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Sample records for train fruit ipm

  1. PURE progress in innovative IPM in pome fruit in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, B.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Caffi, T.; Köhl, J.; Riemens, M.M.; Simon, S.; Buurma, J.S.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on innovative Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tools is done onstation and on-farm in the PURE project. The idea is that IPM tools are tested under well-defined conditions in experimental orchards. Subsequently, they are tested in commercial orchards as part of a total IPM system where

  2. EUCLID: Leveraging IPM for sustainable production of fruit and vegetable crops in partnership with China

    OpenAIRE

    Nicot , Philippe C.; Bardin , Marc; Leyronas , Christel; Desneux , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    EUCLID: Leveraging IPM for sustainable production of fruit and vegetable crops in partnership with China. 13. IOBC-WPRS Meeting of the working group "Biological control of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens. .

  3. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  4. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  5. A web-based decision support system to enhance IPM programs in Washington tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Brunner, Jay F; Grove, Gary G; Petit, Brad; Tangren, Gerald V; Jones, Wendy E

    2010-06-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) decision-making has become more information intensive in Washington State tree crops in response to changes in pesticide availability, the development of new control tactics (such as mating disruption) and the development of new information on pest and natural enemy biology. The time-sensitive nature of the information means that growers must have constant access to a single source of verified information to guide management decisions. The authors developed a decision support system for Washington tree fruit growers that integrates environmental data [140 Washington State University (WSU) stations plus weather forecasts from NOAA], model predictions (ten insects, four diseases and a horticultural model), management recommendations triggered by model status and a pesticide database that provides information on non-target impacts on other pests and natural enemies. A user survey in 2008 found that the user base was providing recommendations for most of the orchards and acreage in the state, and that users estimated the value at $ 16 million per year. The design of the system facilitates education on a range of time-sensitive topics and will make it possible easily to incorporate other models, new management recommendations or information from new sensors as they are developed.

  6. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  7. School Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's IPM in schools grant program supports projects that include research, development, monitoring, public education, training, demonstrations, or studies to support recipients’ efforts to increase IPM adoption by public and tribal schools (K-12).

  8. Analysis of the Mediterranean fruit fly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] spatio-temporal distribution in relation to sex and female mating status for precision IPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, Andrea; Tabilio, Maria Rosaria; Lampazzi, Elena; Ceccaroli, Claudio; Colacci, Marco; Trematerra, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a key pest of fruit crops in many tropical, subtropical and mild temperate areas worldwide. The economic importance of this fruit fly is increasing due to its invasion of new geographical areas. Efficient control and eradication efforts require adequate information regarding C. capitata adults in relation to environmental and physiological cues. This would allow effective characterisation of the population spatio-temporal dynamic of the C. capitata population at both the orchard level and the area-wide landscape. The aim of this study was to analyse population patterns of adult medflies caught using two trapping systems in a peach orchard located in central Italy. They were differentiated by adult sex (males or females) and mating status of females (unmated or mated females) to determine the spatio-temporal dynamic and evaluate the effect of cultivar and chemical treatments on trap catches. Female mating status was assessed by spermathecal dissection and a blind test was carried out to evaluate the reliability of the technique. Geostatistical methods, variogram and kriging, were used to produce distributional maps. Results showed a strong correlation between the distribution of males and unmated females, whereas males versus mated females and unmated females versus mated females showed a lower correlation. Both cultivar and chemical treatments had significant effects on trap catches, showing associations with sex and female mating status. Medfly adults showed aggregated distributions in the experimental field, but hot spots locations varied. The spatial pattern of unmated females reflected that of males, whereas mated females were largely distributed around ripening or ripe fruit. The results give relevant insights into pest management. Mated females may be distributed differently to unmated females and the identification of male hot spots through monitoring would allow localisation of virgin

  9. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Integrated Pest Management (IPM) IPM Company: IPM is the Key - Oregon State University Extension Service Last updated May 11, 2018 Related Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en

  10. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  11. Incorporating biological control into IPM decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the many ways biological control can be incorporated into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, natural enemy thresholds are arguably most easily adopted by stakeholders. Integration of natural enemy thresholds into IPM programs requires ecological and cost/benefit crop production data, thr...

  12. A survey of California public school districts' ant and weed management practices and a review of their use of IPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Carole; Sutherland, Sandra; Brattesani, Madeline; Wilhoit, Larry; Messenger, Belinda

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency encourages school officials to adopt integrated pest management (IPM) to reduce children's exposure to potentially harmful pesticides. In California, the Healthy Schools Act of 2000 (HSA) establishes right-to-know requirements for pesticide use in public schools; requires school districts to designate an IPM coordinator; and requires the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) to collect pesticide-use information from pest control businesses, conduct IPM training workshops, and promote least-toxic pest management practices. DPR periodically surveys school districts statewide to measure compliance with the HSA and the use of least-toxic management practices compatible with IPM and to guide DPR's training and outreach efforts. Results from three surveys, conducted in 2001, 2002, and 2004, show that an increasing number of districts use ant management practices compatible with IPM; however, fewer districts use IPM-compatible weed management practices. DPR's California School IPM program plans to develop technical materials and to conduct training workshops that will provide districts with more information about how to use an IPM program to prevent and manage weeds.

  13. Insect pests in asparagus; IPM perspectives!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozen, van K.; Huiting, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Resulting from Directive 2009/128/EC, all EU Member States have to comply with stricter guidelines regarding Integrated Pest Management before 2023. As implementation of IPM measures and strategies has a high perceived risk, demonstration of and discussion on possibilities may be a key element in

  14. Prototype and Metrics for Data Processing Chain Components of IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Vuong

    2014-01-01

    This presentation lays out the evolution of the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) vision given that the HyspIRI mission has been delayed. It shows that there has been a focus on airborne vehcile and unmanned aerial systems to further develop the IPM functionality. This of course does not preclude use of the IPM for space missions but provides alternate paths to continue the concept of improved onboard processing for low latency users of science data products.

  15. Social impacts of IPM-FFS on urban and peri-urban vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social relations, social empowerment and sharing of IPM information, and sustainability and institutionalization of IPM) for vegetable producers in an integrated pest management (IPM) project using farmer field schools (FFS) in Cotonou.

  16. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  17. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Colomar, Lucía-Adriana Escudero; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-06-26

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  18. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Damos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  19. Writing an IPM Policy for Your School District Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Included here is information on the presenters, webinar statistics, responses to questions and comments from webinars hosted by EPA’s Center of Expertise for School IPM, presented on November 10, 2015.

  20. Resonant inverter supplied Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, rotor position in relation to the resonant frequency component current in the stator winding of DC-voltage link resonant inverter supplied Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor has been developed. Six reference frames are used to relate the rotor position angle to the resonant frequency component current ...

  1. Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlem Harbi; Khaled Abbes; Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz; Francisco Beitia; Brahim Chermiti

    2017-01-01

    Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect t...

  2. confidence in teaching integrated pest management (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    The exploration for environmental friendly alternatives to pesticides use in agriculture has ... mechanical killing of pests; biological methods that include natural enemies; and ... Intervention through extension is especially important in furthering the ..... service providers to prioritize training and flow of information on advances ...

  3. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Salvador; Campos, Sergio; Montoya, Pablo [Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahotales S/N, Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas 30860 (Mexico); Villasenor, Antonio; Valle, Alvaro; Enkerlin, Walther [Codireccion Mexico, Programa Regional Moscamed Mexico- Guatemala-Estados Unidos (Guatemala); Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo [Departamento Agricultura Sociedad y Ambiente, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto, Tapachula, Chiapas 30700 (Mexico)

    2014-01-15

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  4. Effect of planting density on fruit size, light-interception and photosynthetic activity of vertically trained watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Nakano, Y.; Okano, K.

    2003-01-01

    Summary The effect of planting density on fruit size of vertically trained watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) plants was investigated with regard to light - interception characteristics and photosynthetic production. Watermelon plants, grafted on bottle gourd, were grown in a glasshouse at different planting densities. Two vines per plant were allowed to grow and trained vertically. One hand-pollinated fruit per plant was set around the 15th node on either vine. The solar radiation and photosynthetic rate of individual leaves during fruit development period were determined by an integrated solarimeter film and a portable photosynthesis system, respectively. Fruit size was significantly decreased as the planting density increased, whereas soluble solids content of the fruits was affected little. The solar radiation and the photosynthetic rate of the individual leaves gradually decreased as the leaf position became lower at all planting densities on account of shading; those at lower leaves tended to decrease as the planting density increased. Fruit size was closely related to both the total solar radiation and the photosynthetic production per plant. In conclusion, the difference in fruit size among the planting densities is attributed to the photosynthetic productivity of the whole plant, which is mainly a function of the total solar radiation. This paper appears to be the first trial relating the influence of light interception and photosynthetic rates in high density plantings of vertically trained watermelon plants on fruit size

  5. Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

  6. Optimalisasi Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (PAUD Guna Meningkatkan Indeks Pembangunan Manusia (IPM di Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsana Sabriani Borualogo

    2006-09-01

    Untuk itu, pemerintah daerah dapat menjalin kerjasama kemitraan dengan perguruan tinggi untuk dapat melakukan upaya optimalisasi PAUD guna meningkatkan IPM di Jawa Barat. Dengan kerjasama kemitraan ini diharapkan dapat membantu meningkatkan indeks rata-rata lama sekolah dan indeks melek huruf, sehingga IPM di Jawa Barat akan meningkat.

  7. Studies on IPM policy in SE Asia : two centuries of plant protection in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) became a widely supported approach in the control of pests and diseases in crops. This study describes IPM policy and implementation, a.o. by the FAO Inter-Country Programme for the Development and Application of IPM in Rice in S and SE Asia in Indonesia,

  8. Effectiveness of a Training Program based in PRECEDE Model on Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Fruit and vegetable consumption increases students' health and growth and strengthens their mental activities. The present study aimed to investigates a training program based on PRECEDE model on fruit and vegetable consumption by female students in high schools of Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods This is a quasi –experimental study. The research sample includes 100 female high school students in Fasa city, Fars Province, Iran, who were randomly assigned to two groups of control (n=50 and experimental (n=50 groups. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire that included items on demographic characteristics and the PERCEDE model components (knowledge, attitude, enabling and reinforcing factors and performance. Educational intervention for the experimental group was carried out in four sessions which each lasting 55 to 60 minutes, and subjects were followed for 2 months. The questionnaires were administered to both groups before and 3 months after the intervention. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 statistical software. Results The average performance score of experimental and control groups regarding fruits and vegetables consumption was 15.15±2.44 and 14.96±2.12 (before the intervention and 28.22±2.22 and 16.1±11.32 (after the intervention. Mean scores of predisposing (knowledge and attitude, reinforcing, and enabling factors showed a significant difference in the experimental group in comparison the control group (P

  9. Learning to fight a fly : developing citrus IPM in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoubroeck, van F.

    1999-01-01

    The chinese citrus fly is one of the key pests in Bhutanese mandarin orchards that lays eggs in developing fruit that cause pre-mature fruit drop. In this study it is used as a "model subject" to explore the integration of technical, social and administrative domains of knowledge. The

  10. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  11. PENGARUH KEMISKINAN, PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI, DAN BELANJA MODAL TERHADAP IPM JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denni Sulistio Mirza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the influences of poverty, economic growth and capital expenditures to the Human Development Index (HDI in Central Java. The result of Panel data regression indicates that poverty significantly and negative related to IPM. The economic growth has positive and significant impact on IPM. Next, the capital expenditures have a positive and significant effect on the HDI. It is recommended that the planning policy of government does not only view the achievement of economic growth but also the target of human development. It is because economic growth has not been able enough to improve the quality of human resources, especially in the aspects of education, health and income.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui seberapa besar pengaruh kemiskinan, pertumbuhan ekonomi dan belanja modal terhadap Indeks Pembangunan Manusia (IPM di Jawa Tengah. Hasil regresi data panel menunjukkan bahwa kemiskinan berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap IPM. Pertumbuhan ekonomi berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap IPM dan belanja modal berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap IPM. Disarankan agar dalam merencanakan kebijakan pemerintah tidak hanya melihat dari pencapaian target peningkatan pertumbuhan ekonomi saja namun juga target peningkatan pembangunan manusia karena pertumbuhan ekonomi sendiri belum memadai untuk meningkatkan kualitas sumber daya manusia terutama pada aspek pendidikan, kesehatan dan pendapatan masyarakat.

  12. Yield, fruit quality, contents and sensory quality of old apple varieties trained as slender spindle under organic and integrated cultivation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Lothar; Gössinger, Manfred; Wendelin, Silvia; Martina, Kieler; Thomas, Rühmer; Walter, Brandes; Kathrin, Sigl

    2015-04-01

    Between 2006 and 2013 the old apple varieties 'Ananas Reinette', 'llzer Rosenapfel', 'Kronprinz Rudolf', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Ribston Pepping', 'Steirische Schafnase', 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Florianer Rosmarin' (from 2009 on also 'Roter Berlepsch', 'Cox Orange' and 'Kanada Reinette') were tested for their fresh market suitability at the experimental orchard Haschhof of the HBLA and BA für Wein- und Obstbau Klosterneuburg under organic and integrated cultivation (IP) conditions trained as slender spindle. In 2010 the effect of an organic and a combined "integrated-organic summer" plant protection strategie on fruit quality and pesticide residues was tested in addition. No pesticide residues were detected in fruits of both plant protection strategies, expect on fruits of "integrated-organic summer" Schafnase in 2010. At harvest 2010 the bio-variant showed a significantly higher percentage of fruits with skin defects. The losses due to parasitic diseases during storage were strongly depending on the cultivar, but hardly affected by the plant protection strategy in this year. Looking at the entire experimental period, most of the varieties in the organic plot showed a comparable fruiting performance as those in the IP plot. The best fruiting performances were found with 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Kronprinz Rudolf', while the cumulative yield of 'Florianer Rosmarin', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel' remained below average. With respect to external fruit quality and storability 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Kronprinz Rudolf' and 'Ilzer Rosenapfel' showed comparatively good results. With 'Ananas Reinette' the significantly lowest total phenolics contents were determined. 'Kanada Reinette', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Ananas Reinette' showed a high acidity. High contents of soluble solids were found with 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter

  13. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  14. Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Harbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect technique program and, since 2013, with pilot-scale releases of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Insecticide side-effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies are being requested for a successful implementation of biological control within any IPM programme. However, these data are almost scarce for the braconid species D. longicaudata. To this end, we have determined the side-effects of malathion, methidathion, acetamiprid, azadiractin, abamectin, deltametrin+thiacloprid and spinosad, as the most popular insecticides used in Tunisia either as fresh residues or at several aged time points, on the parasitoid D. longicaudata according the IOBC pesticide harm-classification. IOBC classification evolution of residues over time had allowed determining the best combination of pesticide applications in a structured fashion with the viable releases of D. longicaudata for the control of C. capitata in Tunisian citrus agro-ecosystems.

  15. Residual toxicity of insecticides used in Tunisian citrus orchards on the imported parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for IPM program of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbi, A.; Abbes, K.; Sabater-Muñoz, B.; Beitia, F.; Chermiti, B.

    2017-07-01

    Citrus agro-industry is globally harshened mainly by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the most worldwide destructive tephritid fruit fly species. Citrus agro-industry is one of the pillars of Tunisia economy, and by hence, harshened by this species. Tunisia has established an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme against citrus pests, including C. capitata, that rely on the structured use of pesticides, on the application several trapping protocols, along with pilot-scale sterile insect technique program and, since 2013, with pilot-scale releases of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmed (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Insecticide side-effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies are being requested for a successful implementation of biological control within any IPM programme. However, these data are almost scarce for the braconid species D. longicaudata. To this end, we have determined the side-effects of malathion, methidathion, acetamiprid, azadiractin, abamectin, deltametrin+thiacloprid and spinosad, as the most popular insecticides used in Tunisia either as fresh residues or at several aged time points, on the parasitoid D. longicaudata according the IOBC pesticide harm-classification. IOBC classification evolution of residues over time had allowed determining the best combination of pesticide applications in a structured fashion with the viable releases of D. longicaudata for the control of C. capitata in Tunisian citrus agro-ecosystems.

  16. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  17. PREMISE Insect Model: Integrated Population Dynamics Model for the Ex-ante Evaluation of IPM against Insect Pest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, Wil; Alaphilippe, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. is the most serious pest of apple and pear worldwide and causes damage and decreased
    yields. To minimize this risk, IPM tools can be applied to reduce the use of chemicals. A cost-effective application of IPM depends
    on the number of insects at the time of

  18. Optimal design of an IPM motor using Taguchi and Rosenbrock's methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, C C; Li, P L; Chang, C M; Liu, C T

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for the design optimization for cogging torque minimization and average torque maximization of a high-speed 2-pole interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor are presented. It is shown by the finite element method (FEM) and measurement, that combined the Taguchi and Rosenbrock's methods is a very efficient and effective approach in robust design a high performance motor.

  19. Pesticide residue analysis of soil, water, and grain of IPM basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumitra; Mukherji, Irani; Kumar, Aman; Tanwar, R K

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of the present investigations was to compare the pesticide load in integrated pest management (IPM) with non-IPM crops of rice fields. The harvest samples of Basmati rice grain, soil, and irrigation water, from IPM and non-IPM field trials, at villages in northern India, were analyzed using multi-pesticide residue method. The field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2008-2011) for the successful validation of the modules, synthesized for Basmati rice, at these locations. Residues of tricyclazole, propiconazole, hexconazole, lambda cyhalothrin, pretilachlor chlorpyrifos, DDVP, carbendazim, and imidacloprid were analyzed from two locations, Dudhli village of Dehradun, Uttrakhand and Saboli and Aterna village of Sonepat, Haryana. The pesticide residues were observed below detectable limit (BDL) (water samples (2008-09). Residues of tricyclazole and carbendazim, analyzed from same locations, revealed pesticide residues as BDL (water samples (2009-2010). The residues of tricyclazole, propioconazole, chlorpyrifos, hexaconazole, pretilachlor, and λ-cyhalothrin were also found as BDL (water samples (<0.001-0.05 μg/L) (2010-2011).

  20. Fruit Classification by Wavelet-Entropy and Feedforward Neural Network Trained by Fitness-Scaled Chaotic ABC and Biogeography-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruit classification is quite difficult because of the various categories and similar shapes and features of fruit. In this work, we proposed two novel machine-learning based classification methods. The developed system consists of wavelet entropy (WE, principal component analysis (PCA, feedforward neural network (FNN trained by fitness-scaled chaotic artificial bee colony (FSCABC and biogeography-based optimization (BBO, respectively. The K-fold stratified cross validation (SCV was utilized for statistical analysis. The classification performance for 1653 fruit images from 18 categories showed that the proposed “WE + PCA + FSCABC-FNN” and “WE + PCA + BBO-FNN” methods achieve the same accuracy of 89.5%, higher than state-of-the-art approaches: “(CH + MP + US + PCA + GA-FNN ” of 84.8%, “(CH + MP + US + PCA + PSO-FNN” of 87.9%, “(CH + MP + US + PCA + ABC-FNN” of 85.4%, “(CH + MP + US + PCA + kSVM” of 88.2%, and “(CH + MP + US + PCA + FSCABC-FNN” of 89.1%. Besides, our methods used only 12 features, less than the number of features used by other methods. Therefore, the proposed methods are effective for fruit classification.

  1. Design and Optimization of IPM Motor Considering Flux Weakening Capability and Vibration for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwu Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As motor design is key to the development of electric vehicles (EVs and hybrid EVs (HEVs, it has recently become the subject of considerable interest. Interior permanent magnet (IPM motors offer advantages such as high torque density and high efficiency, benefiting from both permanent magnet (PM torque and reluctance torque. However an obvious disadvantage of IPM motors is that operation at high speed involves difficulties in achieving the required flux-weakening capability and low vibration. This study focuses on optimizing the flux-weakening performance and reducing the vibration of an IPM motor for EVs. Firstly, flux-weakening capability, cogging torque, torque ripple, and radical vibration force are analyzed based on the mathematical model. Secondly, three kinds of motors are optimized by the genetic algorithm and analyzed, providing visible insights into the contribution of different rotor structures to the torque characteristics, efficiency, and extended speed range. Thirdly, a slotted rotor configuration is proposed to reduce the torque ripple and radical vibration force. The flux density distributions are discussed, explaining the principle that motors with slotted rotors and stator skew slots have smaller torque ripple and radical vibration force. Lastly, the design and optimization results have been validated against experiments.

  2. Developing Cotton IPM by Conserving Parasitoids and Predators of The Main Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On early development of intensive cotton program, insect pests were considered as an important aspect in cotton cultivation, so that it needed to be scheduled sprays. The frequency of sprays was 7 times used 12L of chemical insecticides per hectare per season. Development of cotton IPM was emphasized on non-chemical control methods through optimally utilize natural enemies of the cotton main pests (Amrasca biguttulla (IshidaHelicoverpa armigera (Hübner. Conservation of parasitoids and predators by providing the environment that support their population development is an act of supporting the natural enemies as an effective biotic mortality factor of the insect pests. The conservation could be done by improving the plant matter and cultivation techniques that include the use of resistant variety to leafhopper, intercropping cotton with secondary food plants, mulch utilization, using action threshold that considered the presence of natural enemies, and application of botanical insecticides, if needed. Conservation of parasitoids and predators in cotton IPM could control the insect pests without any insecticide spray in obtaining the production of cotton seed. As such, the use of IPM method would increase farmers’ income.

  3. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, L; Jansen, J-P; Mabon, N; Schiffers, B

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps - Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt.. Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphylinidae) and carabid beetle - Bembidion lampros (Col., Carabidae). Initialy, all plant protection products were tested on inert substrate glass plates or sand according to the insect. Products with a corrected mortality (CM) or a parasitism reduction (PR) lower than 30% were kept for the constitution of positive list (green list). The other compounds were further tested on plant for A. rhopalosiphi, A. bipunctata, E. balteatus and soil for B. lampros and A. bilineata. With these extended laboratory tests results, products were listed in toxicity class: green category [CM or PR harmless to beneficials except Tebuconazole, which was slightly harmful for A. bipunctata. Herbicides were also harmless for soil beneficials, except Chlorpropham. This product was very toxic on sand towards A. bilineata and must be tested on soil. All soil insecticides tested were very toxic for ground beneficials and considered as non-selective. Their use in IPM is subject to questioning in view of negative impacts on beneficials. Among foliar insecticides, Dimethoate and Deltamethrin are not recommended for IPM because their high toxicity for all beneficials. The other foliar insecticides were more selective; any of them were harmless for all species tested.

  4. Area-wide pest management of fruit flies in Hawaiian fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, L. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been accidentally introduced into Hawaii: melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and the so-called Malaysian (solanaceous) fruit fly. Over 400 different host fruits are attacked. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry, require that commercial fruits undergo quarantine treatment prior to export, and in Hawaii provide a breeding reservoir for their introduction into the continental United States. These exotic pests a serious threat of establishment into new areas with movement of people and commodities throughout the U.S. and the world. For example, if the Mediterranean fruit fly became established in California, projected losses would exceed $1 billion per year due to trade embargoes, loss of jobs, increased pesticide use, and direct crop loss. Present fruit fly control measures in Hawaii relay heavily on the application of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides to crops. Overuse of these insecticides has been implicated with secondary pest outbreaks, negative effects on beneficial insects, environmental contamination and adverse effects on human health. In 1999 a 5 year Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) program was funded (for FY2000) for management of fruit flies in Hawaii. The goal of the Fruit Fly AWPM program is to develop and integrate biologically based pest management approaches that will result in area-wide suppression and control of fruit flies throughout selected agricultural areas of Hawaii. The IPM program will integrate two or more technologies into a comprehensive package that is economically viable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable. The program will result in a reduction in the use of organophosphate insecticides, and further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. The technologies include: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, 4

  5. Farmers’ Technical Knowledge about Integrated Pest Management (IPM in Olive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a sustainable approach of pest control, contributing to reduced use of pesticides and risks on human health and the environment, farmers have shown limited interest in practicing this method. The present study explored the levels of technical knowledge about integrated management of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae among olive growers in Roudbar County of Iran and factors underpinning olive farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated management. Data were collected in a survey of olive farmers, on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Almost half of the farmers (48.4% had good to excellent levels of technical knowledge of integrated management, while almost a third of the farmers (35.4% had a moderate knowledge level. However, a noticeable portion of the farmers (15.9% had poor knowledge of integrated management. Moreover, most farmers showed average knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health. While most farmers showed good levels of social participation, cooperation with institutes, and participation in extension activities, they showed low levels of community involvement (involvement in a group of people that have and share common interests with each other. Olive imports and the lack of a common action for olive fly control were perceived as the main barriers of IPM adoption among most farmers. Regression analysis revealed that increased community involvement, large area under olive farming, participation in education activities, and high farming experience promoted farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated olive fly control. Strengthening growers’ technical knowledge of IPM through community involvement and extension services among inexperienced small-scale olive farmers is recommended for reducing possible unnecessary insecticide sprays in olive production.

  6. A novel hybrid genetic algorithm for optimal design of IPM machines for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimeng; Guo, Jiayu

    2017-12-01

    A novel hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed to optimize the rotor structure of an IPM machine which is used in EV application. The finite element (FE) simulation results of the HGA design is compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) design and those before optimized. It is shown that the performance of the IPMSM is effectively improved by employing the GA and HGA, especially by HGA. Moreover, higher flux-weakening capability and less magnet usage are also obtained. Therefore, the validity of HGA method in IPMSM optimization design is verified.

  7. IPM strategies and their dilemmas including an introduction to www.Eurowheat.org

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring; Hansen, Jens Grønbech

    2014-01-01

    Information about disease management in winter wheat (Triticum aestiva) in eight European countries was collated and analysed by scientists and extension workers within a European Network for Durable Exploitation (ENDURE). This included information about specific disease thresholds, decision...... information platformwww.EuroWheat.org was used for dissemination of information and results including information on control thresholds, cultural practices which can influence disease attack, fungicide efficacy, fungicide resistance and pathogen virulence, which are all elements supporting IPM for disease...... control in wheat. The platform is open to all users. The target groups of EuroWheat information are researchers, advisors, breeders and similar partners dealing with disease management in wheat....

  8. Effect of Integrated Pest Management Training on Ugandan Small-Scale Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anna Sabine; Jørs, Erik; Atuhaire, Aggrey

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in developing countries use hazardous pesticides taking few or no safety measures. Farmer field schools (FFSs) teaching integrated pest management (IPM) have been shown to reduce pesticide use among trained farmers. This cross-sectional study compares pesticide-related knowledge......-reported symptoms. The study supports IPM as a method to reduce pesticide use and potential exposure and to improve pesticide-related KAP among small-scale farmers in developing countries....

  9. Monitoring techniques of the western corn rootworm are the precursor to effective IPM strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemic, Darija; Mikac, Katarina M; Kozina, Antonela; Benitez, Hugo A; McLean, Christopher M; Bažok, Renata

    2016-02-01

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is economically the most important pest of maize in Croatia. To predict WCR adult population abundance and variability, traditional, genetic and morphometric monitoring of populations was conducted over time through each phase of the WCR invasion process in Croatia. Through traditional monitoring it was shown that WCR established their current population and reached economic densities after 14 years persisting in the study area. Regression-tree-based modelling showed that the best predictor of WCR adult abundance was the total amount of rainfall. Genetic monitoring indicated that genetic differentiation increased over time at the intrapopulation level, and morphometric monitoring indicated that wing morphotypes varied according to edaphic landscape changes. Traditional population metric surveys are important in WCR integrated pest management (IPM), as such surveys can be effectively used to predict population abundances. Novel-use monitoring techniques such as genetics and geometric morphometrics can be used to provide valuable information on variation within and among populations. The monitoring techniques presented herein provide sound data to assist in the understanding of both WCR ecology and population genetics and may provide more information than that currently available using traditional techniques (e.g. sticky traps), and as such these additional techniques should be written into IPM for WCR. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Low-input, low-cost IPM program helps manage potato psyllid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Prager

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato psyllid is a pest of solanaceous plants throughout much of the western United States, including California, where it has increased and is now overwintering. The psyllid affects its plant hosts from direct feeding and by transmitting a plant pathogenic bacterium, Lso. Millions of dollars of damages have occurred in the U.S. potato industry, and a large acreage of crops is susceptible in California. Control is complicated because different crops have different pest complexes and susceptibilities to Lso; currently most growers use multiple pesticide applications, including broad-spectrum insecticides. Results of our field trials at South Coast Research and Extension Center indicate that the use of broad-spectrum insecticides actually increases psyllid numbers in both peppers and potatoes. We have developed a low-input IPM program, which in field trials produced encouraging results in peppers, potatoes and tomatoes compared to broad-spectrum insecticides. Economic analysis showed the low-input IPM approach was more cost effective than a standard insecticide program in tomatoes.

  11. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  12. IPM Standards for Schools: A Program for Reducing Pest and Pesticide Risks in Schools and Other Sensitive Environments. Version 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas A., Ed.

    This guide presents Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practice standards for educational facilities to help schools become certified in providing effective and safe pest control. The guide is divided into two parts with three modules each for both buildings and grounds. The first module addresses building the IPM foundation to meet all legal…

  13. The effectiveness of Farmer Field School (FFS) training on farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Farmer Field School (FFS) training on farmers competence in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Cocoa in Ondo state, Nigeria. ... of years of cocoa farming (b=1.785) and participation in Farmer Field School training (b ...

  14. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  15. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2016-01-01

    of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, while dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate...

  16. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  17. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  18. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  19. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  20. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  1. IPM for fresh-market lettuce production in the desert southwest: the produce paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, John C; Castle, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    In the 'Integrated Control Concept', Stern et al. emphasized that, although insecticides are necessary for agricultural production, they should only be used as a last resort and as a complement to biological control. They argued that selective insecticide use should only be attempted after it has been determined that insect control with naturally occurring biotic agents is not capable of preventing economic damage. However, they concluded their seminal paper by emphasizing that integrated control will not work where natural enemies are inadequate or where economic thresholds are too low to rely on biological control. Thus, it is no surprise that insect control in high-value, fresh-market lettuce crops grown in the desert southwest have relied almost exclusively on insecticides to control a complex of mobile, polyphagous pests. Because lettuce and leafy greens are short-season annual crops with little or no tolerance for insect damage or contamination, biological control is generally considered unacceptable. High expectations from consumers for aesthetically appealing produce free of pesticide residues further forces vegetable growers to use chemical control tactics that are not only effective but safe. Consequently, scientists have been developing integrated pest management (IPM) programs for lettuce that are aimed at reducing the economic, occupational and dietary risks associated with chemical controls of the past. Most of these programs have drawn upon the integrated control concept and promote the importance of understanding the agroecosystem, and the need to sample for pest status and use action thresholds for cost-effective insect control. More recently, pest management programs have implemented newly developed, reduced-risk chemistries that are selectively efficacious against key pests. This paper discusses the influence that the integrated control concept, relative to zero-tolerance market standards and other constraints, has had on the adoption of pest

  2. Produção do tomateiro em função dos sistemas de condução de plantas Fruits production of tomatoes as a result of plant training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Fernando Wamser

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos métodos de tutoramento e de condução de plantas sobre a produtividade e qualidade de frutos em quatro cultivares de tomate. Dois experimentos foram realizados nas safras 2004/05 e 2005/06 em Caçador (SC. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação de duas cultivares (Carmen e Débora Max, em 2004/05, e Nemo Netta e San Vito, em 2005/06, quatro métodos de tutoramento (cruzado, mexicano, vertical com bambu e vertical com fitilho e dois métodos de condução de plantas (com uma e duas hastes por planta mantendo o mesmo número de hastes por área, dispostos no delineamento de parcelas sub-subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Não houve interação entre cultivar, método de tutoramento e de condução. O método de tutoramento vertical com bambu foi superior aos demais métodos e todos os métodos de condução vertical foram superiores ao método cruzado na produção total e comercial de frutos. A condução de uma haste por planta obteve maior produção total e comercial de frutos, em relação à condução de duas hastes por planta.The effect of plant staking and training methods was studied on fruit yield and quality of four tomato cultivars. Two experiments were carried out in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, in Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The treatments were a combination of two cultivars (Carmen and Débora Max, in 2004/05, and Nemo Netta and San Vito, in 2005/06, four staking methods (crossed fence, Mexican, vertical staking with bamboo and vertical staking with polypropylene cord and two training methods (one and two stems per plant keeping the same number of stems per area, using the sub subplots experimental design. There was no statistical interaction between cultivars, training methods and among staking methods. The vertical staking with bamboo increased the production of fruits, when compared with other staking methods, and all vertical-staking methods increased

  3. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  4. Sistemas de tutoramento e condução do tomateiro visando produção de frutos para consumo in natura Tomato plant staking and training systems for fresh fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. Marim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de tutoramento e condução influem no desenvolvimento da planta do tomateiro e na qualidade do fruto produzido. Para avaliar a influência de três sistemas de tutoramento e dois de condução da planta do tomateiro na produção classificada de frutos comercializáveis, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, de agosto a dezembro/1999 (exp. 1 e de 2000 (exp. 2 em Viçosa (MG. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, no esquema fatorial 3x2, tutoramento e condução, respectivamente. Avaliaram-se os seguintes métodos de tutoramento: T1, tradicional (V invertido, T2, triangular e T3, vertical e duas formas de condução, com uma e duas hastes por planta. Independentemente do tratamento, as plantas foram podadas acima do sexto cacho. Observaram-se diferenças entre os sistemas de tutoramento, condução e entre os anos de cultivo em relação às características avaliadas, sendo que ocorreu interação entre estes efeitos apenas para as características produção de frutos comercializáveis e produção total. O tutoramento vertical proporcionou aumento na produção de frutos de tamanho grande e diminuição na produção de frutos de tamanho médio e frutos não comercializáveis, quando comparado com os outros métodos de tutoramento. Independentemente do sistema de tutoramento, o tomateiro cultivado com uma haste produziu mais frutos de tamanho grande, de maior valor comercial, enquanto as plantas conduzidas com duas hastes produziram mais frutos de tamanho médio e pequeno.The main reason for staking and training tomato plants is to keep plants and fruits off the ground to reduce losses and to improve the quality of the production. To evaluate the influence of three plant staking and two training systems of the tomato production for fresh market, two experiments were conducted during the period of August 1999 (exp.1 and 2000 (exp.2 in Viçosa, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block

  5. A clinical examination of antibiotics in continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) therapy for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A prospective randomized controlled trial of BIPM and IPM/CS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Shigemichi; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Kamitani, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    Continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) therapy using both protease inhibitors and antibiotics are one of the specific therapeutic methods for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). As for the administered antibiotics, imipenem/cilastatin sodium (IPM/CS) is generally chosen as a first step, but there are only a few reports comparing IPM/CS with other antibiotics. Therefore, we performed a prospective randomized controlled trial between biapenem (BIPM) and IPM/CS as CRAI antibiotics. Twelve patients with SAP were admitted to our institution during April, 2009 since August, 2006, and were randomized into two groups. They were treated with 120 mg/day of nafamostat mesilate and either 1.2 g/day of BIPM (n=6) or 2.0 g/day of IPM/CS (n=6) for CRAI therapy within 48 hours after the administration. The clinical data, inflammatory markers (WBC, CRP), serum pancreatic enzymes (lipase, tripsin, phospholipase A2, elastase 1 and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) and contrast-enhanced abdominal Computed Tomography findings were compared between the two groups and the adverse effects were monitored. CRAI therapy was performed for seven days. The curative effect of this therapy was evaluated at the beginning of the treatment, the day 7 and the day 14. Our results suggested that BIPM was a non-recessive antibiotic which had an equal effect in CRAI therapy in comparison with IPM/CS. (author)

  6. Impact of FFS on farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato: A case study from the Gezira State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mirghani Abdel Rahman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan pests and diseases are the major problem of vegetables production. Tomato crop is considered as the most important vegetable crop in the country according to its economic and nutrition value. There are many pest and diseases retarding tomato production such as whitefly, American bollworm, TYLCV and powdery mildew. Therefore some IPM options for tomato and onion were validated in FFS in order to help farmers in controlling the most important pests and diseases. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of FFS on farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato in the Gezira State, Sudan. Field survey was used to collect data from three Farmer Field Schools in the Gezira State namely: Um Dagarsi, Hantoub and Faris in the 2009/2010 growing season. All FFS participants were used, i.e. 30 FFS- participants from each school. Equal number of non-FFS participants (90 was used for comparison, by using the simple random sampling technique. The collected data were statistically analyzed and interpreted using percentage, frequency distribution and chi-square test. The results showed that the FFS schools were positively affected farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato. It can be concluded that the FFS approach is very efficient in the transfer of farm technology for vegetable farmers through their participation in various activities of FFS schools. Thus, FFS approach must become national policy, share authority of extension organizations in control and execution of FFS activities with farmer unions for more effective participations of clientele in all activities of the schools and More efforts should be exerted in distribution of all inputs to farmers with reasonable prices through various agricultural centres.

  7. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula; Fernández, Esteve

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients' smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants' attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students' training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative evaluation and the other about the summative

  8. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  9. Drawing-up of pesticide selectivity lists to beneficial arthropods for IPM programmes in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, L; Jansen, J P; Schiffers, B; Deleu, R; Moreira, C

    2004-01-01

    In order to promote IPM programmes in potato, the toxicity of 19 fungicides, 4 herbicides and 11 insecticides commonly used in this crop in Belgium was assessed on three beneficial arthropods. These species were representative of the most important aphid specific natural enemies encountered in potatoes: a parasitic wasp--Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), a ladybird--Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae) and a hoverfly--Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae). In a first time, pesticides were tested on glass plates on A. rhopalosiphi adults and A. bipunctata and E. balteatus larvae. For each insect, products inducing corrected mortality (Mc) lower than 30% were directly classified in a positive list for harmless products (green list). The other compounds were further tested on plants and listed in toxicity classes according to mortalities induced during this extended laboratory test: harmless (Mc 80). A chemical determination of pesticides residues was also performed for each experiment in order to determine the exposure of beneficial arthropods to pesticide residues and to validate the application of chemicals on tested substrates. On the basis of the results of acute toxicity tests, the period of each pesticide use according to normal agricultural practices and the abundance and importance of the three different groups of aphid natural enemies at different periods of the year, four pesticides lists were built up. Each list corresponded to a different period of pesticides application: Period I--from seedling to beginning of June (based on A. rhopalosiphi tests), Period II--beginning to end of June (based on A. rhopalosiphi tests), Period III beginning to end of July (based on E. balteatus and A. bipunctata tests) and Period IV--August to harvest (no exposure of beneficials). Results showed that herbicides were not toxic to the three species and can be used according to normal agricultural practices without restrictions. All

  10. IPM Use With the Deployment of a Non-High Dose Bt Pyramid and Mitigation of Resistance for Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J C; Caprio, M A

    2016-03-27

    Recent detection of western corn rootworm resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn prompted recommendations for the use of integrated pest management (IPM) with planting refuges to prolong the durability of Bt technologies. We conducted a simulation experiment exploring the effectiveness of various IPM tools at extending durability of pyramided Bt traits. Results indicate that some IPM practices have greater merits than others. Crop rotation was the most effective strategy, followed by increasing the non-Bt refuge size from 5 to 20%. Soil-applied insecticide use for Bt corn did not increase the durability compared with planting Bt with refuges alone, and both projected lower durabilities. When IPM participation with randomly selected management tools was increased at the time of Bt commercialization, durability of pyramided traits increased as well. When non-corn rootworm expressing corn was incorporated as an IPM option, the durability further increased.For corn rootworm, a local resistance phenomenon appeared immediately surrounding the resistant field (hotspot) and spread throughout the local neighborhood in six generations in absence of mitigation. Hotspot mitigation with random selection of strategies was ineffective at slowing resistance, unless crop rotation occurred immediately; regional mitigation was superior to random mitigation in the hotspot and reduced observed resistance allele frequencies in the neighborhood. As resistance alleles of mobile pests can escape hotspots, the scope of mitigation should extend beyond resistant sites. In the case of widespread resistance, regional mitigation was less effective at prolonging the life of the pyramid than IPM with Bt deployment at the time of commercialization. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  11. Sustainability of European winter wheat- and maize-based cropping systems: Economic, environmental and social ex-post assessment of conventional and IPM-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadis, V.P.; Dachbrodt-saaydeh, S.; Kudsk, P.; Colnenne-David, C.; Leprince, F.; Holb, I.J.; Kierzek, R.; Furlan, L.; Loddo, D.; Melander, B.; Jørgensen, L.N.; Newton, A.C.; Toque, C.; Dijk, van W.; Lefebvre, M.; Benezit, M.; Sattin, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure higher sustainability of winter wheat and maize production in Europe, cropping systems featuring different levels of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) need to be tested in the field and validated for their sustainability before being adopted by farmers. However, the sustainability

  12. Exposure assessment of traditional and IPM farmers on using pesticides: A case study at Bang Rieng Sub District, Khuan Nieng District, Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viris Jirachaiyabhas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was developed to quantitatively evaluate the exposure to pesticides and to gauge the concentration of organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and methyl-parathion while the farmers of Bang Rieng were spraying these pesticides. The results were applied to the exposure assessment and to compare the quantity of exposure to these pesticides between 33 traditional and 40 integrated pest management (IPM farmers of Bang Rieng. There was a significant difference in the level of exposure between the traditional farmers, who had the average pesticide exposure scores of 58.30 points and the IPM farmers, whose average scores were 53.50 points, (p < 0.015. Concentrations of organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and methyl-parathion were measured. Thirty-three air samples were collected by personal sampling during the period of pesticide spraying. Traditional farmers were exposed to higher levels of the pesticide(s with a mean concentration of 0.1865 mg/m compared to the IPM farmers who were exposed to a mean pesticide concentration of 0.037 mg/m3. It was estimated that the farmers of Bang Rieng would be exposed to 186-19,616.6 mg of the organophosphatepesticide(s via inhalation throughout their lifetime (65 years. Moreover, according to the exposure assessment, the traditional farmers exposed to a greater amount of the pesticide(s via inhalation compared to the IPM farmers.

  13. Addressing the human and technical dimensions of potato IPM using farmer field schools (FFS): CIP and partners' experience on late blight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in the 1990’s, the International Potato Center (CIP)’s integrated pest management team for potato late blight (IPM-LB) realized the importance of addressing the management of this complex potato disease by combining crop protection and management sciences, with social and behavioral science...

  14. IP-MLI: An Independency of Learning Materials from Platforms in a Mobile Learning using Intelligent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdallh Otair

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to deliver a monolithic mobile learning system is too inflexible in view of the heterogeneous mixture of hardware and services available and the desirability of facility blended approaches to learning delivery, and how to build learning materials to run on all platforms[1]. This paper proposes a framework of mobile learning system using an intelligent method (IP-MLI . A fuzzy matching method is used to find suitable learning material design. It will provide a best matching for each specific platform type for each learner. The main contribution of the proposed method is to use software layer to insulate learning materials from device-specific features. Consequently, many versions of learning materials can be designed to work on many platform types.

  15. Investigation of e-Linac tube construction method and implementation suitable method for IPM e-Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of electron linear accelerator project in institute for research in fundamental sciences(IPM is to build its components as many as they can in Iran. This accelerator is a traveling wave type. Investigations show that there are various techniques in forming and connecting the accelerating tube cavities. The shrinking method applied for constructing the accelerating tube is selected based on the one applied for Stanford University’s Mark III accelerator. With success in building an 8-cavity test tube and finding the problems of the method, the construction of the final accelerating tube with 24 cavities has been accomplished. The results show that the obtained frequency of 2996.5 MHz and quality factor of 11200, satisfy the design desired values.

  16. Assessing the adaptation and implementation fidelity of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Healthcare Professionals in three Spanish-speaking Latin American countries: The Fruitful Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez

    2017-05-01

    This study has been funded by Global Bridges Mayo Clinic (Pfizer Medical Group; GB-13520139: Development and Dissemination of a Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Healthcare Professionals in Spanish-speaking Countries. Moreover, CM and EF are also funded by the Spanish Government (Instituto de Salut Carlos III, grant PI15-00875 and the Catalan Government (Xarxa Catalana d’Hospitals sense fum, Agència de Salut Pública de Catalunya, contracte Nº 2015VAR171

  17. The NKS-NORCMAS guide to beginners in IP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Appelblad, P. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI (Sweden); Kipperud, L.; Sjoegren, A. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    This text is meant as a guide for those who wishes to approach the field of ICP mass spectrometry for one purpose or another. In principle any mass spectrometer consists of three parts: An ion source, a mass analyser and a detector. These three parts will be treated separately in the text before focusing on the specific issues concerning ultra trace measurements and isotope ratios of radioisotopes. The text includes some general considerations with practical tips which are useful to the novel user when doing sample analysis with ICP-MS. It also includes a short training course consisting of five exercises. (au)

  18. The NKS-NORCMAS guide to beginners in IP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.; Appelblad, P.; Skipperud, L.; Sjoegren, A.

    2006-04-01

    This text is meant as a guide for those who wishes to approach the field of ICP mass spectrometry for one purpose or another. In principle any mass spectrometer consists of three parts: An ion source, a mass analyser and a detector. These three parts will be treated separately in the text before focusing on the specific issues concerning ultra trace measurements and isotope ratios of radioisotopes. The text includes some general considerations with practical tips which are useful to the novel user when doing sample analysis with ICP-MS. It also includes a short training course consisting of five exercises. (au)

  19. Investigation of using shrinking method in construction of Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences Electron Linear Accelerator TW-tube (IPM TW-Linac tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, F.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2015-06-01

    Due to Iran's growing need for accelerators in various applications, IPM's electron Linac project has been defined. This accelerator is a 15 MeV energy S-band traveling-wave accelerator which is being designed and constructed based on the klystron that has been built in Iran. Based on the design, operating mode is π /2 and the accelerating chamber consists of two 60cm long tubes with constant impedance and a 30cm long buncher. Amongst all construction methods, shrinking method is selected for construction of IPM's electron Linac tube because it has a simple procedure and there is no need for large vacuum or hydrogen furnaces. In this paper, different aspects of this method are investigated. According to the calculations, linear ratio of frequency alteration to radius change is 787.8 MHz/cm, and the maximum deformation at the tube wall where disks and the tube make contact is 2.7μ m. Applying shrinking method for construction of 8- and 24-cavity tubes results in satisfactory frequency and quality factor. Average deviations of cavities frequency of 8- and 24-cavity tubes to the design values are 0.68 MHz and 1.8 MHz respectively before tune and 0.2 MHz and 0.4 MHz after tune. Accelerating tubes, buncher, and high power couplers of IPM's electron linac are constructed using shrinking method.

  20. “These called left intellectuals”: the IPM of PCB and the communist phenomenon in cultural production in post-coup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Czajka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the many investigative actions taken by the military with the intention of collecting information about the "communist subversion" in the post-coup in 1964, one of the forms that really stood out was the Police-Military Investigation (IPM. This research instrument was designed to collect proof and evidence which subsequently formed the basis for criminal proceedings based on the National Security Law (LSN. Among the IPMs that gained greater impact was the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB, mainly because it was the starting point for other surveys that have unfolded in specific investigations. One of them, which is discussed in this article concerns the organization of a left intellectuality that if before the coup ground a debate on the political and social thought in Brazil, after the coup will gain even greater projection for his performance in resistance to the regime military. In the IPM of PCB the "intellectual left" or "communist intellectual" are defined by the military reports as having elements of a sophisticated speech of Soviet propaganda, then, should be thoroughly investigated by intelligence services.

  1. Environment polluting conventional chemical control compared to an environmentally friendly IPM approach for control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Fawad Zafar Ahmad; Jaleel, Waqar; Zhu, Xun; Yin, Haichen; Li, Shuzhong; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is recognized as a widely distributed destructive insect pest of Brassica worldwide. The management of this pest is a serious issue, and an estimated annual cost of its management has reached approximately US$4 billion. Despite the fact that chemicals are a serious threat to the environment, lots of chemicals are applied for controlling various insect pests especially P. xylostella. An overreliance on chemical control has not only led to the evolution of resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies but also has polluted various components of water, air, and soil ecosystem. In the present scenario, there is a need to implement an environmentally friendly integrated pest management (IPM) approach with new management tactics (microbial control, biological control, cultural control, mating disruption, insecticide rotation strategies, and plant resistance) for an alternative to chemical control. The IPM approach is not only economically beneficial but also reduces the environmental and health risks. The present review synthesizes published information on the insecticide resistance against P. xylostella and emphasizes on adopting an alternative environmentally friendly IPM approach for controlling P. xylostella in China.

  2. Development of a chromosomally integrated metabolite-inducible Leu3p-alpha-IPM "off-on" gene switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Poulou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Present technology uses mostly chimeric proteins as regulators and hormones or antibiotics as signals to induce spatial and temporal gene expression.Here, we show that a chromosomally integrated yeast 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' system constitutes a ligand-inducible regulatory "off-on" genetic switch with an extensively dynamic action area. We find that Leu3p acts as an active transcriptional repressor in the absence and as an activator in the presence of alpha-isopropylmalate (alpha-IotaRhoMu in primary fibroblasts isolated from double transgenic mouse embryos bearing ubiquitously expressing Leu3p and a Leu3p regulated GFP reporter. In the absence of the branched amino acid biosynthetic pathway in animals, metabolically stable alpha-IPM presents an EC(50 equal to 0.8837 mM and fast "OFF-ON" kinetics (t(50ON = 43 min, t(50OFF = 2.18 h, it enters the cells via passive diffusion, while it is non-toxic to mammalian cells and to fertilized mouse eggs cultured ex vivo.Our results demonstrate that the 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' constitutes a simpler and safer system for inducible gene expression in biomedical applications.

  3. Synergy between chemical and biological control in the IPM of currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, L L; McLachlan, A; Till, C M; Walker, M K

    2010-04-01

    Field trials were conducted at four Canterbury, New Zealand locations in 2005-06 to determine if the synergistic effects of biological control by natural enemies and standard drenching techniques controlled lettuce aphid populations throughout the entire growing season. Chemical usage significantly lowered aphid densities in the outer, wrapper and heart leaves compared to control plants at most times. However, in mid-summer, natural enemies, such as the brown lacewing (Micromus tasmaniae), 11-spotted ladybird beetle (Coccinella undecimpunctata) and small hoverfly larvae (Melanostoma fasciatum), were more than sufficient to control lettuce aphids without the use of insecticides. Drenching, in addition to natural enemy attack, appears to be required in early spring and late summer to maintain very low levels of lettuce aphid. Given the potential for imidacloprid resistance to develop, it may be advisable to restrict drenches to these key periods in order to allow populations of natural enemies to maintain control of prey populations. We recommend industry support the validation of action thresholds across different regions within New Zealand and focus on the seasonal biology of predators to assist growers with the sustainable long-term control of lettuce aphids. The inclusion of additional data into an economic model to compare pest damage with predator loading would be useful for growers in managing aphid problems. These results will assist in the continued improvement and development of a sustainable IPM strategy for lettuce aphids in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  4. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  5. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  6. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  7. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae, Hemiptera (Anthocoridae, Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae, and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae. These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet, carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl, pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt® WG, DuPont Corp. ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury®, FMC Corporation received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan® 70W, Gowan Co. and methidathion (Supracide® 25W, Gowan Co. ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol® 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co. and carbaryl (Sevin® XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co. ranked very low for IPM

  8. Fruit-related terms and images on food packages and advertisements affect children's perceptions of foods' fruit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Berhaupt-Glickstein, Amanda; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether food label information and advertisements for foods containing no fruit cause children to have a false impression of the foods' fruit content. In the food label condition, a trained researcher showed each child sixteen different food label photographs depicting front-of-food label packages that varied with regard to fruit content (i.e. real fruit v. sham fruit) and label elements. In the food advertisement condition, children viewed sixteen, 30 s television food advertisements with similar fruit content and label elements as in the food label condition. After viewing each food label and advertisement, children responded to the question 'Did they use fruit to make this?' with responses of yes, no or don't know. Schools, day-care centres, after-school programmes and other community groups. Children aged 4-7 years. In the food label condition, χ 2 analysis of within fruit content variation differences indicated children (n 58; mean age 4·2 years) were significantly more accurate in identifying real fruit foods as the label's informational load increased and were least accurate when neither a fruit name nor an image was on the label. Children (n 49; mean age 5·4 years) in the food advertisement condition were more likely to identify real fruit foods when advertisements had fruit images compared with when no image was included, while fruit images in advertisements for sham fruit foods significantly reduced accuracy of responses. Findings suggest that labels and advertisements for sham fruit foods mislead children with regard to the food's real fruit content.

  9. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; McInnis, D.; Shelly, T.; Jang, E.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-01-01

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [es

  10. The IPM Wheat Model--results of a three-year study in North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreet, J A; Heger, M; Oerke, E; Dehne, H W; Finger, I; Busse, C; Klink, H

    2003-01-01

    Under the primary utilisation of phytosanitary production factors such as selection of variety, crop rotation and N fertilisation according to plant requirements, the IPM Wheat Model comprises the elements diagnosis (qualitative = type of pathogen, quantitative = disease severity), scientifically grounded treatment thresholds which, as critical values in pathogen development, can be applied to define the optimum time of fungicide application, and pathogen-specific effective fungicides and application amounts. This leads to the location and year-specific optimised control of the pathogen and of the associated yield performance. After several years of development in Bavaria (from 1985 on) and Schleswig-Holstein (1993-1999), the model was tested as part of a project involving the Universities of Bonn and Kiel and the plant protection services of the German states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein in a three-year study (1999-2001) in interregional locations (usually nine per state) with the winter wheat variety Ritmo (interregional indicator variety) and a further variety of regional importance in different variations (untreated control, three to four times growth stage-oriented variants for the determination of the absolute damage potential, IPM-variant). In exact records (approx. 12 dates per vegetation period), the disease epidemics were recorded weekly. With the genetically uniform indicator variety Ritmo, the results documented substantially differing year- and location-specific disease and yield patterns. Interregionally, a broad wheat pathogen spectrum (Puccinia striiformis, P. recondita, Septoria tritici, Stagonospora (syn. Septoria) nodorum, Blumeria (syn. Erysiphe) graminis, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, Drechslera tritici-repentis) in differing composition, disease severity and damage effect was demonstrated. The heterogeneity of the infection and damage patterns was increased in the case of the second variety, in

  11. Impact of fruit fly control programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkerlin, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the impact of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes, that use the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control fruit fly pests of economic significance, is complex. These programmes affect practically the whole horticultural food chain. In this chapter, the impact of the programmes is assessed by focusing only on the benefits generated to producers and traders of horticultural products, the direct beneficiaries. This is done first by describing the types of benefits accrued from these programmes, second by explaining the factors that shape programme benefits, and finally by presenting several examples to illustrate how the SIT technology, when properly applied for eradication, containment, suppression, or prevention purposes, can generate substantial direct and indirect benefits to the horticulture industry. (author)

  12. Gypsy moth IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, North American forests have been inundated by a multitude of alien pest invasions. Among these, noteworthy invaders include the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease. These species have greatly altered both the ecological and...

  13. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  14. Brave new fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  15. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  16. A 3D digitizing tool to determine fruit quality distribution within the canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallabetta, N.; Costa, F.; Giordan, M.; Guerra, C.A.; Pasqualini, J.; Wehrens, R.; Costa, G.

    2017-01-01

    The "Slender Spindle", one of the most used training systems for apple, was compared with the "Bi-axis", an innovative training system, to determine their effect on fruit quality and fruit distribution within the canopy on 'Gala' cultivar. Two levels of crop loads were also introduced to observe

  17. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  18. Plant training for induced defense against insect pests: a promising tool for integrated pest management in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Almohamad, Raki; Brévault, Thierry; Renou, Alain; Téréta, Idrissa; Jean, Janine; Goebel, François-Regis

    2018-04-17

    Enhancing cotton pest management using plant natural defenses has been described as a promising way to improve the management of crop pests. We here reviewed different studies on cotton growing systems to illustrate how an ancient technique called plant training, which includes plant topping and pruning, may contribute to this goal. Based on examples from cotton crops, we show how trained plants could be promoted to a state of enhanced defense that causes faster and more robust activation of their defense responses. We revisit agricultural benefits associated to this technique in cotton crops, with a focus on its potential as a supplementary tool for Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Particularly, we examine its role in mediating plant interactions with conspecific neighboring plants, pests and associated natural enemies. We propose a new IPM tool, plant training for induced defense, which involves inducing plant defense by artificial injuries. Experimental evidence from various studies shows that cotton training is a promising technique, particularly for smallholders, which can be used as part of an IPM program to significantly reduce insecticide use and to improve productivity in cotton farming. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. An inventory of recent innovations in fruit and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit

  20. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  1. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  2. (Forssk) Fiori Fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This fruit-producing deciduous shrub or small tree is prevalent in African and Southeast. Asian countries, with ... Gezira State, Sudan and then placed in plastic bags and ..... Eastern Africa. Rome: FAO ... International. Washington, DC, USA 1995.

  3. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  4. Design, construction and tuning of S-band coupler for electron linear accelerator of institute for research in fundamental sciences (IPM E-linac)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, F.; Abbasi Davani, F.; Lamehi Rachti, M.; Shaker, H.; Ahmadiannamin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Design and construction of an electron linear accelerator by Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM) is considered as Iran’s first attempt to construct such an accelerator. In order to design a linear accelerating tube, after defining the accelerating tube and buncher geometries, RF input and output couplers must be designed. In this article, firstly, a brief report on the specifications of an S-band electron linear accelerator which is in progress in the school of particles and accelerators is presented and then, the design process and construction reports of the couplers required for this accelerator are described. Through performing necessary calculations and tuning the coupling factor and resonant frequency, couplers with desired specification have been fabricated by shrinking method. The final obtained coupling factor and resonant frequency have been respectively 1.05 and 2997 MHz for the first coupler, and 0.98 and 2996.9 MHz for the second one that are close to calculation results

  5. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  6. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  7. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual containers of fruits like peaches or applesauce are easy to carry and convenient for lunch. 7 Enjoy fruit at dinner, too At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw ...

  8. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  9. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  10. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  11. Uso dos diptera na análise entomotoxicológica e na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v13i1.2846

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Barth Pacini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A entomologia forense é o estudo de insetos que são encontrados em locais de crimes, e são utilizados como vestígios, aumentando a possibilidade de encontrar a causa da morte e a estimar o intervalo pós-morte (IPM. Com base nessas análises os entomólogos e os peritos observaram que os componentes químicos utilizados pelo individuo, tais como medicamentos ou drogas, ou até mesmo o uso de venenos alterava o que já se conhecia da estimativa do IPM, surgindo, desse modo uma nova vertente nesta ciência, que é a entomotoxicologia forense. O presente trabalho bibliográfico descreve os princípios básicos da entomotoxicologia abordando principalmente a interferência na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte.

  12. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  13. Características físico-químicas de physalis em diferentes colorações do cálice e sistemas de condução Chemical characteristics of cape-gooseberry fruits in different sepal colors and training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Simone Madruga Lima

    2009-12-01

    conjunto de características físico-químicas, em ambos os sistemas de condução avaliados.A species that is being introduced in the plantations of small fruits is the cape-gooseberry. The Solanaceae is considered a rugged plant that is difficult to maintain its upright stems; its fruits are in a glass that protects against insects, birds, and adverse conditions. This objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Physalis peruviana fruits according to different sepal colors and the used training systems. The fruits were harvested and classified in five different sepal color groups: 1 (green, 2 (green-yellowish, 3 (yellow-greenish, 4 (yellow, 5 (yellow-brownish; and two training system groups: inverted "v" and triangular. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 5x2 (sepal colors x drive systems. The experimental unit was composed of ten fruits, with each treatment repeated three times. The data were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA by applying the Tukey test at a 5% level of probability of error for the comparison of the means. The appraised variables were: fruit, sepals and total fresh mass, diameter, firmness, epidermis color, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, the TSS/TTA ratio and pH. The triangular training system associated with yellow and yellowbrownish sepals resulted, respectively, in fruits with more SST and better TSS/TTA ratio. The highest mass and diameter values were obtained in cape-gooseberry fruits with yellow-brownish sepals, while the highest total mass was reached when sepals had yellow color. For sepals mass, the largest responses were obtained with the green sepals. From this physicochemical characterization we can conclude that cape-gooseberry picked g from the third color phase (yellow-greenish present the best physiochemical characteristics in both assessed training systems.

  14. (Solanum aethiopicum L.) fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggplant is grown in almost every region and is one of the most traded indigenous vegetables in local markets (Chadha, 2006). African eggplant fruits have relatively higher carbohydrate. (7.2 g/100g), fibers (2.0g/100g), calcium (28 mg/100g), iron (1.5 mg/100g) and considerable amount of beta carotene (0.35 mg/100g),.

  15. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high ... the highest was recorded on "V", while the smallest was in Spanish bush. Training system and density did not affect the fruit weight.

  16. Socio-economical aspects of the exploitation of Termitomyces fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-10-31

    Oct 31, 2013 ... translated into in French by local assistants selected and trained for the task. ..... These closed fruit bodies are judged easy to preserve and recognized to be more ... daily diet, considering it a side dish only. Phenology studies ...

  17. Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson M. Enes; Juliana A. Fracarolli; Inácio M. Dal Fabbro; Silvestre Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing an...

  18. Fruits of neutron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, C.

    1994-01-01

    Car windshields that don't break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources

  19. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk assessment of maize damage by wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) as the first step in implementing IPM and in reducing the environmental impact of soil insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, L; Contiero, B; Chiarini, F; Colauzzi, M; Sartori, E; Benvegnù, I; Fracasso, F; Giandon, P

    2017-01-01

    A survey of maize fields was conducted in northeast Italy from 1986 to 2014, resulting in a dataset of 1296 records including information on wireworm damage to maize, plant-attacking species, agronomic characteristics, landscape and climate. Three wireworm species, Agriotes brevis Candeze, A. sordidus Illiger and A. ustulatus Schäller, were identified as the dominant pest species in maize fields. Over the 29-year period surveyed, no yield reduction was observed when wireworm plant damage was below 15 % of the stand. A preliminary univariate analysis of risk assessment was applied to identify the main factors influencing the occurrence of damage. A multifactorial model was then applied by using the significant factors identified. This model allowed the research to highlight the strongest factors and to analyse how the main factors together influenced damage risk. The strongest factors were: A. brevis as prevalent damaging species, soil organic matter content >5 %, rotation including meadows and/or double crops, A. sordidus as prevalent damaging species, and surrounding landscape mainly meadows, uncultivated grass and double crops. The multifactorial model also showed how the simultaneous occurrence of two or more of the aforementioned risk factors can conspicuously increase the risk of wireworm damage to maize crops, while the probability of damage to a field with no-risk factors is always low (<1 %). These results make it possible to draw risk maps to identify low-risk and high-risk areas, a first step in implementing bespoke IPM procedures in an attempt to reduce the impact of soil insecticides significantly.

  1. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.

    2015-07-01

    Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)

  2. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%. Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system.

  3. Dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel Actinidia deliciosa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Gamble, Joanna; Axten, Lauren G; Wohlers, Mark W; Clearwater, Michael J; Feng, Jinquan; Harker, F Roger

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (DM) is more liked by consumers. A unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low DM × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate DM affects fruit flavour and texture. In the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory panel and the relationships between these sensory attributes and fresh weight, DM, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) were explored. The genotypes provided a diversity of flavour and texture attributes, each of which varied in perceived intensity of the sensory experience. High-DM genotypes had higher SSC and were perceived as sweeter than low-DM genotypes. Sweet taste was closely associated with the perception of the tropical flavour and high-DM genotypes were found to have more tropical notes. Fruit size was associated with fruit texture, and small fruit were characterised by a firmer and more fibrous core. Large high-DM fruit were perceived as juicier than those of all other genotypes. Genotypes were perceived differently from one another, and differences in fruit size and DM content were reflected in fruit sensorial properties. This study is unique in demonstrating interactions between fruit size, DM and sensory properties. These findings could be relevant not only to kiwifruit but to fruiting crop breeders in general, because of the demonstrated potential for effects of fruit size and DM content on sweetness, flavour and fruit texture. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  5. Childhood Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess the impact of a six-months nutrition program, taught by trained teachers, on fruit and vegetable consumption among children in grades 1 to 4. Four hundred and sixty-four children (239 female, 6 to 12 years old, from seven elementary schools were assigned to this randomized trial. Teachers were trained by researchers over six months, according to the following topics: nutrition, healthy eating, and strategies to increase physical activity. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop activities in the classroom on the topics learned. Children's sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The effect sizes ranged between small (Cohen's d=0.12 on “other vegetables” to medium (0.56 on “fruit and vegetable”, and intervened children reported a significantly higher consumption of vegetables and fruit. Interventions involving trained teachers offer promise to increase consumption of fruit and vegetable in children.

  6. Tropical Fruit Irradiation-From Research to Commercial Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, James H.

    2005-09-01

    Food irradiation is an emerging technology for the 21st century. Extensive research and development worldwide in the past 40 years have proved the versatility and efficacy. With low, medium to high dose, and using either a gamma, electrons, or x-ray source, radiation can: 1) disinfest plant products and spices; 2) extend shelf life of tubers, bulbs, and selected tropical fruits; 3) decontaminate meats and seafood; 4) sterilize spices and special meals; and 5) improve product utilization. Criteria for testing its efficacy include effectiveness, efficiency, and the ability to retain product quality. The use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of tropical fruits is potentially attractive to countries growing these fruits. A two-prong research plan should aim at proving radiation's effectiveness in preventing emergence of all insect pests that might be on a fruit, and determining that all quality attributes of a host fruit are retained after irradiation, subsequent storage and shipment. ommercial application involves conducting an economical feasibility study; market research and testing; selection of radiation source and irradiator type; training of personnel for plant operations, radiation safety and dosimetry monitoring; designing of packages and choosing the most cost-effective means of transporting treated fruits to market destinations. When all of hese are achieved, it should lead to a continuous and profitable operation. Researchers at the University of Hawaii using a gamma irradiator from the mid-1960s to early 2000s had amassed a volume of data to prove the efficacy of radiation disinfestations. And installation of a commercial x-ray irradiator in 2000 on the Island of Hawaii has enabled fruit farmers and packers to use this technology for exporting tropical fruits to distant markets

  7. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  8. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  11. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  12. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) FOR THE BIOAGENTS ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND PENICILLIUM OXALICUM AGAINST THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-AKHDAR, E.A.H.; OUDA, S.M

    2008-01-01

    As an alternative to chemical control or as a part of integrated pest management (IPM program), there is a resurgence of interest in using microbial agents for pest population suppression before the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann). The insect-fungus interaction between the fungal isolates, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium oxalicum, when applied as a spore suspension against the adults of Medfly in the laboratory showed visual fungal development after 7 days from inoculation. Examination of the infected parts of the dead fly with light microscopy showed a markedly damage as evidenced by the occurrence of the attached conidia and features of pathogen penetration. Using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the abundant sporulation of both fungal isolates was investigated over all parts of the dead fly and their associated sensillae. The recognized shape of the fungal conidial spores and their arrangement on the hyphae of both bio agents was investigated. This ultra structural study may be helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of both fungal bio agents on the functions of all infected parts of the insect and their associated sensillae (the main communication system between insects, their internal and external environment) and their main role in the courtship, male mating ability, the selection of fruit host plants necessary for the adults food and also the selection of a suitable oviposition site

  13. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  14. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  15. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  16. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios A Augustinos

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS, such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%. Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos, named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper.

  17. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Rajamohan, Arun; Kyritsis, Georgios A; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Targovska, Asya; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS), such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%). Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos), named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper.

  18. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  19. Storage of irradiated strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Pocahontas strawberries both of green house and field production have been stored at 3 deg C for 10 and 12 days, respectively, after treatment with 100000, 200000 and 300000 Roe in comparison with unirradiated fruits. No explicit correlation was observed regarding the keeping qualities of fruits, their chemical composition (dry matter, sugars, acids and vitamin C) when stored after a different gamma-ray irradiation. (S.P.)

  20. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  1. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  2. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Prasetyo; Titik Nur Aeny

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial...

  3. Vegetable and fruit breaks in Australian primary schools: prevalence, attitudes, barriers and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Butler, Michelle; Bell, Andrew Colin; Wyse, Rebecca; Campbell, Elizabeth; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John

    2011-08-01

    School-based vegetable and fruit programs can increase student consumption of vegetables and fruit and have been recommended for adoption by Australian schools since 2005. An understanding of the prevalence and predictors of and the barriers to the adoption of school-based vegetable and fruit programs is necessary to maximize their adoption by schools and ensure that the health benefits of such programs to children are realized. The aim of this study was to determine Australian primary school Principals' attitudes and barriers to the implementation of vegetable and fruit breaks; the prevalence of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools and the implementation strategies used and associated with their recommended adoption (daily in at least 80% of classes). A random sample of 384 school Principals completed a 20-min telephone interview. While Principals were highly supportive of vegetable and fruit breaks, only 44% were implementing these to a recommended level. When controlling for all school characteristics, recommended vegetable and fruit break adoption was 1.9 and 2.2 times greater, respectively, in schools that had parent communication strategies and teachers trained. A substantial opportunity exists to enhance the health of children through the adoption of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools.

  4. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  5. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  6. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Language Training Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.

  7. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.

  8. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  9. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5.... Each such fruit ingredient in any such combination is an optional ingredient. (c) The following safe...

  10. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  11. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  12. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  13. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  14. Genetic sexing strains in Mediterranean fruit fly, an example for other species amenable to large-scale rearing for the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Through genetic and molecular manipulations, strains can be developed that are more suitable for the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this chapter the development of genetic sexing strains (GSSs) is given as an example. GSSs increase the effectiveness of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the SIT by enabling the large-scale release of only sterile males. For species that transmit disease, the removal of females is mandatory. For the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing systems have been developed; they are stable enough to be used in operational programmes for extended periods of time. Until recently, the only way to generate such strains was through Mendelian genetics. In this chapter, the basic principle of translocation-based sexing strains is described, and Mediterranean fruit fly strains are used as examples to indicate the problems encountered in such strains. Furthermore, the strategies used to solve these problems are described. The advantages of following molecular strategies in the future development of sexing strains are outlined, especially for species where little basic knowledge of genetics exists. (author)

  15. Role of olfaction in the foraging behavior and trial-and-error learning in short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Guangjian; Tan, Liangjing; Yang, Jian; Chen, Yi; Liu, Qi; Shen, Qiqi; Chen, Jinping; Zhang, Libiao

    2014-03-01

    We observed the foraging behavior of short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx, in captivity. The role of olfaction in their foraging behavior was examined using real fruit, mimetic fruit, and mimetic fruit soaked in the juice of real fruit. The results showed that C. sphinx visited the real fruit more often than the mimetic fruit, but they had no preference between real fruit and treated mimetic fruit. Our experiment indicates that this bat has the ability to find and identify fruit by olfaction. We also tested for behavior of trial-and-error learning. Our observations revealed that the bats could form a sensory memory of the olfactory cue (cedar wood oil) after five days of training because they responded to the olfactory cues. Our results provide the evidence that C. sphinx can establish the connection between the fruit and a non-natural odor through learning and memory with the assistance of olfaction, and can thus recognize a variety of odors by trial-and-error learning. This behavioral flexibility based on olfactory cues will be beneficial for the short-nosed fruit bat in foraging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. ... The North West Frontier Province of the country .... Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant.

  17. Pre-sliced fruit in school cafeterias: children's selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Just, David R; Hanks, Andrew S; Smith, Laura E

    2013-05-01

    It is often assumed that children avoid fruit in school cafeterias because of higher relative prices and preferences for other foods. Interviews with children reveal that eating whole fresh fruit can be difficult for those with small mouths or braces. Older girls find whole fruits messy and unattractive to eat. To determine the effect of offering pre-sliced fruit in schools on selection and intake. Three of six schools were assigned randomly to serve apples in slices. Three control schools served apples whole. Selection, consumption, and waste of apples were measured prior to and during treatment. Cafeterias in six public middle schools in Wayne County NY in 2011. Participants included all students who purchased lunch on days when data were collected. Treatment schools were provided with a standard commercial fruit slicer, and cafeteria staff members were instructed to use it when students requested apples. Trained researchers recorded how much of each apple was consumed and how much was wasted in both control and treatment schools. Daily apple sales, percentage of an apple serving consumed per student, and percentage of an apple serving wasted per student. Data were analyzed in 2012. Schools that used fruit slicers to pre-slice fruit increased average daily apple sales by 71% compared to control schools (papples and ate more than half increased by 73% (p=0.02) at schools that served pre-sliced fruit, and the percentage that wasted half or more decreased by 48% (p=0.03). Sliced fruit is more appealing to children than whole fruit because it is easier and tidier to eat. This study applies the principle of convenience from behavioral economics and provides an example of a scalable, low-cost environmental change that promotes healthy eating and decreases waste. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  18. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  19. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  20. Emamectin benzoate (Affirm). a modern insecticide for the control of lepidoptera larvae on fruits, grapes and vegetables crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, R; Correia, R; Thomas, C; Decaudin, B; Cisneros, J; Lopez, A

    2010-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Affirm) is a novel insecticide with potent efficacy against many specie of lepidoptera which are damaging fruits and leaves of agricultural crops. The active ingredient belongs to the naturally derived chemical group of avermectine, causing paralysis of lepidoptera larvae due to the activation of chloride channel at nerves level. Affirm is acting mainly through ingestion, due to its mode of action and fast activity, it is effective at very low rates and on all instars stages. It has been developed for the use on pomefruits, stonefruits, grapes and a broda range of vegetables crops at a rate range of 1.5 to 3 g ai/100L. The product shows translaminar activity and rapid degradation on leaf surface; therefore the active ingredient breaks down in a very short time to sublethal doses for most beneficials organisms living on the vegetation. The short rentry time, generally 24 hours for beneficials and impollinators, makes Affirm compatible for IPM programme in orchards and greenhouses. Also the residue profile is very favourable, leading to a very low maximum residue level and short preharvest interval in all edible crops.

  1. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...

  2. The anti-senescence effect of resveratrol reduces postharvest softening rate in cherimoya fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaran Aquilino Morales Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its climateric behavior, the cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill. is a very perishable commodity. Present research aimed to observe the anti-senescence effect of resveratrol (RVS; this plant bioregulator was applied at 1.6, 0.16, 0.016 and 0 mM at 0, 8 and 15 days before harvest (DBH. At 1, 7 and 15 days of postharvest life, several physical and biochemical determinations were performed on the cherimoya fruit. After 15 days under room temperature conditions, in relation to control fruit, those fruit with 1.6 mM RVS applied 15 DBH reduced skin softening rate 78% and 54% for ‘Fino de Jete’ and ‘Bronceada’, respectively. Similarly, after 15 days of storage, a non-trained group of tasters preferred those fruit treated with 1.6 mM RVS 15 DBH; they qualified the fruit as better than the control fruit in presentation, aroma and taste.

  3. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P passion fruit juice.

  4. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, C; Dumitras, D C; Patachia, M; Banita, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones. (paper)

  5. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  6. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  7. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.

  8. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  9. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  10. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  11. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  12. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  13. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  14. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  15. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  16. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  17. Radiation disinfestation of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, A.; Wahid, M.; Jan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dry fruits such as apricots, dates, figs, and raisins were irradiated in a Gamma Cell 220 (dose rate 0.04 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 kGy, and the samples were stored at room temperatures (25 to 40 0 C) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Insect infestation and the changes in acidity, discoloration, ascorbic acid, and sugars were determined after 2,4,6,8,10, and 12 months. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited infestation throughout the storage, while infestation in 0.50 and 0.25 kGy samples increased with storage time between 2 and 10 months. It was 100 percent in all fruits except raisins (60 percent) after 12 months. Tribolium species were predominant in all of the samples followed by the Caudra and Corcyra species. Discoloration increased, acidity and ascorbic acid contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and sugars were little affected during the entire storage. Radiation doses had insignificant influence on these nutrients except for the ascorbic acid, which was adversely affected, especially at higher doses (P < 0.05). Results of sensory evaluation of dried fruits showed 1.00 kGy treated samples rated as highest, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy as intermediates, and the control as lowest during different storage intervals

  18. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  19. Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.

  20. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  1. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  2. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  3. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  4. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  5. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  6. Training management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics to be covered in this report are: Design principles for training programmes; training methods, materials and facilities; national and international organization; training assessment and documentation; relation between supplier and customer, licensing requirements and practices. (orig.)

  7. AN APPLE GRADING SYSTEM ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN FRUIT QUALITY STANDARDS USING GABOR FILTER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEYVAN ASEFPOUR VAKILIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of applications of machine learning methods in food engineering in recent decades, several intelligent methods have been introduced in fruit grading technology. In this study, an apple grading system is presented using image’s textural features extraction and artificial intelligence. The objective of this study was to simplify the use of Gabor filter in classification of two varieties of apple fruits (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious in four categories according to the European fruit quality standards. Using this filter, neural network classifier was trained for four category grading of the fruits. Two textural parameters were extracted from each obtained image: mean and variance of energy values of obtained image representing image’s luminous intensity and contrast, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the training of extracted features of about 350 fruits enabled the network to classify the test samples with appropriate accuracy. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed grading categories (‘Extra’, ‘Type 1’, ‘Type 2’ and ‘Rejected’ classes achieved acceptable recognition rates of about 89 % and 92 % overall accuracy for Golden Delicious and Red Delicious varieties, respectively. These experimental results show the appropriate application of proposed method in fast grading of apple fruits. Furthermore, proposed feature extraction and network training methods can be used efficiently in online applications.

  8. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  9. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in...

  11. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the levels that become consumer preference in purchasing fruit leather product. There were 60 samples respondents taken accidentally at Bangkalan Plaza Shopping area. Method being used was conjoint analysis. Result showed that fruit leather being chosen by consumers as preference are gummy, mixed fruit taste, yellow color small roll shape, at 100 grams and in a plastic tube package.

  12. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  13. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  14. Mutation breeding in Philippine fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espino, R.R.C.

    1987-09-01

    Studies were made to establish standard conditions for mutation induction by gamma-irradiation to be performed in combination with in-vitro culture for banana and citrus spp. Besides this, radio-sensitivity of seeds and/or plantlets of mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit was investigated and primary observation on the occurrence of mutation was made. For the mutagenesis of banana shoot tip cultures, radio-sensitivity of plantlets derived from the culture as well as fresh-cultured shoots was examined and phenotypes indicative of mutation, such as chlorophyl streaking, slow growth, pigmentation and varied bunch orientation were recorded. Isozyme analysis for mutated protein structure was not conclusive. In the in-vitro culture of Citrus spp., seeds placed on fresh media as well as germinating seeds and two-leaf stage seedlings in test tubes were examined for their radio-sensitivity. Irradiated materials were propagated for further observation. In these two crops, basic methodology for mutation induction with combined use of in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation was established. In mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit, basic data on radiosensitivity were obtained. In mango, leaf abnormalities were observed after the treatment of scions

  15. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  16. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  17. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  18. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  19. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  1. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  2. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  3. Training organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne considers a specific training and education of experienced experts to be a key issue. The company gradually undergoes quite demanding change in the field of education and training of the nuclear power plants staff. We have an ambitious vision - to create one of the best training organisations in Europe by the means of systematic approach to the training. (author)

  4. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  5. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  6. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  7. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  8. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of peaches grown in the production area; (b) All hybrids grown in the... as recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary; and (c) All varieties of pears except...

  9. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  10. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya P. Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc., which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  11. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPENING STAGES OF MYRTLE FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYALLA RIBEIRO DE ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The myrtle (Eugenia gracillima Kiaersk. is a native fruit species in the Chapada of Araripe, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The fruits are collected from the wild and are consumed fresh or processed as pulp, juice, jelly, liquor or desserts. Myrtle fruit production is of significant socioeconomic value for the region and, therefore, the description of myrtle fruit ripening stages may contribute to the development of its production chain. As a result, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the physical, quality and ripening changes of myrtle fruits at different developmental stages. The fruits were picked at five distinctive stages and evaluated for longitudinal and transverse diameters; fresh, dry and water mass; water contents; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; pH; SS/TA ratio; carbohydrates (starch, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars; ascorbic acid; total pectin, soluble pectins and percentage of pectin solubilization; polymeric, oligomeric and dimeric phenolics; total anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll; and yellow flavonoids. Along fruit ripening processes increases in SS, anthocyanins and carotenoids, in the SS/TA ratio and of percentages of pectin solubilization were determined. On the other hand, decreases in TA and total chlorophyll were observed. The ripening stage at which peel color is completely dark red (ripening stage 4 is most appropriate to harvest myrtle fruits for human consumption.

  13. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum

  14. Ionizing energy treatment of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables may be considered within four major use areas. The shelf life of such fruits as bananas, mangoes and pawpaws can be extended by a direct physiological effect on the fruit. This treatment renders the fruit less sensitive to ethylene, a natural senescence-promoting chemical, and retards the onset of the climactric rise in respiration which is associated with fruit ripening. Postharvest decay caused by radio-sensitive organisms can also be controlled by low irradiation treatments, although this is only applicable in cases where the host fruit is less sensitive to the treatment than the decay causing organism. The sprouting of onions and potatoes can be controlled by a single low dose treatment which has a direct effect on the meristematic tissue. By killing insects of quarantine significance the interstate and export marketing of Australian fresh fruit may be expanded, with a consequent expansion of these horticultural industries. Ionising energy treatment of fruit and vegetables is therefore a valuable postharvest tool to improve the quality of fresh produce on local and export markets

  15. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  16. Consumption patterns and demographic factors influence on fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption pattern variables (Table 3) of the different fruit juice classifications were ..... Elepu G, Nabisubi J, Sserunkuuma D. Segmentation of processed fruit juice consumers in urban .... Liquid fruit market report. [homepage on the ...

  17. FCDD: A Database for Fruit Crops Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rupal; Jasrai, Yogesh; Pandya, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Suman; Samota, Chand Mal

    2014-01-01

    Fruit Crops Diseases Database (FCDD) requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. The FCDD is a unique bioinformatics resource that compiles information about 162 details on fruit crops diseases, diseases type, its causal organism, images, symptoms and their control. The FCDD contains 171 phytochemicals from 25 fruits, their 2D images and their 20 possible sequences. This information has been manually extracted and manually verified from numerous sources, including other electronic databases, textbooks and scientific journals. FCDD is fully searchable and supports extensive text search. The main focus of the FCDD is on providing possible information of fruit crops diseases, which will help in discovery of potential drugs from one of the common bioresource-fruits. The database was developed using MySQL. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. FCDD is freely available. http://www.fruitcropsdd.com/

  18. FRUIT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BLUEBERRY GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the blueberry breeding program started in 1982 and till now was conducted by dr. Paulina Mladin. For inducing the variability, different genetic resources of American blueberry cultivars (V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium were involved in a high number of crosses. For identify the genotype with the best fruit quality, some biometric quality indicators (average fruit weight, size index and basically chemical compounds of fruits including ascorbic acid, dry matter, ash, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, tanoid substances, pectic substances, protein crude, phosphorus and potassium were determined. Of the eleven chemical studied properties who reflected the fruits quality, for five of them were found no statistically significant differences. The purpose of this paper work was to evaluate fruit quality and to identify the valuable genotypes resulted from Romanian blueberry breeding program.

  19. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  20. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  1. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  2. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  3. Radioactivity of some dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedova, G.; Mamatkulov, O.B.; Hushmuradov, Sh.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radioactivity radiation from natural and artificial sources often acts at the same time in complicated combinations and without exception on all inhabitants of our planet. Natural and artificial radioactive isotopes pass into living organism by biological chain: soil-water-air-plants-foodstuffs-person and can be sources of inside irradiation. Accumulation of radionuclides in living organism in large quantities limit permissible concentration (LPC) can lead to pathological changes in organism. With above mentioned at the radioecological investigations, researches and control of changes of radionuclides concentration in environmental objects have important interests. Investigations of determination of radioactivity of environmental objects, which began in 1960 by professor Muso Muminov are continued in the department of nuclear physics of Samarkand State University. We work out semiconducting gamma-spectrometric method of determination of radionuclides concentration in weak -active environmental samples. We investigated radioactivity of different samples of natural environment and generalized results. In this work the results of investigation of radioactivity of same dried fruits are presented. The spectra of γ-radiation of following dried fruits as grapes, apricot, apple and peach was investigated. In measured gamma-radiation spectra of these samples gamma-transitions of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K natural radionuclides and product of 137 Cs division. The specific gamma-activities these radionuclides were determined. The 40 K have most specific activity and 137 Cs - least. The calculated quantities of specific gamma-activity of radionuclides in gamma-spectra of investigated samples can replace to following row: 40 K > 232 Th > 226 Ra > 137 Cs

  4. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  5. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  6. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...

  7. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 languag...

  8. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    La prochaine session se déroulera du 04 octobre 2004 au 11 février 2005 (interruption de 3 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web : http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter M. Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants ...

  9. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  11. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. [Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  14. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  15. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  16. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Modelling Chemical Preservation of Plantain Hybrid Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available New plantain hybrids plants have been developed but not much has been done on the post-harvest keeping quality of the fruits and how they are affected by microbial colonization. Hence fruits from a tetraploid hybrid PITA 2 (TMPx 548-9 obtained by crossing plantain varieties Obino l’Ewai and Calcutta 4 (AA and two local triploid (AAB plantain landraces Agbagba and Obino l’Ewai were subjected to various concentrations of acetic, sorbic and propionic acid to determine the impact of chemical concentration, chemical type and plantain variety on ripening and weight loss of plantain fruits. Analysis of titratable acidity, moisture content and total soluble solids showed that there were no significant differences between fruits of hybrid and local varieties. The longest time to ripening from harvest (24 days was achieved with fruits of Agbagba treated with 3% propionic acid. However, fruits of PITA 2 hybrid treated with propionic and sorbic acid at 3% showed the longest green life which indicated that the chemicals may work better at higher concentrations. The Obino l’Ewai cultivar had the highest weight loss for all chemical types used. Modelling data obtained showed that plantain variety had the most significant effect on ripening and indicates that ripening of the fruits may depend on the plantain variety. It appears that weight loss of fruits from the plantain hybrid and local cultivars was not affected by the plantain variety, chemical type. The chemicals at higher concentrations may have an effect on ripening of the fruits and will need further investigation.

  18. The role of nutritional interventions in increasing fruit and vegetable intake in the elderlies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Afshari, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables in old ages is particularly important, so that the appropriate consumption amount leads to reduction in the risk of chronic diseases. To increase consumption of fruit and vegetables and modify consumption pattern in the elderlies, training programs and appropriate intervention can be designed and implemented. The study was done to assess and compare nutritional intervention-based training methods and education using theories and health education models for the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the elderlies. Electronic search using keywords of Country Review Information Bank (Magiran), Scientific Information Database, Pub Med, Science direct, Science, Biomed central from the beginning of March 2014 to end of April 2015 was performed. Ten interventional studies were assessed in this systematic study. The interventions were divided into two groups of studies, a total of five studies, theories and health education models were the basis of training intervention and the other five studies that include their interventions without the use of theories and health education models was carried out. Of ten interventional studies, three studies as before and after and seven studies as the intervention and control was performed. The results showed that education-based theory and health education models have a greater impact on the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the elderlies. The duration and interventions performing method, environmental factors and educational programs using appropriate models and theories are important on the effectiveness of interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in the elderliness.

  19. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.

    1990-06-01

    Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)

  20. [Study on Flavonoids in Buddleja lindleyana Fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Ren, Ya-shuo; Wu, De-ling; Xu, Feng-qing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To study the flavonoids in the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana. The compounds were separated by repeated silica gel, RP-18 and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral data. Five flavonoids were isolated and identified as luteolin (1), tricin (2), acacetin (3), acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and linarin(5). Compounds 3,4 and 5 are isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time. Compound 2 is isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time.

  1. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  2. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references

  3. Impact of a school-based intervention to promote fruit intake: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, R; Araújo, A; Padrão, P; Lopes, O; Moreira, A; Abreu, S; Vale, S; Pereira, B; Moreira, P

    2016-07-01

    There is evidence that fruit consumption among school children is below the recommended levels. This study aims to examine the effects of a dietary education intervention program me, held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of fruit as a dessert at lunch and dinner, among children 6-12 years old. This is a randomized trial with the schools as the unit of randomisation. A total of 464 children (239 female, 6-12years) from seven elementary schools participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Three schools were allocated to the intervention and four to the control group. For the intervention schools, we delivered professional development training to school teachers (12 sessions of 3 h each). The training provided information about nutrition, healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop classroom activities focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic was assessed at baseline and anthropometric, dietary intake and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-h dietary recall and fruit consumption as a dessert was gathered at lunch and dinner. Intervened children reported a significant higher intake in the consumption of fruit compared to the controlled children at lunch (P = 0.001) and at dinner (P = 0.012), after adjusting for confounders. Our study provides further support for the success of intervention programmes aimed at improving the consumption of fruit as a dessert in children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Snake Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鲁

    1993-01-01

    The Parisian Transit Authority (RATP) has beguntesting a new train it hopes will be the 'metro① of theyear 2000': a 150-foot-long continuous tube dubbed② the'Boa.' The train is not sectioned off into cars③, thusallowing as many as 890 passengers to walk from one endof the Boa to the other. Swiveling axles beneath the train

  5. Radioactivity distribution in each part of the fruit trees from radioactive fall out (8). Prediction of peach fruit radiocaesium concentration by thinning fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    To explore the predictability of radiocaesium concentration in the mature peach fruits based on the radiocaesium concentration in the young superfluous fruits picked at the fruit thinning period, the change in the radiocaesium concentration as well as potassium ("4"0K) in peach fruits associated with fruit growth was monitored during the second year after the accident of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima. Radiocaesium concentration was found to be highest in the fruit 15 days after the full bloom stage, followed by the gradual decrease before harvest. In addition, variation of radiocaesium and "4"0K concentration with time was shown to be different in leaves and fruits. Finally, the young fruits 60 days after the full bloom date and the ripe fruits were taken from 24 orchards in Fukushima to compare their radiocaesium levels. The predictability of radiocaesium concentration and some considerations for practical use are discussed. (author)

  6. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PASSION FRUIT C03 PROGENIES UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS LACY SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate different fertilization-management strategies in ten progenies of passion fruit from the third recurrent selection cycle and their effects on yield and fruit-quality traits. For this purpose, we adopted the strategy of correlations analysis, using the phenotypic and path correlations in different environmental conditions characterized by three levels of fertilization. The trial was set up as a randomized-block design in a split-plot arrangement with progenies representing the plots and three levels of potassium-nitrogen fertilization as the sub-plots, with three replicates. Path analysis showed that number of fruits was the variable of highest correlation with fruit diameter at fertilization I. Fruit weight and pulp weight were correlated with each other and with other traits like fruit length and fruit diameter at the three fertilization levels, except for number of fruits, which was correlated with nitrogen and potassium only at fertilization II. Path analysis also revealed that fruit diameter (3.125 showed the highest direct effect on yield at fertilization I. However, fruit weight and number of fruits showed, at fertilization II, the highest direct effects of 2.964 and 1.134 on yield, respectively, and number of fruits had a high phenotypic correlation and direct effect on yield at the three fertilization levels: 0.528 at fertilization I; 2.206 at fertilization II; and 0.928 at fertilization III. The results demonstrate the greater direct effect obtained with fertilization II, suggesting that the level adopted at fertilization II can provide satisfactory gains in yield and is thus recommended for the population in question.

  8. Serbia on the international fruit market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a comparative analysis of some of the most important indicators of both global and domestic fruit market. It shows the results of a study on the volume, dynamics and the structure of production, as well as the trade of fruit at the global level, that is continents and some countries. It also defines leading producers, trends in the international trade, and leading exporters and importers of these products. Besides, it analyses the position of Serbia in the international fruit market based on the spectre of the aforementioned criteria. Subsequently, balances, structure and regional trends in Serbian foreign trade exchange of fresh and processed fruit has been analyzed. Additionally, attention has been focused on the requirements, possibilities, measures and development trends of domestic production and export of analyzed products. .

  9. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make it easier to pass on the tempting snack foods. You’ll have more of your food budget for vegetables and fruits. Try canned or frozen Compare the price and the number of servings from fresh, canned, ...

  10. Enhanced Preservation of Fruits Using Nanotechnology (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Taking new technologies to market Research on scaling up will identify suitable, ... volumes of fruits -packaging for different market requirements -extending the ... A new IDRC-supported project will help improve water conservation and use for ...

  11. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  12. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial entity was isolated  from the diseased materials. In a pathogenicity test, the isolated bacteria caused the same symptom as mentioned. In the growing-on test the crown of the heavily infected fruit  showed  heart rot symptom.  Those  indicated that the disease was pineapple fruit collapse. Both symptoms were known related to the same causal agent, Erwinia chrysanthemi (pineapple strain Dickeya sp.. In our opinion, this is the first report of pineapple fruit collapse in Indonesia.

  13. Report about star fruit fruits damaged by Amazona albifrons Sparman, in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Sánchez-Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, the animal species causing damage to inmature fruits of Averrhoa carambola, in a home garden. The study was conducted in a home garden with two star fruit trees in Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico (18°00’10.9’’ N, 93°25’52.2’’ W. The loss of fruits was registered from June 21st to August 2nd, 2015 based on weekly evaluations. 12 637 fruits were toppled by the bird Amazona albifrons Sparman (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae, which is distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica.

  14. FRUITFUL: Integrated supply-chain information system for fruit produce between South Africa and the Netherlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polderijk, JJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available and improved quality performance, which would strengthen the market position of South-African fruit and that of related fruit supply 130 J.J. POLDERDIJK ET AL. chains on the world market. As a result of this, stakeholders in the fruit export supply chain... choice between an overarching system that would replace existing systems and a decentralized system focusing on interfaces between existing facilities. SOUTH-AFRICAN FRUIT EXPORT INDUSTRY South Africa’s climate and soil condition provide ideal...

  15. Becquerel in raw fruit and vegetables?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1989-01-01

    After a general introduction and definition of the basic terms, the quantity of radionuclides of natural and artificial origin in our environment is shown. The specific activity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in fruit and vegetables before and after the accident in Chernobyl is demonstrated. Finally, the quantity of the radioactivity consumed by the human being with fruit and vegetable is compared with the values of the total food consumption. (orig./HP) [de

  16. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  17. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bianco

    Full Text Available Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes.In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies.This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  18. Dehydration of core/shell fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Yang, Xiaosong; Cao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Chen, B.; Zhang, Jian J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated core/shell fruits, such as jujubes, raisins and plums, show very complex buckles and wrinkles on their exocarp. It is a challenging task to model such complicated patterns and their evolution in a virtual environment even for professional animators. This paper presents a unified physically-based approach to simulate the morphological transformation for the core/shell fruits in the dehydration process. A finite element method (FEM), which is based on the multiplicative decomposition...

  19. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  20. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  1. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  2. Investigation of fruit irradiation: bibliographical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)

  3. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  4. Understanding the effects of slip pruning on pineapple fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple fruit quality is important especially when fruits are exported to international markets. Fruits should meet minimum requirements such as a weight of at least 0.7 kg, a ratio between the crown length and infructescence (fruit without the crown) length ranging from 0.5 to 1.5, and a Brix

  5. 9578 influence of fruit maturity on antioxidant potential and chilling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Fruits harvested earlier (OHD-7) recorded the highest ... associated with fruit consumption, the production and sale of fruits is a source of ... inducing CI resistance in carbon dioxide (CO2) treated peach fruits stored at 7 oC for ..... is used as a signal to trigger other defence mechanisms in plants, sometimes protecting.

  6. Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cagaita fruits are subject to seasonality and perishability. This work aims to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, texture, color and physical structure of cagaita fruits coated with different chitosan concentrations. The fruits were divided as follows: T0 (uncoated fruits), ...

  7. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants per class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people ...

  8. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people w...

  9. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  10. Fruit and vegetable consumption: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Debbie L; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Larsen, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Few people on Prince Edward Island meet the goal of consuming five or more servings of vegetables and fruit a day. The main objective of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of the nutritional benefits and barriers to vegetable and fruit intake among adult women in Prince Edward Island. Participants were 40 women aged 20-49, with or without children at home, who were or were not currently meeting the objective of eating five or more fruit and vegetable servings a day. In-home, one-on-one interviews were used for data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Data were examined for trustworthiness in the context of credibility, transferability, and dependability. Most participants identified one or more benefits of eating fruit and vegetables; however, comments tended to be non-specific. The main barriers that participants identified were effort, lack of knowledge, sociopsychological and socioenvironmental factors, and availability. Internal influences, life events, and food rules were identified as encouraging women to include vegetables and fruit in their diets. Given the challenges of effecting meaningful dietary change, dietitians must look for broader dietary behavioural interventions that are sensitive to women's perceptions of benefits and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake.

  11. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  12. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  13. 75 FR 39046 - Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a Subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom, Including Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,116] Russell Brands, LLC..., 2009, applicable to workers of Russell Brands, LLC, Fabrics Division, a subsidiary of Fruit of the Loom... applicable to TA-W-71,116 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Russell Brands, LLC, Fabric Division, a...

  14. Empowerment Strategy Through Salak Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This articles aims to understand the practice of empowerment through assistance to salak farmers. The study includes 60 salak fruit farmers which are taken as the samples. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the obtained data from the study. The research result shows that most respondents have the relative low level of empowerment. The empowerment level from business aspect explain that most of the respondent (73% are never and could not got the financial assistant to develop their business. Likewise, it could be happen in the technological access, most of the respondent (56,7% explain that in the production process the technology that used is base on traditional and hereditary. So, it is depend on labour relieves when the production and harvest process. Furthermore, the research shows that a low level of a capability to access the market information. It could be seen that most of the farmers (38,3% directly selling their product to the consumers and 33,3% sell their product to the broker. The empowerment from non economic aspect could be seen from the low ability of lobbying aspect, like the asking for a relieves from their colleagues at the local government officer (10%, financial institution like cooperation, bank and etc (25%, society figures (32,1%, employees (32,1%, non government institution/ academision (10% and a families (93,3%. To empower the farmers in order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to built a partnership by empowerment strategy. The empowerment strategy that involves industry as the farmers’ partner is carried out to improve the empowerment of the farmers of salak fruits.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi praktek pemberdayaan melalui pendampingan petani buah salak. Sebanyak 60 orang petani salak diambil sebagai sampel. Analisis deskriptif telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di daerah penelitian mengaku pada

  15. Influence of environmental factors on mineral elements transport and accumulation in leaves and fruits of kiwifruit plants [Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev.) C.F.Liang et A.R.Ferguson; Basilicata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanaro, G.; Dichio, B.; Palese, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of light availability on actinidia leaf and fruit N, P, K, Ca and Mg accumulation is reported. At fruit-set, exposed and shaded treatments were imposed. Fruit and leaf transpiration was measured using a portable gas exchanges analyser (ADC-LCA4). Sap flow was monitored on whole canes using the Dynagage Sap-Flow (heat balance method). Transpiration of exposed leaves was on average 66% higher than the one of shaded leaves. Sap flow of exposed canes was on average 53 g mE-2 per day; the shadow treatment determined a 60% decrease of sap flow. These differences affected the accumulation of those minerals, notably calcium, which are transported mainly via xylem. Fruit calcium content reached approximately 40 mg fruitE-1 in exposed fruits, while in the shaded ones it was 23 mg fruitE-1. Our results suggest that a greater light availability can promote calcium accumulation. Therefore, the accurate training system management, favouring light interception by canopy and fruits, could be a tool for fruit quality improvement [it

  16. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  17. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study).

  18. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula. We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study.

  19. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  20. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  1. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lidia Nogueira; Santos, Mírian Silva; Dutra, Vivian Siqueira; Araujo, Elton Lucio; Costa, Marco Antonio; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sor...

  2. The role of leaves and fruits in determining the specific cultivar characters of peach fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolov, P.; Petrov, A.

    1982-01-01

    At the Institute of Fruit Growing, Plovdiv, triple buds were grafted on the crowns of 6 year-old peach trees in the following cultivar combinations: 1. Springtime (early8 ripening in the second half of June, white fleshed) on Rio oso gem (late, ripening in the first half of September, yellow fleshed); 2. Fillette (early, ripening in the second half of June, yellow fleshed) on Rio oso gem; 3. Rio oso gem on Springtime; 4. Rio oso gem on Fillette. At the begining of the following growing period the development of the grafted generative organs was fully dependent on assimilates produced by the leaves of the other cultivar. The interrelations between the leaves and the fruits in the various combinations were followed by biometrical and radio-isotopic ( 14 C) methods. Results substantiated the conclusion that the genetic information on the development of the specific cultivar characters such as flavour, arome, skin colour, fruit flesh texture and colour, fruit size and date of ripening was borne by the fruits themselves. The synthetic processes of the leaves during photosynthesis are not directly related with the synthetic processes producing the fruits' organic matter. The basic constructing substances were produced in the leaves and were transported to the fruits, where they were subjected to metabolic transformations in accordance with the biological characteristics of the cultivar and the phase of fruit development

  3. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Rhodes, R.

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit

  4. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  5. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  6. Instructor training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    A SAT-based Instructor Training Course was developed and implemented at NVTC. The duration of the initial course is 3 weeks and 2 weeks for annual refresher course. NVTC has had much experience with this Instructor Training Course generating the following lessons-learned: SAT implementation needs to be supported by plant management; age of instructors; developments of training materials and conducting training at the same time; knowledge and use of the PC; English language skills; social transitioning from the NPP to the TC; motivation; workplace environment and conditions

  7. Early Yield Prediction Using Image Analysis of Apple Fruit and Tree Canopy Features with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Since early yield prediction is relevant for resource requirements of harvesting and marketing in the whole fruit industry, this paper presents a new approach of using image analysis and tree canopy features to predict early yield with artificial neural networks (ANN; (2 Methods: Two back propagation neural network (BPNN models were developed for the early period after natural fruit drop in June and the ripening period, respectively. Within the same periods, images of apple cv. “Gala” trees were captured from an orchard near Bonn, Germany. Two sample sets were developed to train and test models; each set included 150 samples from the 2009 and 2010 growing season. For each sample (each canopy image, pixels were segmented into fruit, foliage, and background using image segmentation. The four features extracted from the data set for the canopy were: total cross-sectional area of fruits, fruit number, total cross-section area of small fruits, and cross-sectional area of foliage, and were used as inputs. With the actual weighted yield per tree as a target, BPNN was employed to learn their mutual relationship as a prerequisite to develop the prediction; (3 Results: For the developed BPNN model of the early period after June drop, correlation coefficients (R2 between the estimated and the actual weighted yield, mean forecast error (MFE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and root mean square error (RMSE were 0.81, −0.05, 10.7%, 2.34 kg/tree, respectively. For the model of the ripening period, these measures were 0.83, −0.03, 8.9%, 2.3 kg/tree, respectively. In 2011, the two previously developed models were used to predict apple yield. The RMSE and R2 values between the estimated and harvested apple yield were 2.6 kg/tree and 0.62 for the early period (small, green fruit and improved near harvest (red, large fruit to 2.5 kg/tree and 0.75 for a tree with ca. 18 kg yield per tree. For further method verification, the cv.

  8. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  9. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...... intake was assessed, using two 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and at endpoint. Setting: Eight Danish workplaces were enrolled in the study. Five workplaces were in the IG and three were in the CG. Subjects: One hundred and twenty-four (IG, n 68; CG, n 56) healthy, mainly normal-weight participants were....... Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake...

  10. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.

  11. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  12. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid El Idrissi, M.; R'Kiek, C.; Farahat Laaroussi, S.; Zantar; Mouhib, M.; El Guerrouj, D.; Toukour, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  13. A brief history of fruits and frugivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

  14. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  15. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours.

  16. Researches of fruit quality prediction model based on near infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yulin; Li, Lian

    2018-04-01

    With the improvement in standards for food quality and safety, people pay more attention to the internal quality of fruits, therefore the measurement of fruit internal quality is increasingly imperative. In general, nondestructive soluble solid content (SSC) and total acid content (TAC) analysis of fruits is vital and effective for quality measurement in global fresh produce markets, so in this paper, we aim at establishing a novel fruit internal quality prediction model based on SSC and TAC for Near Infrared Spectrum. Firstly, the model of fruit quality prediction based on PCA + BP neural network, PCA + GRNN network, PCA + BP adaboost strong classifier, PCA + ELM and PCA + LS_SVM classifier are designed and implemented respectively; then, in the NSCT domain, the median filter and the SavitzkyGolay filter are used to preprocess the spectral signal, Kennard-Stone algorithm is used to automatically select the training samples and test samples; thirdly, we achieve the optimal models by comparing 15 kinds of prediction model based on the theory of multi-classifier competition mechanism, specifically, the non-parametric estimation is introduced to measure the effectiveness of proposed model, the reliability and variance of nonparametric estimation evaluation of each prediction model to evaluate the prediction result, while the estimated value and confidence interval regard as a reference, the experimental results demonstrate that this model can better achieve the optimal evaluation of the internal quality of fruit; finally, we employ cat swarm optimization to optimize two optimal models above obtained from nonparametric estimation, empirical testing indicates that the proposed method can provide more accurate and effective results than other forecasting methods.

  17. Field training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, G.E.; Hadaway, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    Individualized, personal training can be used to increase an employee's awareness of the HSE program. Such training can stimulate personal commitment and provide personal skills that can be utilized for the benefit of the overall HSE effort. But, providing such training within our industry can be a difficult task due to the scheduling, travel arrangements, and cost associated with bringing employees from isolated, remote locations to centrally located training facilities. One method of overcoming these obstacles involves the use of field instructors to provide the training at the many, and varied number of individuals can be reached with minimal disruption to their work scheduling or to their time off. In fact, this type of on-site training is already used by some oil companies and drilling contractors with encouraging results. This paper describes one drilling contractor's experiences with such a training program. The results after eight years how that this program not only can provide and efficient, economical means of employee training, but also can have a direct application to employee motivation regarding a company's HSE effort

  18. [Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue collects three articles concerning reading-teacher training. "Language, Failure, and Panda Bears" by Patricia M. Cunningham calls attention to dialect difficulties in the classroom and provides ideas for teacher training programs and for public schools to solve this problem. William H. Rupley, in "Improving Teacher Effectiveness in…

  19. resonant inverter supplied interior permanent magnet (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    [5] Zhenyue Hong, “DC-voltage link resonant inverters”, Department of Electrical and. Electronic Engineering University of. Canterbury, New Zealand. [6] Kalyan Kumar Halder, Naruttam Kumar Roy and B.C. Ghosh, “Position Sensorless. Control for an Interior Permanent Magnet. Synchronous Motor SVM Drive with ANN.

  20. STERF's forsknings- og udviklingsprogram om IPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Der er i STERF (Scandinavian Turfgrass and Environment Research Foundation) regi udformet et fælles nordisk forsknings- og udviklingsprogram (FoU) i forhold til Eu direktivet omkring bæredygtig anvendelse af pesticider......Der er i STERF (Scandinavian Turfgrass and Environment Research Foundation) regi udformet et fælles nordisk forsknings- og udviklingsprogram (FoU) i forhold til Eu direktivet omkring bæredygtig anvendelse af pesticider...

  1. ENGLISH TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...

  2. Operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-12-01

    The traditional operator job is changing, which among other things has generated a need for better job training. Surprisingly increased process automation has lead to increased operator qualifications, i.e. basic job training but also up-date and rehearsal training within certain fixed intervals. There are several, similar models for instructional system development available in the literature. One model which is of special interest integrates Operator Training development and Man-Machine Interfaces development. The extent to which Systematic Operator Training has been implemented varies with branches and companies. The nuclear power branch is given as an example in the report. This branch probably represents something better than the average among the process industries.(author)

  3. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  4. Detection Of Irradiated Fruits And Assessment Of Quality Parameters Of The Stone Fruits During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Magide, A.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to detect the irradiated fruits and assess the quality parameters of plums (Prunus domestica L., cv. Pioneer) and peaches (Prunus persica Bausch, cv. Swilling) fruits treated with gamma irradiation. This investigation was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity, irradiated with the doses 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (0±1°C, RH 80%) then evaluated at intervals of 7, 10 and 21 days (the end cold storage period) followed by 5 days of storage under market condition (20±2°C, RH 80%). Electron spin resonance (ESR) was carried out for determination of free radicals by using dried layers of plum and peach kernels. Fruit characters included weight loss %, fruit firmness (kgf), discarded fruits %, soluble solid contents (SSC, ºBrix), total titratable acidity (TA%), respiration rate and sensory evaluation tastes. ESR results proved the possibility of identification of irradiated fruits by using dried stone kernels. The results showed that ESR intensities were sensitive for all applied doses even at low doses of 0.5 or 1.0 kGy which was applied for dis infestations, to extend the shelf-life of fruits or to detect the irradiated stored fresh samples was carried out at the 7th, 10th and 21st days. The linear relationship resulted between ESR intensity and applied doses showed high significant correlation coefficient (R2) for the irradiated samples. However, ESR intensity was decreased gradually during long storage period but can identify clearly the irradiated samples. Irradiation treatment at 0.5 kGy for P ioneer p lums and at 0.5 or 0.75 kGy for S willing p eaches was effective in slowing the rate of losing of fruits weight and decreasing the discarded fruits percentage. Furthermore, it has significant effects on reducing respiration rate, maintaining higher soluble solid contents and decreasing total titratable acidity. Referring to sensory

  5. Is the consumption of fruit cariogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Evans, Robin Wendell

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for dental caries in primary school children. Children aged 10-12 years (n = 257) residing in Lithgow, a non-fluoridated community in New South Wales, Australia, were examined for caries experience in the permanent dentition. Information on dental practices, diet, residential movements, and socioeconomic status were obtained from self-completed questionnaires. Caries risk in the permanent teeth was associated with social disadvantage and diet. Among the dietary factors, the frequency of fruit consumption was associated with higher odds of caries experience (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence intervals: 1.05, 2.21). Exposure to a high level of fruit consumption was suggestive of increased caries risk. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate the relationship between fruit consumption and dental caries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary......-individual variation in the absorption and urinary recovery of the flavonoids, and this makes it very difficult to separate individuals according to intake by use of the flavonoid biomarker in urine. The intra-individual variation was on the contrary low, and Paper II therefore supports the assumption, that 24h...

  7. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  8. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers.

  9. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers

  10. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  11. THE STUDY OF NATIVE SMALL FRUITS BIOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding programs of the European countries are based on biotypes from wild flora, because they are the true sources of genes. These genes are able to print in the future cultivars resistance to diseases, pests and climatic stress, and also fruits with the best flavor and phytoterapeutic resources. In this aim, Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni conducted numerous studies of exploring the wild flora in different areas of the country. Following these expeditions were identified numerous biotypes of cornelian cherry, rosehip and seabuckthorn. All these native biotypes were subjected to studies of phenology, productivity, and quality of fruits. These researches identified the highest productivity in the following biotypes: MS-40 (cornelian cherry, RC-CN (rose hip and MPR2P3 (seabuckthorn.

  12. Improving and Conserving Sahelian Fruits Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedraogo, Moussa

    Native Sahelian fruit trees are well known for their economic value and their nutritional importance for local populations. Their products are a source of income and a source of calories, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, especially vital for children. Fruit trees are crucial for the people...... in West Africa Sahel during the food shortage period, lasting 6-8 months a year in this region. However, the availability of fruit trees is declining due to increased demographic pressure and climate variability (drought) that is occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Besides compromising...... the availability of important resources for rural people, reduced abundance of target species can lead to loss of genetic variation within species, which again can reduce the capacity of trees and shrubs to adapt to environmental change and reduce the gain farmers can realize from selection. Parkia biglobosa...

  13. Lead content of roadside fruit and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, G W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Blackberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries, holly berries and rose hips have been examined for their lead content, which has been shown to be directly related to the proximity of the growing fruit and berries to roads, the traffic density and the time of exposure. The maximum levels found (in ppm for undried fruit and berries) were blackberries 0.85, elderberries 6.77, hawthorn berries 23.8, holly berries 3.5 and rose hips 1.45. Very thorough washing with water removed 40-60% of the lead from heavily contaminated fruit and berries. When elderberries were used for winemaking over 60% of the lead was extracted and remained in solution in the wine. 25 references, 4 tables.

  14. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    Dried fruits are considered a major source of income and foreign exchange in many countries. The spoilage of dried fruits and nuts by insect infestation, colour deterioration and chemical changes during storage are the serious problems especially under humid tropical conditions. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of irradiation in combination with different modified storage environments on insect infestation as well as chemical and sensory quality indices. The affect of gamma radiation dose of 1 KGy and storage environments such as air vacuum and carbon dioxide on insect infestation of dry fruits and nuts. In the case of un-irradiated samples, insect infestation progressed throughout the storage period especially in those kept under air. The vacuum storage was found better in checking infestation followed by CO/sub/2 and air. (orig./A.B.)

  15. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  16. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-02-27

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  17. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette

    2006-02-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.

  18. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  19. Fruit diet of Alouatta guariba and Brachyteles arachnoides in Southeastern Brazil: comparison of fruit type, color, and seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Milene Moura

    2008-01-01

    Fruit is an important food resource for neotropical primates. In this study I compare the fruit diet of sympatric brown howlers (Alouatta guariba) and southern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Feeding behavior was studied over 12 months and fruit species consumed were identified and assigned to the categories fruit type, fruit color, and seed size. Observed-fruit feeding records were compared with expected records determined from local availability of the fruit of the tree species. I also determined dietary overlap. Fruit consumption occupied 8 and 12% of the feeding time of A. guariba and B. arachnoides, respectively. Fruit from eight tree species were consumed by the former and fruit from twenty-two species by the latter. Patterns of fruit selection of A. guariba and B. arachnoides varied widely. Although howlers and muriquis converge behaviorally by selecting fruit with common attributes (fleshy/unprotected, violet and brown/black-colored), unlike A. guariba, B. arachnoides fed on immature seeds of fleshy/protected and dry fruit. Large seeds were ingested, and defecated intact, by B. arachnoides only. There was little overlap of fruit diet even within categories that had been selected by both, suggesting that dietary divergence is occurring at the interspecific level. Different resource exploitation probably mediates the coexistence of A. guariba and B. arachnoides in low diversity, semideciduous forests, where the environment imposes narrow limits on primate food choices.

  20. Using genomics to improve fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    New fruit varieties are needed to satisfy consumers, and the industry is facing new challenges in order to respond to these demands. The emergence of genomic tools is releasing information on polymorphisms that can be utilized to expedite breeding processes in species that are difficult to breed, given the long periods of time required to get new varieties. The present review describes the current stages of the ongoing efforts that are being taken to apply these technologies to obtain varieties with improved fruit quality in species of the family Rosaceae.

  1. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  2. A review of pruning fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Koc, A. B.; Wang, X. N.; Jiang, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    The focus of this review is to present the results of studies and articles about ways to prune fruit trees. Pruning should be done in late winter or early spring so that the infection risk can be significantly decreased. This review will also offer an overview of methods to prevent infections and speed up recovery on the trees. The following is an interpretation of why high-power ultrasonic assisted pruning in the fruits trees is needed and will elaborate on the efficiency, labor costs, and safety, as well as space, location, and some environmental issues.

  3. Excellent fruits of national research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This book introduces 100 excellent fruits of research and development in Korea. Such as. It show the titles of 100 excellent fruits about technology of hope to give people healthy life, technology of product and abundance to enrich resource, technology to make green growth and sound society, next service technology to communicate with network, new electron technology to brings life change, technology to draw innovation of industrial fields, technology to build higher value-added product with new fusion materials and technology to share and to create future knowledge.

  4. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  5. Training Attestations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2004-01-01

    In the past, paper Training Attestations were printed during the first quarter of a New Year for Staff Members having followed courses and seminars the previous year in the context of CERN's official Training Programmes.  The attestations were sent to Divisional Training Officers (DTO's) for distribution to all Staff Members concerned within their Division. In practise many Staff Members did not find this paper useful, however some expressed a wish to be able to have access to a self-service facility in case of need. This change was discussed by the Joint Training Board (JTB) and with the DTO's during 2003 and was supported. As a consequence, following a collaboration between HR-PMD and IT-AIS, from 2004 onwards paper Training Attestations will no longer be printed and distributed as before. Those requiring a list of training followed in the past can now obtain their attestation directly from the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application for all training followed since 1997. https://hrt.cern...

  6. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  7. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  8. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  9. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  10. Effects of fruit thinning, covering of the fruit truss and CO2 enrichment on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] production under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nomura, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2009-01-01

    Radial fruit cracking (RFC) can contribute to serious economic losses in tomato production under rain shelter in cool uplands. In order to investigate the effects of translocation and distribution of photosynthate to the fruits during the occurrence of RFC, tomato plants were grown under treatments with fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, which regulate the strength of sink and source, and treatments with covering of the fruit truss, which decreases solar radiation incident on the fruit surface. The occurrence of RFC was increased by fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, and decreased by covering of fruit truss. Time course of the percentage of RFC to total harvest showed a remarkable rise toward the end of August and toward the end of October in 2004, when harvested fruit weight was increasing. These finding suggest that RFC is attributed to excessive enlargement of the fruit by promotion of translocation and distribution of photosynthate from leaves (source) to fruits (sink) and the solar radiation incident on the fruits. In addition, the relation between RFC and the generation of a cork layer is considered

  11. Driverless Train

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Julia; Berglund, Emma

    2017-01-01

    As automation increases in train services, this project resulted in making a driver-less train. The main purpose was to see how security can be increased. By using sensors, today’s technologies and rebuild the stations with walls on the platforms, the safety can increase for the better. This project designs a railway system consisting of a train, boom barriers and a station. The mechanical parts were made from scratch to get the system to work beneficially. The use of Arduino as a micro contro...

  12. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  13. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard.

  14. Resuscitation training.

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, A.

    1995-01-01

    All physicians, dentists, nurses and health care personnel should be adequately and regularly trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Guidelines for acquiring the necessary skills in basic and advanced life support are now available.

  15. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're overdoing it, slow down. As your stamina improves, challenge yourself to vary the pace. You ... exercise training modes in young and old humans. Cell Metabolism. 2017;25:581. Xie B, et al. ...

  16. Nutritive, Value of Selected' Forest/woodland' Edible "Fruits, Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, reducing sugar and'vitamin'C of edible portioh:of fruit pulp of selected forest .... neuromuscular excitability, blood coagulation,. Uluguru Mountains in ..... for wider production of fruits, nuts or seeds. . Acknowledgement.

  17. Fruit tree model for uptake of organic compounds from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rasmussen, D.; Samsoe-Petersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    -state, and an example calculation is given. The Fruit Tree Model is compared to the empirical equation of Travis and Arms (T&A), and to results from fruits, collected in contaminated areas. For polar compounds, both T&A and the Fruit Tree Model predict bioconcentration factors fruit to soil (BCF, wet weight based......) of > 1. No empirical data are available to support this prediction. For very lipophilic compounds (log K-OW > 5), T&A overestimates the uptake. The conclusion from the Fruit Tree Model is that the transfer of lipophilic compounds into fruits is not relevant. This was also found by an empirical study...... with PCDD/F. According to the Fruit Tree Model, polar chemicals are transferred efficiently into fruits, but empirical data to verify these predictions are lacking....

  18. Strawberry Anthracnose Ripe Fruit Rot and Management Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Briefly describes anthracnose symptoms on ripe strawberry fruit, then recommends ways to manage for the anthracnose, including removal and burying or burning infected and nearby plants, avoiding overhead irrigation, and picking fruits from the infected areas last.

  19. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortmann, FG

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  20. Evaluation Of Growth And Development In Mango Fruits Cvs. Julie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Growth And Development In Mango Fruits Cvs. Julie And Peter To Determine Maturity. ... Two mango cultivars viz., Julie and Peter, were studied for growth and development of fruits in 2001 and 2002 ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and economics of production of rabbits. ... The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of wine from mango fruit ( Mangifera indica ) varieties in Kenya. ... Six mature and unripe mango fruits were harvested three times from a farm in Katheka Kai Division, Machakos County ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    and petri dishes on moist filter paper, gave 80% germination in variety gabonensis, 20 weeks after fruiting. .... Effect of pretreatments on seed germination of fruits of Irvingia gabonensis plucked from forest ...... A review of the tariff structure and.

  4. The role of fruit consumption in the prevention of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety...... effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected...... to the dietary pattern of fruit intake, and with the possibility that fruit intake may substitute for other, more energy-dense foods. The majority of human prospective cohort studies in adults suggest a preventive effect of increased fruit intake oil body weight gain; whereas a few studies have suggested...

  5. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and Seeds Production of Irvingia Gabonensis (O' Rorke) and Its Economic Importance in Edo ... Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Irvingia gabonensis is one of the most important indigenous fruit trees cultivated and ...

  7. The bromine content of some Dutch crops and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Admiraal, P.; Kok, H.A.; Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.

    1975-09-01

    The natural bromine-content of Dutch potatoes, vegetables and fruits was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results are given for 348 samples divided over 20 crops and fruits. The data are compared to values published in the literature

  8. Personnel Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The professional training of employees for Units 3 and 4 of the Mochovce Power Plant is approaching finals. At the beginning, in particular the main control room operators were trained, later all the other employees needed for power plant commissioning and operation. In June, the second phase of the project will start; it will be focused on the new equipment of the Units under commissioning. (author)

  9. Supervisor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    on the experience of an integrated supervisor training programme offered in Aalborg, Denmark in 2009/2010. In this programme general issues of professional supervision and the application of artistic media as a core element in the supervisory process were Integrated. It is the hope of the author that this article...... will inspire other music therapists to develop supervisor training programmes for professional music therapists and also to undertake further research into professional supervision....

  10. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT DAMAGE TO APPLE FRUITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... measured in terms of bruise diameter is highly influenced by the drop height. ... other, packaging containers, parts of processing equip- ment and the tree. During ... Where E is the impact energy, m is the mass of the fruit, g is ...

  11. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(1): 39 – 44, 2015. ... Dept of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Federal College of Wildlife Mgt., ... time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the ...

  13. Detection of phytoplasmas of temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are associated with hundreds of plant diseases globally. Many fruit tree phytoplasmas are transmitted by insect vectors or grafting, are considered quarantine organisms and a major economic threat to orchards. Diagnosis can be difficult, but immunochemical and molecular methods have been developed.

  14. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  15. Allergy to Rosaceae fruits without related pollinosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, M.; van Ree, R.; Cuevas, M.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosaceae fruit allergy is frequently associated with birch pollinosis in Central and Northern Europe and with grass pollen allergy in Central Spain. The main cross-reactive structures involved for birch pollinosis are Bet v 1 and profilin, and for grass pollinosis they are profilin and

  16. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  17. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance. (author)

  18. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  19. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  20. Minimally processed fruit salad enriched with Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimal processing promotes browning of some vegetal tissues due to cell membrane disruption, which results in the release of oxidative enzymes. This study evaluated the efficiency of citric acid, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite and L-cysteine hydrochloride to retard enzymatic browning of minimally processed fruit ...

  1. “health benefits” of fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be based on the total polyphenol content provided by the “5-a-day” portions of fruit .... For instance, many of the radical species utilised in these assays ... of selected foods.16,30 The data generated by various TAC assays are also employed ...

  2. SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUITABILITY OF CARAMBOLA ( AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA ) FRUIT JUICE AS A SUBSTRATE FOR WINE FERMENTATION. ... The analysis of the sugars showed glucose, fructose and sucrose as the predominant sugars present. Vitamin C content was substantially high (35 mg/100 g), but fat content was low (0.25%).

  3. Development of Cladium mariscus (L. Pohl. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Marek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ovule and ovary development was investigated with the aim to establish from what is the scleroid cover of the Cladium mariscus fruit derived. It was proved, that like in other members of the Cyperaceae family, it derives from the ovary.

  4. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  5. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and

  6. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  8. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  9. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Guimarães

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals > 10(3 kg, yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10-15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4-10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits > 10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size with either a single or few ( 100 seeds. Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic variation and increased among

  10. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background: Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals .103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings: We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparativ...

  11. How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables?

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Jane; Frazao, Elizabeth; Itskowitz, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to an ERS study, a consumer can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.

  12. Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents.......In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents....

  13. FRUITS IN DIVAN OF NEDIM / NEDIM DIVANI’NDA MEYVELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet ÇÖPLÜOĞLU (M.A.H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study fruit names in Nedim’s divan weredetermined and the similes of fruit names wereexamined. In Nedim’s divan fruit names on the wholewere used for expressing the lover’s body. In this respect,similies were made between almond – eye, apple – chin,pistachio – lip, cherry – lip, pomegranate – breast, orange– chin, breast; peach – cheek. The couplets whichcontain fruit names are given and also an index of thefruit names.

  14. Price Trends Are Similar for Fruits, Vegetables, and Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, Fred; Stewart, Hayden

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the price of fruits and vegetables relative to less healthy foods could reduce consumers’ incentives to purchase fruits and vegetables and result in less healthy diets. Whether such a change in relative prices and incentives has occurred in the United States is difficult to prove because of substantial quality improvements in many fresh fruits and vegetables. For commonly consumed fresh fruits and vegetables for which quality has remained fairly constant, analysis of price tren...

  15. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  16. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  17. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific health issues of consumers and others. The consumption of fruit and vegetables brings into the human body biological active substances that favorably affect the health of consumers. In the presented research study we were interested in differences of consumers' behavior in the consumption of fruit and vegetables according to the place of residence and gender. In the survey 200 respondents has participated; their place of residence was city or village. The existence of dependences and statistical significance were examined by selected statistical testing methods. Firstly we analyzed the responses via statistical F-test whether observed random samples have the same variance. Then we applied two-sample unpaired t-test with equal variance and χ2-test of statistical independence. The statistical significance was tested by corresponding p values. Correlations were proved by the Cramer's V coefficient. We found that place of residence has no impact on the respondents' consumption of fruit. The gender of respondents does not affect their consumption of fruit. Equally, the gender does not affect the respondents' consumption of vegetables. Only in one observed case the significant differences proved that the place of respondent residence has impact on the consumption of vegetables. Higher consumption of vegetables is due to the fact that the majority of citizens, who live in villages, have a possibility to grow their own vegetables and, thus, the demand for it in village

  18. Efficacy of insecticides in fruit borer control and residues on sugar apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest production of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L., and fruit borer (Cerconota anonella, Sepp. 1830 is a key crop pest. Insecticides are the main strategy for pest control even though there are no pesticides registered for this crop. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of insecticides to control fruit borer and determine the levels of insecticide residues in sugar apple fruits aiming at requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticide products in this crop. The experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old irrigated orchard (2 × 4 m located in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 10 treatments (three insecticides with three doses and a control with water and 5 replications. Each plot was composed of four plants but only the two central ones were assessed. Insecticides and doses (g a.i. 100 L−1 water were Bacillus thuringiensis: 0.8, 1.7, and 2.5; triflumuron: 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8; and imidacloprid: 4.0, 10.0, and 16.0. Nine sprayings were carried out at fortnightly intervals with a costal sprayer with constant pressure, JA-2 nozzle, and with jet directed to the fruits. Ten assessments were performed in order to observe fruit borer presence in 30 previously marked fruits per plot. Imidacloprid, at the highest studied dose, was the only effective treatment. Analyses of imidacloprid residues, at 21 and 30 days after the highest dose application, indicated levels higher than the maximum limit allowed. Insecticides under the conditions tested do not meet the norms for requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticides for citrus in sugar apple fruits.

  19. When the BRANCHED network bears fruit: how carpic dominance causes fruit dimorphism in Aethionema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenser, T.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Wilhelmsson, P.; Bennett, T.; Rensing, S. A.; Strnad, Miroslav; Theissen, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2018), s. 352-371 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aethionema arabicum * auxin * branched1 * carpic dominance * cytokinin * fruit development * fruit dimorphism * molecular evolution * phytohormones * shoot branching Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  20. Development and Utilization of Technology on Indian Mango Fruit Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda A. Bronce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This project aimed to develop and utilize technology on Indian mango fruit processing. Chemical properties of matured unripe and ripe Indian mangoes were determined in terms of total sugar, reducing sugar, starch, titratable acidity and pH. Fermentation parameters investigated in the study were amount of sugar added (20 and 25% fermentation medium, acidity of fermentation medium (addition of 1.33 and 1.66 grams of citric acid for ripe and dilution of water for unripe, degree of ripening of Indian mango fruits (ripe and unripe and ageing period (3 and 4 months. Sixteen treatments were done in triplicates and a composite sample was taken from each treatment for sensory evaluation. Results of the preference test were subjected to statistical analysis. The physicochemical properties of Indian mango wine produced using best fermentation parameters were determined. Appropriate packaging material was selected and packaging design was developed for Indian mango wine. Project cooperators were selected and the technology was transferred through training and production runs. Results of preference test showed that the wine with best sensory properties was prepared using matured unripe Indian mango diluted with water and added with 25% sugar. According to the panel of sensory experts, the taste of Indian mango wine was strong with proper blending of sweetness and sourness, its mouth feel was smooth and good balance, aroma was hot pungent and its color and appearance was clear and light yellow. Its titratable acidity was 0.622%, pH was 5, alcohol content was 11% and brix was 5°.

  1. modification of sequence of unit operations in mechanized palm fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palm fruits processing sector, and requires less .... factory mill is a fully mechanized (non-labour ... in the digested fruit are to be all just touch- ing one ... fruits with human foot to pounding with pes- ... tural Service Bulletin 148 of Food and Agri-.

  2. Effect of hormone treatments on deformed fruit development in pear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    erica

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... of plant growth regulators applications and endogenous hormones on deformed pear fruit to clarify the relation- ship between shape and hormones in the fruit. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The experiments were conducted in 2008 using pear trees growing fruit demonstration farm in Jianning County.

  3. The availability of processed fruit products and their contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit, poverty and post-harvest losses due to lack of skills for processing and storage. The objectives of this research were to survey household consumption of foods especially processed fruit products in Nairobi, and analyze nutritional quality of processed fruit products. Three estates representing different income groups ...

  4. Geohelminth contamination of some common fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and vegetables were bought directly from rural farmers between the hours of 07:00 and 09:00hrs. Separately, each fruit and about 200gram of each type of vegetable was carefully washed in 200ml of distilled water. Formol-ether concentration technique was employed to concentrate the parasites. Fruits examined ...

  5. Diospyros and the myth of the forbidden fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the genus Diospyros (Greek for ‘grain ∞ food of the gods’) there are fruits (persimmons) that are highly valued for eating, fruits used to poison fish, and fruits that are reputed to have poisoned people. To the last category belong the terrible trio of D. demona Bakh. (‘daemona’), D. insidiosa

  6. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber ( Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. The quality of Jujube or Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after harvest depends on storage conditions used. In this study, different storage temperatures and durations were evaluated to determine the appropriate storage conditions of fresh fruits of Z.

  7. Barriers to fruit consumption: Driving forces behind consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briz, T.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Kyriakidi, A.; Dolors Guàrdia, M.; Berg, van den I.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study gives more insight in motives and barriers, i.e. positive and negative drivers, for European fruit consumption, as a basis to meet consumer requirements in developing new types of fruits and fruit products and to develop interventions. For that purpose, focus group discussions

  8. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  9. Storage Methods Of Plantain ( Musa sp. AAB) Fruits Influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that about 67% of fruits stored in plane, yellow and red Po were green after two weeks as against only 8% of fruits lined on LS. The inclusion of sawdust/salt hastened senescence and enhanced disease development. Severity of crown rot was generally lowest in blue polyethylene. Also, fruits stored in ...

  10. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  11. Antioxidant activity and HPTLC profile of Lagenaria siceraria fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The fruits of Lagenar a s cerar a Standl. (Cucurbitaceae) are widely used for medicinal and nutritional purposes in Africa. The health promoting ability of the fruits might be related to antioxidant properties of its constituents. In this study the antioxidant effect of fresh and dried fruits of L. s cerar a was evaluated by.

  12. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Syzygium cordatum fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of S. cordatum fruits and seeds against bacteria causing GIT infections. The harvested fruits were separated into fruit-pulp and seeds, dried and extracted with methanol using Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were phytochemically screened and micro dilution assay was ...

  13. 7 CFR 906.41 - Gift fruit shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gift fruit shipments. 906.41 Section 906.41... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 906.41 Gift fruit shipments. The handling to any person of gift packages of fruit individually addressed to such person, in quantities...

  14. Glycaemic Response to some Commonly Eaten Fruits in Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is not known which of the commonly consumed fruits in Nigeria are suitable for persons with diabetes mellitus especially with regards to the attendant plasma glucose response (PGR) to consumption of such fruits. Objectives: To determine and compare the PGR to commonly eaten fruits in patients with ...

  15. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  16. Composição de bagas de 'Niágara Rosada' e 'Folha-de-Figo' relacionadas ao sistema de condução Fruit composition of 'Niágara Rosada' and 'Folha-de-Figo' grapevines under different training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sistema de condução na qualidade de bagas de uvas 'Niágara Rosada' e 'Folha-de-Figo' cultivadas em Caldas-MG. Foram avaliados a produção por planta, o diâmetro, a massa, o teor de potássio e a temperatura das bagas, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis, açúcares redutores, acidez total e ácidos orgânicos do mosto, compostos fenólicos nas cascas e sementes, e antocianinas. As plantas foram conduzidas em espaldeira, lira, latada ou cordão simples, e os frutos, avaliados nas safras de 2006 e 2007. As videiras de 'Niágara Rosada' cultivadas em latada e 'Folha-de-Figo' em lira apresentaram produção significativamente superior aos demais sistemas de condução. Em todos os casos, as bagas apresentaram temperatura inferior à ambiente, indicando sombreamento completo ou parcial dos cachos. No sistema latada, houve menor acúmulo de sólidos solúveis e açúcares redutores nas duas cultivares. Estes resultados preliminares indicam que a composição das bagas foi pouco influenciada pelo sistema de condução.ABSTRACT This work aimed on evaluating the influence of training systems in berries composition of 'Niágara Rosada' and 'Folha-de-Figo' grapevines grown in Caldas, MG. Yield per plant; diameter, weight, temperature and potassium content of the berries; pH, soluble solids, reducing sugars, total acidity and organic acids of the must; anthocyanins and phenolic compounds of the skins and phenolic compounds of the seeds were evaluated in grapevines training in vertical shoot position, lyre trellis, pergola Veronese or simple string in 2006 and 2007 seasons. 'Niágara Rosada' and 'Folha-de-Figo' grapevines training in pergola Veronese and lyre trellis, respectively, showed higher yield than the other training systems under study. Berries grown under the four different training systems were cooler than ambient temperature, resulting from partial or deep shade clusters. Berries

  17. Importance of fruit variability in the assessment of apple quality by sensory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavay, Cécile; Symoneaux, Ronan; Maître, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    cultivars, apples were sorted into homogenous acoustic firmness categories within each cultivar. The discrimination ability of the trained panel was observed not only between cultivars but also within each cultivar for crunchiness, firmness, juiciness and acidity. Following these results, a mixed......The assessment of produce quality is a major aspect of applied postharvest biology. Horticultural researchers working on organoleptic quality of fruit need objective methods for the evaluation of sensory properties. The development of sensory methodologies specifically for apples highlighted...... the problem of handling variation due to fruit variability and assessor differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight of within-batch variability in sensory evaluation of apples and to propose a methodology that accounts for this variability. Prior to sensory analysis, for three apple...

  18. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  19. Effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance at the beginning of weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, C.; Vries, de J.; Mojet, J.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on an infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance during the first 18 days of weaning. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to a type of vegetable or fruit, would increase its intake. Furthermore, we expected that

  20. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from

  1. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  2. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  3. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  4. Physiological Responses and Fruit Retention of Carambola Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. Induced by 2,4-D and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEKTI KURNIAWATI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in cultivation of carambola fruit is the high of flower and fruit drop during fruit development. To understand these problems and to improve fruit retention, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and total sugar in carambola fruit and leaves were analysed in response to application of gibberellic acid (GA3 and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The experiments used 1,5 year old of carambola plants (Averrhoa carambola L. var Dewi grown in polybag of 40 x 50 cm. GA3 with the concentration of 0, 20, 40, and 60 ppm and 2,4-D of 0, 5, 10, and 15 ppm were applied to the flower and the supporting leaves of carambola plant. The parameters analysed were number of flower drop, fruit formation, fruit retention, number of harvestable fruit per cluster, fruit weight per cluster, the content of sugar in the leaves and IAA in the fruit. The result showed that IAA content of the fruit increased in response to single as well as combination of GA3 and 2,4-D application. Sugar content of the leaves also increased in response to GA3 and 2,4-D application; however, the pattern was different with that of IAA. The best treatment to improve fruit retention was a single application of 10 ppm 2,4-D or 60 ppm GA3, and combined application of 5 ppm 2,4-D and 60 ppm GA3.

  5. Sensory acceptance of mixed nectar of papaya, passion fruit and acerola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Fernando César Akira Urbano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nectars are beverages formulated with the juice or pulp of one or more fruits, plus water and sugar in concentrations resulting in a "ready-to-drink" product. Recently, the market for such products has greatly expanded. Fruit mixtures present a series of advantages, such as the combination of different aromas and flavors and the sum of their nutritional components. The objective of this work was to develop a nectar based on papaya pulp and passion fruit juice, enriched with the vitamin C present in acerola pulp, optimizing the formulation using sensory consumer tests and a response surface statistical methodology. Eleven formulations were prepared using different concentrations of papaya pulp and passion fruit juice and sucrose, and maintaining the concentration of acerola pulp constant. The sensory tests were carried out with 22 non-trained panelists using a structured 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate overall acceptance. The acceptance means were submitted to regression analysis, by first calculating a polynomial quadratic equation. A predictive model was adjusted considering only those parameters where P < 0.05, and a response surface was generated. The overall acceptance of nectars of different formulations varied from 5 ("neither liked nor disliked" to more than 7 ("liked moderately", showing that some products can be considered adequate to consumers, like the nectar produced with 37.5% papaya pulp, 7.5% passion fruit juice, and 5.0% acerola pulp, added of 15% sucrose. A quadratic predictive overall acceptance model, with a regression coefficient of 0.97 was obtained. The sensory acceptance of nectars was positively affected by increases in the concentrations of papaya pulp and of sucrose. Thus, some products presented good sensory acceptance suggesting commercial potential.

  6. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence

  7. Training Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Aja

    This thesis explores the phenomenon of horse-assisted leadership training and the manners, in which the training relations between horses, managers and facilitators were entangled with perceptions of, what “proper sociality” entailed and felt like in contemporary Danish society. The study...... is positioned at the intersection of anthropology and consumer culture research and is based upon 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork in fields, offices and conference rooms throughout Denmark in 2012 and 2013 as well as reading of emic literature and marketing material. The main argument of the thesis is...

  8. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  9. Assessing Differentiating Aspects of Karaj Citizens' Orientation to Buy from Fruits and Vegetables Market and Its Parallel Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghasafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to assess distinct aspects of citizens' intention to buy fruits and vegetables from municipal markets and its parallel markets within Karaj city. The required data was collected by completing 150 questionnaires from Karaj citizens in 2013. Using the multi-Group discriminant analysis, analysis ofthe study results within the three groups including buyers from municipal markets, local shops and fruit pickups show that possibility for non-cash payment, presenting printed purchase receipts, a higher quality of product, degree of fruit importance in the household basket, seller’s behaviour, more openning hours, use the benefit of the more familiar seller, and length of time allocated to buy fruit play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers including buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets against buyers from fruit pickups. In addition, the results of this study indicate that monthly household expenditures, number of monthly fruit purchase, possibility for customers to select his desired items , a reasonable price comapared to the product’s quality, appropriate packing, education, how often a household buy fruits in a month a wide variety of products, trust to the offered prices, distance to the market play the greatest role in making a distinction between two groups of buyers from local shops and buyers from municipal markets, respectively. Ultimately, it is suggested to train sellers how to behave properly withcustomers. In addition, it should be paid more attention to appropriate packing and to make it possible for the citizens to select their desired items themselves.

  10. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. PMID:25451584

  11. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  12. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations for fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M. Z.; Shbar, A. K.; Naher, F. H.; Jabo, N. F.; Abdulhamza, B. H.; Abod, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o 5 2) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

  15. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Relationship between fruit weight and the fruit-to-leaf area ratio, at the spur and whole-tree level, for three sweet cherry varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit weight is the main quality parameter of sweet cherries and leaf area/fruit is the most important characteristic influencing fruit weight. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between Mean Fruit Weight (MFW) and the Fruit Number to Leaf Area Ratio (FNLAR) for `Bing¿,

  17. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  18. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  19. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Harisha, C R; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P K

    2014-01-01

    Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL, and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE. The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

  2. Quantitative indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Kozelová; Dana Országhová; Milan Fiľa; Zuzana Čmiková

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative research of the market is often based on surveys and questionnaires which are finding out the behavior of customers in observed areas. Before purchasing process consumers consider where they will buy fruit and vegetables, what kind to choose and in what quantity of goods. Consumers' behavior is affected by the factors as: regional gastronomic traditions, price, product appearance, aroma, place of buying, own experience and knowledge, taste preferences as well as specific heal...

  3. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Suzuki

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1 in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  4. RESEARCH OF FRUIT CONSERVES’ CORROSIVE AGGRESSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kuznecova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metal canning containers is one of the obstacles in spreading its application for packing of food. Particularly aggressive to the metal container is fruit canned medium, containing organic acids.The basic material for the production of metal canning container is white tinplate. The main advantage of white tinplate is the tin compounds are harmless to human organism. For this reason, a white badge is used widely, usually used for production of canning containers, packaging beverages. Despite the fact that recently often used containers made of aluminum badge (foil, the basic material for manufacturing metal canning containers is steel white tinplate.Now applied for coating paints and varnishes do not provide anti-corrosion protection of inner surface of metal containers during storage. Preserving of canned fruit quality in metal containers is largely defined corrosion resistance of the containers. This is due to the fact that the metal transition to canned fruit in due courses of corrosion processes is lowering the nutritional value and deterioration taste of the product, and while allocation of hydrogen is accompanied by swelling and destruction of metal containers.We have investigated a number of anti-corrosion coatings based on Fe-Cr and Fe-Sn-Ti of their behavior in aggressive mediums canned fruit. For the purpose of modeling such mediums the solutions of most widespread organic acids were used. The research allowed conclude, that in surface solid solutions Fe-Sn-Ti increase the corrosion resistance of carbon steel in aqueous solutions of malic, citric and tartaric acids. This implies that the surface solid solutions’ formation can significantly improve corrosion resistance in aggressive canning mediums.

  5. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  6. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Mezzetti; Cherubino Leonardi

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundame...

  7. Antimicrobial Ellagitannin of Punica granatum Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Thelma de B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethyl acetate extract of Punica granatum fruits was fractionated by chromatographic techniques to afford the ellagitannin punicalagin. The substance was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and was identified by HPLC/UV and ¹HNMR. The antibacterial assays which guided the isolation of the tannin were conducted using the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the dilution method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedure.

  8. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.J.; Agnel, J.-P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (stawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet (a H ∼30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, raspberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time. (author)

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  10. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  11. RISK MANAGEMENT OF GERMAN FRUIT PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annkatrin PORSCH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Horticultural farms in Germany face substantial business risks. However, fruit farms often struggle to implement appropriate risk management processes, and the risk management literature widely has ignored this farm type. The aim of the study was to improve the assessment of risks by farmers and the choice of suitable risk management instruments. Therefore, a risk management process based on subjective probabilities and suitable for small and medium-sized farms was developed, considering the specific needs of family run businesses. An online survey was conducted to achieve a comprehensive view of the risk perception and risk management practices of German fruit producers. Price and production risks are the most relevant risk categories for fruit farmers. However, among single risk sources, those in the people risk category were seen as the most important. Results show significant interactions among risk categories and a significant correlation between loss experience and the rating of risk categories. The assumption that risk averse farmers generally rate risks higher than risk neutral or risk seeking farmers cannot be confirmed. Diversification seems to be the most important risk management instrument for many fruit producers, especially diversification of marketing channels, farm income, and production activities. Further research should focus on the apparent inconsistency between the satisfaction with instruments reported by farmers and the actual implementation of many of them (e.g., hail insurance and anti-hail net. Furthermore, there is a need for research, to develop decision models considering the interactions of risks and risk management instruments, loss experience and risk seeking attitudes.

  12. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, K.N.; Lam, N.D.; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  13. Physiological Responses and Fruit Retention of Carambola Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) Induced by 2,4-D and GA3

    OpenAIRE

    KURNLAWATI, BEKTI; HAMIM,

    2009-01-01

    One of the problems in cultivation of carambola fruit is the high of flower and fruit drop during fruit development. To understand these problems and to improve fruit retention, the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and total sugar in carambola fruit and leaves were analysed in response to application of gibberellic acid (GA3) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The experiments used 1,5 year old of carambola plants (Averrhoa carambola L. var Dewi) grown in polybag of 40 x 50 cm. ...

  14. INTEGRATING PHYSIOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE IN MODELS OF FRUIT EXPANSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolaj Cieslak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality. We use a three step modeling pipeline in the OpenAlea platform: (1 creating a 3D volumetric mesh representation of the internal and external fruit structure, (2 generating a complex network of vasculature that is embedded within this mesh, and (3 integrating aspects of the fruit’s function, such as water and dry matter transport, with the fruit’s structure. We restrict our approach to the phase where fruit growth is mostly due to cell expansion and the fruit has already differentiated into different tissue types. We show how fruit shape affects vascular patterns and, as a consequence, the distribution of sugar/water in tomato fruit. Furthermore, we show that strong interaction between tomato fruit shape and vessel density induces, independently of size, an important and contrasted gradient of water supply from the pedicel to the blossom end of the fruit. We also demonstrate how skin morphology related to microcracking distribution affects the distribution of water and sugars inside nectarine fruit. Our results show that such a generic model permits detailed studies of various, unexplored architectural features affecting fruit quality development.

  15. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  16. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    12, 13, 14, March LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 POSTPONED! - Modern Project Management Methods - POSTPONED! By G. Vallet / Ed. Highware, Paris, F. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  17. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from end of September 2005 to middle of February 2006 (2/ 3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from end of September to December 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain the...

  18. Language training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a goo...

  19. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a good knowl...

  20. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  2. Bioactive compounds in different acerola fruit cultivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Aparecida de Carvalho Mariano-Nasser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of acerola in Brazil was triggered because it is considered as a functional food mainly for its high ascorbic acid content, but the fruit also has high nutritional value, high levels of phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and carotenoids in its composition. The objective was to evaluate the chemical, physical-chemical and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of acerola tree. The acerolas used in the research were the harvest 2015, 8 varieties: BRS 235 - Apodi, Mirandópolis, Waldy - CATI 30, BRS 238 - Frutacor, Okinawa, BRS 236 - Cereja, Olivier and BRS 237 - Roxinha, from the Active Bank Germplasm APTA Regional Alta Paulista in Adamantina - SP. Avaluated the following attributes: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, reducing sugar, instrumental color, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The design was completely randomized, 8 varieties and 3 replications of 20 fruits each. Acerola fruit of the analyzed varieties prove to be good sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, ensuring its excellent nutritional quality relative to combat free radicals. The variety BRS 236 - Cereja presents higher ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, and the lowest value for flavonoid, which was higher than the other cultivars, especially Olivier and Waldy CATI-30.

  3. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shattir, A. E.; Abu-Goukh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO 2 / kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  4. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  6. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  7. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  8. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  9. Spotting Fruit versus Picking Fruit as the Selective Advantage of Human Colour Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bompas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy. We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

  10. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.

  11. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  12. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  13. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Md Abdur; Busatto, Nicola; Trainotti, Livio

    2014-11-01

    MYB10.1 and MYB10.3, with bHLH3, are the likely regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruit. MYB10.1/2/3 forms a cluster on the same genomic fragment where the Anther color ( Ag ) trait is located. Anthocyanins are bioactive compounds responsible for the pigmentation of many plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and have potential benefits to human health. In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], peel color is a key determinant for fruit quality and is regulated by flavonoids including anthocyanins. The R2R3 MYB transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes with the help of co-activators belonging to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40 repeat families. In the peach genome six MYB10-like and three bHLH-like TFs were identified as candidates to be the regulators of the anthocyanin accumulation, which, in yellow flesh fruits, is highest in the peel, abundant in the part of the mesocarp surrounding the stone and lowest in the mesocarp. The expression of MYB10.1 and MYB10.3 correlates with anthocyanin levels of different peach parts. They also have positive correlation with the expression of key structural genes of the anthocyanin pathway, such as CHS, F3H, and UFGT. Functions of peach MYB10s were tested in tobacco and shown to activate key genes in the anthocyanin pathway when bHLHs were co-expressed as partners. Overexpression of MYB10.1/bHLH3 and MYB10.3/bHLH3 activated anthocyanin production by up-regulating NtCHS, NtDFR and NtUFGT while other combinations were not, or much less, effective. As three MYB10 genes are localized in a genomic region where the Ag trait, responsible for anther pigmentation, is localized, it is proposed they are key determinant to introduce new peach cultivars with higher antioxidant level and pigmented fruit.

  14. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  15. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  16. Diallel cross analysis for fruit traits in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current demands of consumers and thus producers are important when targeting watermelon breeding programs, especially in programs aimed at improvement of fruit traits. A complete diallel set has been investigated for breeding values of six watermelon lines, via general and specific combining ability, relationships between general and specific combining ability, heritability and heterosis for fruit size, rind thickness, soluble solids and fruit shape. The lines P2 and P4 were good general combiners for fruit size. These lines also had high values of specific combining ability in direct and reciprocal crosses. The lines with negative general combining ability for fruit size (P1 and P5 can be used in breeding for small fruits (4-6 kg, good taste (high sugar content, desired rind thickness, desired fruit form and high fruit ratio. Relationships between general and specific combining ability indicated that the additive effect played an important role in the expression of fruit weight, rind thickness and sugar content, while fruit shape was inherited incompletely dominantly.

  17. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  18. An area wide control of fruit flies in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Gungah, B.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.; Soonnoo, A.R., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries Reduit, Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners mainly. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT e MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the bait-insecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuous use of BAT/MAT is a never ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, a TC project on Feasibility studies for integrated use of sterile insect technique for area wide tephritid fruit fly control.Studies are also being carried out on mass rearing of the peach fruit fly for small scale trials on SIT so as to eventually integrate this control method in our area-wide control programme. (author)

  19. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum fruits from outstanding mexican selections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Guadalupe Hernández Arenas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of five regional selections of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. were characterized to identify those with international marketing quality to promote their propagation in Mexico, improvement and conservation in germoplasm bank. The fruits were harvested in June, July, and August 2008 and, after each harvest, were assessed for shape (length/diameter, firmness, fruit weight, number of fruits per kilogram, weight and percentage of pericarp, seed and aril, total soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C content, pH, and titratable acidity. In addition, a sensorial evaluation was carried out with 31 panelists who graded each selection for color, sweetness, and acidity. Fruits of five selections were ovoid, and with the following characteristics: firmness values from 43.7 to 51.0 N, fruit weight ranged from 22.4 to 34.7 g, registering from 28.9 to 45.0 fruits per kg; pericarp weight from 10.5 to 17.3 g (45.9 to 49.9% of the total fruit weight; total seed weight from 2.2 to 2.5 g (7.0 to 10.0%; average arils weight from 8.9 to 13.1 g (37.5 to 41.4%. The fruits had high contents of total soluble solids (17.8 to 20.4 ºBrix, total sugars (211.95 to 242.70 mg/100g in the edible portion, vitamin C (37.9 to 69.1 mg/100 g, pH 5.0, and titratable acidity of 0.20 to 0.28%. The fruits from the RT-01 and RT-05 selections had better attributes in fruit weight, total soluble solids and titratable acidity and were better accepted by the panelists. Harvest date significantly affects rambutan fruit quality; at the middle and end of the season harvested fruits had better qualitative characteristics for the marketing.

  1. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  2. Sports Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Practitioners of martial arts have long seen a need for a precise method of measuring the power of a karate kick or a boxer's punch in training and competition. Impax sensor is a piezoelectric film less than one thousandth of an inch thick, yet extremely durable. They give out a voltage impulse when struck, the greater the force of impact, the higher the voltage. The impulse is transmitted to a compact electronics package where voltage is translated into a force-pounds reading shown on a digital display. Impax, manufactured by Impulse Technology, Inc. is used by martial arts instructors, practitioners, U.S. Olympic Committee Training Center, football blocking sleds, and boxers as well as police defensive tactics, providing a means of evaluating the performance of recruits.

  3. Fruit and fertility in San Juan de la Manguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenna, N D

    1995-01-01

    Ana Irsa (Nisoris) Aquina, 39, a mother of seven, grandmother, wife, and voluntary community health facilitator, lives in the Dominican Republic. Nisoris counsels women and their partners about reproductive health, provides child survival information to new mothers, and dispenses common remedies for diarrhea and respiratory infections as well as contraceptives (mainly oral contraceptives and condoms). These supplies are financed by Fundacion para el Desarrollo Communitario (FUDECO), a nongovernmental agency which is a member of the Save the Children alliance. FUDECO's work includes the development of water systems, health services, schools, and soil conservation training. Widespread deforestation in the San Juan area has led to a reduction in self-sufficient farming and a lack of nutrition evidenced by an increase in infant blindness caused by Vitamin A deficiency. To combat this situation, FUDECO has taught the women's group led by Nisoris how to use solar power to dry fruits and vegetables to preserve them for consumption beyond their season. The pilot group has in turn taught six other women's groups and conducted informal product sampling and Vitamin A information sessions in the local market. FUDECO provides supplies and technical expertise. The program has been so successful that the women are exploring packaging options so that they can sell the dried produce.

  4. Foliar absorption and leaf-fruit transfer of 137Cs in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguissola Scotti, I.; Silva, S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs and 40 K have been carried out on the leaves and fruit of cherry, peach, pear and apple trees contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. It has been shown that the activity of 137 Cs in leaves depends on the interception ability of the foliage, while the amount transferred from leaves to fruit seems to be related more to genetic factors of the individual species and cultivar than to the quantity present in the leaves. (author)

  5. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  6. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  7. Regularities in the supply of young peach fruits with 14C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Manolov, P.

    1977-01-01

    A well expressed independence may be observed in nurturing young fruits of the Rio Ozo Gem variety with newly produced 14 C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet. For an effective link between the individual lateral shoots and fruits both their around location and linear nearness to each other are of importance. Since the phloem fibre direction within several internaodes is nearly parallel to the branchlet axis, as a rule fruits are supplyed by the shoots situated on the same branchlet side. The negative influence of the distance between fruit and shoot is due mainly to the competition of near fruits located on the same phloem strip. Under the complex effect of these factors certain specialization is formed of the shoots arranged along the fruit-bearing branchlet, namely the upper shoots do service mainly to the upper part and the bottom ones to the basic part of it. At the same time, shoot removal tests showed that the said independence is not absolute in the carbohydrate nurture of the young fruits within the fruit-bearing branchlet. The function of an absent donor organ (a shoot) is taken over in this case by other donor organs to a greater degree than in a vegetative growth even if it would be exigently to go over from a longitudinal to a transversal transport. This shows that the young peach fruits about a month after blossoming have a greater mobilizing strength than the young growing leaves. (author)

  8. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela D Bieber

    Full Text Available Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp', which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm of Pheidole (Myrmicinae, also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of

  9. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ana Gabriela D; Silva, Paulo S D; Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2014-01-01

    Ants frequently interact with fleshy fruits on the ground of tropical forests. This interaction is regarded as mutualistic because seeds benefit from enhanced germination and dispersal to nutrient-rich microsites, whereas ants benefit from consuming the nutritious pulp/aril. Considering that the process of deforestation affects many attributes of the ecosystem such as species abundance and composition, and interspecific interactions, we asked whether the interaction between ants and fallen fleshy fruits in the Brazilian Atlantic forest differs between human-created fragments and undisturbed forests. We controlled diaspore type and quantity by using synthetic fruits (a plastic 'seed' covered by a lipid-rich 'pulp'), which were comparable to lipid-rich fruits. Eight independent areas (four undisturbed forests, and four disturbed forest fragments) were used in the field experiment, in which we recorded the attracted ant species, ant behaviour, and fruit removal distance. Fruits in undisturbed forest sites attracted a higher number of species than those in disturbed forests. Moreover, the occurrence of large, fruit-carrying ponerine ants (Pachycondyla, Odontomachus; 1.1 to 1.4 cm) was higher in undisturbed forests. Large species (≥3 mm) of Pheidole (Myrmicinae), also able to remove fruits, did not differ between forest types. Following these changes in species occurrence, fruit displacement was more frequent in undisturbed than in disturbed forests. Moreover, displacement distances were also greater in the undisturbed forests. Our data suggest that fallen fleshy fruits interacting with ants face different fates depending on the conservation status of the forest. Together with the severe loss of their primary dispersers in human-disturbed tropical forest sites, vertebrate-dispersed fruits may also be deprived of potential ant-derived benefits in these habitats due to shifts in the composition of interacting ant species. Our data illustrate the use of synthetic fruits

  10. Weaver Ants to Control Fruit Fly Damage to Tanzanian Mangoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina

    in Australia and West Africa. In this study, small scale farmers did not think weaver ants protected their mangoes from fruit flies. Observational studies confirmed the farmers’ views. No volatile compounds, likely to be responsible for the weaver ants’ deterrent effect, were identified. This study focused...... mangoes varied a lot with zero infestation in some fruits and more than 100 pupae emerging from other fruits, indicating that other factors than the presence of weaver ants affect the fruit flies’ decision on where to oviposit. It was not uncommon for farmers to place newly harvested mangoes below mango...... not shown to be effectively deterring fruit flies, there is no great motivation for farmers to adopt weaver ants. Assuming the weaver ants could be managed in a way that made weaver ants deter fruit flies effectively there are still some economic aspects which should be studied further. It is necessary...

  11. Technology for production of shelf stable fruit cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.B.; Jain, M.P.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    A technology has been developed for the production of intermediate moisture fruit cubes using a combination of osmotic dehydration and infrared drying. Fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, banana and apple can be successfully converted into intermediate moisture products in the form of fruit cubes using this technology. The fruit cubes can blend very well as natural nutritious supplements with breakfast cereals and in certain food preparations like ice creams, milk shakes, jellies and custards. The product is microbiologically safe for consumption and can be stored at ambient storage condition for more than six months. This technology is an effective alternative for post harvest processing and preservation of ripened fruits. Fruit jam is an additional by-product generated by the process. This technology has been transferred to TT and CD, BARC

  12. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  13. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  14. The health benefits of chocolate enrichment with dried fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Ça&#&#nd&#; Semih Ötleş

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular food all over the world is chocolate and it has highly nutritious energy, fast metabolism and good digestibility. Nowadays, most important trend is healthy foods. Develop a chocolate product that will be be nutritional for many more people. It is well known that dried fruits has high nutritious values and health benefits. Dried fruits are good sources to developed chocolates. This paper aims to review health importance and usage of dried fruits in chocolate.

  15. Nutritional and phytochemical study of Ilex paraguariensis fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Cogoi, Laura Carolina; Giacomino, M. Silvia; Pellegrino, Nestor; Anesini, Claudia Alejandra; Filip, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Yerba mate is defined as the product constituted by the dried, slightly roasted, and milled leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. However, the fruits of this species are often found in the commercial product. Nowadays the fruits are considered a byproduct. The objective of this work was to obtain the preliminary data of minerals, lipids, methylxanthines and polyphenols in the ripe fruits of I. paraguariensis. The results showed a considerable amount of total dietary fiber ( g/100 g) and nutritionall...

  16. Diallel cross analysis for fruit traits in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica; Vasić Mirjana; Milić Dragan; Červenski Janko

    2011-01-01

    Current demands of consumers and thus producers are important when targeting watermelon breeding programs, especially in programs aimed at improvement of fruit traits. A complete diallel set has been investigated for breeding values of six watermelon lines, via general and specific combining ability, relationships between general and specific combining ability, heritability and heterosis for fruit size, rind thickness, soluble solids and fruit shape. The li...

  17. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Min; Yang , Le; Zhao , Huizhong; Zhang , Leijie; Zhong , Zhiyou; Liu , Yanling; Chen , Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature dis...

  19. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  20. Boron in combination with calcium reduces sunburn in apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Lötze, Elmi; Daiber, Stephan H.; Midgley, Stephanie J. E.

    2018-01-01

    Sunburn damage on apple fruit has been reported widely [1]. Sunburnincidence is expected to increase in future, specifically in the Western Capein South Africa, with very clear climate change predictions [2]. Sunburn thus hassignificant financial implications on profitability for the South Africanexport dominated apple industry, as sunburnt fruit is not accepted in the mainexport markets. In the United Kingdom, no visible sunburn on apples is allowed,whereas only fruit with class 1 sunburn (S...

  1. Osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satya Vir

    2012-01-01

    The main cause of perishability of fruits and vegetables are their high water content. To increase the shelf life of these fruits and vegetables many methods or combination of methods had been tried. Osmotic dehydration is one of the best and suitable method to increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. This process is preferred over others due to their vitamin and minerals, color, flavor and taste retention property. In this review different methods, treatments, optimization and effec...

  2. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  3. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel Roy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Postharvest biochemical and physiological characterisation of imported avocado fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Donetti, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in controlling and forecasting avocado fruit ripening and the highly perishable nature of the crop once harvested, are the major causes of concern for avocado traders. In particular, the simultaneous presence of many suppliers may account for increased fruit variability during ripening. Avocado is a climacteric fruit with consistent ethylene production after harvest which is also related to high perishability. However, the mechanisms regulating ethylene biosynthesi...

  5. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  6. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M

    2013-01-01

    % CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  7. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B; Wang, Z Jim; Fong, Harry H S; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2011-06-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic methods (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonpolar compounds from Luffa aegyptiaca fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal S.A.; Kothawade P.C.; Datir S.B.; Pal S.C.; Mandal S.C.; Pattan S.R.

    2009-01-01

    The unsaponifiable and saponifiable constituents from the alcoholic extract of Luffa aegyptiaca fruit (Cucurbitaceae) were investigated by GC-MS. The results showed the presence of hydrocarbons viz., n-tricosane (0.41 %), n-tetracosane (0.83 %), nhexacosane (2.02 %), n-heptacosane (4.88 %), n-octacosane (2.57 %) and fatty acids viz., nanodecane-6-ol (17.65 %), eicosane-6-ol (2.54 %), dieicosane-6-ol (7.85 %), tetraeicosane-6-ol (1.75 %).

  9. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  10. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  11. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  12. assessment of invasive fruit fly fruit infestation and damage in cabo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    039o50.352' E and 246 masl), where B. invadensis widespread and well established (Cugala et al.,. 2011). Niuje and Koma-koma are well organised fruit production areas and Mahipa is a major mango and cashew production area in Cabo Delgado. Province. The choice of these host species was due to their abundance, ...

  13. Pre-harvest fruit drop, bunch weight and fruit quality of 'Rothana' and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... Pre-harvest fruit drop is a serious problem of some date palm cultivars. During 2010 ... important subsistence crop in most of the hot arid regions. (Botes and .... diluted 10-fold with distilled water) and allowed to stand for 5 min before the ... made by F-test and the least significant differences (LSD) at P = 5%.

  14. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  16. The incorporation gene of tomato fruit firmness (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit firmness is a polygenetic trait and depends on firmness components pericarp thickness, firmness of epidermis and firmness of flash. The accumulation of favourable traits ratio for each component (towards the increase of expression the fruit firmness can be increased. This paper deals with aspects of increasing fruit firmness by increasing firmness of epidermis and thickness of pericarp. By using genotypes with rin (ripening inhibitor gene, we were able to accomplish great firmness of fruits, especially firmness of flash. The expression of these traits cause the asynchronization of maturing process so the fruits do not over mature or soften. Genetic effects have been evaluated by researching the average values of fruit firmness in six diallel parent lines (D-150, S-49, S-35, H-52, Kg-z and SP-109 and progeny (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 by applying additive dominant model with three and six parameters (Mather and Jinks, 1982. Mean values of fruit firmness for parents and progeny were significantly different. Firmness of fruits is a trait influenced first of all by additive gene since they were found in all researched combinations. Epystatic gene effect was important in inheriting process for all three two-gene interactions. The stabile duplicate type of epystsase was found, which in this case reduces the unfavourable effects of dominant genes of parents with soft fruits. .

  17. Fruit salad as a new vehicle for probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maurício Furtado MARTINS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aimed to study the use of fruit salads as carriers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. We evaluated the viability of this probiotic in fruit salads and the phsyico-chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of this food. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to verify microorganism adhesion on the fruit tissues. The viability of L. rhamnosus in fruit salads was 8.49 log CFU.g-1 after 120 hours. SEM images showed that fruit tissue provided protection for probiotic. Adhesion sites were observed in higher quantity in banana, apple and guava. The addition of L. rhamnosus did not alter texture of fruits (p > 0.05. Fruit salads containing probiotic had different values of pH and acidity compared to the control (p 0.05. Fruit salads containing L. rhamnosus showed counts of psychotrophic microorganisms of at least 2.0 log CFU.g-1 lower than control salad after 120 h of refrigerated storage. The fruit salad was well accepted by consumers. Therefore, this product can be used as a carrier for probiotic and an alternative to consuming functional foods.

  18. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago; Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel; Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of 137 Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the reality

  19. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.