, & Miclea, 2009). After autogenic training, significant increases in both VPA (p <.05) and subjective sexual arousal (p <.005) were observed. Moreover, change in HRV from pre- to postmanipulation significantly moderated changes in subjective sexual arousal (p <.05) when it was measured continuously during the presentation of the erotic stimulus. This cost-effective, easy-to-administer behavioral intervention may have important implications for increasing sexual arousal in women.

  13. Unique aspects of competitive weightlifting: performance, training and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Adam; Smith, Heather K

    2012-09-01

    Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force

  14. Participating learning: an experience for youth training in Brazil as social subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Maria RODRIGUES DE MATOS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that youth involvement in groups, in this case the public policies that reflect the environment is a fertile opportunity to form social subjects. In this sense, it also shows that non-formal education is, outside of school is an effective tool for behavior change among youth, and in Brazil this kind of public investment contributes significantly to improve the youth level in many ways, particularly in implementing the National Environmental Education Policy, including with respect to the far-reaching policy decisions. The areas of participation, called councils, commissions, conferences, are spaces that primarily exist to perform the role of educator or educational structures space. The existence of these structures such as councils, groups, committees and networks is urgently needed. However, not enough to exert its educational role. It is essential to continuous development and ongoing activities, reflection and action.

  15. An Integrated Database of Unit Training Performance: Description an Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leibrecht, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    The Army Research Institute (ARI) has developed a prototype relational database for processing and archiving unit performance data from home station, training area, simulation based, and Combat Training Center training exercises...

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE MAINTENANCE IN THE CONDITION OF LOW MOTOR ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomina, E V; Uskov, K V

    Investigations made by the World Health Organization showed that lack. of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are among ten major causes for death and disability. Typially, studies of the negative effects of reduced physical activity and their prevention face difficulties of providing standard conditions. These issues were obviated successfully in experiment MARS-500 on simulation of a space exploration mission. Human subjects were 6 men from Russia, France, Italy and China who spent 520 days in isolation. To prevent the negative effects of low physical activity, the volunteers performed resistive and cyclic exercises in different periods of isolation. The study was designed with two pauses in the training program. Physical performance was evaluated with an incremental loading test, maximal voluntary effort test (Russian-Austrian MDS resistive exercise system), and PWC-170 (bicycle ergometer). Level of physical performance of the subjects in this experiment never degraded to below baseline values. The proposed training system comprising different kinds of exercise ensured stability or improvement of subjects' physical performance as compared with baseline level.

  17. Are subjective memory problems related to suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bergen, Saskia; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory beliefs and suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance was studied in a community sample of young and middle-aged people (N = 142). We hypothesized that people with subjective memory problems would exhibit higher suggestibility and compliance levels and would be more susceptible to false recollections than those who are optimistic about their memory. In addition, we expected a discrepancy between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance. We found that subjective memory judgments correlated significantly with compliance, with more negative memory judgments accompanying higher levels of compliance. Contrary to our expectation, subjective memory problems did not correlate with suggestibility or false recollections. Furthermore, participants were accurate in estimating their objective memory performance.

  18. Teacher’s comprehensive training strategy for improving didactics performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozas, W. J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a Teacher’s comprehensive training strategy for improving didactics performance, together with its theoretical foundations. The strategy is structured into several dimensions related to teachers’ development (lesson planning, continuing education and research. It is organized into two phases and seven stages intended to improve leadership in the teaching-learning process. The finding are the expression of a comprehensive approach to school organization at Services Polytechnic School “Horacio Cobiellas Domínguez” resulting in teachers’ academic and scientific development and a significant growth of the staff scientific potentials manifested in scientific forum enrolment. The resulting impact should lead to a general use of the proposed strategy in the Polytechnic school web. Key words: professional performance, pedagogic professional performance, didactic professional performance, teachers’ developmental strategy

  19. Training Affects Variability in Training Performance both Within and Across Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    was measured by a verbal/ math composite derived from the US military enlistment test, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Training...performance was assessed by written tests of job-related knowledge content. Predictive validity of the verbal/ math composite ranged from .124 to .836...146, Room 122 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7511 Malcolm James Ree Department of Leadership Studies School of Business and Leadership Our

  20. Comparison of forward versus backward walking using body weight supported treadmill training in an individual with a spinal cord injury: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Gabriele; Pathare, Neeti; Cirone, Cono; Pastore, Danielle; Shears, Dacia; Sulehri, Sahira

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific intervention that promotes functional locomotion. There is no research evaluating the effect of backward walking (BW) using BWSTT in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this single subject design was to examine the differences between forward walking (FW) and BW training using BWSTT in an individual with quadriparesis. The participant was a 57-year-old male with incomplete C3-C6 SCI. An ABABAB design (A = BW; B = FW; each phase = 3 weeks of biweekly sessions) was utilized. Outcome measures included: gait parameters; a timed 4-meter walk; the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (STST); tandem stance time; and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Data was analyzed with split level method of trend estimation. Improvements in gait parameters, on the timed 4-meter walk, 6MWT, tandem balance and aerobic endurance were similar with FW and BW training. The only difference between FW and BW training was that BW training resulted in greater improvements in the STST. The results of this study suggest that in this individual backward walking training was advantageous, resulting in improved ability to perform the 5-repetition STST. It is suspected that these changes can be attributed to the differences in muscle activation and task difficulty between FW and BW.

  1. Effects of Subject Self-Esteem, Test Performance Feedback, and Counselor Attractiveness on Influence in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, John M.

    1974-01-01

    Counselor attractiveness, subject self-esteem, and subject receipt of test performance feedback were manipulated in a counseling analogue experiment. The results demonstrated no relationship between the independent variables and counselor influence, although the experimental induction of attractiveness was successful. Implications for a theory of…

  2. Subjective Performance Evaluations, Self-esteem, and Ego-threats in Principal-agent Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    find that agents sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if the agents' payoff is independent of the principals' feedback. Based on our experimental analysis we propose a principal-agent model with subjective performance evaluations that accommodates...

  3. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  4. The effect of 6-week combined agility-balance training on neuromuscular performance in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, E; Hamar, D

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates the effect of 6-week combined agility-balance training on neuromuscular performance in basketball players. Subjects divided into experimental (EG, n = 17) and control group (CG, n = 17) underwent a combined agility-balance training (in duration of 30 min) for a period of 6 weeks (4-5 sessions/week). Both groups performed reaction tasks similar to game-like situations, however EG on wobble boards and CG on stable surface. Prior to and after the training parameters of agility, balance, speed of step initiation, strength differentiation accuracy, and explosive power of lower limbs were evaluated. Postural stability was assessed under both static and dynamic conditions (wobble board) with eyes open and eyes closed, respectively. The velocity of the centre of pressure (COP) was registered at 100 Hz by means of posturography system FiTRO Sway check based on dynamometric platform. Using FiTRO Reaction check simple and multi-choice reaction times were measured. The same system was applied to evaluate the agility performance including reaction and movement task. Speed of step initiation was measured using FiTRO Dyne Premium. Jumping abilities were evaluated by means of FiTRO Jumper (10-seconds maximal jumps, Countermovement jump, Squat jump, Drop jump). Using the same system, the subject´s ability to match 50 % of their maximal height of the jump was evaluated. Results showed that a combined agility-balance training improved dynamic balance not only under visual control but also in eyes closed conditions. Training also increased run-out speed that likely contributed to better agility performance, reduced ground contact time during drop jump, and improved the ability to differentiate the force of muscle contraction during repeated jumps. However, such training has been found to be insufficient to improve both simple and multi-choice reaction time, and jumping performance. On the other hand, control group failed to show any significant improvement in

  5. Measuring Stress-Reducing Effects of Virtual Training Based on Subjective Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Gerritsen, C.; de Man, J.; Treur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Training to cope with negative emotions or stress is important for professionals with a high pressure job, such as police officers and military personnel. The work reported in this paper is part of a project that aims to develop a Virtual Reality based training environment for such professionals. As

  6. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  7. Cooling and performance recovery of trained athletes: a meta-analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppendieck, Wigand; Faude, Oliver; Wegmann, Melissa; Meyer, Tim

    2013-05-01

    Cooling after exercise has been investigated as a method to improve recovery during intensive training or competition periods. As many studies have included untrained subjects, the transfer of those results to trained athletes is questionable. Therefore, the authors conducted a literature search and located 21 peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials addressing the effects of cooling on performance recovery in trained athletes. For all studies, the effect of cooling on performance was determined and effect sizes (Hedges' g) were calculated. Regarding performance measurement, the largest average effect size was found for sprint performance (2.6%, g = 0.69), while for endurance parameters (2.6%, g = 0.19), jump (3.0%, g = 0.15), and strength (1.8%, g = 0.10), effect sizes were smaller. The effects were most pronounced when performance was evaluated 96 h after exercise (4.3%, g = 1.03). Regarding the exercise used to induce fatigue, effects after endurance training (2.4%, g = 0.35) were larger than after strength-based exercise (2.4%, g = 0.11). Cold-water immersion (2.9%, g = 0.34) and cryogenic chambers (3.8%, g = 0.25) seem to be more beneficial with respect to performance than cooling packs (-1.4%, g= -0.07). For cold-water application, whole-body immersion (5.1%, g = 0.62) was significantly more effective than immersing only the legs or arms (1.1%, g = 0.10). In summary, the average effects of cooling on recovery of trained athletes were rather small (2.4%, g = 0.28). However, under appropriate conditions (whole-body cooling, recovery from sprint exercise), postexercise cooling seems to have positive effects that are large enough to be relevant for competitive athletes.

  8. Intra-cortical excitability in healthy human subjects after tongue training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Blicher, Jakob; Lapitskaya, Natallia

    2009-01-01

    Training of specific muscles causes plastic changes in corticomotor pathways which may underlie the effect of various clinical rehabilitation procedures. The paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) technique can be used to assess short interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI...... tongue muscles. In tongue motor cortex, bilateral SICI (P training. There were no significant effects of training on single MEPs or SICI/ICF (P > 0.063). The success rate improved during training (P ...) and intra-cortical facilitatory (ICF) networks. This study examined changes in SICI and ICF in tongue motor cortex after tongue training in 11 healthy volunteers using ppTMS. Paired pulse TMS was applied to the 'hot-spot' for the tongue motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from...

  9. Randomized controlled trial using bosentan to enhance the impact of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Duncker, Dirk J; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-11-01

    In type 2 diabetes patients, endothelin (ET) receptor blockade may enhance blood flow responses to exercise training. The combination of exercise training and ET receptor blockade may represent a more potent stimulus than training alone to improve vascular function, physical fitness and glucose homeostasis. We assessed the effect of an 8 week exercise training programme combined with either ET blockade or placebo on vasculature, fitness and glucose homeostasis in people with type 2 diabetes. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, brachial endothelium-dependent and ‑independent dilatation (using flow-mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate, respectively), glucose homeostasis (using Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) and physical fitness (maximal cycling test) were assessed in 18 men with type 2 diabetes (60 ± 6 years old). Subjects underwent an 8 week exercise training programme, with half of the subjects receiving ET receptor blockade (bosentan) and the other half a placebo, followed by reassessment of the tests above. Exercise training improved physical fitness to a similar extent in both groups, but we did not detect changes in vascular function in either group. This study suggests that there is no adaptation in brachial and femoral artery endothelial function after 8 weeks of training in type 2 diabetes patients. Endothelin receptor blockade combined with exercise training does not additionally alter conduit artery endothelial function or physical fitness in type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  10. Subjective user experience and performance with active tangibles on a tabletop interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B. van; Toet, A.; Meijer, K.; Janssen, J.; Jong, A. de

    2015-01-01

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  11. Subjective User Experience and Performance with Active Tangibles on a Tabletop Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander; Meijer, Koos; Janssen, Joris; Jong, Arnoud; Streitz, Norbert; Markopoulos, Panos

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  12. Intense Training as a Means to Improve Running Performance in Trained Runners and the Adaptation of Muscle Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper

    compositions of intense training on performance, movement economy and muscular adaptations. The findings from the present PhD study suggest that performing intense training, in the form of speed endurance training (SET), for a relatively short period improves short and long-term performance. Both a prolonged...... period of SET as well as a period with increased frequency of SET improves short-term performance further, but a prolonged period does not extrapolate to further improved long-term performance not even if SET frequency is doubled. Short-term performance was better after 16 days of reduced training volume...... the period of increased frequency of SET, the value of combining an overload phase with tapering to improve 10-km performance is low. In line with the literature on "muscle memory", performing a second intervention of SET and a basic volume of aerobic training might have a greater impact on short-term...

  13. Achieving excellence in human performance through leadership, education, and training in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Kazennov, A.; Kossilov, A.; Mazour, T.; Yoder, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to achieve and maintain high levels of safety and productivity, nuclear power plants are required to be staffed with an adequate number of highly qualified and experienced personnel who are duly aware of the technical and administrative requirements for safety and are motivated to adopt a positive attitude to safety, as an element of safety culture. To establish and maintain a high level of human performance, appropriate education and training programmes should be in place and kept under constant review to ensure their relevance. As the nuclear power industry continues to be challenged by increasing safety requirements, a high level of competition and decreasing budgets, it becomes more important than ever to maintain excellence in human performance and ensure that NPP personnel training provides a value to the organization. Nuclear industry managers and supervisors bear the primary responsibility to assure that people perform their jobs safely and effectively. Training personnel must be responsive to the needs of the organization, working hand-in-hand with line managers and supervisors to ensure that human performance improvement needs are properly analyzed, and that training as well as other appropriate interventions are developed and implemented in the most effective and efficient way possible. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with its Member States has provided for coordinated information exchange and developed guidance on methods and practices to identify and improve the effectiveness NPP personnel training. This has resulted in: plant performance improvements, improved human performance, meeting goals and objectives of the business (quality, safety, productivity), and more effective training programs. This article describes the IAEA activities and achievements in the subject area for systematically understanding and improving human performance in nuclear power industry. The article also describes cooperation programmes

  14. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  15. Virtual reality training improves da Vinci performance: a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Sung; Hahn, Koo Yong; Kwak, Jung Myun; Kim, Jin; Baek, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Won; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2013-12-01

    The DV-Trainer™ (a virtual reality [VR] simulator) (Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) is one of several different robotic surgical training methods. We designed a prospective study to determine whether VR training could improve da Vinci(®) Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) performance. Surgeons (n=12) were enrolled using a randomized protocol. Groups 1 (VR training) and 2 (control) participated in VR and da Vinci exercises. Participants' time and moving distance were combined to determine a composite score: VR index=1000/(time×moving distance). The da Vinci exercises included needle control and suturing. Procedure time and error were measured. A composite index (DV index) was computed and used to measure da Vinci competency. After the initial trial with both the VR and da Vinci exercises, only Group 1 was trained with the VR simulator following our institutional curriculum for 3 weeks. All members of both groups then participated in the second trial of the VR and da Vinci exercises and were scored in the same way as in the initial trial. In the initial trial, there was no difference in the VR index (Group 1 versus Group 2, 8.9 ± 3.3 versus 9.4 ± 3.7; P=.832) and the DV index (Group 1 versus Group 2, 3.85 ± 0.73 versus 3.66 ± 0.65; P=.584) scores between the two groups. At the second time point, Group 1 showed increased VR index scores in comparison with Group 2 (19.3 ± 4.5 versus 9.7 ± 4.1, respectively; P=.001) and improved da Vinci performance skills as measured by the DV index (5.80 ± 1.13 versus 4.05 ± 1.03, respectively; P=.028) and by suturing time (7.1 ± 1.54 minutes versus 10.55 ± 1.93 minutes, respectively; P=.018). We found that VR simulator training can improve da Vinci performance. VR practice can result in an early plateau in the learning curve for robotic practice under controlled circumstances.

  16. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; paltitude training (paltitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  17. Supervision of the thermal performance of heat exchanger trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrao, C.O.R.; Tonin, P.C.; Madi, M. [Federal University of Technology Parana UTFPR, Post-graduate Program in Mechanical and Materials Engineering PPGEM, Thermal Science Laboratory LACIT, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, CEP 80230-901, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    In oil refining, heat exchanger networks are employed to recover heat and therefore save energy of the plant. However, many heat exchangers in crude oil pre-heat trains are under high risk of fouling. Under fouling conditions, the thermal performance of heat exchangers is continuously reduced and its supervision becomes an important task. The large number of heat exchangers in pre-heat trains and the change of operation conditions and feedstock charges make the daily supervision a difficult task. This work applies an approach to follow the performance of heat exchangers [M.A.S. Jeronimo, L.F. Melo, A.S. Braga, P.J.B.F. Ferreira, C. Martins, Monitoring the thermal efficiency of fouled heat exchangers - A simplified method, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 14 (1997) 455-463] and extends it to monitor the whole train. The approach is based on the comparison of measured and predicted heat exchanger effectiveness. The measured value is computed from the four inlet and outlet temperatures of a heat exchanger unit. The predicted clean and dirty values of effectiveness are calculated from classical literature relations as a function of NTU and of heat capacity ratio (R). NTU and R are continuously adjusted according to mass flow rate changes. An index of fouling is defined for the whole network and the results show the performance degradation of the network with time. The work also suggests that Jeronimo's index of fouling can be used to estimate the fouling thermal resistance of heat exchangers. (author)

  18. MHD generator performance analysis for the Advanced Power Train study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Hals, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative analyses of different MHD power train designs for early commercial MHD power plants were performed for plant sizes of 200, 500, and 1000 MWe. The work was conducted as part of the first phase of a planned three-phase program to formulate an MHD Advanced Power Train development program. This paper presents the results of the MHD generator design and part-load analyses. All of the MHD generator designs were based on burning of coal with oxygen-enriched air preheated to 1200 F. Sensitivities of the MHD generator design performance to variations in power plant size, coal type, oxygen enrichment level, combustor heat loss, channel length, and Mach number were investigated. Basd on these sensitivity analyses, together with the overall plant performance and cost-of-electricity analyses, as well as reliability and maintenance considerations, a recommended MHD generator design was selected for each of the three power plants. The generators for the 200 MWe and 500 MWe power plant sizes are supersonic designs. A subsonic generator design was selected for the 1000 MWe plant. Off-design analyses of part-load operation of the supersonic channel selected for the 200 MWe power plant were also conductd. The results showed that a relatively high overall net plant efficiency can be maintained during part-laod operation with a supersonic generator design.

  19. Training simulated patients: evaluation of a training approach using self-assessment and peer/tutor feedback to improve performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Juriah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical schools use simulated patients (SPs for teaching. In this context the authenticity of role play and quality of feedback provided by SPs is of paramount importance. The available literature on SP training mostly addresses instructor led training where the SPs are given direction on their roles. This study focuses on the use of peer and self evaluation as a tool to train SPs. Methods SPs at the medical school participated in a staff development and training programme which included a self-assessment of their performance while observing video-tapes of their role play using a structured guide and b peer group assessment of their performance under tutor guidance. The pre and post training performance in relation to authenticity of role play and quality of feedback was blindly assessed by students and tutors using a validated instrument and the scores were compared. A focus group discussion and a questionnaire assessed acceptability of the training programme by the SPs. Results The post-training performance assessment scores were significantly higher (p Conclusion Use of structured self-reflective and peer-interactive, practice based methods of SP training is recommended to improve SP performance. More studies on these methods of training may further refine SP training and lead to improvement of SP performance which in turn may positively impact medical education.

  20. The effect of sequence of skating-specific training on skating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlinger, Chris Mj; Fowles, Jonathon R

    2008-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a progressively "skating specific" periodized off-season training program on skating performance in competitive hockey players. Twenty (M = 18; F = 2) highly skilled hockey players (age 15.9 +/- 1.5 yr) completed 16 wk of standardized resistance and stability training supplemented with either off-ice simulated skating using the SkateSIM (SIM) or plyometric training (PLY) in a crossover design. Group 1 (PLY-SIM; N = 11) completed 8 wk of PLY followed by 8 wk of SIM. Group 2 (SIM-PLY; N = 9) completed 8 wk of SIM followed by 8 wk of PLY. Subjects completed on- and off-ice testing PRE, MID, and POST training. Significant improvements in on-ice 35-m skating sprint (1.0%; P = .009) with significant improvements of 5% to 12% in various off-ice testing measures were observed PRE-MID in both groups. While few off-ice tests improved MID-POST, on-ice 35-m skating sprint times improved MID-POST by 2.3% (P = .000) with greater improvement in PLYSIM (3.5%) versus SIM-PLY (0.8%; P skating sprint performance. The initial gains PRE-MID and then the lack of improvement in many off-ice tests from the MID-POST supports the principle of diminishing returns in response to standardized resistance training. The improvement in on-ice skating sprint performance when supplemental training progressed in specificity supports the principle of specificity and promotes transfer to a complex sporting movement such as skating.

  1. Training set optimization and classifier performance in a top-down diabetic retinopathy screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigdahl, J.; Agurto, C.; Murray, V.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects more than 4.4 million Americans age 40 and over. Automatic screening for DR has shown to be an efficient and cost-effective way to lower the burden on the healthcare system, by triaging diabetic patients and ensuring timely care for those presenting with DR. Several supervised algorithms have been developed to detect pathologies related to DR, but little work has been done in determining the size of the training set that optimizes an algorithm's performance. In this paper we analyze the effect of the training sample size on the performance of a top-down DR screening algorithm for different types of statistical classifiers. Results are based on partial least squares (PLS), support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Our dataset consisted of digital retinal images collected from a total of 745 cases (595 controls, 150 with DR). We varied the number of normal controls in the training set, while keeping the number of DR samples constant, and repeated the procedure 10 times using randomized training sets to avoid bias. Results show increasing performance in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) when the number of DR subjects in the training set increased, with similar trends for each of the classifiers. Of these, PLS and k-NN had the highest average AUC. Lower standard deviation and a flattening of the AUC curve gives evidence that there is a limit to the learning ability of the classifiers and an optimal number of cases to train on.

  2. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A; Greer, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to make decisions in recruitment of potential applicants. This study was done to determine a correlation of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 results with ITE scores in each level of Internal Medicine training. A retrospective review of all residents graduating from an Internal Medicine program from 1999 to 2006 was done. Subjects included had data for all USMLE Steps and ITE during all years of training. Thirty-one subjects were included in the study. Correlations of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 were done with ITE scores (percent correct) in each year of training. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined for each pairing and a t test to determine statistical significance of the correlation was done. Statistical significance was defined as P value ITE percent correct in PGY I, II and III were 0.46, 0.55 and 0.51 respectively. Corresponding r values for USMLE Step 2 and ITE percent correct were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.72; for USMLE Step 3 these values were 0.51, 0.37 and 0.51 respectively for each training year. USMLE scores are correlated with ITE scores. This correlation was strongest for USMLE Step 2.

  3. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  4. Can biofeedback training of psychophysiological responses enhance athletes' sport performance? A practitioner's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenjak, Nika; Grad, Anton; Tusak, Matej; Leskovsek, Matevz; Schwarzlin, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, biofeedback has become increasingly popular for its proven success in peak performance training - the psychophysiological preparation of athletes for high-stakes sport competitions, such as the Olympic games. The aim of this research was to test whether an 8-week period of exposure to biofeedback training could improve the psychophysiological control over competitive anxiety and enhance athletic performance in participating subjects. Participants of this study were highly competent athletes, each training in different sport disciplines. The experimental group consisted of 18 athletes (4 women, 14 men), whereas the Control group had 21 athletes (4 women, 17 men). All athletes were between 16 and 34 years old. The biofeedback device, Nexus 10, was used to detect and measure the psychophysiological responses of athletes. Athletes from both groups (control and experimental) were subjected to stress tests at the beginning of the study and once again at its conclusion. In between, the experimental group received training in biofeedback techniques. We then calculated the overall percentage of athletes in the experimental group compared with those in the control group who were able to control respiration, skin conductance, heart rate, blood flow amplitude, heart rate variability, and heart respiration coherence. One year following completion of the initial study, we questioned athletes from the experimental group, to determine whether they continued to use these skills and if they could detect any subsequent enhancement in their athletic performance. We demonstrated that a greater number of participants in the experimental group were able to successfully control their psychophysiological parameters, in comparison to their peers in the control group. Significant results (p biofeedback - psycho-regulation skills. Furthermore, these participants uniformly reported believing that these skills had enhanced their athletic performance and general well-being.

  5. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operator Using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S.; Wang, Lui; Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  6. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operators using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. S.; Wang, L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Fleischer, A. C.; Gibson, C. R.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  7. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Akimoto, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Several investigators have reported the effects of reduced training and interrupted training on athletic performance, but few reports are available for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine, using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YoYoIR2) test and sprint performance, the effects on soccer players of a reduced training program consisting of either moderate running training, plyometric training. After the completion of a competitive season, 29 male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: the running group (n = 13), the plyometric group (n = 11), and the control group (n = 5). Both training groups completed either running or plyometric training sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was not allowed to perform any training. The subjects performed YoYoIR2 and 20-m sprint tests before (pre) and after (post) the experimental period. Neither training group showed any significant training effects on the YoYoIR2 performance or 20-m sprint times compared with the control group. This study suggests that neither endurance running nor plyometric training 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks has a significant effect on high-intensity performance compared with a nontraining regimen. However, our results do not support complete inactivity. These results may have important implications for the management of training cessation for a few weeks.

  8. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  9. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, psquats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength that has been the focus of several researches, while the load used during the training seem to be an important factor that affects training outcomes. Experimental group improved performance in all assessed parameters, such as Fmax, RFD100, CMJ, SJ and 50 m sprint time. However, improvements in CMJ and SJ were recorded after the entire power training period and thereafter plateau occurred. The portable FitroDyne could serve as a valuable device to individualize the load that maximizes mean power output and visual feedback can be provided to athletes during the training. PMID:27803628

  10. Static, dynamic balance and functional performance in subjects with and without plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiseane Aguiar Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF is characterized by non-inflammatory degeneration and pain under the heel, and is one of the most common foot complaints. The compensations and adjustments made to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease are clinical findings and can be a factor that contributes to impaired balance and decreased functional performance. Objective: To compare functional performance as well as static and dynamic balance among subjects with and without PF. Methods: The sample consisted of 124 subjects of both sexes aged 20-60 years. Participants were divided into two groups: a bilateral PF group (PFG; n = 62 and a control group (CG, n = 62. The following outcomes were analyzed: static and dynamic balance (using functional tests and functional performance (using a questionnaire. We used Student’s t test for independent samples to compare variables between the groups. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results: Subjects with PF showed greater impairment in their overall dynamic balance performance (p < 0.001 than the control group, except for left posteromedial movement (p = 0.19. The CG showed showed better functional performance (p < 0.001 than the PF group. There was no difference between groups for the variable static balance on stable (p = 0.160 and unstable surfaces (p = 0.085. Conclusion: Subjects with PF displayed smaller reach distances in the overall Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, demonstrating a deficit in dynamic balance and functional performance when compared with healthy subjects.

  11. Defining the "dose" of altitude training: how high to live for optimal sea level performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Karlsen, Trine; Resaland, Geir K; Ge, R-L; Harber, Matthew P; Witkowski, Sarah; Stray-Gundersen, James; Levine, Benjamin D

    2014-03-15

    Chronic living at altitudes of ∼2,500 m causes consistent hematological acclimatization in most, but not all, groups of athletes; however, responses of erythropoietin (EPO) and red cell mass to a given altitude show substantial individual variability. We hypothesized that athletes living at higher altitudes would experience greater improvements in sea level performance, secondary to greater hematological acclimatization, compared with athletes living at lower altitudes. After 4 wk of group sea level training and testing, 48 collegiate distance runners (32 men, 16 women) were randomly assigned to one of four living altitudes (1,780, 2,085, 2,454, or 2,800 m). All athletes trained together daily at a common altitude from 1,250-3,000 m following a modified live high-train low model. Subjects completed hematological, metabolic, and performance measures at sea level, before and after altitude training; EPO was assessed at various time points while at altitude. On return from altitude, 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved in groups living at the middle two altitudes (2,085 and 2,454 m), but not in groups living at 1,780 and 2,800 m. EPO was significantly higher in all groups at 24 and 48 h, but returned to sea level baseline after 72 h in the 1,780-m group. Erythrocyte volume was significantly higher within all groups after return from altitude and was not different between groups. These data suggest that, when completing a 4-wk altitude camp following the live high-train low model, there is a target altitude between 2,000 and 2,500 m that produces an optimal acclimatization response for sea level performance.

  12. Effects of physical randomness training on virtual and laboratory golf putting performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, T C; Lamb, P F

    2018-06-01

    External randomness exists in all sports but is perhaps most obvious in golf putting where robotic putters sink only 80% of 5 m putts due to unpredictable ball-green dynamics. The purpose of this study was to test whether physical randomness training can improve putting performance in novices. A virtual random-physics golf-putting game was developed based on controlled ball-roll data. Thirty-two subjects were assigned a unique randomness gain (RG) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0-times real-world randomness. Putter face kinematics were measured in 5 m laboratory putts before and after five days of virtual training. Performance was quantified using putt success rate and "miss-adjustment correlation" (MAC), the correlation between left-right miss magnitude and subsequent right-left kinematic adjustments. Results showed no RG-success correlation (r = -0.066, p = 0.719) but mildly stronger correlations with MAC for face angle (r = -0.168, p = 0.358) and clubhead path (r = -0.302, p = 0.093). The strongest RG-MAC correlation was observed during virtual training (r = -0.692, p golf putting kinematics. Adaptation to external physical randomness during virtual training may therefore help golfers adapt to external randomness in real-world environments.

  13. Effect of skill laboratory training on academic performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Alamgir; Shabbir, Faizania; Qamar, Khadija; Rajput, Tausif Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    To observe the effect of skill lab training on academic performance of final year medical students in terms of marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. The cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi from February to April 2015. Two batches of final year MBBS were recruited for the study. Batch 1 received conventional training, and Batch 2 received skill lab training. The performance of students was assessed by comparing the marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. Of the 335 subjects, 168(50.1%) were male and 167(49.9%) were female students with a mean age of 21.79±1.02 years. Batch 1 had 151(45%) students and Batch 2 had 184(55%). Batch 2 got significantly higher marks in long case, short case and objective structured clinical examination (p0.05). Acquisition of clinical skills significantly improved when medial students were trained in skill laboratories.

  14. Effects of respiratory muscle endurance training on wheelchair racing performance in athletes with paraplegia: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, G.; Perret, C.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) has been shown to improve both respiratory muscle and cycling exercise endurance in able-bodied subjects. Since effects of RMET on upper extremity exercise performance have not yet been investigated, we evaluated the effects of RMET on 10-km

  15. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of combat training course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; Wientjes, C.J.E.; Vullinghs, H.F.M.; Cloin, P.A.; Langeveld, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the amino acid tyrosine on cognitive task performance were studied on a group of 21 cadets during a demanding military combat training course. In addition, the effects on mood, blood pressure and the norepinephrine metabolite MHPG were determined. Ten subjects received five daily doses

  16. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were rand...... and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.......PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...

  17. Skeletal muscle and performance adaptations to high-intensity training in elite male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21...... pronouncedly than small-sided game training, but comparable responses were in muscle ion transporters and antioxidative capacity in well-trained male soccer players....

  18. STUDY OF THE METHODICAL ASPECTS OF THE PERFORMANCE BODYBUILDING PRECOMPETITIVE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potop Vladimir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is to deal with the contents of the pre-competitive training in the performance classic bodybuilding. With this aim in view we have considered that the utilization of a correct training methodology during the pre-competitive stage will result in the loss of weight and will bring into reliefthe muscular groups in the performance classic bodybuilding.These problems determined us to organize a study of case within the School Sport Club (C.S.S. no.5 of Bucharest, MATRIX gym, having as subject the sportsman C.M, aged 26, with a bodybuilding experience of 10 years, double national champion at classic bodybuilding, 180 cm class.The results of the study emphasize a lowering and a decrease of the perimeters from one test to another, in parallel with the decrease of the pectoral musculature and lower limbs strength; in exchange, the strength of the back increases significantly.These results prove that the body was in a perfect pre-competitive training condition and that the utilization of the proposed methodology helped to loosing weight, maintaining and bringing the muscular groups into relief.We mention that this proposed methodology is recommended only to the performers who have the possibility to transform the bodybuilding into “a life style”, to devote all their energy and time to theachievement of the high performance during long periods of life.

  19. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance Through a Biofeedback Relaxation Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritzeta, Aitor; Soroa, Goretti; Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Aliri, Jone

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a biofeedback relaxation training program on anxiety and academic performance. The program consisted of five biofeedback sessions coupled with three training activities focused on deep breathing, guided imagery, and muscle relaxation. The participants were second-year psychology undergraduates from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, northern Spain). The experimental group comprised 152 students (M age  = 19.6, SD = 0.74; 74% women) and the control group 81 students (M age   = 19.4, SD = 0.92; 71% women). Results showed that after participating in the program, students in the experimental group had lower levels of anxiety and increased academic performance. Furthermore, they scored lower on anxiety and higher on academic performance in comparison with the control subjects. This suggests that the inclusion of biofeedback training programs in educational contexts could be a way of reducing anxiety and improving academic performance. It may also deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between psychophysiological, cognitive, and emotional processes.

  20. Training simulated patients: evaluation of a training approach using self-assessment and peer/tutor feedback to improve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Jennifer; Perera, Joachim; Abdullah, Juriah; Lee, Nagarajah

    2009-06-29

    Most medical schools use simulated patients (SPs) for teaching. In this context the authenticity of role play and quality of feedback provided by SPs is of paramount importance. The available literature on SP training mostly addresses instructor led training where the SPs are given direction on their roles. This study focuses on the use of peer and self evaluation as a tool to train SPs. SPs at the medical school participated in a staff development and training programme which included a) self-assessment of their performance while observing video-tapes of their role play using a structured guide and b) peer group assessment of their performance under tutor guidance. The pre and post training performance in relation to authenticity of role play and quality of feedback was blindly assessed by students and tutors using a validated instrument and the scores were compared. A focus group discussion and a questionnaire assessed acceptability of the training programme by the SPs. The post-training performance assessment scores were significantly higher (p performance. More studies on these methods of training may further refine SP training and lead to improvement of SP performance which in turn may positively impact medical education.

  1. [Secondary Full Title: Effects of high intensity interval training in plain and uphill regarding physical performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marterer, Natalie; Menz, Verena; Burtscher, Martin

    2018-04-05

     As the number of HIITs is increasing in competitive and non-competitive sports, the risk of injuries and overload is increasing. There are no scientific data to support specific recommendations in regard to intensity, duration, number of intervals and gradient for HIIT that result in improved muscular parameters in athletes. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare HIIT in plain and uphill exercise, with respect to exercise tolerance and improvements in performance (VO 2max and 800 m running time in the plain and uphill).  17 well-trained sport students (10 females, 7 males; Ø VO 2max : 53.7 ml/min/kg) were randomly assigned to the plain group (plain; GE) (n = 8) or the uphill group (hill, GB) (n = 9). In the four weeks of training, all subjects completed 14 HIIT sessions. Each session consisted of 8 × 2 min running at 90 - 95 % of the maximal heart rate (HR max ), separated by 2 min recovery periods (work/rest ratio: 1:1). Before the intervention phase, subjects performed treadmill spirometry, a 800 m field test in the plain, as well as an 800 m uphill field test to determine baseline performance. One week after the intervention period, all subjects completed a retest of all measurements and tests. After the intervention, all subjects completed a questionnaire by giving their level of perceived exertion during training, using the BORG scale.  In GE, three subjects dropped out of the study because of overtraining. In GB, two subjects did not complete the study because of time constraints. The evaluation of the perceived exertion of the training in flat terrain showed a trend (p = 0.08; t = - 1.96) towards being perceived as more exhausting then in hilly terrain. A four week HIIT showed significant improvements in VO 2max by 5.2 % (p = 0.02; t = - 2.76), and a reduction in the running time in the plain by 4.6 % (p = 0.01; t = 3.48) and uphill by 6.3 % (p = 0.02; t = 2.77). No

  2. Modifying upper-limb inter-joint coordination in healthy subjects by training with a robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Guigon, Emmanuel; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Jarrassé, Nathanaël

    2017-06-12

    The possibility to modify the usually pathological patterns of coordination of the upper-limb in stroke survivors remains a central issue and an open question for neurorehabilitation. Despite robot-led physical training could potentially improve the motor recovery of hemiparetic patients, most of the state-of-the-art studies addressing motor control learning, with artificial virtual force fields, only focused on the end-effector kinematic adaptation, by using planar devices. Clearly, an interesting aspect of studying 3D movements with a robotic exoskeleton, is the possibility to investigate the way the human central nervous system deals with the natural upper-limb redundancy for common activities like pointing or tracking tasks. We asked twenty healthy participants to perform 3D pointing or tracking tasks under the effect of inter-joint velocity dependant perturbing force fields, applied directly at the joint level by a 4-DOF robotic arm exoskeleton. These fields perturbed the human natural inter-joint coordination but did not constrain directly the end-effector movements and thus subjects capability to perform the tasks. As a consequence, while the participants focused on the achievement of the task, we unexplicitly modified their natural upper-limb coordination strategy. We studied the force fields direct effect on pointing movements towards 8 targets placed in the 3D peripersonal space, and we also considered potential generalizations on 4 distinct other targets. Post-effects were studied after the removal of the force fields (wash-out and follow up). These effects were quantified by a kinematic analysis of the pointing movements at both end-point and joint levels, and by a measure of the final postures. At the same time, we analysed the natural inter-joint coordination through PCA. During the exposition to the perturbative fields, we observed modifications of the subjects movement kinematics at every level (joints, end-effector, and inter-joint coordination

  3. Subjective and objective quantification of physician's workload and performance during radiation therapy planning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Hoyle, Lesley M; Jones, Ellen L; Marks, Lawrence B

    2013-01-01

    To quantify, and compare, workload for several common physician-based treatment planning tasks using objective and subjective measures of workload. To assess the relationship between workload and performance to define workload levels where performance could be expected to decline. Nine physicians performed the same 3 tasks on each of 2 cases ("easy" vs "hard"). Workload was assessed objectively throughout the tasks (via monitoring of pupil size and blink rate), and subjectively at the end of each case (via National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index; NASA-TLX). NASA-TLX assesses the 6 dimensions (mental, physical, and temporal demands, frustration, effort, and performance); scores > or ≈ 50 are associated with reduced performance in other industries. Performance was measured using participants' stated willingness to approve the treatment plan. Differences in subjective and objective workload between cases, tasks, and experience were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The correlation between subjective and objective workload measures were assessed via the Pearson correlation test. The relationships between workload and performance measures were assessed using the t test. Eighteen case-wise and 54 task-wise assessments were obtained. Subjective NASA-TLX scores (P .1), were significantly lower for the easy vs hard case. Most correlations between the subjective and objective measures were not significant, except between average blink rate and NASA-TLX scores (r = -0.34, P = .02), for task-wise assessments. Performance appeared to decline at NASA-TLX scores of ≥55. The NASA-TLX may provide a reasonable method to quantify subjective workload for broad activities, and objective physiologic eye-based measures may be useful to monitor workload for more granular tasks within activities. The subjective and objective measures, as herein quantified, do not necessarily track each other, and more work is needed to assess their utilities. From a

  4. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system.

  5. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A

  6. Supervised Exercise Training Counterbalances the Adverse Effects of Insulin Therapy in Overweight/Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Fallucca, Sara; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of supervised exercise on traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary, overweight/obese insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study randomized 73 insulin-treated patients to twice weekly supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (EXE) or to counseling alone (CON) for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory paramete...

  7. The subject to emotional intelligence training of changes of emotional intelligence research, and adolescence of Japan seen from overseas literature

    OpenAIRE

    中島, 正世; Nakajima, Masayo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author have revealed the transition about the concept of emotional intelligence from overseas literature, and have tried to clarify the subject to the definition of emotional intelligence, the difference from similar concepts, the measuring method of emotional intelligence, the related element of emotional intelligence, and emotional intelligence training for the man-power development to current adolescence. As a result, the base element which constitutes emotional intellig...

  8. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on middle-distance running performance in well-trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bouhlel, Ezzedine; Falola, Jean Marie; Abbiss, Christopher R; Vallier, Jean Marc; Hausswirth, Christophe; Hauswirth, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    To assess whether Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) affects 5000-m running performance and physiological parameters classically associated with middle-distance performance. Two experimental groups (Ramadan fasting, n = 9, vs control, n = 9) participated in 2 experimental sessions, one before RIF and the other at the last week of fasting. For each session, subjects completed 4 tests in the same order: a maximal running test, a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extensor, 2 rectangular submaximal exercises on treadmill for 6 minutes at an intensity corresponding to the first ventilatory threshold (VT1), and a running performance test (5000 m). Eighteen, well-trained, middle-distance runners. Maximal oxygen consumption, MVC, running performance, running efficiency, submaximal VO(2) kinetics parameters (VO(2), VO(2)b, time constant τ, and amplitude A1) and anthropometric parameters were recorded or calculated. At the end of Ramadan fasting, a decrease in MVC was observed (-3.2%; P < 0.00001; η, 0.80), associated with an increase in the time constant of oxygen kinetics (+51%; P < 0.00007; η, 0.72) and a decrease in performance (-5%; P < 0.0007; η, 0.51). No effect was observed on running efficiency or maximal aerobic power. These results suggest that Ramadan changes in muscular performance and oxygen kinetics could affect performance during middle-distance events and need to be considered to choose training protocols during RIF.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  10. The subjective determinants of job performance and job involvement in organizational context.

    OpenAIRE

    Koblicová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    The job performance is conditioned by range of objective factors and subjective determinants as well. This thesis dedicates to mapping of job involvement meaning engagement, enthusiasm, commitment and work motivation. Considering to that, oganization can influence future job performance of its employee through employee development, when it tries to grow up the job interest, develops requiered skills and so potencially supports one's performance. The text tries to sum up knowledge background o...

  11. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  12. Objective and subjective factors of efficiency and performance of medical audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Biryukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to analysis factors affecting the effective operation of quality management systems in health care institutions. It is shown important role of quality of carrying out audits, internal and external, in elimination of various kinds of risks and discrepancies in activity of medical institutions. Two main factors were revealed which influencing the quality of audit: 1. Subjective or "human" factor, consisting in sufficient motivation of the top management and internal auditors of medical institutions. 2. Objective or technological factor, consisting in sufficient training of internal auditors, adequacy selected audit methodology, etc.

  13. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Cabral Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. INTRODUCTION: Automated perimetry (AP is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. METHODS: Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2. The study group (25 subjects underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. RESULTS: The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively. The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03. DISCUSSION: This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. CONCLUSION: Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  14. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Junia Cabral; Vanessa, Adriana Chaves Oliveira; Fiorelli, Macedo Batista; Kasahara, Niro

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. Automated perimetry (AP) is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2). The study group (25 subjects) underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects) underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03). This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  15. Hypoxanthine as a predictor of performance in highly trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, J; Krasińska, B; Kusy, K

    2013-12-01

    Purine metabolism reflects the exercise-induced muscle adaptations and training status. This study evaluated the utility of plasma hypoxanthine in the prediction of actual sport performance. We studied male athletes: 28 triathletes (21.4±2.9 years), 12 long-distance runners (23.2±1.9 years), 13 middle-distance runners (22.9±1.8 years) and 18 sprinters (22.0±2.7 years). Season-best race times were considered, achieved over standard triathlon, 5 000 m, 1 500 m and 100 m, respectively. Incremental treadmill test was administered to determine maximum and "threshold" oxygen uptake. Resting and post-exercise plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and lactate were measured as well as resting erythrocyte hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify significant contributors to the variance in performance. Hypoxanthine considered alone explained more variance in triathletes, long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and sprinters (r 2=0.81, 0.81, 0.88 and 0.78, respectively) than models based on aerobic capacity and lactate (R 2=0.51, 0.37, 0.59 and 0.31, respectively). Combining purine metabolites and cardiorespiratory variables resulted in the best prediction (R 2=0.86, 0.93, 0.93 and 0.91; r=0.93, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.95, respectively). In summary, hypoxanthine is a strong predictor of performance in highly trained athletes and its prediction ability is very high regardless of sport specialization, spanning the continuum from speed-power to endurance disciplines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Local vascular adaptations after hybrid training in spinal cord-injured subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Heesterbeek, P.J.C.; Kuppevelt, D. van; Duysens, J.E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies investigating vascular adaptations in non-exercised areas during whole body exercise training show conflicting results. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) provide a unique model to examine vascular adaptations in active tissue vs adjacent inactive areas. The purpose of this

  17. Defining and Using the Subject Matter Expert's Role in Transforming Army Training and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William Rollyn

    2009-01-01

    The United States Army is a complex and diverse organization that must keep pace with the changing global environment to meet its Constitutional responsibility to fight and win the nation's wars. Today, organizations, doctrine, logistics, material, facilities, concepts, techniques, procedures, and training and education are all changing to meet…

  18. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  19. Towards Subject-Specific Strength Training Design through Predictive Use of Musculoskeletal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plüss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM. The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.

  20. [Modification of expiratory peak flow (EPF) in 14 asthmatic subjects from Benin by short duration exercise training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, M M; Hounkpatin, S; Akplogan, B

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is a world wide public health problem. It is the most commom chronic disease of school age children. Its severity is in constant increase. The frequency of the hospitalizations for asthma increased in practically all countries. Physical exercises and sport are used more and more as therapeutic means, in northern deveopped countries of where it was very early understood that it is necessary to integrate the asthmatic subjects into a program of specific physical training. This study undertaken in south saharian african country considers also assiduity in a physical training program as the factor of increase in the expiratory peak flow, of reinforcement of some principal muscles necessary to the improvement, and of the respiratory function of the asthmatic subject. Physical exercise is used as a non pharmacological therapy of asthma. This transversal study was carried out on fourteen asthmatic subjects of colleges in Porto-Novo's town, aged 15 years old to 25 years, of the two sexes. The results showed that: the Expiratory Peak Flow of Point (EPF) of the subjects at the beginning of the program is lower than the minimal average value of the group whatever the sex; the subjects average EPF increased from approximately 35% compared to the average at the beginning of the program; the subjects from family with asthmatic line, are much more inclined with respiratory embarrassments post-exercises than those who did not come from it; the respiratory embarrassments post-exercises noticed in the first weeks, grew blurred before the end of the program. This study suggests physical exercise adapted to the asthmatic subjects for the improvement of their health.

  1. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy, and muscle adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, C; Almquist, N W; Bangsbo, J

    2018-02-01

    The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake [VO 2 -max]: 59.3±3.2 mL/kg/min, mean±SD) who performed 10 speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-seconds "all-out" bouts) and 10 aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO 2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity. In addition, running economy (RE) was measured at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.9±0.5 km/h) and v10-km (14.3±0.9 km/h), a 10-km track-running test was performed, and a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was collected. 10-km performance and VO 2 -max (mL/min) were the same prior to P1 and P2, whereas RE was better (P<.05) before P2 than before P1. During P1 and P2, 10-km performance (2.9% and 2.3%), VO 2 -max (2.1% and 2.6%), and RE (1.9% and 1.8% at 60% vVO 2 -max; 1.6% and 2.0% at v10-km) improved (P<.05) to the same extent, respectively. Performance in RRT was 20% better (P<.05) after compared to before P2, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na + ,K + -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin, and CaMKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE, whereas 10-km performance and VO 2 -max improve to the same extent as during the first period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tablet computer enhanced training improves internal medicine exam performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Daniel C; Wende, Ilja; Grittner, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Traditional teaching concepts in medical education do not take full advantage of current information technology. We aimed to objectively determine the impact of Tablet PC enhanced training on learning experience and MKSAP® (medical knowledge self-assessment program) exam performance. In this single center, prospective, controlled study final year medical students and medical residents doing an inpatient service rotation were alternatingly assigned to either the active test (Tablet PC with custom multimedia education software package) or traditional education (control) group, respectively. All completed an extensive questionnaire to collect their socio-demographic data, evaluate educational status, computer affinity and skills, problem solving, eLearning knowledge and self-rated medical knowledge. Both groups were MKSAP® tested at the beginning and the end of their rotation. The MKSAP® score at the final exam was the primary endpoint. Data of 55 (tablet n = 24, controls n = 31) male 36.4%, median age 28 years, 65.5% students, were evaluable. The mean MKSAP® score improved in the tablet PC (score Δ + 8 SD: 11), but not the control group (score Δ- 7, SD: 11), respectively. After adjustment for baseline score and confounders the Tablet PC group showed on average 11% better MKSAP® test results compared to the control group (plearning to their respective training programs.

  3. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  4. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy and muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity......, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin and CamKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE...

  5. Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc . Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination.

  6. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderka Marián, Longová Katarína, Olasz Dávid, Krčmár Matúš, Walker Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100, countermovement jump (CMJ and squat jump (SJ height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36 and control (CON, n = 32 groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions. Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001, and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001 in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05 was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001, as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01 were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001 but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05, and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001 in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term.

  7. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6-week cluster versus traditional plyometric training sets on jumping ability, sprint and agility performance. Thirteen college students were assigned to a cluster sets group (N=6) or traditional sets group (N=7). Both training groups completed the same training program. The traditional group completed five sets of 20 repetitions with 2min of rest between sets each session, while the cluster group completed five sets of 20 [2×10] repetitions with 30/90-s rest each session. Subjects were evaluated for countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), t test, 20-m and 40-m sprint test performance before and after the intervention. Both groups had similar improvements (Psets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Extending role by Japanese pharmacists after training for performing vital signs monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa F

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Japan, the circumstances in which pharmacists work are changing. Pharmacists are expected to assess conditions of patients subject to medication to ensure proper use of pharmaceutical products. To ensure fulfilment of these roles, there have already been pharmacists’ efforts in performing vital signs monitoring. Objective: To clarify the necessity and related issues, by investigating the state of vital sign monitoring in clinical field by pharmacists who have been trained in vital sign monitoring. Method: A web survey was conducted from 4th October to 3rd December 2012, subjecting 1,026 pharmacists who completed the vital signs training hosted by The Japanese Association of Home Care Pharmacies (JAHCP. Survey items were 1 basic information of a respondent, 2 situation of homecare conducted by pharmacists, 3 seminar attendance status, and 4 vital signs monitoring status after the seminar. Results: The number of valid respondents was 430 and the response rate was 41.9%. As a result of the present research, it was revealed that 168 pharmacists (41.4%, had the opportunity to perform vital signs monitoring. By conducting vital sign monitoring, effects such as 1 improved motivation of pharmacists and better communication with patients, 2 proper use of medication, and 3 cost reduction were confirmed. Conclusion: Judging from the results of the survey, pharmacists can improve medication therapy for patients by attaining vital sign skills and conduct vital sign monitoring. Pharmacists who perform vital sign monitoring should share cases where they experienced positive patient outcomes.

  9. Acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance of muscular strength and cardiovascular changes during resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Materko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effect of caffeine on the muscular strength performance in addition to the possible hemodynamic changes during a strength training session. Thirteen strength training experienced male subjects were submitted to a protocol of three sets of 10RM for bench press (BP, pull press (PP, leg extension (LE and leg curl (LC, according to three conditions: no supplementation (C; 250 mg of caffeine supplementation (S; placebo (P. All subjects were submitted to an anthropometric evaluation, followed by a 10RM familiarization test. Hemodynamic measurements – heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP – were carried out before, during and after each session. Holding 48 hours time intervals, participants were submitted to three randomly presented 10RM tests according to C, S and P conditions. For conditions S and C, significant differences were found in BP and LE. No significant differences in HR and BP were found. Results seem to suggest an ergogenic effect of caffeine on submaximal muscle strength during a session of strength training.

  10. Efficacy of Positive Thinking Training on the Family Process and Subjective Wellbeing of Female Heads of Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد خدایاری فرد

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of positive thinking training on family process and subjective wellbeing of female heads of household. The method was a semi-experimental with pretest-posttest and control group; and the study population included all female heads of household residing in Chaharbagh, Alborz province, who have at least one primary school-kid.  Using available sampling method, 50 women were selected among school-students’ mothers, and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control groups. Both groups filled Self-Report Family Process Scale (SFPS and Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWQ. The experimental group received positive thinking training for eight 2-hours-sessions. Then, all participants were assessed again as the posttest. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis method. Findings showed that after the intervention family process scores of experimental group had been significantly improved, while subjective wellbeing scores had not significantly enhanced. Therefore, it can be told that the present program was effective in increasing the family process, though it went ineffective in improving subjective wellbeing in these irritable individuals. Thus, altering and enriching the program and conducting further investigations seems necessary.

  11. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  12. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  13. Video Game Self-efficacy and its Effect on Training Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilan A. Ortiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of using serious games for training on task performance and declarative knowledge outcomes. The purpose was to determine if serious games are more effective training tools than traditional methods. Self-efficacy, expectations for training, and engagement were considered as moderators of the relationship between type of training and task performance as well as type of training and declarative knowledge. Results of the study offered support for the potential of serious games to be more effective than traditional methods of training when it comes to task performance.

  14. Clinical audit training improves undergraduates' performance in root canal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, J Y M; Tan, V J H; Lee, J R; Tong, Z G M; Foong, Y K; Tan, J M E; Parolia, A; Pau, A

    2017-12-20

    To evaluate the effectiveness of clinical audit-feedback cycle as an educational tool in improving the technical quality of root canal therapy (RCT) and compliance with record keeping performed by dental undergraduates. Clinical audit learning was introduced in Year 3 of a 5-year curriculum for dental undergraduates. During classroom activities, students were briefed on clinical audit, selected their audit topics in groups of 5 or 6 students, and prepared and presented their audit protocols. One chosen topic was RCT, in which 3 different cohorts of Year 3 students conducted retrospective audits of patients' records in 2012, 2014 and 2015 for their compliance with recommended record keeping criteria and their performance in RCT. Students were trained by and calibrated against an endodontist (κ ≥ 0.8). After each audit, the findings were reported in class, and recommendations were made for improvement in performance of RCT and record keeping. Students' compliance with published guidelines was presented and their RCT performances in each year were compared using the chi-square test. Overall compliance with of record keeping guidelines was 44.1% in 2012, 79.6% in 2014 and 94.6% in 2015 (P = .001). In the 2012 audit, acceptable extension, condensation and the absence of mishap were observed in 72.4, 75.7% and 91.5%; in the 2014 audit, 95.1%, 64.8% and 51.4%; and in 2015 audit, 96.4%, 82.1% and 92.8% of cases, respectively. In 2015, 76.8% of root canal fillings met all 3 technical quality criteria when compared to 48.6% in 2014 and 44.7% in 2012 (P = .001). Clinical audit-feedback cycle is an effective educational tool for improving dental undergraduates' compliance with record keeping and performance in the technical quality of RCT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Speech perception performance of subjects with type I diabetes mellitus in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Cristiane Sordi Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder of various origins that occurs when the pancreas fails to produce insulin in sufficient quantities or when the organism fails to respond to this hormone in an efficient manner. Objective: To evaluate the speech recognition in subjects with type I diabetes mellitus (DMI in quiet and in competitive noise. Methods: It was a descriptive, observational and cross-section study. We included 40 participants of both genders aged 18-30 years, divided into a control group (CG of 20 healthy subjects with no complaints or auditory changes, paired for age and gender with the study group, consisting of 20 subjects with a diagnosis of DMI. First, we applied basic audiological evaluations (pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and immittance audiometry for all subjects; after these evaluations, we applied Sentence Recognition Threshold in Quiet (SRTQ and Sentence Recognition Threshold in Noise (SRTN in free field, using the List of Sentences in Portuguese test. Results: All subjects showed normal bilateral pure tone threshold, compatible speech audiometry and "A" tympanometry curve. Group comparison revealed a statistically significant difference for SRTQ (p = 0.0001, SRTN (p < 0.0001 and the signal-to-noise ratio (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The performance of DMI subjects in SRTQ and SRTN was worse compared to the subjects without diabetes.

  16. Characterization of subjective uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HELTON, JON CRAIG; MARTELL, MARY-ALENA; TIERNEY, MARTIN S.

    2000-01-01

    The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191,40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of subjective uncertainty is discussed, including assignment of distributions, uncertain variables selected for inclusion in analysis, correlation control, sample size, statistical confidence on mean complementary cumulative distribution functions, generation of Latin hypercube samples, sensitivity analysis techniques, and scenarios involving stochastic and subjective uncertainty

  17. Characterization of subjective uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARTELL,MARY-ALENA; TIERNEY,MARTIN S.

    2000-05-18

    The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191,40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of subjective uncertainty is discussed, including assignment of distributions, uncertain variables selected for inclusion in analysis, correlation control, sample size, statistical confidence on mean complementary cumulative distribution functions, generation of Latin hypercube samples, sensitivity analysis techniques, and scenarios involving stochastic and subjective uncertainty.

  18. Training Program for Cardiology Residents to Perform Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Examination with Portable Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vicente N; Mancuso, Frederico J N; Campos, Orlando; De Paola, Angelo A; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2015-10-01

    Training requirements for general cardiologists without echocardiographic expertise to perform focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) with portable devices have not yet been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate a training program to instruct cardiology residents to perform FCU with a hand-carried device (HCD) in different clinical settings. Twelve cardiology residents were subjected to a 50-question test, 4 lectures on basic echocardiography and imaging interpretation, the supervised interpretation of 50 echocardiograms and performance of 30 exams using HCD. After this period, they repeated the written test and were administered a practical test comprising 30 exams each (360 patients) in different clinical settings. They reported on 15 parameters and a final diagnosis; their findings were compared to the HCD exam of a specialist in echocardiography. The proportion of correct answers on the theoretical test was higher after training (86%) than before (51%; P = 0.001). The agreement was substantial among the 15 parameters analyzed (kappa ranging from 0.615 to 0.891; P < 0.001). The percentage of correct interpretation was lower for abnormal (75%) than normal (95%) items, for valve abnormalities (85%) compared to other items (92%) and for graded scale (87%) than for dichotomous (95%) items (P < 0.0001, for all). For the final diagnoses, the kappa value was higher than 0.941 (P < 0.001; 95% CI [0.914, 0.955]). The training proposed enabled residents to perform FCU with HCD, and their findings were in good agreement with those of a cardiologist specialized in echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Autogenic-feedback training as a treatment for airsickness in high-performance military aircraft: Two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Miller, Neal E.; Reynoso, Samuel

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed description of the physiological and performance responses of two military pilots undergoing a treatment for motion sickness. The treatment used, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), is an operant conditioning procedure where subjects are taught to control several of their autonomic responses and thereby suppress their motion sickness symptoms. Two male, active duty military pilots (U.S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps), ages 30 and 35, were each given twelve 30-minute training sessions. The primary criterion for success of training was the subject's ability to tolerate rotating chair motion sickness tests for progressively longer periods of time and at higher rotational velocities. A standardized diagnostic scale was used during motion sickness to assess changes in the subject's perceived malaise. Physiological data were obtained from one pilot during tactical maneuvers in an F-18 aircraft after completion of his training. A significant increase in tolerance to laboratory-induced motion sickness tests and a reduction in autonomic nervous system (ANS) response variability was observed for both subjects after training. Both pilots were successful in applying AFT for controlling their airsickness during subsequent qualification tests on F-18 and T-38 aircraft and were returned to active duty flight status.

  20. MODULAR TRAINING IN THE FRAMEWORK OF REALIZATION OF INTERSUBJECT LINKS OF MATHEMATICS WITH OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Г Игнатова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals inter-subject relations with other subjects of algebra curriculum. As part of the GEF activities from the teacher required the formation of a coherent picture of the world, which means that the results of a meta-subject teaching to be achieved. As an example, deals with the topic of non- uniform motion in physics and quadratic functions in algebra. The analysis of the requirements for learning outcomes, the study objectives and data integration capabilities in the process of the study. Just a list of tasks and issues for study in each of the lessons in both integrated classes, and the framework of the modular study. The question of the use and visualization tools as well as the combination of this material and other items (we considered the example of computer science lessons.

  1. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C.; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand

  2. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students' perceptions of teachers' wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher's wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students' previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students' social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers' wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students' social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand, after

  3. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a school achievement, and (b school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a the probability of passing the school year, and (b the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate. However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the

  4. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    treadmill running (P running at 85% of maximal aerobic speed was lower (P beneficial changes and better performance......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10......, and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P 

  5. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...... of repetitions necessary to yield satisfactory reliability. Nineteen healthy subjects performed four trials of a forward lunge on two different days. The movement time, impulses of the ground reaction forces (IFz, IFy), knee joint kinematics and dynamics during the forward lunge were calculated. The relative...... reliability was determined by calculation of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The IFz, IFy and the positive work of the knee extensors showed excellent reliability (ICC >0.75). All other variables demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.4>ICCreliability increased when more than...

  6. Analysis of Praxis physics subject assessment examinees and performance: Who are our prospective physics teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lisa; Hao, Jie; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Fallin, Rebekah; Linenberger-Cortes, Kimberly; Ray, Herman E.; Rushton, Gregory T.

    2018-06-01

    A generally agreed upon tenant of the physics teaching community is the centrality of subject-specific expertise in effective teaching. However, studies which assess the content knowledge of incoming K-12 physics teachers in the U.S. have not yet been reported. Similarly lacking are studies on if or how the demographic makeup of aspiring physics educators is different from previously reported analyses of the actual high school physics teaching workforce. Here we present findings about the demographics and subject knowledge of prospective high school physics teachers using data from Praxis physics subject assessments administered between 2006 and 2016. Our analysis reveals significant variations in exam participation and performance between men and women, as well as those with different undergraduate majors and academic performance over the past decade. Findings from this work inform understandings and decisions about the quality, recruitment, and preparation of the high school physics teaching workforce.

  7. Evaluating Robotic Surgical Skills Performance Under Distractive Environment Using Objective and Subjective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  9. Media Usage, Religiosity and Gender as Determinant of Performance in Chemistry Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Ganiyat Kehinde; Mercy, Ofole Ndidi

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effect of media usage, religiosity and gender on performance in chemistry subject. This study employed survey research design. Two hundred participants (66 males and 134 females) drawn from public Senior Secondary Schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo State constituted the study's sample.…

  10. Performance of a rigid and a flexible adhesive in lumber joints subjected to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Krueger; R. F. Blomquist

    1964-01-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of deterioration that can occur in typical plywood-to-lumber glue joints subjected to stresses resulting from changes in the moisture content of the wood, and to compare the performance of a somewhat flexible or deformable adhesive to that of a rigid adhesive in these joints. Results showed that...

  11. Compensatory viewing training improves practical fitness to drive of subjects with impaired vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Aart C.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Coeckelbergh, Tanja R.M.; Tant, Mark L.M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many countries strict legal requirements for obtaining a driver’s license are in effect for visual acuity and visual field.We studied the relationship between these characteristics and driving safety and driving proficiency in an on-the-road test of practical fitness to drive in subjects with

  12. Training courses for Latin American human resources in subjects related to RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, T.E.; Harriague, S.; Perez, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1986, the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina organized three post-graduate courses on research reactors, aimed at the Latin American region. Twenty one university graduates from Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, and six from Argentina, attended the courses. Lecturers were in all cases staff members of CNEA. These activities of Manpower Development in the Latin American Region are part of an overall program starting in the early sixties at CNEA's Development Branch. The interest shown by many Latin American countries in these courses, the technical training received and the technical cooperation established among the participants, are taken as a measure of the success obtained. (Author)

  13. Multimodal decoding and congruent sensory information enhance reaching performance in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Anna Corbett

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI paralyzes muscles of the hand and arm, making it difficult to perform activities of daily living. Restoring the ability to reach can dramatically improve quality of life for people with cervical SCI. Any reaching system requires a user interface to decode parameters of an intended reach, such as trajectory and target. A challenge in developing such decoders is that often few physiological signals related to the intended reach remain under voluntary control, especially in patients with high cervical injuries. Furthermore, the decoding problem changes when the user is controlling the motion of their limb, as opposed to an external device. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of combining disparate signal sources to control reach in people with a range of impairments, and to consider the effect of two feedback approaches. Subjects with cervical SCI performed robot-assisted reaching, controlling trajectories with either shoulder electromyograms (EMGs or EMGs combined with gaze. We then evaluated how reaching performance was influenced by task-related sensory feedback, testing the EMG-only decoder in two conditions. The first involved moving the arm with the robot, providing congruent sensory feedback through their remaining sense of proprioception. In the second, the subjects moved the robot without the arm attached, as in applications that control external devices. We found that the multimodal decoding algorithm worked well for all subjects, enabling them to perform straight, accurate reaches. The inclusion of gaze information, used to estimate target location, was especially important for the most impaired subjects. In the absence of gaze information, congruent sensory feedback improved performance. These results highlight the importance of proprioceptive feedback, and suggest that multi-modal decoders are likely to be most beneficial for highly impaired subjects and in tasks where such

  14. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  15. Subjective Evaluation of Packet Service Performance in UMTS and Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    Quality of Service (QoS) in mobile telecommunication systems is usually identified by some basic performance metrics such as delay, throughput and jitter. However, the main impact of service quality is on the end user, and as such a detailed study of service performance should involve the end user......, users rated the perceived quality of the services under different network conditions. The users’ ratings are analyzed and the results showed clear trends with very few outliers. The objective and subjective measures also were found to be in line except for one case where a higher layer effect influenced....... In this paper, such an approach is taken where subjective performance evaluation is undertaken for web browsing and video streaming services in Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) and a heterogeneous network comprised of UMTS and Wireless LAN (WLAN). Using a real-time network emulation testbed...

  16. Impact of 3D vision on mental workload and laparoscopic performance in inexperienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, E; Carrasco-Valiente, J; Valero-Rosa, J; Campos-Hernández, J P; Anglada-Curado, F J; Carazo-Carazo, J L; Font-Ugalde, P; Requena-Tapia, M J

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of vision in three dimensions (3D) versus two dimensions (2D) on mental workload and laparoscopic performance during simulation-based training. A prospective, randomized crossover study on inexperienced students in operative laparoscopy was conducted. Forty-six candidates executed five standardized exercises on a pelvitrainer with both vision systems (3D and 2D). Laparoscopy performance was assessed using the total time (in seconds) and the number of failed attempts. For workload assessment, the validated NASA-TLX questionnaire was administered. 3D vision improves the performance reducing the time (3D = 1006.08 ± 315.94 vs. 2D = 1309.17 ± 300.28; P NASA-TLX results, less mental workload is experienced with the use of 3D (P < .001). However, 3D vision was associated with greater visual impairment (P < .01) and headaches (P < .05). The incorporation of 3D systems in laparoscopic training programs would facilitate the acquisition of laparoscopic skills, because they reduce mental workload and improve the performance on inexperienced surgeons. However, some undesirable effects such as visual discomfort or headache are identified initially. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Team Training for Dynamic Cross-Functional Teams in Aviation: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Performance Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlepage, Glenn E; Hein, Michael B; Moffett, Richard G; Craig, Paul A; Georgiou, Andrea M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a training program designed to improve cross-functional coordination in airline operations. Teamwork across professional specializations is essential for safe and efficient airline operations, but aviation education primarily emphasizes positional knowledge and skill. Although crew resource management training is commonly used to provide some degree of teamwork training, it is generally focused on specific specializations, and little training is provided in coordination across specializations. The current study describes and evaluates a multifaceted training program designed to enhance teamwork and team performance of cross-functional teams within a simulated airline flight operations center. The training included a variety of components: orientation training, position-specific declarative knowledge training, position-specific procedural knowledge training, a series of high-fidelity team simulations, and a series of after-action reviews. Following training, participants demonstrated more effective teamwork, development of transactive memory, and more effective team performance. Multifaceted team training that incorporates positional training and team interaction in complex realistic situations and followed by after-action reviews can facilitate teamwork and team performance. Team training programs, such as the one described here, have potential to improve the training of aviation professionals. These techniques can be applied to other contexts where multidisciplinary teams and multiteam systems work to perform highly interdependent activities. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. Practice makes imperfect: Working memory training can harm recognition memory performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trumbo, Michael C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haass, Michael J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hunter, Michael A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevens-Adams, Susan M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunting, Michael F. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Advanced Study of Language; O?Rourke, Polly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Advanced Study of Language

    2016-07-05

    There is a great deal of debate concerning the benefits of working memory (WM) training and whether that training can transfer to other tasks. Although a consistent finding is that WM training programs elicit a short-term near-transfer effect (i.e., improvement in WM skills), results are inconsistent when considering persistence of such improvement and far transfer effects. In this study, we compared three groups of participants: a group that received WM training, a group that received training on how to use a mental imagery memory strategy, and a control group that received no training. Although the WM training group improved on the trained task, their posttraining performance on nontrained WM tasks did not differ from that of the other two groups. In addition, although the imagery training group’s performance on a recognition memory task increased after training, the WM training group’s performance on the task decreased after training. Participants’ descriptions of the strategies they used to remember the studied items indicated that WM training may lead people to adopt memory strategies that are less effective for other types of memory tasks. Our results indicate that WM training may have unintended consequences for other types of memory performance.

  19. Priming Hand Motor Training with Repetitive Stimulation of the Fingertips; Performance Gain and Functional Imaging of Training Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Martin; Ladda, Aija Marie; Roschka, Sybille; Platz, Thomas; Dinse, Hubert R

    Application of repetitive electrical stimulation (rES) of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception and sensorimotor performance in healthy individuals. To increase motor performance by priming the effects of active motor training (arm ability training; AAT) using rES. We compared the performance gain for the training increase of the averaged AAT tasks of both hands in two groups of strongly right-handed healthy volunteers. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) before and after AAT was assessed using three tasks for each hand separately: finger sequence tapping, visually guided grip force modulation, and writing. Performance during fMRI was controlled for preciseness and frequency. A total of 30 participants underwent a two-week unilateral left hand AAT, 15 participants with 20 minutes of rES priming of all fingertips of the trained hand, and 15 participants without rES priming. rES-primed AAT improved the trained left-hand performance across all training tasks on average by 32.9%, non-primed AAT improved by 29.5%. This gain in AAT performance with rES priming was predominantly driven by an increased finger tapping velocity. Functional imaging showed comparable changes for both training groups over time. Across all participants, improved AAT performance was associated with a higher contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) fMRI activation magnitude during the grip force modulation task. This study highlights the importance of S1 for hand motor training gain. In addition, it suggests the usage of rES of the fingertips for priming active hand motor training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  1. Effect of Tai Chi Training on Dual-Tasking Performance That Involves Stepping Down among Stroke Survivors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-Nga; Tsang, William Wai-Nam

    2017-01-01

    Descending stairs demands attention and neuromuscular control, especially with dual-tasking. Studies have demonstrated that stroke often degrades a survivor's ability to descend stairs. Tai Chi has been shown to improve dual-tasking performance of healthy older adults, but no such study has been conducted in stroke survivors. This study investigated the effect of Tai Chi training on dual-tasking performance that involved stepping down and compared it with that of conventional exercise among stroke survivors. Subjects were randomized into Tai Chi ( n = 9), conventional exercise ( n = 8), and control ( n = 9) groups. Those in the former two groups received 12-week training. Assessments included auditory Stroop test, stepping down test, and dual-tasking test involving both simultaneously. They were evaluated before training (time-1), after training (time-2), and one month after training (time-3). Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in the auditory Stroop test from time-1 to time-3 and the performance was significantly better than that of the conventional exercise group in time-3. No significant effect was found in the stepping down task or dual-tasking in the control group. These results suggest a beneficial effect of Tai Chi training on cognition among stroke survivors without compromising physical task performance in dual-tasking. The effect was better than the conventional exercise group. Nevertheless, further research with a larger sample is warranted.

  2. Effect of Tai Chi Training on Dual-Tasking Performance That Involves Stepping Down among Stroke Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Nga Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Descending stairs demands attention and neuromuscular control, especially with dual-tasking. Studies have demonstrated that stroke often degrades a survivor’s ability to descend stairs. Tai Chi has been shown to improve dual-tasking performance of healthy older adults, but no such study has been conducted in stroke survivors. This study investigated the effect of Tai Chi training on dual-tasking performance that involved stepping down and compared it with that of conventional exercise among stroke survivors. Subjects were randomized into Tai Chi (n=9, conventional exercise (n=8, and control (n=9 groups. Those in the former two groups received 12-week training. Assessments included auditory Stroop test, stepping down test, and dual-tasking test involving both simultaneously. They were evaluated before training (time-1, after training (time-2, and one month after training (time-3. Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in the auditory Stroop test from time-1 to time-3 and the performance was significantly better than that of the conventional exercise group in time-3. No significant effect was found in the stepping down task or dual-tasking in the control group. These results suggest a beneficial effect of Tai Chi training on cognition among stroke survivors without compromising physical task performance in dual-tasking. The effect was better than the conventional exercise group. Nevertheless, further research with a larger sample is warranted.

  3. Sprint Running Performance and Technique Changes in Athletes During Periodized Training: An Elite Training Group Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David G; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Salo, Aki I T

    2017-11-15

    To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA. As training progressed, a link in the changes in velocity and step frequency was maintained. There were 71 between-session comparisons with a change in step velocity yielding at least a large effect size (>1.2), of which 73% had a correspondingly large change in step frequency in the same direction. Within-athlete mean session step length remained relatively constant throughout. Reductions in step velocity and frequency occurred during training phases of high volume lifting and running, with subsequent increases in step velocity and frequency happening during phases of low volume lifting and high intensity sprint work. The importance of step frequency over step length to the changes in performance within a training year was clearly evident for the sprinters studied. Understanding the magnitudes and timings of these changes in relation to the training program is important for coaches and athletes. The underpinning neuro-muscular mechanisms require further investigation, but are likely explained by an increase in force producing capability followed by an increase in the ability to produce that force rapidly.

  4. Evaluation of Subjective and Objective Performance Metrics for Haptically Controlled Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dung Pham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our

  5. Predicting Resident Performance from Preresidency Factors: A Systematic Review and Applicability to Neurosurgical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Kelly, Patrick D; Dewan, Michael C; Morone, Peter J; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Magarik, Jordan A; Baticulon, Ronnie E; Zusman, Edie E; Solomon, Gary S; Wellons, John C

    2018-02-01

    Neurosurgical educators strive to identify the best applicants, yet formal study of resident selection has proved difficult. We conducted a systematic review to answer the following question: What objective and subjective preresidency factors predict resident success? PubMed, ProQuest, Embase, and the CINAHL databases were queried from 1952 to 2015 for literature reporting the impact of preresidency factors (PRFs) on outcomes of residency success (RS), among neurosurgery and all surgical subspecialties. Due to heterogeneity of specialties and outcomes, a qualitative summary and heat map of significant findings were constructed. From 1489 studies, 21 articles met inclusion criteria, which evaluated 1276 resident applicants across five surgical subspecialties. No neurosurgical studies met the inclusion criteria. Common objective PRFs included standardized testing (76%), medical school performance (48%), and Alpha Omega Alpha (43%). Common subjective PRFs included aggregate rank scores (57%), letters of recommendation (38%), research (33%), interviews (19%), and athletic or musical talent (19%). Outcomes of RS included faculty evaluations, in-training/board exams, chief resident status, and research productivity. Among objective factors, standardized test scores correlated well with in-training/board examinations but poorly correlated with faculty evaluations. Among subjective factors, aggregate rank scores, letters of recommendation, and athletic or musical talent demonstrated moderate correlation with faculty evaluations. Standardized testing most strongly correlated with future examination performance but correlated poorly with faculty evaluations. Moderate predictors of faculty evaluations were aggregate rank scores, letters of recommendation, and athletic or musical talent. The ability to predict success of neurosurgical residents using an evidence-based approach is limited, and few factors have correlated with future resident performance. Given the importance of

  6. Effects of postural control manipulation on visuomotor training performance: comparative data in healthy athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Kathryn; Mangine, Robert E; Clark, Joseph F; Rauch, Joseph T; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Susaret, Antonia W; Hasselfeld, Kimberly A; Colosimo, Angelo J

    2014-08-01

    Visuomotor ability is an important parameter for neurologic function and effective sport performance. Adding a balance challenge during a structured eye-hand coordination task, such as hitting lights on a light board (Dynavision™), has not been previously reported. Using Division I football players, the aim of this study was to determine normative data on a dual-task performance regimen combining a visuomotor light board task with a balance task. The intent is to use such normative data and baseline data as part of a concussion management program. Division I college football team members, n=105, were consented. Subjects first performed Dynavision™ D2™ Visuomotor Training Device (D2™) eye-hand coordination tasks, the A* and the RT; they then performed the same tasks with an added balance challenge, standing on a BOSU® ball. Ninety-four athletes completed the full testing procedure on the D2™ system. The mean score of the A* test was 93 ± 11.0 hits per minute; and the mean on the A* test with the added BOSU® balance challenge was 83.7 ± 9.2 hits per minute. The mean RT time was 0.33 ± 0.036 seconds. Mean reaction time increased to 0.38 ± 0.063 while the subject stood on the BOSU® ball. Performance on the D2™ A* and RT were both statistically significantly different in the dual task condition (pmanagement program. III.

  7. The effectiveness of computerized cognitive training on the working memory performance of children with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shokoohi-Yekta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory and visual processing along with phonological and visual spatial working memory are the problems that patients with dyslexia struggle with. So, the aim of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training on the working memory performance of children with dyslexia.Methods: The study conducted under the quasi-experimental method with pre- and post-test along with the control group. 25 children with dyslexia aged 7 to 12 years in grades 1-5 assigned to the experimental (15 and control (10 groups; the experimental group received 30 sessions of the Brain Ware Safari intervention program. NAMA scale and Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C were conducted to assess reading and working memory performance of the subjects. MANCOVA, ANCOVA and effect sizes were utilized to analyze the data.Results: There were significant differences between pre- and post-tests of the experimental and control groups on the forward and backward block recall subtests of WMTB-C and not the mazes memory. Regarding the subscales of NAMA scale, we found no significant differences in the reading performance; but analysis of effect sizes showed positive effects at least on the 6 subscales.Conclusion: The Brain Ware Safari computerized cognitive training can improve visual spatial working memory of children with dyslexia and probably may affect the reading performance.

  8. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters.

  9. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  10. Does training frequency and supervision affect compliance, performance and muscular health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Bredahl, Thomas G V; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of one weekly hour of specific strength training within working hours, performed with the same total training volume but with different training frequencies and durations, or with different levels of supervision, on compliance, muscle health and performance......, behavior and work performance. In total, 573 office workers were cluster-randomized to: 1WS: one 60-min supervised session/week, 3WS: three 20-min supervised sessions/week, 9WS: nine 7-min supervised sessions/week, 3MS: three 20-min sessions/week with minimal supervision, or REF: a reference group without...... training. Outcomes were diary-based compliance, total training volume, muscle performance and questionnaire-based health, behavior and work performance. Comparisons were made among the WS training groups and between 3WS and 3MS. If no difference, training groups were collapsed (TG) and compared with REF...

  11. VO2 kinetics and performance in soccer players after intense training and inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Krustrup, Peter; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    18 elite soccer players were, for a two-week period, assigned to a high intensity training group (HI, n=7) performing 10 training sessions mainly consisting of aerobic high intensity training (8×2 min) and speed endurance training (10-12×30-s sprints) or a training cessation group (TC, n=11......PURPOSE:: To examine the effects of a short-term period with intensified training or training cessation of trained soccer players on VO2 kinetics at 75% maximal aerobic speed (MAS), oxidative enzymes and performance in repeated high intensity exercise. METHODS:: After the last match of the season......) that refrained from training. RESULTS:: For TC, VO2 kinetics became slower (P...

  12. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-06-01

    Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p training (p training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to contract faster compared with voluntary contraction. Therefore, muscle training with high contraction velocity is one of the main methods of increasing muscle power. Passive leg press training is a unique method for enhancing jump performance, speed, and muscle power.

  13. The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Bronwen; Rogers, Margot A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Halson, Shona; McKune, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a “Baseline” week (100% of regular training load), a “Build” week (~120% of Baseline load), two “Loading” weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two “Recovery” weeks (~80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. Results The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = HRV (F(2,22.608) = 6.5212, p = 0.005); all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87) = 8.2622, p = HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation. PMID:29444097

  14. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Bibby, Bo Martin; Sollie, Ove; Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp. In a randomized, double-blinded study, 18 elite cyclists consumed either a whey protein hydrolysate-carbohydrate beverage (PRO-CHO, 14 g protein/h and 69 g CHO/h) or an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO, 84 g/h) during each training session for six days (25-29 h cycling in total). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were collected in the morning after overnight fasting during the week and analyzed for biochemical markers of muscle damage, stress, and immune function. In both groups, 5-min all-out performance was reduced after the first training session and at day 6 compared to before the first training session, with no difference between groups. Peak power in the sprint test did not change significantly between tests or between groups. In addition, changes in markers for muscle damage, stress, and immune function were not significantly influenced by treatment. Intake of protein combined with carbohydrate during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested

  15. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  16. Making Olympic lizards: the effects of specialised exercise training on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Jerry F; Keith, Allison R; Wittry, Beth N

    2015-03-01

    Exercise training is well known to affect a suite of physiological and performance traits in mammals, but effects of training in other vertebrate tetrapod groups have been inconsistent. We examined performance and physiological differences among green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) that were trained for sprinting or endurance, using an increasingly rigorous training regimen over 8 weeks. Lizards trained for endurance had significantly higher post-training endurance capacity compared with the other treatment groups, but groups did not show post-training differences in sprint speed. Although acclimation to the laboratory environment and training explain some of our results, mechanistic explanations for these results correspond with the observed performance differences. After training, endurance-trained lizards had higher haematocrit and larger fast glycolytic muscle fibres. Despite no detectable change in maximal performance of sprint-trained lizards, we detected that they had significantly larger slow oxidative muscle fibre areas compared with the other treatments. Treatment groups did not differ in the proportion of number of fibre types, nor in the mass of most limb muscles or the heart. Our results offer some caveats for investigators conducting training research on non-model organisms and they reveal that muscle plasticity in response to training may be widespread phylogenetically. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH VS. BALLISTIC-POWER TRAINING ON THROWING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Zaras

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9 and Power (n = 8 groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ, Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively. Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively, while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05. Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05, while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (% decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations

  18. Influence of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in normal Japanese subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Aoki, Toshikazu; Makino, Katsutoshi; Yamamuro, Masashi; Nakai, Kyudayu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of age on left ventricular performance, multistage supine ergometer exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed in 92 normal subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 24 to 86 years and were free of cardiopulmonary disease and diabetes. Age-related changes in exercise duration, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), cardiac output (CO) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dv/dt, systolic and diastolic time indexes of dv/dt, and peak systolic pressure/left ventricular end-systolic volume (PSP/LVESV) were analyzed at rest and during the peak exercise stage. Age-related decrease in LVEDV and peak diastolic dv/dt were significant at rest. The time indexes of ECG R to peak systolic dv/dt and time of end-systole to peak diastolic dv/dt also were prolonged with age. Both maximum heart rate and exercise duration were shown to decline with age. No age-related difference was observed in LVESV, LVEF or PSP/LVESV either at rest or during exercise. However, the change of LVEF and LVESV during exercise was less in subjects aged 60 or more. These results indicate decreased left ventricular function during exercise in elderly subjects. (author)

  19. Same performance changes after Live High-Train Low in normobaric versus hypobaric hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. Saugy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the changes in physiological and performance parameters after a Live High-Train Low (LHTL altitude camp in normobaric (NH or hypobaric hypoxia (HH to reproduce the actual training practices of endurance athletes using a crossover-designed study. Methods: Well-trained triathletes (n=16 were split into two groups and completed two 18-day LTHL camps during which they trained at 1100-1200 m and lived at 2250 m (PiO2 = 111.9 ± 0.6 vs. 111.6 ± 0.6 mmHg under NH (hypoxic chamber; FiO2 18.05 ± 0.03% or HH (real altitude; barometric pressure 580.2 ± 2.9 mmHg conditions. The subjects completed the NH and HH camps with a one-year washout period. Measurements and protocol were identical for both phases of the crossover study. Oxygen saturation (SpO2 was constantly recorded nightly. PiO2 and training loads were matched daily. Blood samples and VO2max were measured before (Pre- and 1 day after (Post-1 LHTL. A 3-km running-test was performed near sea level before and 1, 7, and 21 days after training camps. Results: Total hypoxic exposure was lower for NH than for HH during LHTL (230 vs. 310 h; P<0.001. Nocturnal SpO2 was higher in NH than in HH (92.4 ± 1.2 vs. 91.3 ± 1.0%, P<0.001. VO2max increased to the same extent for NH and HH (4.9 ± 5.6 vs. 3.2 ± 5.1%. No difference was found in hematological parameters. The 3-km run time was significantly faster in both conditions 21 days after LHTL (4.5 ± 5.0 vs. 6.2 ± 6.4% for NH and HH, and no difference between conditions was found at any time. Conclusion: Increases in VO2max and performance enhancement were similar between NH and HH conditions.

  20. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  1. Subjective memory complaints are associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkwalala, Asante; Hulgan, Todd; Newhouse, Paul

    2017-05-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy in the US, HIV-positive adults now routinely survive into old age. However, increased life expectancy with HIV introduces the added complication of age-related cognitive decline. Aging with HIV has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes compared to HIV-negative adults. While up to 50% of older HIV-positive adults will develop some degree of cognitive impairment over their lifetime, cognitive symptoms are often not consistently monitored, until those symptoms are significant enough to impair daily life. In this study we found that subjective memory complaint (SMC) ratings correlated with measurable memory performance impairments in HIV-positive adults, but not HIV-negative adults. As the HIV-positive population ages, structured subjective cognitive assessment may be beneficial to identify the early signs of cognitive impairment, and subsequently allow for earlier interventions to maintain cognitive performance as these adults continue to survive into old age.

  2. Study regarding the relevance of the accounting subjects in the economic vocational training of non-accountant specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Bădicu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility for the skills of specialists in the economic field belongs to universities, which, by modernizing the curriculum, must take into account the requirements of the professional environment (employers, where the role of the economic specialist extends beyond narrow knowledge, flexibility and high capacity to address various problems. From this perspective, in order to enhance the role of the academic environment and to develop the professional skills of the graduating economists, it is necessary to correlate the competencies and the requirements about educational outcomes. With regard to the relevance of the accounting subjects in the professional training of non-accountant economic specialists, given the competing interests of universities, students and employers in the field of education, we proposed a debate with the view to design strategies of accounting education in the higher economic education of the Republic of Moldova. The article represents a study based on the documentation of the university curriculum in undergraduate programs. With the view to test and validate the necessity of studying accounting subjects in the professional training of non-accounting economic specialists, a questionnaire was developed and implemented. The general research idea refers to the need to study accounting in economic education and practice, which could have an impact over the competitiveness of the Economics graduate.

  3. International Differences in Subjective Performance Evaluation, Compensation and Career Dynamics in a Global Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Nikolaj; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use confidential personnel records from a large multinational firm to study the differences in subjective performance evaluation and their consequences across countries. We focus our analysis on three different sets of countries: Europe (where the headquarter is established), U.......S. and Asia (Japan and China). We try to understand why performance evaluation is distributed differently across countries, and how these differences affect wage growth, the size of the bonus and promotion decisions. We find that evaluations tend to be better on average at the headquarter, but also that wages...

  4. Effects of background music on objective and subjective performance measures in an auditory BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  5. Effects of valerian on subjective sedation, field sobriety testing and driving simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kelan; Canedo, Joanne; Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Lopes, Ingrid; Chuang, Hannah Mae; Bohnert, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    The availability of herbal medicines over-the-counter (OTC) has increased the use of natural products for self-treatment. Valerian has been used to effectively treat generalized anxiety disorder and insomnia. Studies suggest that valerenic acid may increase gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulation in the brain. Benzodiazepines have a similar mechanism of action and have been linked to an increased risk of hospitalizations due to traffic accidents. Despite the risk of somnolence, the safety of driving while under the influence of valerian remains unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a one-time valerian 1600mg dose on subjective sedation effects, standardized field sobriety testing (SFST) and driving simulator performance parameters. The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. For each session, participants received either a dose of valerian or placebo. The outcome measures included a simple visual reaction test (SVRT), subjective sleepiness scales, SFST performance scores, and driving simulator performance parameters. There were no significant differences in the SVRT or sleepiness scales between placebo and valerian exposures, but the study may have been underpowered. SFST total and individual test failure rates were not significantly different between the two exposures. The driving simulator performance parameters were equivalent between the two exposure conditions. A one-time valerian 1600mg dose, often used to treat insomnia, does not appear to impair driving simulator performance after acute ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wax Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. One-repetition maximum (1RM on the standard barbell bench press and leg press were obtained. Upon determination of 1RM, subjects completed repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM on both the standard barbell bench press and leg press. Heart rate was measured pre and post exercise. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the identical resistance exercise protocol. Results Our data showed statistical significant differences (p0.05 between supplementation conditions for either resistance trained or untrained men in the bench press or leg press exercises. Heart rate was similar at the end of the upper and lower body bouts of resistance exercise with AAKG vs. placebo. Conclusion The results from our study indicate that acute AAKG supplementation provides no ergogenic benefit on 1RM or TLV as measured by the standard barbell bench press and leg press, regardless of the subjects training status.

  7. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Benjamin; Kavazis, Andreas N; Webb, Heather E; Brown, Stanley P

    2012-04-17

    Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. One-repetition maximum (1RM) on the standard barbell bench press and leg press were obtained. Upon determination of 1RM, subjects completed repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM on both the standard barbell bench press and leg press. Heart rate was measured pre and post exercise. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the identical resistance exercise protocol. Our data showed statistical significant differences (p0.05) between supplementation conditions for either resistance trained or untrained men in the bench press or leg press exercises. Heart rate was similar at the end of the upper and lower body bouts of resistance exercise with AAKG vs. placebo. The results from our study indicate that acute AAKG supplementation provides no ergogenic benefit on 1RM or TLV as measured by the standard barbell bench press and leg press, regardless of the subjects training status.

  8. The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a Neural Image Caption Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a...ARL-TR-8124 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a Neural...Laboratory The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a Neural Image Caption Generator by Abigail Wilson Montgomery Blair

  9. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    , and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P bone turnover markers osteocalcin......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10...

  11. Psychomotor performance of Polish Air Force cadets after 36 hours of survival training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tomczak

    2017-09-01

    Survival training combined with sleep deprivation mostly affected peripheral factors depending on strong action from both muscles and nervous system, whereas complex tasks involving short-term central alertness and moderate exertion were maintained. In order to improve performance, more endurance strength training, if possible combined with sleep deprivation, should be introduced in military training.

  12. The Effects of Level of Training on Employee Perceived Empowerment, Commitment and Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backeberg, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of level of training on employees' perceived psychological empowerment, commitment, and resultant job performance within the hospitality industry...

  13. The effect of self-directed virtual reality simulation on dissection training performance in mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Foghsgaard, Søren; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To establish the effect of self-directed virtual reality (VR) simulation training on cadaveric dissection training performance in mastoidectomy and the transferability of skills acquired in VR simulation training to the cadaveric dissection training setting. STUDY DESIGN......: Prospective study. METHODS: Two cohorts of 20 novice otorhinolaryngology residents received either self-directed VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection training or vice versa. Cadaveric and VR simulation performances were assessed using final-product analysis with three blinded expert raters....... RESULTS: The group receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection had a mean final-product score of 14.9 (95 % confidence interval [CI] [12.9-16.9]) compared with 9.8 (95% CI [8.4-11.1]) in the group not receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection. This 52% increase...

  14. Medical Team Training Improves Team Performance: AOA Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James E; Bagian, James P; Snider, Rebecca G; Jeray, Kyle J

    2017-09-20

    Effective teamwork and communication can decrease medical errors in environments where the culture of safety is enhanced. Health care can benefit from programs that are based on teamwork, as in other high-stress industries (e.g., aviation), with crew resource management programs, simulator use, and utilization of checklists. Medical team training (MTT) with a strong leadership commitment was used at our institution to focus specifically on creating open, yet structured, communication in operating rooms. Training included the 3 phases of the World Health Organization protocol to organize communication and briefings: preoperative verification, preincision briefing, and debriefing at or near the end of the surgical case. This training program led to measured improvements in job satisfaction and compliance with checklist tasks, and identified opportunities to improve training sessions. MTT provides the potential for sustainable change and a positive impact on the environment of the operating room.

  15. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Department of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 1The Third Xiang-ya Hospital, .... Under corresponding emergency situation, the body .... Bu Y, Liu D. Physical Training Process of Chinese Women's Soccer Team - Based.

  16. Anodal tDCS applied during multitasking training leads to transferable performance gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Lyons, Maxwell; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2017-10-11

    Cognitive training can lead to performance improvements that are specific to the tasks trained. Recent research has suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied during training of a simple response-selection paradigm can broaden performance benefits to an untrained task. Here we assessed the impact of combined tDCS and training on multitasking, stimulus-response mapping specificity, response-inhibition, and spatial attention performance in a cohort of healthy adults. Participants trained over four days with concurrent tDCS - anodal, cathodal, or sham - applied to the left prefrontal cortex. Immediately prior to, 1 day after, and 2 weeks after training, performance was assessed on the trained multitasking paradigm, an untrained multitasking paradigm, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a visual search task. Training combined with anodal tDCS, compared with training plus cathodal or sham stimulation, enhanced performance for the untrained multitasking paradigm and visual search tasks. By contrast, there were no training benefits for the go/no-go task. Our findings demonstrate that anodal tDCS combined with multitasking training can extend to untrained multitasking paradigms as well as spatial attention, but with no extension to the domain of response inhibition.

  17. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  18. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: a Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  19. SSRI effects on pyschomotor performance: assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michel A; Gray, Gary W; Love, Ryan J; Lange, Marvin

    2007-07-01

    Standard aeromedical doctrine dictates that aircrew receiving treatment for depression are grounded during treatment and follow-up observation, generally amounting to at least 1 yr. The Canadian Forces has initiated a program to return selected aircrew being treated for depression to restricted flying duties once stabilized on an approved antidepressant with resolution of depression. The currently approved medications are sertraline (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and bupropion (noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor). This study was undertaken to determine whether or not citalopram or escitalopram affect psychomotor performance. In a double-blind crossover protocol with counter-balanced treatment order, 24 normal volunteer subjects (14 men and 10 women) were assessed for psychomotor performance during placebo, citalopram (40 mg), and escitalopram (20 mg) treatment. Each treatment arm lasted 2 wk, involving a daily morning ingestion of one capsule. There was a 1-wk washout period between medication courses. Subjects completed a drug side-effect questionnaire and were tested on three psychomotor test batteries once per week. Neither citalopram nor escitalopram affected serial reaction time, logical reasoning, serial subtraction, multitask, or MacWorth clock task performance. While we found some of the expected side effects due to citalopram and escitalopram, there was no impact on psychomotor performance. These findings support the possibility of using citalopram and escitalopram for returning aircrew to restricted flight duties (non-tactical flying) under close observation as a maintenance treatment after full resolution of depression.

  20. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  1. Effects of HRV-Guided vs. Predetermined Block Training on Performance, HRV and Serum Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuuttila, Olli-Pekka; Nikander, Aku; Polomoshnov, Dmitry; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability -guided (HRVG) and predetermined (PD) block periodization of high intensity aerobic training (HIT). Endurance performance, neuromuscular performance, heart rate variability (HRV) and serum hormone concentrations were measured before, in the middle and after the 8-week training period in 24 endurance trained males. Both groups improved significantly maximal treadmill velocity (V max ) (pHRV (RMSSD, LF and TP) increased significantly only in HRVG (pHRV and serum testosterone levels observed in HRVG, individually HRV -guided block training may be more optimal compared to predetermined training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The importance of the training-induced decrease in basal cortisol concentration in the improvement in muscular performance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Kulpa, J; Duda, K; Rychlik, U; Zoladz, J A

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise-induced changes in cortisol concentration (C) and training related adaptation within hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been widely examined, but their influence on muscle strength performance is at best uncertain. Twenty four young healthy men were randomly assigned to an endurance training group (ET, n=12) or to a non-exercising controls (CON, n=12). ET performed supervised endurance training on cycle ergometer for 20 weeks. Endurance training program improved exercise capacity (14 % increase in power output generated at peak oxygen uptake - VO(2peak)), muscle strength performance (increase in MVC - maximal voluntary contraction - by 9 % and in TTF 50 % MVC - time to fatigue at 50 % MVC - by 21 %) and led to a decrease in basal serum C concentration (P=0.006) and an increase in basal testosterone to cortisol (T/C) and free testosterone to cortisol (fT/C) ratios (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). It was found that the decrease in C concentration (deltaC) was positively correlated to the increase in local muscular endurance (deltaTTF 50 % MVC). No significant hormonal changes were seen in CON group. It is concluded that greater decrease in cortisol concentration after the endurance training is accompanied by poorer improvement in skeletal muscle performance in previously untrained subjects.

  3. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lloréns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm. However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm, in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm. Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order. Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system.

  4. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing......) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; P...

  5. Working Memory Training Improves Dual-Task Performance on Motor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takehide; Kaneko, Fuminari; Nagahata, Keita; Shibata, Eriko; Aoki, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG. Dual-task performance improved in the WM-TRG and dual-task training group. Our study provides the novel insight that working memory training improves dual-task performance without specific training on the target motor task.

  6. Induction Based Training leads to Highly Significant Improvements of Objective and Subjective Suturing Ability in Junior Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Garry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation based training has shown to be of benefit in the education of medical students. However, the impact of induction based clinical simulation on surgical ability of qualified doctors remains unclear.The aim of this study was to establish if a 60 minute teaching session integrated into an Emergency Medicine speciality induction program produces statistically significant improvements in objective and subjective suturing abilities of junior doctors commencing an Emergency Medicine rotation.Methods: The objective suturing abilities of 16 Foundation Year Two doctors were analysed using a validated OSATs scale prior to a novel teaching intervention. The doctors then undertook an intensive hour long workshop receiving one to one feedback before undergoing repeat OSATs assessment.Subjective ability was measured using a 5 point likert scale and self-assessed competency reporting interrupted suturing before and after the intervention. Photographs of wound closure before and after the intervention were recorded for further blinded assessment of impact of intervention. A survey regarding continued ability was repeated at four months following the intervention. The study took place on 7/12/16 during the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust Emergency Medicine induction in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. The hospital is a regional level 1 trauma centre that has annual departmental attendances in excess of 200,000.All new junior doctors commencing the Emergency Medicine rotation were invited to partake in the study. All 16 agreed. The group consisted of a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate medicaldoctors who all had 16 months experience working in a variety of medical or surgical jobs previously.Results: Following the teaching intervention objective and subjective abilities in interrupted suturing showed statistically significant improvement (P>0.005. Self-reporting of competency of independently suturingwounds improved from 50

  7. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eBannai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a nonessential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep

  8. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  9. Connectivity Neurofeedback Training Can Differentially Change Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ayumu; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Kawato, Mitsuo; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity. We selected the connectivity between the left primary motor cortex and the left lateral parietal cortex as the target. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, in which only the direction of change (an increase or a decrease in correlation) in the experimentally manipulated connectivity differed between the groups. As a result, subjects successfully induced the expected connectivity changes in either of the 2 directions. Furthermore, cognitive performance significantly and differentially changed from preneurofeedback to postneurofeedback training between the 2 groups. These findings indicate that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in connectivity and also a differential change in cognitive performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  11. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy [Department of Anesthesiology Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  12. Effects of Heavy Squat Training on a Vibration Platform on Maximal Strength and Jump Performance in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Roger L; Linton, Joshua T; Hammer, Adam M

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups. After the intervention, both groups showed (via t-test) a marked increase (p < 0.001) in 1-RM squat strength (SQT = 34.5 kg vs SQTV = 36.2 kg), but there was no significant difference (via mixed ANOVA) between groups (p = 0.875). Standing broad jump performance increased by an average of 5-6 cm, but was not significantly changed in either group (SQT; p = 0.199, SQTV; p = 0.087). In conclusion, squats performed with whole body vibration (WBV) were not superior to conventional squats with respect to maximal strength and jump performance outcomes. It appears that there was no additive effect of superimposed WBV training in strength beyond that caused by strength training alone. This study can help strength conditioning professionals and athletes make an informed decision on whether to invest in a VP and use WBV as an alternative or a complementary mode of training.

  13. The influence of nontraditional training modalities on physical performance: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Reginald B; Serres, Jennifer; Traver, Kyle L; Wright, Bruce; Vojta, Chris; Eveland, Ed

    2012-10-01

    The primary purpose of this effort was to review several forms of nontraditional (NT) training programs, including heavy lower extremity strength training, CrossFit training, kettlebell training, and agility training, and discuss the effects of these exercise regimens on physical performance. The secondary purpose was to evaluate NT fitness training programs for evidence that they may provide beneficial options to help airmen improve their fitness scores. A search of the literature for 1980-2010 was performed using the Franzello Aeromedical Library, Public Medicine, and Air Force Institute of Technology search engines. There were 50 articles located and the authors selected 29 articles that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. This review indicates that an NT training approach is warranted in the general Air Force population. Heavy leg strength training and agility training show promise in enhancing aerobic fitness and improving fitness scores, particularly among members who have difficulty passing a physical fitness test. Most of the nontraditional forms of physical training are not supported in the scientific literature, with the exception of heavy leg strength training and agility training. However, even these NT forms of training require further investigation.

  14. Subjective and neurovegetative changes in healthy volunteers and panic patients performing simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Alexandre C B V; Garcia-Leal, Cybele; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Guimarães, Francisco S; Graeff, Frederico G

    2005-12-01

    Drug-free symptomatic panic patients, drug-treated nonsymptomatic patients and healthy controls were submitted to simulated public speaking. Subjective anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort measured by the visual analog mood scale as well as skin conductance level were higher in symptomatic patients than in controls at the beginning of the experimental session, nonsymptomatic patients lying in between. Subjective sedation, spontaneous fluctuations of skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure were similar in the three groups. Preparation and performance of speech decreased sedation while increasing anxiety, cognitive impairment, level and fluctuations of skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure. Anxiety, cognitive impairment and conductance level were less increased in symptomatic patients than in controls. Electrodermal activity, but not cardiovascular measures of sympathetic arousal correlated with anticipatory anxiety. Chronic treatment with serotonin uptake inhibitors attenuated the differences between panic patients and controls, supporting the participation of serotonin in panic disorder.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Empirical Relationship in Student Performance between Physics and Other STEM Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maricela

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) advocated by the National Research Council emphasize the connections among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. By design, NGSS is expected to replace the previous science education standards to enhance the quality of STEM education across the nation. To support this initiative, this investigation was conducted to fill a void in the research literature by developing an empirical indicator for the relationship of student performance across STEM subjects using a large-scale database from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In particular, an innovative approach has been taken in this study to support the canonical correlation analysis of student plausible scores between physics and other STEM subjects at different grade levels and in a cross-country context. Results from this doctoral research revealed the need to strengthen the alignment between the intended, implemented, and attained curricula to support the integration of STEM disciplines in the United States.

  16. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo......). To detect a reduced activation of the central motor pathways superimposed external electrical stimulations during voluntary contractions were applied. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to detect any alcohol-induced changes in sarcolemmal integrity. No change was seen in isokinetic as well as in isometric...

  17. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  18. Pilates training improves 5-km run performance by changing metabolic cost and muscle activity in trained runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finatto, Paula; Silva, Edson Soares Da; Okamura, Alexandre B.; Almada, Bruna P.; Oliveira, Henrique B.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet) and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles. Methods Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners. Thirty-two individuals were randomly assigned to the control group (CG, n = 16) or the Pilates group (PG, n = 16). Results Confirming our hypothesis, a significant improvement (p<0.05) was observed for running performance in the PG (pre: 25.65±0.4 min; post: 23.23±0.4 min) compared to the CG (pre: 25.33±0.58 min; post: 24.61±0.52 min). Similarly, the PG (4.33±0.07 J.kg-1.m-1) had better responses than the CG (4.71±0.11 J.kg-1.m-1) during post-training for Cmet. These findings were accompanied by decreased electromyographic activity of the postural muscles at submaximal running intensities in the PG. Conclusions Overall, these results provide a rationale for selecting strength training strategies that target adaptations on specific postural and locomotor muscles for trained distance runners. PMID:29561907

  19. Pilates training improves 5-km run performance by changing metabolic cost and muscle activity in trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Finatto

    Full Text Available Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles.Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners. Thirty-two individuals were randomly assigned to the control group (CG, n = 16 or the Pilates group (PG, n = 16.Confirming our hypothesis, a significant improvement (p<0.05 was observed for running performance in the PG (pre: 25.65±0.4 min; post: 23.23±0.4 min compared to the CG (pre: 25.33±0.58 min; post: 24.61±0.52 min. Similarly, the PG (4.33±0.07 J.kg-1.m-1 had better responses than the CG (4.71±0.11 J.kg-1.m-1 during post-training for Cmet. These findings were accompanied by decreased electromyographic activity of the postural muscles at submaximal running intensities in the PG.Overall, these results provide a rationale for selecting strength training strategies that target adaptations on specific postural and locomotor muscles for trained distance runners.

  20. Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam K

    2010-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a heavy weight training exercise on sprinting performance and on the effect of repeated exposure to a complex training protocol. Eleven male rugby union players (age 20.9 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study, which involved 5 separate testing sessions. Back squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) was established in session 1. Sessions 2-5 were identical and involved the subjects completing a 30-m sprint before and after a 3RM back squat protocol. Four minutes of rest was given between the back squatting and the posttest 30-m sprint. All sprint trials were measured with a laser measurement device (LAVEG, Jenoptik, Jena, Germany). Sprint time and instantaneous, average, and maximum velocity were the dependent variables. The criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p > or = 0.05. No significant improvement was evident for any of the testing sessions (p > or = 0.05). In session 1, there was a significant increase in 30-m time and a significant reduction in average 30-m velocity and maximum velocity (p benefits in sprinting may not have been realized because of intra and intersubject variations in sprint technique. The session x phase interaction revealed a significant improvement in the pre to posttest changes in instantaneous velocity at 20 m (p = 0.035) and 30 m (p = 0.036) from session 1 to session 4. This indicates that the rugby players may be able to learn to apply the potentiation effects of complex training. From a practical perspective, players may need repeated exposure to this training modality to gain benefit from it, and this should be reflected in program planning.

  1. Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance – an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creutzfeldt Johan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplayer virtual world (MVW technology creates opportunities to practice medical procedures and team interactions using serious game software. This study aims to explore medical students’ retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR team training. Methods Three groups of pre-clinical medical students, n = 30, were assessed and further trained using a high fidelity full-scale medical simulator: Two groups were pre-trained 6 and 18 months before assessment. A reference control group consisting of matched peers had no MVW pre-training. The groups consisted of 8, 12 and 10 subjects, respectively. The session started and ended with assessment scenarios, with 3 training scenarios in between. All scenarios were video-recorded for analysis of CPR performance. Results The 6 months group displayed greater CPR-related knowledge than the control group, 93 (±11% compared to 65 (±28% (p  At start the pre-trained groups adhered better to guidelines than the control group; mean violations 0.2 (±0.5, 1.5 (±1.0 and 4.5 (±1.0 for the 6 months, 18 months and control group respectively. Likewise, in the 6 months group no chest compression cycles were delivered at incorrect frequencies whereas 54 (±44% in the control group (p  Conclusions This study supports the beneficial effects of MVW-CPR team training with avatars as a method for pre-training, or repetitive training, on CPR-skills among medical students.

  2. Effectiveness of behavioral skills training on staff performance in a job training setting for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, A.M.J.W.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on improving staff performance in naturalistic training settings for high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral skills training, consisting of group instruction and supervisory feedback, was used to improve staff performance on (a) providing

  3. Subjective overachievement: individual differences in self-doubt and concern with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, K C; Poehlmann, K M; Yost, J H; Lynch, M E; Arkin, R M

    2000-06-01

    We discuss the construct of doubt about one's competence and suggest that doubt can have myriad consequences (e.g., self-handicapping, defensive pessimism). We focus on the effect of self-doubt when it is combined with a concern with performance and assert that this combination leads to the phenomenon of subjective overachievement. In two studies, we present a new 17-item Subjective Overachievement Scale (SOS), which includes two independent subscales measuring individual differences in self-doubt and concern with performance. The first study, consisting of two large samples (Ns = 2,311 and 1,703), provides evidence that the scale has high internal consistency and a clear two-factor structure. Additionally, the subscales have adequate test-retest reliability (Ns = 67 and 115). A second study reveals that the SOS has good convergent and discriminant validity. Both subscales are unrelated to social desirability but exhibit the predicted patterns of associations with other related constructs. The Concern with Performance Subscale is correlated with achievement motivation, whereas the Self-Doubt Subscale is correlated with scales assessing negative affectivity (e.g., self-esteem, social anxiety) and other self-related strategies associated with concerns about one's competence (e.g., self-handicapping, defensive pessimism, impostor phenomenon). The SOS, which combines the two subscales, appears to tap a unique strategy that individuals may use to deal with doubts about their own competence.

  4. Performance in sports - with specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance...... with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase...... expression of muscle Na(+) , K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect...

  5. Effects of aquatic balance training and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of fallingamong the middle aged, their aspects including rehabilitation of balance are the main concern theresearchers attend to them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eight weeks aquaticbalance training (ABT and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle agedmale.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male subjects were randomized into two groups of ABT and control(n=15 per group. Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go and 5-Chair stand tests, as they are indicators ofbalance and neuromuscular performance in older subjects, were taken as pretest and post-test and after four,six, and eight weeks of detraining as well. The ABT consisted of the sessions that lasted one hour, threetimes a week, for eight weeks.Results: Results showed that neuromuscular performance and balance improved significantly in ABTgroup (P 0.05.Conclusion: ABT can affect neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male, andreduce the probability of falling among them. Moreover, the effects of these training are persistent afterdetraining periods. Hence, ABT can be recommended as an effective neuromuscular and balance training inhealthy middle aged male

  6. Concurrent Training for Sports Performance: The Two Sides of the Medal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Mujika, Inigo; Bosquet, Laurent

    2018-05-29

    The classical work by Robert C. Hickson showed in 1980 that the addition of a resistance training protocol to a predominantly aerobic program could lead to impaired leg strength adaptations in comparison to a resistance-only training regimen. This interference phenomenon was later highlighted in many reports, including a meta-analysis. However, it seems that the interference effect has not been consistently reported, probably because of the complex interactions between training variables and methodological issues. On the other side of the medal, Dr Hickson and colleagues subsequently (1986) reported that a strength training mesocycle could be beneficial for endurance performance in running and cycling. In recent meta-analyses and review articles, it was demonstrated that such a training strategy could improve middle- and long-distance performance in many disciplines (running, cycling, cross-country skiing and swimming). Interestingly, it appears that improvements in the energy cost of locomotion could be associated with these performance enhancements. Despite these benefits, it was also reported that strength training could represent a detrimental stimulus for endurance performance if an inappropriate training plan has been prepared. Taken together, these observations suggest that coaches and athletes should be careful when concurrent training seems imperative in order to meet the complex physiological requirements of their sport. Therefore, this brief review will present a practical appraisal of concurrent training for sports performance. In addition, recommendations will be provided so that practitioners could adapt their interventions based on the training objectives.

  7. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandini Giulio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life. Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom. Methods The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE, Abduction/Adduction (AA and Pronation/Supination (PS. Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Results Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the

  8. Improvements in training effectiveness and job performance: getting to what's necessary and sufficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J.E.; Foulke, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a Competency Analysis Process for the development of training programs. This process is compared and contrasted with the Job/Task Analysis (J/TA) process being completed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Such competency/job analysis processes provide a training and performance base which contributes to improvements in human performance. Data presented in this paper reinforces the authors' belief in the value of competency analysis and the development of training programs based on competency analysis

  9. A Proficiency Based Stepwise Endovascular Curricular Training (PROSPECT) Program Enhances Operative Performance in Real Life: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; Aggarwal, R; Moreels, N; Vermassen, F; Van Herzeele, I

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare evolution requires optimisation of surgical training to provide safe patient care. Operating room performance after completion of proficiency based training in vascular surgery has not been investigated. A randomised controlled trial evaluated the impact of a Proficiency based Stepwise Endovascular Curricular Training program (PROSPECT) on the acquisition of endovascular skills and the transferability of these skills to real life interventions. All subjects performed two endovascular interventions treating patients with symptomatic iliac and/or superficial femoral artery stenosis under supervision. Primary outcomes were technical performances (Global Rating Scale [GRS]; Examiner Checklist), operative metrics, and patient outcomes, adjusted for case difficulty and trainee experience. Secondary outcomes included knowledge and technical performance after 6 weeks and 3 months. Thirty-two general surgical trainees were randomised into three groups. Besides traditional training, the first group (n = 11) received e-learning and simulation training (PROSPECT), the second group (n = 10) only had access to e-learning, while controls (n = 11) did not receive supplementary training. Twenty-nine trainees (3 dropouts) performed 58 procedures. Trainees who completed PROSPECT showed superior technical performance (GRS 39.36 ± 2.05; Checklist 63.51 ± 3.18) in real life with significantly fewer supervisor takeovers compared with trainees receiving e-learning alone (GRS 28.42 ± 2.15; p = .001; Checklist 53.63 ± 3.34; p = .027) or traditional education (GRS 23.09 ± 2.18; p = .001; Checklist 38.72 ± 3.38; p = .001). Supervisors felt more confident in allowing PROSPECT trained physicians to perform basic (p = .006) and complex (p = .003) procedures. No differences were detected in procedural parameters (such as fluoroscopy time, DAP, procedure time, etc.) or complications. Proficiency levels were maintained up to 3 months. A structured

  10. Prediction of Cognitive Performance and Subjective Sleepiness Using a Model of Arousal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Lockley, Steven W; Robinson, Peter A

    2018-04-01

    A model of arousal dynamics is applied to predict objective performance and subjective sleepiness measures, including lapses and reaction time on a visual Performance Vigilance Test (vPVT), performance on a mathematical addition task (ADD), and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The arousal dynamics model is comprised of a physiologically based flip-flop switch between the wake- and sleep-active neuronal populations and a dynamic circadian oscillator, thus allowing prediction of sleep propensity. Published group-level experimental constant routine (CR) and forced desynchrony (FD) data are used to calibrate the model to predict performance and sleepiness. Only the studies using dim light (performance measures during CR and FD protocols, with sleep-wake cycles ranging from 20 to 42.85 h and a 2:1 wake-to-sleep ratio. New metrics relating model outputs to performance and sleepiness data are developed and tested against group average outcomes from 7 (vPVT lapses), 5 (ADD), and 8 (KSS) experimental protocols, showing good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the data (root mean squared error of 0.38, 0.19, and 0.35, respectively). The weights of the homeostatic and circadian effects are found to be different between the measures, with KSS having stronger homeostatic influence compared with the objective measures of performance. Using FD data in addition to CR data allows us to challenge the model in conditions of both acute sleep deprivation and structured circadian misalignment, ensuring that the role of the circadian and homeostatic drives in performance is properly captured.

  11. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zameeruddin, Mohd.; Sangle, Keshav K.

    2017-06-01

    Ten storied-3 bays reinforced concrete bare frame designed for gravity loads following the guidelines of IS 456 and IS 13920 for ductility is subjected to seismic loads. The seismic demands on this building were calculated by following IS 1893 for response spectra of 5% damping (for hard soil type). Plastic hinges were assigned to the beam and column at both ends to represent the failure mode, when member yields. Non-linear static (pushover) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of the building in reference to first (ATC 40), second (FEMA 356) and next-generation (FEMA 440) performance based seismic design procedures. Base shear against top displacement curve of structure, known as pushover curve was obtained for two actions of plastic hinge behavior, force-controlled (brittle) and deformation-controlled (ductile) actions. Lateral deformation corresponding to performance point proves the building capability to sustain a certain level of seismic loads. The failure is represented by a sequence of formation of plastic hinges. Deformation-controlled action of hinges showed that building behaves like strong-column-weak-beam mechanism, whereas force-controlled action showed formation of hinges in the column. The study aims to understand the first, second and next generation performance based design procedure in prediction of actual building responses and their conservatism into the acceptance criteria.

  12. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students enrolled Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale in the assessment of sleep quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for assessment of daytime sleepiness in the evaluation.The students were divided into two subgroups and the intervention group received a 30 minute structured sleep hygiene education. Global academic performance was assessed by grade point average at the end of the year. Results: Mean Pittsburgh sleep quality index score of the students was 7.9±3.5 and 106 (82.8% of then had a score %u22655.After intervention, .the worse the initial sleep quality, the more improvement by the sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance. Discussion: An education on sleep hygiene might improve subjective sleep quality and academic performance of medical students.

  13. U.S. Army Primary Helicopter School Training Program Performance Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.

    The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in…

  14. How to manage training: a guide to design and delivery for high performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilson, Carolyn D

    2003-01-01

    ... Training 312 Chapter 12 How to Evaluate Training 346 Appendix: Models for Individual and Organizational Learning 385 Bibliography 413 Index 419 About the Author 425 v List of FiguresList of Figures Figure 3.1. ISD instructional system design. 80 Figure 3.2. ASTD human performance improvement process model. 81 Figure 3.3. Performance technology m...

  15. The Effects of Assertive Training on Performance in Highly Anxious Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Sara H.; Kaufman, Melvin E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the effects of assertive training on measures of assertiveness, state anxiety, and mathematics performance in highly anxious ninth graders (N=96). Found that assertive training resulted in increased assertiveness and decreased state anxiety, with no significant effect on mathematics performance, and no significant effect due to sex.…

  16. Training with anxiety has a positive effect on expert perceptual-motor performance under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Pijpers, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether training with anxiety can prevent choking in experts performing perceptual-motor tasks. In Experiment 1, 17 expert basketball players practised free throws over a 5-week period with or without induced anxiety. Only after training with anxiety did performance

  17. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E

    2015-01-01

    on a virtual-reality transvaginal ultrasound simulator until an expert performance level was attained followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After two months of clinical training, one transvaginal ultrasound scan was recorded for assessment of participants' clinical performance. Two blinded ultrasound...

  18. The Effect of Soft Skills and Training Methodology on Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosli; Boerhannoeddin, Ali; Bakare, Kazeem Kayode

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of soft skill acquisition and the training methodology adopted on employee work performance. In this study, the authors study the trends of research in training and work performance in organisations that focus on the acquisition of technical or "hard skills" for employee…

  19. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  20. Performance of Single Friction Pendulum bearing for isolated buildings subjected to seismic actions in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N. V.; Nguyen, C. H.; Hoang, H. P.; Huong, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Using structural control technology in earthquake resistant design of buildings in Vietnam is very limited. In this paper, a performance evaluation of using Single Friction Pendulum (SFP) bearing for seismically isolated buildings with earthquake conditions in Vietnam is presented. A two-dimensional (2-D) model of the 5-storey building subjected to earthquakes is analyzed in time domain. Accordingly, the model is analyzed for 2 cases: with and without SFP bearing. The ground acceleration data is selected and scaled to suit the design acceleration in Hanoi followed by the Standard TCVN 9386:2012. It is shown that the seismically isolated buildings gets the performance objectives while achieving an 91% reduction in the base shear, a significant decrease in the inter-story drift and absolute acceleration of each story.

  1. Comparison of performance coatings thermally sprayed subject to testing adhesive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, G.F.; Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R. da

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural changes and wear resistance adhesive coatings obtained from powders thermally sprayed by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) were evaluated. Based coatings chrome-nickel and tungsten-cobalt are applied in conditions subject to intense wear especially abrasive. With the aim of evaluate the performance of these coatings under conditions of adhesive wear, these coatings samples were tested by the standard ASTM G99. As test parameters were used: Tungsten carbide pin (SAE 52100) with 6 mm diameter, normal load of 50N and a tangential velocity of 0.5 m / s. The worn surfaces of the coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the performance front wear is related to the conditions of adhesion and uniformity of the coating applied. (author)

  2. Wireless Internet on Trains - Impact on Performance of Business Travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Wee, B. van; Hoorn, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    Wireless Internet service (WIS) is finding increasing implementation in the Netherlands via several markets. Recently, the idea has emerged of providing WIS through public transport services. The impact of WIS on train travelers, particularly on business travelers, is, however, unknown. In a study

  3. Biofeedback Training for Peak Performance in Sport - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Demerdzieva, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    The use of peripheral biofeedback and neurofeedback is growing rapidly in sport psychology. The aim is to lower competition stress, anxiety, and muscle tension.We present a case report concerned to biofeedback training in an athlete in preparation to Olympic Game competition. It is the first case in our region to prepare athlete with biofeedback modalities. Obtained results are very encouraging.

  4. Improvement in operators training for better performance of RAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Power Corporation (India) will need substantial number of technical personnel in the next couple of years to operate the new power plants. With number of stations coming up within a short span of time, standardisation of training, improved quality trainer, better technical support will be required to ensure reliable operation. (author)

  5. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  6. The role of training and innovation in workplace performance

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Laplagne; Leonie Bensted

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses workplace-level data from the Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey to examine the extent to which the use of training and/or innovation by a workplace increases the likelihood that is has higher labour productivity than its competitiors, and experiences high labour productivity growth.

  7. The Relationship of Skilled Aerospace Manufacturing Workforce Performance to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsberry, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A major economic driver, the aerospace industry contributes to exports and higher wage jobs, which the United States requires to maintain robust economic health. Despite the investment in vocational educational training programs, insufficient workers have been available to aerospace companies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  8. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  9. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  10. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  11. Computation of a Suburban Night Train Timetable Based on Key Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Timetable evaluation can be based on a set of key performance indicators. This article presents six essential key performance indicators: Fixed interval service frequency, direct connections, transfer waiting time, use of dedicated rolling stock, dedicated train personnel, dedicated tracks...

  12. [Comparative effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on psychomotor performances and memory in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D; Lacomblez, L; Danjou, P; Weiller, E; Payan, C; Puech, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect on psychomotor and mnesic performances of acute oral dose (600 mg) of 2 Ginkgo biloba extracts were evaluated in twelve healthy female in a dummy placebo-controlled double blind study. Tests were performed comprising: objective measures of vigilance [critical flicker frequency (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory tasks (pictures and Sternberg scanning tests) and self-rating evaluation (visual analogue scales). Tests session took place before and 1 hour post-dosing. No statistically significant changes from placebo were observed on CFF, CRT or subjective rating of drug effects. No differences between treatment were evidenced on Sternberg scanning test and pictures recognition. Comparing to baseline, free recall score, while decreasing under placebo and Ginkgo, remained the same under Tanakan. As the differences between treatment are localized on one test, it appears important to examine the reproductility in healthy subjects. In order to verify the clinical relevance of these results, they need to be replicated in older healthy volunteers with age-associated memory impairment.

  13. Adaptive Working Memory Training Reduces the Negative Impact of Anxiety on Competitive Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Smith, Tim J; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2017-12-01

    Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training. Measures of WM capacity as well as performance and objective gaze indices of attentional control in a tennis volley task were assessed in low- and high-pressure posttraining conditions. Results revealed significant benefits of training on WM capacity, quiet eye offset, and tennis performance in the high-pressure condition. Our results confirm and extend previous findings supporting the transfer of cognitive training benefits to objective measures of sports performance under pressure.

  14. Training, job satisfaction and workplace performance in Britain: evidence from WERS 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Melanie K.; Jones, Richard J.; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between training, job satisfaction and workplace performance using the British 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS). Several measures of performance are analysed including absence, quits, financial performance, labour productivity and product quality. While there is clear evidence that training is positively associated with job satisfaction, and job satisfaction in turn is positively associated with most measures of performance, the relationship...

  15. "Living high - training low" vs. "living high - training high": erythropoietic responses and performance of adolescent cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoulas, K; Karamouzis, M; Mandroukas, K

    2011-03-01

    To determine and compare the erythropoietic response and exercise performance of adolescent cross-country skiers, as a result of "living high-training high" (HH) and "living high-training low" (HL). Nine female and six male adolescent cross-country skiers volunteered to participate in separate trials. In the first trial (HH), the skiers lived and trained for 21 days at 1550-2050 m, while in the second trial (HL) they trained near sea level (450-500 m) but resided at 1550 m. All participants underwent maximal cycle ergometer tests for the determination of VO2max and cardiorespiratory parameters via an open circuit system at sea level before ascent to altitude, and 1-2 days after descent from altitude. Blood samples were drawn prior to and immediately after maximal cycle exercise testing, at sea level prior to ascent, on days 1 (D1) and 21 (D21) at altitude (1740 m), and 1-2 days post-altitude, for the determination of serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration, haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), and red blood cell (RBC) volume. The results showed that both boys and girls cross-country skiers, significantly improved their sea level VO2max after 21 days of living at moderate altitude and training near sea level. The present study demonstrates that living at moderate altitude, 1550-2050 m and training low, near sea level (450-500 m) significantly increases VO2max and RBC mass for both boys and girls. Results indicate that applying the training concept "living high - training low" in adolescent athletes may improve their endurance performance.

  16. Supervised exercise training counterbalances the adverse effects of insulin therapy in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Fallucca, Sara; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supervised exercise on traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary, overweight/obese insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES). The study randomized 73 insulin-treated patients to twice weekly supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (EXE) or to counseling alone (CON) for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. The volume of physical activity was significantly higher in the EXE versus the CON group. Values for hemoglobin A(1c), BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and the coronary heart disease risk score were significantly reduced only in the EXE group. No major adverse events were observed. In insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes, supervised exercise is safe and effective in improving glycemic control and markers of adiposity and inflammation, thus counterbalancing the adverse effects of insulin on these parameters.

  17. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-06-01

    A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children.

  18. Long-term progressive motor skill training enhances corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hemisphere and motor performance of the untrained hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Grey, Michael James

    2017-01-01

    It is well-established that unilateral motor practice can lead to increased performance in the opposite non-trained hand. Here, we test the hypothesis that progressively increasing task difficulty during long-term skill training with the dominant right hand increase performance and corticomotor...... and accuracy to individual proficiency promotes motor skill learning and drives the iM1-CSE resulting in enhanced performance of the non-trained hand. The results underline the importance of increasing task difficulty progressively and individually in skill learning and rehabilitation training. This article...... excitability of the left non-trained hand. Subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task engaging right digit V for 6 weeks with either progressively increasing task difficulty (PT) or no progression (NPT). Corticospinal excitability(CSE) was evaluated from the resting motor threshold(rMT) and recruitment...

  19. Effects of oxygen delivery, dietary nitrate, intensified training and prior exercise on oxygen uptake kinetics and performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller

    benefits from supplementing with nitrate to improve exercise efficiency and performance in endurance trained subjects. Furthermore it appears difficult to improve VO2 kinetics with intensified training in trained athletes; however intense exercise can amplify the VO2 response during subsequent high......In response to an increase in the metabolic demand the oxygen uptake (VO2) increases in an exponential fashion in exercising muscles and stabilizes after 1-2 min eventually reaching a plateau or steady state where the energy demand is matched by the l vel of VO2. VO2 kinetics describes the distinct...... phases of the VO2 response at the onset of exercise. Fast VO2 kinetics are considered to be beneficial in intense endurance sports with competitions lasting ~2-8 min, whereas low VO2 at steady state (high efficiency) is considered beneficial especially in events of longer duration. To improve...

  20. Effects of Visual Communication Tool and Separable Status Display on Team Performance and Subjective Workload in Air Battle Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Daniel; Knott, Benjamin A; Galster, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    ... ambient cabin noise while performing several visual and manual tasks. The purpose of this study is to compare team performance and subjective workload on a simulated AWACS scenario, for two conditions of communication...

  1. Subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance in a sample of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Caramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory loss is a major complaint among the elderly population. However, the clinical significance of this symptom is variable and also controversial in the scientific literature. Objective: To compare the cognitive performance of two groups of healthy elderly, one group with and the other without, subjective memory complaints (SMC. Methods: Sixty cognitively intact elderly individuals (39 females and 21 males, aged 69.9±6.3 years and with educational level of 8.5±5.5 years, were included in the study. Participants were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and to the Cornell depression scale in order to rule out global cognitive impairment and depression, respectively. Moreover, they answered the MAC-Q, a questionnaire devised to evaluate subjective impression of memory function. Subsequently, they were submitted to the digit span forward and backward, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery, and to the Frontal Assessment Battery. Results: Twenty-seven individuals had MAC-Q scores <25 and thus were classified as not having SMC, while 33 had MAC-Q scores ³25 and were considered to have SMC. No differences for age, gender, education and MMSE scores were found between the two groups. The comparison between the performance of the groups of complainers and non-complainers on the different cognitive tests yielded no significant difference, although there was a trend toward non-complainers performing better on incidental memory. Conclusions: The presence of SMC was not associated to objective memory impairment or to other cognitive deficits in this group of elderly individuals.

  2. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vitasovic Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10 were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5 and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05. Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05. Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance.

  3. Improving operator training and performance through simulator observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of INPO observations of simulator training for licensed operators. It discusses the history of the observation program to the present. Effective methods for conducting and documenting simulator observations are discussed. The methods used to analyze the observations is also discussed. The major