WorldWideScience

Sample records for traffic safety hazard

  1. Nonfatal road traffic injuries: can road safety campaigns prevent hazardous behavior? An Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, R; Messina, G; Quercioli, C; Vencia, F; Genco, L; Di Bartolomeo, L; Nante, N

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a widespread problem and are very difficult to prevent. The purpose of this study was to verify whether intensive versus basic road safety education programs are associated with different incidence and severity of nonfatal road injuries. The study had an ecological design and involved Local Health Authority One (LHA1) in Salerno, Italy, which includes 20 municipalities. Data on nonfatal road injuries occurring in the periods June to August 2003 and June to August 2008 were obtained from trained operators through the information system of the emergency department. All 20 municipalities received a basic community road safety education program (publicity campaign using bill-posting, brochures, mass media communication with press conferences, articles in local papers, radio and television interviews, and a dedicated LHA1 web site), and 12 municipalities also received an intensive education campaign (in secondary schools, community conferences, and activities organized by police and firefighters). The incidence and severity of nonfatal road traffic injuries were compared between June to August 2003 (before the campaign) and June to August 2008. The total number of injuries in all 20 municipalities in 2003 and 2008 was 907 and 755, respectively. The incidence of injuries decreased in the study period both in the 8 municipalities where only the basic campaign was run (difference in incidence = -0.4; P = .053) and in the 12 municipalities where the intensive campaign was implemented (difference in incidence = -0.5; P road safety education. This does not mean that such campaigns are useless (they are important to raise awareness) but that they should be supplemented with complementary activities in order to be really effective.

  2. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  3. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  4. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  5. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  6. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  7. Regulatory measures for traffic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapur, R.D.; Bharambe, S.D.; Patnaik, S.K.; Tandle, A.K.; Sonawane, K.A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Venkat Subramanian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic safety is an issue related to occupational safety not restricted alone to the transportation but extends beyond. BARC has many facilities spread across large area in Mumbai and outside Mumbai. BARC deploys large number of buses, mini buses, jeeps and cars for commuting its employees to reach BARC and for commuting within BARC premises. Additionally, trucks, fire tenders, trailers etc. are also deployed for transportation of materials. No moving vehicle is ever free of the possibility of involvement in an accident. Vehicular accidents and the fatalities on road are the result of inter-play of a number of factors. The vehicle population has been steadily increasing with the pace picking up significantly in recent past. Increase in vehicle population in the face of limited road space used by a large variety of traffic has heightened the need and urgency for a well-thought-out road safety. Therefore, existence of regulatory authority to regulate traffic and vehicles to ensure safety of its employees and vehicles is very essential. BARC Traffic Safety Committee (BTSC), which is the regulating body for traffic safety is responsible for ensuring overall traffic safety. (author)

  8. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... and 500 deaths! Foundation News Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  9. Macroscopic models for traffic safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in the application of macroscopic models for the description of developments in traffic safety. A discussion was started on the causes of the sudden decrease in the number of fatal and injury accidents after 1974. Before that time these numbers had

  10. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  11. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  12. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the

  13. Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

  14. U18 : Traffic signal safety (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Efficiently scheduling traffic, particularly heavy vehicles, remains a key challenge in transportation engineering. This project has focused on the development of a novel trafficsignal-control methodology to improve the safety of heavy vehicles on...

  15. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  16. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  17. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  18. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Passenger Safety, Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains four lessons and an appendix of school bus safety tips for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  19. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  20. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This...

  2. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  3. Time series modeling in traffic safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenz, Steven M; Vlahogianni, Eleni I; Gkritza, Konstantina; Ke, Yue

    2018-08-01

    The use of statistical models for analyzing traffic safety (crash) data has been well-established. However, time series techniques have traditionally been underrepresented in the corresponding literature, due to challenges in data collection, along with a limited knowledge of proper methodology. In recent years, new types of high-resolution traffic safety data, especially in measuring driver behavior, have made time series modeling techniques an increasingly salient topic of study. Yet there remains a dearth of information to guide analysts in their use. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in using time series models in traffic safety research, and discusses some of the fundamental techniques and considerations in classic time series modeling. It also presents ongoing and future opportunities for expanding the use of time series models, and explores newer modeling techniques, including computational intelligence models, which hold promise in effectively handling ever-larger data sets. The information contained herein is meant to guide safety researchers in understanding this broad area of transportation data analysis, and provide a framework for understanding safety trends that can influence policy-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  5. Hazards to nuclear plants from surface traffic accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed for evaluating hazards to nuclear plants from hazardous-materials accidents in the vicinity of the plant. In particular, these models permit the evaluation of hazards from such accidents occurring on surface traffic routes near the plant. The analysis uses statistical information on accident rates, traffic frequency, and cargo-size distribution along with parameters describing properties of the hazardous cargo, plant design, and atmospheric conditions, to arrive at a conservative estimate of the annual probability of a catastrophic event. Two of the major effects associated with hazardous-materials accidents, explosion and release of toxic vapors, are treated by a common formalism which can be readily applied to any given case by means of a graphic procedure. As an example, for a typical case it is found that railroad shipments of chlorine in 55-ton tank cars constitute a greater hazard to a nearby nuclear plant than equally frequent rail shipments of explosives in amounts of 10 tons. 11 references. (U.S.)

  6. Traffic safety developments in Poland : a research note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in traffic safety in Poland. There is a feeling that the rapid growth of traffic should be accompanied by additional efforts to improve traffic safety, in order to stop the corresponding increase in fatalities and serious accidents. To set realistic

  7. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the researches conducted in the field of safety management systems.Safety management system framework, methods and tools for safety analysis in Air Traffic Control have been reviewed.Principles of development of Integrated safety management system in Air Traffic Services have been proposed.

  8. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  9. Statistical modelling of traffic safety development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    there were 6861 injury trafficc accidents reported by the police, resulting in 4519 minor injuries, 3946 serious injuries, and 431 fatalities. The general purpose of the research was to improve the insight into aggregated road safety methodology in Denmark. The aim was to analyse advanced statistical methods......, that were designed to study developments over time, including effects of interventions. This aim has been achieved by investigating variations in aggregated Danish traffic accident series and by applying state of the art methodologies to specific case studies. The thesis comprises an introduction...

  10. 78 FR 24309 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Special Permit Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA..., Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, East Building...

  11. 76 FR 45332 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications for Modification of..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Record Center, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department...

  12. Sensor technology for hazardous cargo transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project was to develop oxidant vapor detection devices that can be : used to ensure the safety of hazardous freight transportation systems. Two nanotechnology-based : systems originally developed for improvised explo...

  13. Auditors of safety in hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas Lahoz, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The author describes the methodology for safety auditory and control, prevention, risks of hazardous materials transport through ship, airplane, rail, etc. In this way, The author presents the classification of damage materials transport, characteristic damage and different transport methods

  14. 32 CFR 234.17 - Vehicles and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles and traffic safety. 234.17 Section 234...) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.17 Vehicles and traffic safety. (a) In general. Unless... an alcoholic beverage. (1) Each person within a vehicle is responsible for complying with the...

  15. 32 CFR 1903.4 - Vehicles and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles and traffic safety. 1903.4 Section 1903... CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.4 Vehicles and traffic safety. (a) Open container of alcoholic beverage. (1) Each person within the vehicle is responsible for complying with the provisions of this...

  16. A comedy on TV to promote traffic safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D. Nelissen, W.J.A. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since the end of 1987, a television-series has been promoting traffic safety in the Netherlands. This series named `The Oudenrijn-family' after a well-known traffic junction, is a comedy that treats important road safety themes in a casual and playful way. The members of the TV family, and their

  17. Modelling the effects of road traffic safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng

    2006-05-01

    A model is presented for assessing the effects of traffic safety measures, based on a breakdown of the process in underlying components of traffic safety (risk and consequence), and five (speed and conflict related) variables that influence these components, and are influenced by traffic safety measures. The relationships between measures, variables and components are modelled as coefficients. The focus is on probabilities rather than historical statistics, although in practice statistics may be needed to find values for the coefficients. The model may in general contribute to improve insight in the mechanisms between traffic safety measures and their safety effects. More specifically it allows comparative analysis of different types of measures by defining an effectiveness index, based on the coefficients. This index can be used to estimate absolute effects of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) related measures from absolute effects of substitutional (in terms of safety effects) infrastructure measures.

  18. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  19. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  20. Analysis of air safety in the European system of air traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Є. Луппо

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  Article describes air traffic safety provision requirements in the Air Traffic Management system of Europe. Consideration of air traffic variation which affecting the air traffic management operations have been reviewed.

  1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1995 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a national Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, Schulman,...

  2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : 1997 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-13

    In 1995, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its first Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, S...

  3. Use of agent based simulation for traffic safety assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to work on advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings...

  4. Using Traffic Conflict Method in Evaluating Traffic Safety at the Reconstructed Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of organised social system, traffic is subjected togeneral social tendency towards adequate safety and sustainabilityof relations in such a system, probabilistically marked bythe risk of danger. Inte1polation of subjective factor facilitatesthe occwTence of negative phenomena. Road traffic system ischaracterised by extremely massive participation in traffic, contributingthus to a greater possibility of negative features characteristicfor imperfect human mechanism. This is precisely thereason why this paper deals with the problem of traffic safety onthe concrete example of the intersection between the SavskaStreet and the Slavonska and LjubljanskaAvenues over the periodof time prior to constmcting the new unde1pass solution,and the period of time immediately after the construction workswere completed. The used data have been provided by the TrafficPolice Department - Lucko.

  5. Automatic road traffic safety management system in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskarbski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.

  6. Improvement of driving safety in road traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Ping; Gao, Zi-You

    2005-05-01

    A road traffic system is a complex system in which humans participate directly. In this system, human factors play a very important role. In this paper, a kind of control signal is designated at a given site (i.e., signal point) of the road. Under the effect of the control signal, the drivers will decrease their velocities when their vehicles pass the signal point. Our aim is to transit the traffic flow states from disorder to order and then improve the traffic safety. We have tested this technique for the two-lane traffic model that is based on the deterministic Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic flow states can be transited from disorder to order. Different order states can be observed in the system and these states are safer.

  7. An assessment of traffic safety culture related to engagement in efforts to improve traffic safety : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final report summarizes the methods, results, conclusions, and recommendations derived from a survey conducted to understand values, beliefs, and attitudes regarding engagement in behaviors that impact the traffic safety of others. Results of th...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging: hazard, risk and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Suri, S.; Singh, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hazard and risk associated with magnetic resonance imaging is a matter of concern. In 1982, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA issued guidelines to Hospital's Investigational Review Board (IRBs) in 'Guidelines for Evaluating Electromagnetic Exposure Risks for Trials of Clinical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)'. In 1997, the Berufsgenossenschaft (BG), professional association for precision engineering and electronics of Germany, in their preliminary proposal for safety limits extended their concerns on static magnetic field. Owing to both time varying and static magnetic fields applied in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) this became of immediate concern to user community to assess the potential hazard and risk associated with the NMR system

  9. Chemical Hazards and Safety Issues in Fusion Safety Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological inventory releases have dominated accident consequences for fusion; these consequences are important to analyze and are generally the most severe result of a fusion facility accident event. However, the advent of, or plan for, large-scale usage of some toxic materials poses the additional hazard of chemical exposure from an accident event. Examples of toxic chemicals are beryllium for magnetic fusion and fluorine for laser fusion. Therefore, chemical exposure consequences must also be addressed in fusion safety assessment. This paper provides guidance for fusion safety analysis. US Department of Energy (DOE) chemical safety assessment practices for workers and the public are reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published some guidance on public exposure to releases of mixtures of chemicals, this guidance has been used to create an initial guideline for treating mixed radiological and toxicological releases in fusion; for example, tritiated hazardous dust from a tokamak vacuum vessel. There is no convenient means to judge the hazard severity of exposure to mixed materials. The chemical fate of mixed material constituents must be reviewed to determine if there is a separate or combined radiological and toxicological carcinogenesis, or if other health threats exist with radiological carcinogenesis. Recommendations are made for fusion facility chemical safety evaluation and safety guidance for protecting the public from chemical releases, since such levels are not specifically identified in the DOE fusion safety standard

  10. Perceived safety of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Shepherd, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation was presented. The framework consisted of a conditional mathematical equation in which perceived safety was described by six basic terms (technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, utility assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time). The resulting framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better understand public perception

  11. Traffic Safety through Driver Assistance and Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Bubb

    2011-05-01

    BMW, Daimler, Audi, Citroen, Lexus, VW, Opel, Peugeot, Renault, Chevrolet, Saab and Bosch. Both the contributions of research work concerning driving behavior analysis and driver assistance systems have to be aligned with a permanently updated interaction within the system of driver, vehicle and road traffic environment.

  12. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  13. Hazardous Traffic Event Detection Using Markov Blanket and Sequential Minimal Optimization (MB-SMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify hazardous traffic events is already considered as one of the most effective solutions for reducing the occurrence of crashes. Only certain particular hazardous traffic events have been studied in previous studies, which were mainly based on dedicated video stream data and GPS data. The objective of this study is twofold: (1 the Markov blanket (MB algorithm is employed to extract the main factors associated with hazardous traffic events; (2 a model is developed to identify hazardous traffic event using driving characteristics, vehicle trajectory, and vehicle position data. Twenty-two licensed drivers were recruited to carry out a natural driving experiment in Wuhan, China, and multi-sensor information data were collected for different types of traffic events. The results indicated that a vehicle’s speed, the standard deviation of speed, the standard deviation of skin conductance, the standard deviation of brake pressure, turn signal, the acceleration of steering, the standard deviation of acceleration, and the acceleration in Z (G have significant influences on hazardous traffic events. The sequential minimal optimization (SMO algorithm was adopted to build the identification model, and the accuracy of prediction was higher than 86%. Moreover, compared with other detection algorithms, the MB-SMO algorithm was ranked best in terms of the prediction accuracy. The conclusions can provide reference evidence for the development of dangerous situation warning products and the design of intelligent vehicles.

  14. The importance of spatial orientation and knowledge of traffic signs for children's traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunović, Aleksandar; Pešić, Dalibor; Čičević, Svetlana; Antić, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills. Unlike adults, children have less than fully developed peripheral vision. Also, changes occur in color perception, i.e. discrimination. All this leads to the conclusion that the stage of physical and mental development of the child is very important for safe participation in traffic. So, to estimate if they are sufficiently equipped to participate safely in traffic, a sensitive test for young children that may be suitable for their level of cognitive development is required. Accordingly, road safety education should be arranged in such a way that considers the child's level of development, as has been shown to be more effective when started at younger ages. Play is the most natural and easiest way of learning because it is the lens through which children experience their world, and the world of others. Having this in mind, if we want to measure the abilities of a child, and their preparedness for safety participation in traffic, unavoidable is to use non-verbal tests. The purpose of this study is to explore primary schooler's spatial, and abilities of color perception and memorization, as well as their performances in interpreting the meaning of traffic signs. In addition, neighborhood environmental correlates (rural-urban) and possible individual differences influences on the relationship among these abilities was examined. Knowledge about these factors affecting children's safety can be applied to improve relevant intervention measures for promoting

  15. Safety analysis of urban signalized intersections under mixed traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Anjana; M V L R, Anjaneyulu

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the crash causative factors of signalized intersections under mixed traffic using advanced statistical models. Hierarchical Poisson regression and logistic regression models were developed to predict the crash frequency and severity of signalized intersection approaches. The prediction models helped to develop general safety countermeasures for signalized intersections. The study shows that exclusive left turn lanes and countdown timers are beneficial for improving the safety of signalized intersections. Safety is also influenced by the presence of a surveillance camera, green time, median width, traffic volume, and proportion of two wheelers in the traffic stream. The factors that influence the severity of crashes were also identified in this study. As a practical application, the safe values of deviation of green time provided from design green time, with varying traffic volume, is presented in this study. This is a useful tool for setting the appropriate green time for a signalized intersection approach with variations in the traffic volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rumble devices for road traffic safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jobson, AJ

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available on the approaches to hazardous curves or intersections. City and town engineers had little to report on rumble installations but showed a keen interest in their potential usefulness. Each type of rumble device has certain merits and these are discussed...

  17. The impact of a congestion assistant on traffic flow efficiency and safety in congested traffic caused by a lane drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie; van Arem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study conducted to investigate the impact of a Congestion Assistant on traffic efficiency and traffic safety. The Congestion Assistant is an in-vehicle system in which an active pedal supports the driver when approaching

  18. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  19. The impact of navigation systems on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of navigation systems on traffic safety in the Netherlands. This study consists of four analyses: a literature survey, a database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented vehicle study. The results of the four sections show that navigation systems have a positive

  20. The impact of navigation systems on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Vonk, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of navigation systems on traffic safety in the Netherlands. This study consists of four analyses: a literature survey, a database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented vehicle study. The results of the four sections show that navigation systems have a positive

  1. Some aspects of traffic safety in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the framework of international co-operation within OECD Research Group Traffic Safety in Residential areas the Netherlands have accepted the task of collecting Dutch data for a report. As far as Dutch research exists for the various chapters and sections of the complete report, this can be found

  2. Training of Drivers in the Function of Road Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Alispahić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the participation of young drivers in trafficaccidents is constantly present and represents a significant socialproblem. In complex and dynamic conditions of moderntraffic flows, the young drivers are exposed to various and unforeseenhazard situations and events which they had not experiencedduring the basic training. Therefore, they should be providedwith the possibility of acquiring additional experiences insolving typical hazard situations in traffic. This is possible bythe system of advanced training which places the course participantin the situation of facing possible hazards, with the aim ofincreasing the awareness of risk in driving and behaviour at thesteering wheel. Advanced driver training is based on the specificprogram and training the drivers to acquire additional experiencesin solving dangerous traffic situations.

  3. Traffic & safety statewide model and GIS modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Several steps have been taken over the past two years to advance the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) safety initiative. Previous research projects began the development of a hierarchical Bayesian model to analyze crashes on Utah roadways. De...

  4. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  5. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  6. Traffic monitoring and modeling for Intersection Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyykönen, P.; Molinier, M.; Klunder, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The INTERSAFE-2 project aims to develop and demonstrate a Cooperative Intersection Safety System that is able to significantly reduce injury and fatal accidents at intersections. The cooperative sensor data fusion is based on state-of-the-art and advanced on-board sensors for object recognition and

  7. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  8. Zolpidem and traffic safety - the importance of treatment compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Olivier, Berend; Johnson, William; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-09-01

    Zolpidem is among the most frequently prescribed hypnotic drugs for those who suffer from insomnia. Recent media reports drew attention to driving impairment after zolpidem misuse. This review summarizes the available data on the effects of recommended use and misuse of zolpidem on driving ability and traffic safety. Both experimental studies and roadside evidence were taken into account. From these studies it must be concluded that patients should fully comply with the prescription instructions of zolpidem, i.e. to take the medication just prior to a full 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep. If this strategy is adopted, zolpidem is a safe alternative to benzodiazpine hypnotics and zopiclone who do show significant driving impairment the morning following bedtime administration. However, to ensure traffic safety higher dosages than recommended (10 mg) or allowing less than 8 hours between zolpidem intake and actual operation of a motor vehicle should be avoided.

  9. Influence of Ergonomics on Traffic Safety and Economy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As an interdisciplinary science, ergonomics needs to makethe operating of traffic safer, faster and more reliable, for thesake of higher profitability and generally improved economiceffects. This is achieved by adapting and shaping the workplace,machines, transport means, equipment, physical environment,working process etc. according to experience abouthuman anatomic physica~ sociologica~ intellectual and otherminimal, average or maximal capabilities. Therefore, it is necessaryto analyse ergonomics from the standpoint of better productivenessof humans, greater safety (comfort and security ingeneral.

  10. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  11. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle... discuss safety considerations for electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The... vehicles. Electric vehicles show great promise as an innovative and fuel- efficient option for American...

  12. Hazards and hazard combinations relevant for the safety of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt; Brinkman, Hans; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The potential of the contemporaneous impact of different, yet causally related, hazardous events and event cascades on nuclear power plants is a major contributor to the overall risk of nuclear installations. In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident, which was caused by a combination of severe ground shaking by an earthquake, an earthquake-triggered tsunami and the disruption of the plants from the electrical grid by a seismically induced landslide, hazard combinations and hazard cascades moved into the focus of nuclear safety research. We therefore developed an exhaustive list of external hazards and hazard combinations which pose potential threats to nuclear installations in the framework of the European project ASAMPSAE (Advanced Safety Assessment: Extended PSA). The project gathers 31 partners from Europe, North Amerika and Japan. The list comprises of exhaustive lists of natural hazards, external man-made hazards, and a cross-correlation matrix of these hazards. The hazard list is regarded comprehensive by including all types of hazards that were previously cited in documents by IAEA, the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA), and others. 73 natural hazards and 24 man-made external hazards are included. Natural hazards are grouped into seismotectonic hazards, flooding and hydrological hazards, extreme values of meteorological phenomena, rare meteorological phenomena, biological hazards / infestation, geological hazards, and forest fire / wild fire. The list of external man-made hazards includes industry accidents, military accidents, transportation accidents, pipeline accidents and other man-made external events. The large number of different hazards results in the extremely large number of 5.151 theoretically possible hazard combinations (not considering hazard cascades). In principle all of these combinations are possible to occur by random coincidence except for 82 hazard combinations that - depending on the time scale - are mutually

  13. Do self-reported concussions have cumulative or enduring effects on drivers' anticipation of traffic hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Megan H W; Horswill, Mark S; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cumulative effect of multiple self-reported concussions and the enduring effect of concussion on drivers' hazard perception ability. It was hypothesized: (1) that individuals reporting multiple previous concussions would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either one previous concussion or none; and (2) that individuals reporting a concussion within the past 3 months would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either an earlier concussion or no prior concussion. Two hundred and eighty-two predominantly young drivers (nconcussed = 68, Mage = 21.57 years, SDage = 6.99 years, 66% female) completed a validated hazard perception test (HPT) and measures of emotional, cognitive, health and driving status. A one-way analysis of variance showed that there was no significant effect of concussion number on HPT response times. Similarly, pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the HPT response times of individuals reporting a concussion within the previous 3 months, individuals reporting an earlier concussion and the never concussed group. The findings suggest that previous concussions do not adversely affect young drivers' ability to anticipate traffic hazards; however, due to reliance on self-reports of concussion history, further prospective longitudinal research is needed.

  14. State Traffic Safety Information - 2010-2015 FARS Accident File data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  15. A proposal for performing software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Gallagher, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper. The method concentrates on finding hazards during the early stages of the software life cycle, using an extension of HAZOP

  16. Specific features of goal setting in road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesov, V. I.; Danilov, O. F.; Petrov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Road traffic safety (RTS) management is inherently a branch of cybernetics and therefore requires clear formalization of the task. The paper aims at identification of the specific features of goal setting in RTS management under the system approach. The paper presents the results of cybernetic modeling of the cause-to-effect mechanism of a road traffic accident (RTA); in here, the mechanism itself is viewed as a complex system. A designed management goal function is focused on minimizing the difficulty in achieving the target goal. Optimization of the target goal has been performed using the Lagrange principle. The created working algorithms have passed the soft testing. The key role of the obtained solution in the tactical and strategic RTS management is considered. The dynamics of the management effectiveness indicator has been analyzed based on the ten-year statistics for Russia.

  17. Engineering solutions of traffic safety problems of road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogdevičius

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper focus on the simulation of the motor vehicle movement (taking into consideration motor vehicle dynamics, motor vehicle hydraulic brake system influence on motor vehicle movement, interaction between its wheels with road pavements, road guardrail characteristics, interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail on a certain road section and propose their specific solution of this problem. The presented results, illustrating the motor vehicle movement trajectories (motor vehicle braking and interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail at various initial conditions and at various certain pavement surface of the road section under investigation and work of a motor vehicle hydraulic brake system. Taking into consideration the presented general mathematical model and computer aided test results it is possible to investigate various road transport traffic situations as well as to investigate various transport traffic safety problems.

  18. Global dumping ground: The international traffic in hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, B.

    1993-01-01

    This book is based on the PBS's television documentary. It vividly describes the forces that encourage the USA and other industrialized nations to condone the disposal of industrial and domestic hazardous wastes in other countries. Often conducted illegally, this disposal affects the unsuspecting people of less developed nations, many of whom have less stringent environmental laws and regulations. The book also portrays the ill effects of this dumping on the health and environment and convey and important messages: something must be done to get the public involved in repairing a serious global problem and even small measures, illustrated in the book, are a good start. However, the book fails to confront the question of how the public wants the government to be involved

  19. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  20. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), Department of... Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-481, delegated to DOT the authority to develop...

  1. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... leak detection requirements for all pipelines; whether to require the installation of emergency flow... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0229] RIN 2137-AE66 Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid...

  2. Traffic Safety and Vehicle Choice: Quantifying the Effects of the "Arms Race" on American Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun

    2009-01-01

    The increasing market share of light trucks in the U.S. in recent years has been characterized as an “arms race” where individual purchase of light trucks for better self-protection in collisions nevertheless leads to worse traffic safety for the society. This paper investigates the interrelation between traffic safety and vehicle choice by quantifying the effects of the arms race on vehicle demand, producer performance, and traffic safety. The empirical analysis shows that the accident exter...

  3. Traffic Incident Clearance Time and Arrival Time Prediction Based on Hazard Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang beibei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of incident duration is not only important information of Traffic Incident Management System, but also an effective input for travel time prediction. In this paper, the hazard based prediction models are developed for both incident clearance time and arrival time. The data are obtained from the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads’ STREAMS Incident Management System (SIMS for one year ending in November 2010. The best fitting distributions are drawn for both clearance and arrival time for 3 types of incident: crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard. The results show that Gamma, Log-logistic, and Weibull are the best fit for crash, stationary vehicle, and hazard incident, respectively. The obvious impact factors are given for crash clearance time and arrival time. The quantitative influences for crash and hazard incident are presented for both clearance and arrival. The model accuracy is analyzed at the end.

  4. Evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to determine the ground motion hazards for a plant at a particular site and the potential for surface faulting, which could affect the feasibility of construction and safe operation of a plant at that site. The guidelines and procedures presented in this Safety Guide can appropriately be used in evaluations of site suitability and seismic hazards for nuclear power plants in any seismotectonic environment. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis recommended in this Safety Guide also addresses the needs for seismic hazard analysis of external event PSAs conducted for nuclear power plants. Many of the methods and processes described may also be applicable to nuclear facilities other than power plants. Other phenomena of permanent ground displacement (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) as well as the topic of seismically induced flooding are treated in Safety Guides relating to foundation safety and coastal flooding. Recommendations of a general nature are given in Section 2. Section 3 discusses the acquisition of a database containing the information needed to evaluate and address all hazards associated with earthquakes. Section 4 covers the use of this database for construction of a seismotectonic model. Sections 5 and 6 review ground motion hazards and evaluations of the potential for surface faulting, respectively. Section 7 addresses quality assurance in the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants

  5. Transport safety and traffic forecasting: An economist's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Button

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with forecasting traffic accidents at a relatively aggregate level and over a long time period; the sort of information that is required as part of a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of a major transportation investment or policy change. It is not so focused on appraising the social value of specific safety measures, although some of the points made seem germane. Whereas there has been much ex ante analysis at the meso- and macro-levels looking at the causes of accidents and ways of reducing both their number and severity, much less ex post has been done considering the accuracy of predictions of accident rates after an investment or policy initiative. Given the evidence that exists on the accuracy of traffic forecasts, especially involving oft over-optimistic predictions of public transit and rail use, there is at least a prima facie case for arguing that many investment and policy decisions are being based, in part, on over favorable assumptions with regard to their aggregate safety impacts.

  6. Effects of scale and efficiency of rural traffic calming on safety, accessibility and wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of scale and efficiency of regional traffic calming on traffic safety, rural accessibility, and survival of wildlife. We distinguish by the scale of road networks affected and considered the efficiencies of various bundling of traffic flows on designated routes.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  8. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  9. 76 FR 73011 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of... Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on Special Permit Applications. SUMMARY: In... reissue the Nuclear 173.56(b)(3)(i special permit Security ). originally issued Administration on an...

  10. Driver and vehicle type parameters' contribution to traffic safety in UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Alkheder,Sharaf A.; Sabouni,Reem; El Naggar,Hany; Sabouni,Abdul Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Former traffic safety studies showed clearly that driver or human factor is a major contributor to road accidents. Hence, to better understand the traffic accident nature it's so vital to analyze all characteristics related to drivers involved in these accidents. This article focuses on this aspect through using a dataset representing UAE traffic accidents in the time interval between 2007 and 2010. A major focus was given in this article to analyzing the relation between traffic accidents an...

  11. OSHA safety requirements for hazardous chemicals in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohms, J

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements set forth by the Hazard Communication Standard, which has been in effect for the healthcare industry since 1987. Administrators who have not taken concrete steps to address employee health and safety issues relating to hazardous chemicals are encouraged to do so to avoid the potential of large fines for cited violations. While some states administer their own occupational safety and health programs, they must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements.

  12. Change in neighborhood traffic safety: does it matter in terms of physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Busschers, Wim; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A. M.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood traffic safety and physical activity (PA). This study aims to contribute to this evidence by assessing the extent to which changes over time in neighborhood traffic safety were associated with PA.

  13. Motorcycles Health and Traffic Safety: Evidence from Commercial Motorcyclists in Gombe State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiru Inuwa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial motorcyclists are gaining acceptance by all and sundry as a means of public transport which are adapted to the contemporary Nigerian society. However, expose to all hazards including accidents are further worsened by the lack of proper knowledge on road safety measures of the commercial motorcycle riders. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of a commercial motorcycle on health and traffic safety in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Gombe Metropolis with using the random sampling technique to select 500 motorcyclists sample size. The data generated were analyzed using simple percentages. The study finds that most of the motorcycles accidents were caused by reckless riding, drug abuse and disregard to traffic rules. Similarly, the study finds that Tricycles are the most important factor causing motorcycle accidents in Gombe metropolis. Furthermore, the study finds that most of the respondents suffer from at least one health challenge as a result of their continuous use of the motorcycle. The study therefore recommends that government and other relevant agencies should be equipped with materials and human resources to embark on regular and massive breath testing of motorcyclists to detect riders who ride under the influence of drugs. This can be achieved through identifying the Drunken riders and make them face the wrath of the law.

  14. Evaluation of criteria for developing traffic safety materials for Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit-Kaplan, Erica L; Miara, Christine; Formica, Scott W; Gallagher, Susan Scavo

    2011-03-01

    This quantitative study assessed the validity of guidelines that identified four key characteristics of culturally appropriate Spanish-language traffic safety materials: language, translation, formative evaluation, and credible source material. From a sample of 190, the authors randomly selected 12 Spanish-language educational materials for analysis by 15 experts. Hypotheses included that the experts would rate materials with more of the key characteristics as more effective (likely to affect behavioral change) and rate materials originally developed in Spanish and those that utilized formative evaluation (e.g., pilot tests, focus groups) as more culturally appropriate. Although results revealed a weak association between the number of key characteristics in a material and the rating of its effectiveness, reviewers rated materials originally created in Spanish and those utilizing formative evaluation as significantly more culturally appropriate. The findings and methodology demonstrated important implications for developers and evaluators of any health-related materials for Spanish speakers and other population groups.

  15. The practical implementation of integrated safety management for nuclear safety analysis and fire hazards analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLOPY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 Mr. Joseph DiNunno of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued an approach to describe the concept of an integrated safety management program which incorporates hazard and safety analysis to address a multitude of hazards affecting the public, worker, property, and the environment. Since then the U S . Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a policy to systematically integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions can be completed while protecting the public, worker, and the environment. While the DOE and its contractors possessed a variety of processes for analyzing fire hazards at a facility, activity, and job; the outcome and assumptions of these processes have not always been consistent for similar types of hazards within the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis. Although the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis are driven by different DOE Orders and requirements, these analyses should not be entirely independent and their preparation should be integrated to ensure consistency of assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and other controls. Under the DOE policy to implement an integrated safety management system, identification of hazards must be evaluated and agreed upon to ensure that the public. the workers. and the environment are protected from adverse consequences. The DOE program and contractor management need a uniform, up-to-date reference with which to plan. budget, and manage nuclear programs. It is crucial that DOE understand the hazards and risks necessarily to authorize the work needed to be performed. If integrated safety management is not incorporated into the preparation of the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis, inconsistencies between assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and controls may occur that affect safety. Furthermore, confusion created by inconsistencies may occur in the DOE process to grant authorization of the work. In accordance with

  16. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  17. Retrospect and prospect of “Traffic Safety Education” in Kagawa Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ihara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain why we have conducted “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture during the past ten years so as to clarify the important factors for preventing painful traffic accidents in advance. To meet this aim, we firstly clarify the reason why we eventually decided to conduct “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture. In other words, the organization of powerful actors and/or leaders to cope with traffic accidents plays a very important role in “Traffic Safety Education.” Then, we specifically describe the essential parts of our “Traffic Safety Education”. In this respect, we have decided to select the following two aims: to reduce the number of traffic accidents, and to improve traffic manners, respectively. Thirdly, we evaluate various measures, such as teaching materials, teaching methods, and other activities of our “Traffic Safety Education” in detail. Lastly, we summarize the remaining tasks, which have been revealed so far, together with some concluding remarks.

  18. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  19. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  20. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  1. 78 FR 66326 - Hazardous Materials: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank Car Transportation (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Advance Notice of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...

  2. Lithium-thionyl chloride cell system safety hazard analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampier, F. W.

    1985-03-01

    This system safety analysis for the lithium thionyl chloride cell is a critical review of the technical literature pertaining to cell safety and draws conclusions and makes recommendations based on this data. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring during discharge are discussed with particular attention given to unstable SOCl2 reduction intermediates. Potentially hazardous reactions between the various cell components and discharge products or impurities that could occur during electrical or thermal abuse are described and the most hazardous conditions and reactions identified. Design factors influencing the safety of Li/SOCl2 cells, shipping and disposal methods and the toxicity of Li/SOCl2 battery components are additional safety issues that are also addressed.

  3. Hazard and safety in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1978-01-01

    Although the number of victims in the nuclear industry has been extremely low as compared with the number of victims in other spheres of human activity society has been willing to put up with a high number of accidents resulting in few victims per accident but refuses to accept an extremely rare accident resulting in a high number of victims. The U.S. nuclear industry is spending almost 2000 dollars for each reduction of a man x rem unit and this investment raises the ''man-life value'' in the nuclear industry to 10 million dollars as compared with 10,000 to 20,000 dollars spent in other activities (roentgen, early cancer detection, etc.). To reduce the exaggerated burden placed on the nuclear industry the safety expenditures should be spread over a maximum possible range of human activities. (B.G.)

  4. Health and safety information program for hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.P.; Fallon, N.J.; Kuehner, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The system is used as a management tool in several safety and health programs. It is used to: trace the use of hazardous materials and to determine monitoring needs; inform the occupational physician of the potential health problems associated with materials ordered by a given individual; inform the fire and rescue group of hazardous materials in a given building; provide waste disposal recommendations to the hazardous waste management group; assist the hazardous materials shipping coordinator in identifying materials which are regulated by the Department of Transportation; and guide management decisions in the area of recognizing and rectifying unsafe conditions. The information system has been expanded from a manual effort to provide a brief description of health hazards of chemicals used at the lab to a computerized health and safety information system which serves the needs of all personnel who may encounter the material in the course of their work. The system has been designed to provide information needed to control the potential problems associated with a hazardous material up to the time that it is consumed in a given operation or is sent to the waste disposal facility

  5. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  6. 340 Waste handling Facility Hazard Categorization and Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis presented in this document provides the basis for categorizing the facility as less than Hazard Category 3. The final hazard categorization for the deactivated 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility) is presented in this document. This hazard categorization was prepared in accordance with DOE-STD-1 027-92, Change Notice 1, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with Doe Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The analysis presented in this document provides the basis for categorizing the facility as less than Hazard Category (HC) 3. Routine nuclear waste receiving, storage, handling, and shipping operations at the 340 Facility have been deactivated, however, the facility contains a small amount of radioactive liquid and/or dry saltcake in two underground vault tanks. A seismic event and hydrogen deflagration were selected as bounding accidents. The generation of hydrogen in the vault tanks without active ventilation was determined to achieve a steady state volume of 0.33%, which is significantly less than the lower flammability limit of 4%. Therefore, a hydrogen deflagration is not possible in these tanks. The unmitigated release from a seismic event was used to categorize the facility consistent with the process defined in Nuclear Safety Technical Position (NSTP) 2002-2. The final sum-of-fractions calculation concluded that the facility is less than HC 3. The analysis did not identify any required engineered controls or design features. The Administrative Controls that were derived from the analysis are: (1) radiological inventory control, (2) facility change control, and (3) Safety Management Programs (SMPs). The facility configuration and radiological inventory shall be controlled to ensure that the assumptions in the analysis remain valid. The facility commitment to SMPs protects the integrity of the facility and environment by ensuring training, emergency response, and radiation protection. The full scale

  7. A Particle System for Safety Verification of Free Flight in Air Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Krystul, J.; Bakker, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Under free flight, an aircrew has both the freedom to select their trajectory and the responsibility of resolving conflicts with other aircraft. The general belief is that free flight can be made safe under low traffic conditions. Increasing traffic, however, raises safety verification issues. This

  8. The Influence of Errors in Visualization Systems on the Level of Safety Threat in Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ferduła

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic management is carried out by air traffic controllers assisted by complex technical systems that provide them with visualization of the traffic situation. In practice, visualization systems errors sometimes occur. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of errors of different types on the safety of the air traffic. The assessment of the threat level is influenced by subjective factors and cannot be expressed precisely. Therefore, the fuzzy reasoning theory has been used. The developed fuzzy model has been used to obtain a tool for simulation of the impact of various factors on traffic safety assessment. The results obtained indicate that the most important determinants of safety are the time when the air traffic controller remains unaware of the breakdown and the total time he/she does not have full knowledge of the traffic situation. It has been found that the key role for the proper operation of the air traffic visualization system and the restoration of full situational awareness is played by self-diagnostic systems that can restore the system’s correct functioning without even the controller being aware of the error occurrence. Their role in ensuring safety might be even greater than redundancy which is commonly used.

  9. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to the risks that hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines pose to the environment. In the Pipeline...

  10. Irradiation hazards and safety standards for patients in dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, B D.P.

    1975-07-01

    The historical developments which have led to a reduction in the hazards or potential hazards to patients in dental radiography are reviewed. Based on a simple risk estimate, the safety of present-day techniques employed in routine dental radiography is assessed. Also included in the review is a description of techniques used and results obtained from the National Radiation Laboratory's (NRL) surveillance programme of patients' exposure to irradiation in dental radiography. The possibilities of and need for achieving further reductions of irradiation are discussed.

  11. 2012 national state safety engineers and traffic engineers peer-to-peer workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) sponsored and hosted the : 2012 National State Safety Engineers and Traffic Engineers Peer-to-Peer Workshop on November 14 and 15, 2012, at the : Hyatt ...

  12. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic Safety and Mobility in Connected Vehicle Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of Connected Vehicle Technology that facilitates wireless communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at...

  13. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  14. Safety perceptions and behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chataway, Elijah Steven; Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    -based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities. Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analyzed...... with structural equation models. Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists...

  15. Controlling traffic jams by time modulating the safety distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case....

  16. Modem Communications Systems Development Guidelines in Function of Air Traffic Safety ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Obradović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The communications requirements in air traffic control areincreasing in complexity. From the middle 90s, huge progress inairport infrastructure, especially in air traffic control systems,has been made in Bosnia and Herzegovina in damage rehabilitation,caused by war conflicts, owing, first of all, to the EuropeanUnion aid that contributed to the re-establishment of regularinternational air traffic. The current air traffic control systemhas matured in its functionality. Therefore, the phase of advancementand preparation for the technological improvementis the next logical step. However, before establishing a new communicationsstrategy, the current application trends have to beanalyzed in details according to the existing communicationsenvironment interfaces. The goal of this work is to find theguidelines of technological development that will result in moreefficiency, safety and economic benefit in the near future, butthe air traffic safety must not be compromised by economicbenefit.

  17. Safety, health and environmental committee (JKSHE): Establishing chemical hazard management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Noriah Mod Ali; Sangau, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the laboratories in Malaysian Nuclear Agency are using chemicals in their research activities. However, it is known that using of chemicals without proper knowledge especially on the material characteristics as well as safe handling procedure may cause great harm to the workers. Therefore, Safety, Health and Environmental Committee (JKSHE) sees the need to establish a good chemical hazard management to ensure that a safe and healthy workplace and environment is provided. One of the elements in chemical hazard management is to carry out Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment (CHRA). The assessment was done so that decision can be made on suitable control measures upon use of such chemicals, such as induction and training courses to be given to the workers and health surveillance activities that may be needed to protect the workers. For this, JKSHE has recommended to conduct CHRA for one of the laboratories at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) namely Film Dosimeter Processing Room (dark room) as the initial effort towards a better chemical hazard management. This paper presents the case study where CHRA was conducted to identify the chemical hazards at the selected laboratory, the adequacy of existing control measures and finally the recommendation for more effective control measures. (author)

  18. Air Traffic Control: Weak Computer Security Practices Jeopardize Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Given the paramount importance of computer security of Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems, Congress asked the General Accounting Office to determine (1) whether the Fedcral Aviation Administration (FAA) is effectively managing physical security at ATC...

  19. Engineering Solutions to Enhance Traffic Safety Performance on Two-Lane Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving two-lane highway traffic safety conditions is of practical importance to the traffic system, which has attracted significant research attention within the last decade. Many cost-effective and proactive solutions such as low-cost treatments and roadway safety monitoring programs have been developed to enhance traffic safety performance under prevailing conditions. This study presents research perspectives achieved from the Highway Safety Enhancement Project (HSEP that assessed safety performance on two-lane highways in Beijing, China. Potential causal factors are identified based on proposed evaluation criteria, and primary countermeasures are developed against inferior driving conditions such as sharp curves, heavy gradients, continuous downgrades, poor sight distance, and poor clear zones. Six cost-effective engineering solutions were specifically implemented to improve two-lane highway safety conditions, including (1 traffic sign replacement, (2 repainting pavement markings, (3 roadside barrier installation, (4 intersection channelization, (5 drainage optimization, and (6 sight distance improvement. The effectiveness of these solutions was examined and evaluated based on Empirical Bayes (EB models. The results indicate that the proposed engineering solutions effectively improved traffic safety performance by significantly reducing crash occurrence risks and crash severities.

  20. Active transportation: do current traffic safety policies protect non-motorists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the impact that state traffic safety regulations have on non-motorist fatality rates. Data obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) were analyzed through a pooled time series cross-sectional model using fixed effects regression for all 50 states from 1999 to 2009. Two dependent variables were used in separate models measuring annual state non-motorist fatalities per million population, and the natural log of state non-motorist fatalities. Independent variables measuring traffic policies included state expenditures for highway law enforcement and safety per capita; driver cell phone use regulations; graduated driver license regulations; driver blood alcohol concentration regulations; bike helmet regulations; and seat belt regulations. Other control variables included percent of all vehicle miles driven that are urban and mean per capita alcohol consumption per year. Non-motorist traffic safety was positively impacted by state highway law enforcement and safety expenditures per capita, with a decrease in non-motorist fatalities occurring with increased spending. Per capita consumption of alcohol also influenced non-motorist fatalities, with higher non-motorist fatalities occurring with higher per capita consumption of alcohol. Other traffic safety covariates did not appear to have a significant impact on non-motorist fatality rates in the models. Our research suggests that increased expenditures on state highway and traffic safety and the initiation/expansion of programs targeted at curbing both driver and non-motorist intoxication are a starting point for the implementation of traffic safety policies that reduce risks for non-motorists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  2. Modernizing the Professional Capabilities of Driving Instructors and Traffic Safety Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effective traffic safety training is a long process; it starts from very young age and continues throughout life. This is not only a process of acquiring knowledge and skills, but also a matter of social importance. Pedagogical forms of education depend on the position of a man in society, respectively, on abilities to percept the environment. The recent investigations of traffic accidents show, that the young drivers generally have poorer than average self-reflection skills. It is therefore important to foster self-reflection skills and attitudes from an early age, especially in matters that relate to road and driving safety. All of staff that have career in traffic safety training (mainly instructors for driving and traffic safety teachers in Europe have their responsibility for decreasing the traffic accidents and incidents by polishing their skills. They work under variety conditions, specific National Lows and Regulations, but the features of their target groups are one and the same. In order to meet the new challenges put by EU Commission they need to have common vision about traffic safety training in Europe, to know what traffic safety means for different age groups, to know what is the best practice of their colleagues, including curricula, methods, training materials, and to be aware their work is very important for traffic safety. Aim of this paper is to present an approach for non-formal instructors for driving and traffic safety teachers training for modernizing their professional capabilities with students form 0 to 30 years old. The investigations and main results are based on the theoretical investigation for hierarchical level of behavior, made by Hatakka for instructors for driving training. The students are divided in four age groups: pre-school children (0-6 years, schoolchildren (7-12 years, teenagers (13-17 years and young adults (18-30 years. For each age group a curriculum is developed according to common EU rules and

  3. Food safety hazards in Georgian Tushuri Guda cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil Korakhashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific-research work provides a timely and valuable review of the progress being made in the greater understanding of the factors contributing to Tushuri Guda cheese making and how this experience may be applied to producing better and more consistent products with food safety HACCP system requirements. The HACCP study in this variety of cheese covers all types of food safety hazards, like biological, chemical and physical, but unfortunately it needs a more precise definition. It did not include clarification of cleaning and sanitation operations in accordance with modern standards, sanitation of grasslands and meadows. All of that are covered by the plant Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs procedures and Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs for the obtaining of maximal food safety results.

  4. The traffic climate in China: The mediating effect of traffic safety climate between personality and dangerous driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Zhang, Kan; Sun, Xianghong

    2018-04-01

    Traffic safety climate is defined as road users' attitudes and perceptions of traffic in a specific context at a given point in time. The current study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) and to explore its relation to drivers' personality and dangerous driving behavior. A sample of 413 drivers completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Chinese version of the TCS, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and a demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to confirm a three-factor (external affective demands, internal requirements and functionality) solution of the TCS. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of TCS were verified. More importantly, the results showed that the effect of personality on dangerous driving behavior was mediated by traffic climate. Specifically, the functionality of the TCS mediated the effect of neuroticism on negative cognitive/emotional driving and drunk driving, while openness had an indirect impact on aggressive driving, risky driving and drunk driving based on the internal requirements of the TCS. Additionally, agreeableness had a negative direct impact on four factors of the DDDI, while neuroticism had a positive direct impact on negative cognitive/emotional driving, drunk driving and risky driving. In conclusion, the Chinese version of the TCS will be useful to evaluate drivers' attitudes towards and perceptions of the requirements of traffic environment in which they participate and will also be valuable for comparing traffic cultures and environments in different countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  6. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  7. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio; Batista Camargo Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  8. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 193 [Docket No.: FAA-2013-0375] Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and... Disclosure. SUMMARY: The FAA is proposing that safety information provided to it under the T-SAP, established... to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address aviation safety hazards...

  9. Investigating the relationship between jobs-housing balance and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Li, Haojie; Zhao, Jingya; Chen, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of jobs-housing balance on traffic safety. The crash, demographic characteristics, employment, road network, household characteristics and traffic data were collected from the Los Angeles in 2010. One-way ANOVA tests indicated that the jobs-housing ratio significantly affects traffic safety in terms of crash frequency at traffic analysis zone (TAZ). To quantify the safety impacts of jobs-housing balance, the semi-parametric geographically weighted Poisson regression (S-GWPR) was further used to link crash frequency at TAZ with jobs-housing ratio and other contributing factors. The S-GWPR provides better fitness to the data than do the generalized linear regression, as the S-GWPR accounts for the spatial heterogeneity. The S-GWPR results showed that the jobs-housing relationship has a significant association with crash frequency at TAZ when the factors of traffic, network, and household characteristics are controlled. Crash frequency at TAZ level increases with an increase in the jobs-housing ratio. To further investigate the interactive effects between jobs-housing ratio and other factors, a comparative analysis was conducted to compare the variable elasticities under different jobs-housing ratios. The results indicate considerable interactive effects that traffic conditions and road network characteristics have different effects on crash frequency under various jobs-housing ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hazard analysis & safety requirements for small drone operations : to what extent do popular drones embed safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plioutsias, Anastasios; Karanikas, Nektarios; Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela

    2018-01-01

    Currently, published risk analyses for drones refer mainly to commercial systems, use data from civil aviation, and are based on probabilistic approaches without suggesting an inclusive list of hazards and respective requirements. Within this context, this paper presents: (1) a set of safety

  11. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  12. Influence of Ergonomics on Traffic Safety and Economy Development

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Perić; Nada Štrumberger; Dean Perić

    2004-01-01

    As an interdisciplinary science, ergonomics needs to makethe operating of traffic safer, faster and more reliable, for thesake of higher profitability and generally improved economiceffects. This is achieved by adapting and shaping the workplace,machines, transport means, equipment, physical environment,working process etc. according to experience abouthuman anatomic physica~ sociologica~ intellectual and otherminimal, average or maximal capabilities. Therefore, it is necessaryto analyse ergo...

  13. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  14. Culture related to road traffic safety: a comparison of eight countries using two conceptualizations of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western

  15. Key Problems of Fire Safety Enforcement in Traffic and Communication Centers (TCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyanik, M.; Zosimova, O.

    2017-10-01

    A Traffic and Communication Center (TCC) means facilities designed and used to distribute and redirect flows of humans and motor vehicles while they get serviced and operate. This paper sets forth the basic problems of fire safety enforcement on the TCC, and the causes that slow down human and vehicle traffic speeds. It proposes ways to solve the problems of fire safety enforcement on the TCC, in the Russian Federation and elsewhere. Engineering solutions are proposed for TCC design, with key outlooks of TCC future development as an alternative way to organize access in transportation.

  16. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  17. Using hazard maps to identify and eliminate workplace hazards: a union-led health and safety training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joe; Collins, Michele; Devlin, John; Renner, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for Sustainable Work and Environment and the Utility Workers Union of America worked with a professional evaluator to design, implement, and evaluate the results of a union-led system of safety-based hazard identification program that trained workers to use hazard maps to identify workplace hazards and target them for elimination. The evaluation documented program implementation and impact using data collected from both qualitative interviews and an on-line survey from worker trainers, plant managers, and health and safety staff. Managers and workers reported that not only were many dangerous hazards eliminated as a result of hazard mapping, some of which were long-standing, difficult-to-resolve issues, but the evaluation also documented improved communication between union members and management that both workers and managers agreed resulted in better, more sustainable hazard elimination.

  18. Administrative goals and safety standards for hazard control on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1973-01-01

    For efficient control of tree hazard on recreation sites, a specific administrative goal must be selected. A safety standard designed to achieve the selected goal and a uniform hazard-rating procedure will then promote a consistent level of safety at an acceptable cost. Safety standards can be established with the aid of data for past years, and dollar evaluations are...

  19. Safety in the Air: A Curriculum about Flight and Air Traffic Control Designed for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Ted

    This six-lesson unit is designed to familiarize sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students with air traffic safety and the individuals who make air traffic safety possible. Each lesson consists of a statement of the concept fostered, a list of objectives, a brief discussion on the focus of the unit, and instructional strategies for lesson topics…

  20. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  1. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  2. Analysis and comparison of safety models using average daily, average hourly, and microscopic traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wang, Xuesong; Yu, Rongjie

    2018-02-01

    There have been plenty of traffic safety studies based on average daily traffic (ADT), average hourly traffic (AHT), or microscopic traffic at 5 min intervals. Nevertheless, not enough research has compared the performance of these three types of safety studies, and seldom of previous studies have intended to find whether the results of one type of study is transferable to the other two studies. First, this study built three models: a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the daily crash frequency using ADT, a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the hourly crash frequency using AHT, and a Bayesian logistic regression model for the real-time safety analysis using microscopic traffic. The model results showed that the crash contributing factors found by different models were comparable but not the same. Four variables, i.e., the logarithm of volume, the standard deviation of speed, the logarithm of segment length, and the existence of diverge segment, were positively significant in the three models. Additionally, weaving segments experienced higher daily and hourly crash frequencies than merge and basic segments. Then, each of the ADT-based, AHT-based, and real-time models was used to estimate safety conditions at different levels: daily and hourly, meanwhile, the real-time model was also used in 5 min intervals. The results uncovered that the ADT- and AHT-based safety models performed similar in predicting daily and hourly crash frequencies, and the real-time safety model was able to provide hourly crash frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An assessment of traffic safety culture related to driving after cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a better understanding of the traffic safety culture (i.e., shared values, beliefs, and : attitudes) of driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). A survey was developed based on an augmented integrated...

  4. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  5. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  6. Impact of cruise control on traffic safety, energy consumption and environmental pollution : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Brouwer, R.F.T.; Malone, K.; Klunder, G.; et al

    2006-01-01

    In this subproject, the impact of Cruise Control (CC) was analysed with respect to traffic safety, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. In order to work on this topic from a European perspective, a team of European experts in the fields of driver assistance systems, human factors,

  7. Traffic safety in reconstructed streets. Lecture presented at the Technical University, Espoo, Finland, May 14 1985.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    In 1977 the Dutch government decided to grant governmental contributions to municipalities for conducting experiments within built-up areas, aimed at improving the traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists. According to this 85% of the total costs involved in the implementation of experimental

  8. Ships in an Artificial Force Field : A Multi-agent System for Nautical Traffic and Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, F.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is developing a simulation tool that provides information of detailed ship behavior in a specific navigational environment, on both the ship traffic level and the individual ship level, for safety analysis, decision making, planning of ports and waterways, and

  9. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials..., suggested that the scope should include low-stress gas pipelines such as those associated with coal bed...

  10. Assessment of Occupational Hazards, Health Problems and Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the occupational hazards, health ..... engineering conference on sustainable ... Industrial Health.

  11. Risk assessment. Basic documents for the preparation of the report 'Energy, Health, environment, and safety hazards' by the Swedish Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report contains several essays on the rational ways of assessing the hazards, and choosing, the future energy production systems. Theories of decision analysis are touched upon by a number of authors and the fault tree statistical method is described. The Rasmussen report (WASH-1400) and a few related papers are discussed. As an example of the risks of advanced technological systems, the air traffic safety is accounted for. (L.E.)

  12. Application of system safety engineering techniques for hazard prevention at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A primary goal of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is to establish an exemplary safety program. Achieving this goal requires leadership, planning, coordination, and technical know-how. To ensure that safety is an inherent part of the design, the Environment, Safety and Health Office employs a systems engineering discipline and process known as System Safety. The goal of System Safety - hazard prevention - is accomplished by analyzing systems to identify hazards and to evaluate design and procedural options and countermeasures to prevent, eliminate, mitigate, or control hazards and risks. Establishment of safety and human factors design criteria at the outset of the project prevents unsafe designs and safety violations, reduces risks, and helps in avoiding costly design changes later. This process requires a considerable amount of coordination with a variety of technical disciplines and safety professionals to integrate methods of hazard prevention, mitigation, and risk reduction throughout the system life-cycle

  13. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary......Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...

  14. Traffic safety analysis of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šraml, Matjaž; Tollazzi, Tomaž; Renčelj, Marko

    2012-11-01

    Due to the 2006 European research report on powered two-wheelers (PTWs) riders' traffic safety, Slovenia represents the highest risk for PTW riders in the European Union. Namely, in Slovenia we have the largest number of PTW riders' deaths per billion travelled kilometers in 2006. Since then the traffic safety situation in the field of PTW riders in Slovenia has been improving and we will discuss that phenomenon in the present paper. The paper identifies and analyzes the causes that led to such a critical situation. Further, the evaluation of activities that were carried out to improve the road safety for powered two-wheeler riders in Slovenia in the last past years are discussed. In conclusion a selection of measures and actions is presented that already has been and also should be carried out in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A peer-to-peer traffic safety campaign program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement a peer-to-peer drivers safety program designed for high school students. : This project builds upon an effective peer-to-peer outreach effort in Texas entitled Teens in the Driver Seat (TDS), the : nati...

  16. Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these

  17. Miles, speed, and technology: Traffic safety under oligopolistic insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dementieva, M.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    We study road safety when insurance companies have market power, and can influence drivers' behavior via insurance premiums. We obtain first- and second-best premiums for different insurance market structures. The insurance program consists of an insurance premium, and marginal dependencies of that

  18. Connoted hazard and perceived importance of fluorescent, neon, and standard safety colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, O A; Mayhorn, C B; Wogalter, M S

    2017-11-01

    The perceived hazard and rated importance of standard safety, fluorescent, and neon colors are investigated. Colors are used in warnings to enhance hazard communication. Red has consistently been rated as the highest in perceived hazard. Orange, yellow, and black are the next highest in connoted hazard; however, there is discrepancy in their ordering. Safety standards, such as ANSI Z535.1, also list colors to convey important information, but little research has examined the perceived importance of colors. In addition to standard safety colors, fluorescent colors are more commonly used in warnings. Understanding hazard and importance perceptions of standard safety and fluorescent colors is necessary to create effective warnings. Ninety participants rated and ranked a total of 33 colors on both perceived hazard and perceived importance. Rated highest were the safety red colors from the American National Standard Institute (ANSI), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) together with three fluorescent colors (orange, yellow, and yellow-green) from 3 M on both dimensions. Rankings were similar to ratings except that fluorescent orange was the highest on perceived hazard, while fluorescent orange and safety red from the ANSI were ranked as the highest in perceived importance. Fluorescent colors convey hazard and importance levels as high as the standard safety red colors. Implications for conveying hazard and importance in warnings through color are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  20. DOMAINS OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, WHICH NEED THE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Procházková

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the railway accidents sources in the Czech Republic on the basis of knowledge on complex system behaviour. It derives seven categories of sources of railway accidents. The individual categories include the accident sources from the same field domain. These domains are: technical related to rail traffic vehicles; technical related to rail infrastructure and railway station; railway operation control – organizational causes; railway operation control – cyber causes; control of rail traffic vehicles; attack on the train; domain legislative and other. The results show that for railway traffic safety improvement, it is necessary to pay attention to all categories, and especially to these that lead to organizational accidents origination.

  1. How could intelligent safety transport systems enhance safety ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiethoff, M. Heijer, T. & Bekiaris, E.

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, many deaths and injured each years are the cost of today's road traffic. Therefore, it is wise to look for possible solutions for enhancing traffic safety. Some Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are expected to increase safety, but they may also evoke new safety hazards. Only

  2. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  3. Safety concepts for the design of transport and traffic facilities for pedestrians, cyclists, children and disabled in urban areas. Contribution to the 5th National Congress on Traffic Safety, Barcelona, Spain, November 24-26, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    The "vulnerable" road users, pedestrians, cyclists, children and disabled in urban -areas mainly are victims of motorised traffic. The intensity and speed of this motorized traffic are the main agents for the unsafety of the "vulnerable" road users. Safety concepts for urban areas should be directed

  4. Final safety and hazards analysis for the Battelle LOCA simulation tests in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, D.J.; Martin, I.C.; McAuley, S.J.

    1981-04-01

    This is the final safety and hazards report for the proposed Battelle LOCA simulation tests in NRU. A brief description of equipment test design and operating procedure precedes a safety analysis and hazards review of the project. The hazards review addresses potential equipment failures as well as potential for a metal/water reaction and evaluates the consequences. The operation of the tests as proposed does not present an unacceptable risk to the NRU Reactor, CRNL personnel or members of the public. (author)

  5. Nuclear safety: operational aspects. 3. Hazard Analysis of Passive Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano

    2001-01-01

    Interest has been aroused in recent years regarding the reliability assessment of passive systems being developed by suppliers, industries, utilities, and research organizations that aim at plant safety improvement and substantial simplification in its implementation. The approach to passive systems reliability assessment entails first a detailed system and safety analysis, and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) methodology has been chosen to perform the safety analysis at the system level. The FMEA technique allows identification of all potential failure modes in a system to evaluate their effects on the system and to classify them according to their severity; this technique identifies the reliability-critical areas in the system where modifications to the design are required to reduce the probability of failure. The present study concerns passive systems designed for decay heat removal relying on natural circulation that foresee, for the most part, a condenser immersed in a cooling pool. This is to identify and rank by importance the potential hazards related to passive-system equipment and operation that may critically affect the safety or availability of the plant. More specifically, the content of the paper analyzes the isolation condenser (IC) system foreseen for advanced boiling water reactors for removal of excess sensible and core decay heat by natural circulation during isolation transients. This FMEA analysis is the initial step to be accomplished as support for the development of a methodology aimed at the reliability assessment of thermal-hydraulic passive safety systems, providing important input to more detailed quantitative studies employing, for instance, event trees and fault trees or other reliability/availability models. Main purposes of the work are to identify important accident initiators, find out the possible consequences on the plant deriving from component failures, individuate possible causes, identify mitigating features and

  6. The impact of medicinal drugs on traffic safety: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriols, Ludivine; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Philip, Pierre; Moore, Nicholas; Delorme, Bernard; Castot, Anne; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the quality of epidemiological research into effects of medicinal drugs on traffic safety and the current knowledge in this area. The bibliographic search was done in Medline electronic database using the keywords: ((accident* or crash*) and traffic and drug*) leading to 1141 references. Additional references were retrieved from the Safetylit website and the reference lists of selected studies. Original articles published in English or French, between 1 April 1979 and 31 July 2008, were considered for inclusion. We excluded descriptive studies, studies limited to alcohol or illicit drug involvement and investigations of injuries other than from traffic crashes. Studies based on laboratory tests, driving simulators or on-the-road driving tests were also excluded. Eligible studies had to evaluate the causal relationship between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of traffic crashes. Study quality was assessed by two independent experts, according to a grid adapted from the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Twenty two studies of variable methodological quality were included. Definition of drug exposure varied across studies and depended on the data sources. Potential confounding due to the interaction between the effects of the medicinal drug and disease-related symptoms was often not controlled. The risk of motor-vehicle crashes related to benzodiazepines has been amply studied and demonstrated. Results for other medicinal drugs remain controversial. There is a need for large studies, investigating the role of individual substances in the risk of road traffic crashes. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Treatment of external hazards in probabilistic safety assessment for nuclear power plants. A Safety Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Practice provides guidance on conducting a PSA for external hazards in nuclear power plants. Emphasis is placed on the procedural steps of the PSA rather then on the details of corresponding methods. The publication is intended to assist technical persons managing or performing PSAs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for external hazards PSA so as to facilitate external review of the results of such studies. For those specialists who are already involved in related studies, such as a Level 1 PSA dealing only with internal events, this publication provides an indication of how additional external events could be integrated into an existing PSA. 16 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Safety Culture: Lessons Learned from the US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigations Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigation of the 2005 BP Texas City Refinery disaster as well as the Baker Panel Report have set the stage for the consideration of human and organizational factors and safety culture as contributing causes of major accidents in the oil and gas industry. The investigation of the BP Texas City tragedy in many ways started a shift in the way the oil and chemical industry sectors looked at process safety and the importance of human and organizational factors in improving safety. Since the BP Texas City incident the CSB has investigated several incidents, including the 2010 Macondo disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, where organizational factors and safety culture, once again, were contributing causes of the incidents. In the Texas City incident the CSB found that “while most attention was focused on the injury rate, the overall safety culture and process safety management (PSM) program had serious deficiencies.” The CSB concluded that “safety campaigns, goals, and rewards focused on improving personal safety metrics and worker behaviors rather than on process safety and management safety systems.” The Baker panel, established as a result of a CSB recommendation, did a more extensive review of BPs safety culture. The Baker panel found that ‘while BP has aspirational goals of “no accidents, no harm to people” BP has not provided effective leadership in making certain it’s management and US refining workforce understand what is expected of them regarding process safety performance.’ This may have been in part due to a misinterpretation of positive trends in personal injury rates as an indicator of effective process safety. The panel also found that “at some of its US refineries BP has not established a positive, trusting and open environment with effective lines of communication between management and the workforce, including employee representatives.” In 2010 when the CSB began to

  9. Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document combines three analytical functions consisting of (1) the hazards baseline of the Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) for surveillance and maintenance, (2) the final hazard classification for the facility, and (3) and auditable safety analysis. This document also describes the potential hazards contained within the EDB at the N Reactor complex and the vulnerabilities of those hazards. The EDB segment is defined and confirmed its independence from other segments at the site by demonstrating that no potential adverse interactions exist between the segments. No EDB hazards vulnerabilities were identified that require reliance on either active, mitigative, or protective measures; adequate facility structural integrity exists to safely control the hazards

  10. Traffic safety and environmental impacts. Synergies and conflicts; Liikenteen turvallisuuden ja ympaeristoevaikutusten synergiat ja vastakkainasettelut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollanen, M.; Ahlroth, J.; Aalto, E.; Liimatainen, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Transport Research Centre Verne

    2013-06-01

    The improvement of safety and mitigation of harmful environmental effects are two key goals in developing sustainable transport. In part, the same measures can improve safety and mitigate environmental impacts. On the other hand, measures for improving safety may aggravate harmful environmental effects, and vice versa. The objective of this study is to describe the synergies and conflicts related to the objectives of improving the safety and mitigating the environmental impacts of transport and, in particular, the measures taken in pursuit of these objectives. The study conducted as a literature review complemented with expert interviews and workshops. The study focused on examining measures that could be implemented in Finland. Measures at transport system level for influencing traffic volumes and the use of different means of passenger and goods transport, as well as safety and environmental measures in road, rail, water and air traffic, were the subject of separate investigation. More than 200 measures for influencing the safety and environmental impacts of transport were reviewed in the study. A large portion of these measures only have a significant effect on one or the other of these subjects of study: the impact of safety measures is primarily directed at safety, while environmental measures mainly affect the environment. The core synergies between transport and the environment relate to vehicle mileage, since a reduced mileage translates to improved safety and reduced environmental impacts, such as lower energy consumption and fewer emissions. On the transport system level, output can be influenced by measures such as promoting remote work, alleviating the need for travel by using electronic services, and increasing the utilization of capacity in goods transport. The choice of transport mode has a large impact on safety, since different modes of transport entail significantly different risks and environmental impacts. Increasing the attractiveness of public

  11. Indicators for traffic safety assessment and prediction and their application in micro-simulation modelling : a study of urban and suburban intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve sustainable long-term transport infrastructure development, there is a growing need for fast, reliable and effective methods to evaluate and predict the impact of traffic safety measures. Recognising this need, and the need for an active traffic safety approach, this thesis focuses on traffic safety assessment and prediction based on the use of safety indicators that measure the spatial and/or temporal proximity of safety critical events. The main advantage of such measure...

  12. [Pain patients in street traffic. Do analgesics impair driving safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W

    2003-06-05

    Analgesics--in particular when self-prescribed or taken over the long term--may have a negative effect on safety on the road. This applies not only to vehicle drivers, but also to cyclists and pedestrians. Psychotropic effects of analgesics of all three WHO categories play a major causal role. Impairments may take the form of sleepiness, impaired vision, giddiness, loss of muscular tone or cardiovascular reactions. On the other hand, untreated severe pain has a high risk potential, since it may reduce both cognitive and psychomotoric performance. During the stabilization phase or dose adjustment of opioids, the patient must cautioned not to drive, and particular care must be taken in patients on concomitant or long-term medication or drinking excessive alcohol. In the last resort, the prescription of an analgesic is an individual decision involving both physician and patient.

  13. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security traffic and transportation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding and safety and security elements in traffic and transportation theory, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between different research approaches and through laying the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both ways – this book puts forward new congestion models, breaking new ground by introducing game theory and safety/security. Addressing the multiple actors who may hold different concerns regarding system reliability; e.g. one or several terrorists, a government, various local or regional government agencies, or others with stakes for or against system reliability, this book describes how ...

  14. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  15. Hazard Management Dealt by Safety Professionals in Colleges: The Impact of Individual Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs’ perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the hazard management scale (HMS extracted five factors, including physical hazards, biological hazards, social and psychological hazards, ergonomic hazards, and chemical hazards. Moreover, the top 10 hazards that the survey results identified that safety professionals were most likely to deal with (in order of most to least frequent were: organic solvents, illumination, other chemicals, machinery and equipment, fire and explosion, electricity, noise, specific chemicals, human error, and lifting/carrying. Finally, the results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA indicated there were four individual factors that impacted the perceived frequency of hazard management which were of statistical and practical significance: job tenure in the college of employment, type of certification, gender, and overall job tenure. SPs within colleges and industries can now discuss plans revolving around these five areas instead of having to deal with all of the separate hazards.

  16. Urban planning, traffic planning and traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists : report presented to the 1979 Road Research Symposium on Safety of Pedestrians and Cyclists, OECD Headquarters, Paris, 14-16 May 1979. Session III: Physical Countermeasures; Subsession III.1: Urban planning and traffic planning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists can be improved by means of urban planning and traffic planning, as one of the possibilities. This paper discusses the framework of these measures and activities and also the effects on the field of traffic planning. Chapter I show that it is not

  17. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  18. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gather enough data in order to formulate theory- and research-based recommendations to policy makers with the intention of decreasing the number of alcohol-related accidents and victims on Croatian roads. The data on the injured traffic participants and the share of participants under the influence of alcohol were collected from the police reports of the Traffic Police Department, Ministry of the Interior, written at the scene of the respective accidents. This documentation was then processed by descriptive epidemiology and analysed through a four-year period, before and after the passing of the New Road Traffic Safety Act in the Republic of Croatia, on 20 August 2004. In the first six months of 2005, after the passing of the Act, there were 3,275 accidents caused by the motorists under the influence of alcohol (12.5% of all the accidents), with 64 persons killed. Only 5 fatalities (8%) were caused by the drivers with measured blood alcohol concentration of up to 0.5 per thousand. As much as 27 fatalities (42%) were caused by the drivers with measured more than 1.5 per thousand, while half of the fatalities, 32 (50%), were caused by drivers with 0.5-1.5 per thousand. In this period, more than 451,000 violations were recorded, whereas in the same period of the previous year, the number of violations was about 519,000. A reduction of the total number of accidents is the result of the new regulation provision, according to which the incidents without human victims do not have to be reported to the police. The number of traffic accidents caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol had increased by some dozen per cents, namely: 2005 - 6,219 persons, 2006- 6,590 persons, noting that in 2006 one less person was killed (123) compared to 2005. In 2005, drivers with alcohol concentration of 0-0.5 per thousand caused 1,096 accidents, with 14 fatalities, whereas in 2006 there were 1,164 accidents with 9 fatalities. A total of 2,314 accidents

  19. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  20. Safety Impacts of Push-Button and Countdown Timer on Nonmotorized Traffic at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the random parameters negative binominal model to investigate safety impacts of push-button and countdown timer on pedestrians and cyclists at urban intersections. To account for possible unobserved heterogeneity which could vary from one intersection to another, random parameters model is introduced. A simulation-based maximum likelihood method using Halton draws is applied to estimate the maximum likelihood of random parameters in the model. Dataset containing pedestrians’ and cyclists’ crash data of 1,001 intersections from Chicago is utilized to establish the statistical relationship between crash frequencies and potential impact factors. LIMDEP (Version 9.0 statistical package is utilized for modeling. The parameter estimation results indicate that existence of push-button and countdown timer could significantly reduce crash frequencies of pedestrians and cyclists at intersections. Increasing number of through traffic lanes, left turn lanes, and ratio of major direction AADT to minor direction AADT, tend to increase crash frequencies. Annual average daily left turn traffic has a negative impact on pedestrians’ safety, but its impact on cyclists’ crash frequency is statistically insignificant at 90% confidence level. The results of current study could provide important insights for nonmotorized traffic safety improvement projects in both planning and operational levels.

  1. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  2. Implementation of health and safety management system to reduce hazardous potential in PT.XYZ Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, L.; Adianto; Sartika, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    PT. XYZ is a large automotive manufacturing company that manufacture, assemble as well as a car exporter. The other products are spare parts, jig and dies. PT. XYZ has long been implementing the Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) to reduce the potential hazards that cause work accidents. However, this does not mean that OSHMS that has been implemented does not need to be upgraded and improved. This is due to the potential danger caused by work is quite high. This research was conducted in Sunter 2 Plant where its production activities have a high level of potential hazard. Based on Hazard Identification risk assessment, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control (HIRARC) found 10 potential hazards in Plant Stamping Production, consisting of 4 very high risk potential hazards (E), 5 high risk potential hazards (H), and 1 moderate risk potential hazard (M). While in Plant Casting Production found 22 potential hazards findings consist of 7 very high risk potential hazards (E), 12 high risk potential hazards (H), and 3 medium risk potential hazards (M). Based on the result of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), the main priority is the high risk potential hazards (H) and very high risk potential hazards (E). The proposed improvement are to make the visual display of the importance of always using the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), establishing good working procedures, conducting OSH training for workers on a regular basis, and continuing to conduct safety campaigns.

  3. Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mynhardt, DC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport Conference, CSIR Convention Centre, Pretoria, 7-10 July 2014 Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa D. C. MYNHARDT Council for Scientific...

  4. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  5. Towards understanding work-as-done in air traffic management safety assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woltjer, Rogier; Pinska-Chauvin, Ella; Laursen, Tom; Josefsson, Billy

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken and the results to develop guidance, to include Resilience Engineering principles in methodology for safety assessment of functional changes, in Air Traffic Management (ATM). It summarizes the process of deriving resilience principles for ATM, originating from Resilience Engineering concepts and transposed into ATM operations. These principles are the foundation for guidance material incorporating Resilience Engineering (RE) concepts into safety assessment methodology. The guidance material provides a method using workshops generating qualitative descriptions of RE principles applied to ATM services of everyday work, as done currently and as envisioned after introduction of a new technology or way of working. The guidance material has been proposed as part of the safety assessment methodology of SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research), and as stand-alone guidance for ATM design processes. The methodology was validated via a test case on the i4D/CTA (Controlled Time of Arrival) concept. Operational examples from the application of the developed guidance to the i4D/CTA concept are provided. Initial evaluation of the guidance suggests that the methodology (1) provides a narrative, vocabulary and documentation means of project discussions on resilience; (2) brings the discussions of safety and resilience closer to operational practice; (3) facilitates a broader systemic and integrative perspective on operational, management, business, safety, environmental, and human performance aspects; and (4) can extend the vocabulary of safety assessment to include the description of emergent properties, to better support functional changes in ATM. - Highlights: • Guidance material for safety assessment based on systemic thinking is proposed. • It operationalizes Resilience Engineering principles in Air Traffic Management, including a case study. • It enables description of expected changes in work-as-done when introducing a new

  6. Evaluating the safety impact of adaptive cruise control in traffic oscillations on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways. First, the occurrence of a rear-end collision in a stop-and-go wave was analyzed. A car-following model in an integrated ACC was developed for a simulation analysis. The time-to-collision based factors were calculated as surrogate safety measures of the collision risk. We also evaluated different market penetration rates considering that the application of ACC will be a gradual process. The results showed that the safety impacts of ACC were largely affected by the parameters. Smaller time delays and larger time gaps improved safety performance, but inappropriate parameter settings increased the collision risks and caused traffic disturbances. A higher reduction of the collision risk was achieved as the ACC vehicle penetration rate increased, especially in the initial stage with penetration rates of less than 30%. This study also showed that in the initial stage, the combination of ACC and a variable speed limit achieved better safety improvements on congested freeways than each single technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variable Speed Limits: Strategies to Improve Safety and Traffic Parameters for a Bottleneck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Hasanpour

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the speed limit system is to enforce reasonable and safe speed. To reduce secondary problems such as accidents and queuing, Variable Speed Limits (VSL has been suggested. In this paper VSL is used to better safety and traffic parameters. Traffic parameters including speed, queue length and stopping time have been pondering. For VLS, an optimization decision tree algorithm with the function of microscopic simulation was used. The results in case of sub saturated, saturated and supersaturated at a bottleneck are examined and compared with the Allaby logic tree. The results show that the proposed decision tree shows an improved performance in terms of safety and comfort along the highway. The VSL pilot project is part of the Road Safety Improvement Program included in Iran’s road safety action plan that is in the research process in the BHRC Research Institute, Road and Housing & Urban Development Research that is planned for next 10-year Transportation safety view Plan.

  8. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  9. Assessment of occupational hazards, health problems and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the ... Hazards reported included inhalation of petrol fumes 145 (67.4%), confrontation from customers 112 (52.1%) and noise 98 (45.6%). Health problems reported included ...

  10. Traffic signal phasing at intersections to improve safety for alcohol-affected pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenné, Michael G; Corben, Bruce F; Stephan, Karen

    2007-07-01

    Alcohol-affected pedestrians are among the highest-risk groups involved in pedestrian casualty crashes. This paper investigates the opportunities to use a modified form of traffic signal operation during high-risk periods and at high-risk locations to reduce alcohol-affected pedestrian crashes and the severity of injuries that might otherwise occur. The 'Dwell-on-Red' treatment involves displaying a red traffic signal to all vehicle directions during periods when no vehicular traffic is detected, so that drivers approach high-risk intersections at a lower speed than if a green signal were displayed. Vehicle speed data were collected before and after treatment activation at both a control and treatment site. Speed data were collected both 30 m prior to and at the intersection stop line. The treatment was associated with a reduction in mean vehicle speeds of 3.9 kph (9%) and 11.0 kph (28%) at 30 m and stop line collection points, respectively, and substantial reductions in the proportion of vehicles travelling at threatening speeds with regard to the severity of pedestrian injury. Other important road safety concerns may also benefit from this form of traffic signal modification, and it is recommended that other areas of application be explored, including the other severe trauma categories typically concentrated around signalised intersections.

  11. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0185] Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  12. Auditable safety analysis and final hazard classification for Buildings 1310-N and 1314-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a graded auditable safety analysis (ASA) of the deactivation activities planned for the 100-N facility segment comprised of the Building 1310-N pump silo (part of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) and 1314-N Building (Liquid Waste Disposal Building).The ASA describes the hazards within the facility and evaluates the adequacy of the measures taken to reduce, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. This document also serves as the Final Hazard Classification (FHC) for the 1310-N pump silo and 1314-N Building segment. The FHC is radiological based on the Preliminary Hazard Classification and the total inventory of radioactive and hazardous materials in the segment

  13. Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be greater than those experienced during an operational lifetime of a facility. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities and as well as during accidents. The risk assessment method was developed by using risk matrix and fuzzy inference logic, on the basis of the radiological and non-radiological hazards for a decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility. Fuzzy inference of radiological and non-radiological hazards performs a mapping from radiological and non-radiological hazards to risk matrix. Defuzzification of radiological and non-radiological hazards is the conversion of risk matrix and priorities to the maximum criterion method and the mean criterion method. In the end, a composite risk assessment methodology, to rank the risk level on radiological and non-radiological hazards of the decommissioning tasks and to prioritize on the risk level of the decommissioning tasks, by simultaneously combining radiological and non-radiological hazards, was developed.

  14. Measures to increase traffic law acceptance : some strategic considerations. Paper presented at the 5th European workshop `New developments in traffic safety research', Bern, May 2-3, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    1997-01-01

    The set of traffic laws and rules intends to maximise the possibilities for free movement in the traffic system, while at the same time safeguarding road safety. Acceptance of traffic laws depends in part on properties of the laws and rules themselves that determine how they will be perceived or

  15. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  17. Seafood safety: economics of hazard analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cato, James C

    1998-01-01

    .... This document on economic issues associated with seafood safety was prepared to complement the work of the Service in seafood technology, plant sanitation and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) implementation...

  18. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  19. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, S.M.; Boobis, A.R.; Bridges, J.; Cockburn, A.; Dekant, W.; Hepburn, P.; Houben, G.F.; König, J.; Nauta, M.J.; Schuermans, J.; Bánáti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management

  20. Overview of Food Safety Hazards in the European Dairy Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Fels, van der Ine; Marvin, H.J.P.; Bokhorst-van De Veen, Van H.; Nierop Groot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of dairy products should preferably focus on the most relevant food safety hazards in the dairy supply chain. For this purpose, the possible presence of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards as well as trends in the dairy supply chain that may affect their presence were

  1. New U.K. safety legislation and its effects on the control of radiological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.H.J.; Luxon, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper explains the objectives of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and refers in particular to its effects on the control of hazards at nuclear installations and, more widely, on the control of radiological hazards generally. It deals also with the changes resulting from the setting up of the Health and Safety Commission and its Executive under the new Act, and the effects of these changes on the work of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. (auth.) [fr

  2. Hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Larson, A.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document combines the following four analytical functions: (1) hazards baseline of the Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) in the quiescent state; (2) preliminary hazard classification for intrusive activities (i.e., basin stabilization); (3) final hazard classification for intrusive activities; and (4) an auditable safety analysis. This document describes the potential hazards contained within the EDB at the N Reactor complex and the vulnerabilities of those hazards during the quiescent state (when only surveillance and maintenance activities take place) and during basin stabilization activities. This document also identifies the inventory of both radioactive and hazardous material in the EDB. Result is that the final hazard classification for the EDB segment intrusive activities is radiological

  3. Test and assessment method of Automotive Safety Systems (SSB) particularly to monitor traffic incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, B.; Łukjanow, S.; Burliński, R.

    2016-09-01

    The rapid development of telematics, particularly mobile telephony (GSM), wireless data transmission (GPRS) and satellite positioning (GPS) noticeable in the last decade, resulted in an almost unlimited growth of the possibilities for monitoring of mobile objects. These solutions are already widely used in the so-called “Intelligent Transport Systems” - ITS and affect a significant increase for road safety. The article describes a method of testing and evaluation of Car Safety Systems (Polish abbreviation - SSB) especially for monitoring traffic incidents, such as collisions and accidents. The algorithm of SSB testing process is also presented. Tests are performed on the dynamic test bench, part of which is movable platform with car security system mounted on it. Crash tests with a rigid obstacle are carried out instead of destructive attempts to crash test of the entire vehicle which is expensive. The tested system, depending on the simulated traffic conditions, is mounted in such a position and with the use of components, indicated by the manufacturer for the automotive safety system installation in a vehicle, for which it is intended. Then, the tests and assessments are carried out.

  4. Safety effects of traffic signing for left turn flashing yellow arrow signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattler, Kerrie L; Gulla, Cody J; Wallenfang, Travis J; Burdett, Beau A; Lund, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, the left turn flashing yellow arrow (FYA) signal displays were installed at signalized intersections on state routes in the Peoria, Illinois, area. Supplemental traffic signs with text "Left Turn Yield on Flashing Yellow Arrow" were mounted on the mast arm adjacent to the left turn signal at over half of the FYA installations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the effectiveness evaluation of the FYA supplemental sign on safety. Analyses are presented on the effects of the FYA supplemental sign for all drivers and a subset of drivers age 65 and older. A crash-based comparison of 164 FYA approaches including 90 approaches with the sign and 74 approaches without the sign showed greater crash reductions when the supplemental FYA sign was present. The results also showed that crashes involving drivers age 65 and older did not experience the same magnitudes of crash reductions as compared to all drivers. The findings of this research indicate that supplemental FYA signs may help in improving safety for left-turning vehicles during the permissive interval. Thus, it is recommended that supplemental signs be used when initially implementing the FYA, and that effort to educate the driving public on new traffic control be made to further improve safety at signalized intersections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Human-system safety methods for development of advanced air traffic management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, William R.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems (author) (ml)

  6. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities

  7. Hazards in air-, rail-, and road traffic arising from laserpointers; Gefaehrdungen des Luft-, Schienen- und Strassenverkehrs durch Laserpointer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidenbach, H.D. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Forschungsschwerpunkt Medizintechnik und Nichtionisierende Strahlung; Deutsch-Schweizerischer Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Garching (Germany). Arbeitskreis Nichtionisierende Strahlung (AKNIR)

    2012-07-01

    Visible laser radiation with sufficient irradiance or radiant exposure might result in permanent damage of the eyes especially in the retina. In order to prevent this exposure limit values have been established based on current scientific knowledge. In addition visible laser radiation might result in effects like temporary blinding at even much lower exposure values. In this case irritations, flash-blindness and afterimages appear whose extent might exceed the respective damage level while vision is temporarily compromised in critical visual tasks more or less. The easy accessibility of hand-held laser products (laser pointers) with relatively high power might result in a modification of the security situation especially in air traffic via thoughtless and careless use of such products or in terroristic acts. In addition an increasing number of incidents in rail and road traffic where not only temporary blinding might be anticipated but permanent damage of the eyes as a result of overexposure due to laser pointer irradiation cannot be excluded any longer. Using laser pointers, which are available on the market in the power range up to 1 watt and at different wavelengths new hazard scenarios and threats with serious consequences are possible. Here the radiation protection is in great demand. (orig.)

  8. Accident Journalism and Traffic Safety Education: A Three-Phase Investigation of Accident Reporting in the Canadian Daily Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Gerald J. S.; Ackersviller, Melody J.

    A study examined the potential for development of a traffic accident-reporting form in the Canadian daily press that strengthens concern for road safety in the general population and enhances knowledge, attitudes, and behavior leading to greater safety. The investigation was conducted on three levels: a content analysis, a readership analysis, and…

  9. Toward a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    In recognition of the federal government's responsibility for initiating a national strategy for hazardous materials transportation safety, the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) prepared an internal strategy paper for creating a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety in August 1981. The paper outlined the scope of the hazardous materials transportation problem and established MTB's approach for creating an intergovernmental partnership for its resolution. This paper represents an update and refinement of the original plan, and is designed to chart the direction of the emerging federal/state/local relationship. The cornerstone of the plan remains the establishment of a single national set of safety regulations. It is on achievement of this objective that MTB's plan for development of enforcement, training, and emergency response capabilities at all levels of government is based. Chapter I introduces the problem with a desription of the economic importance of hazardous materials and discusses its implications for public safety. Chapter II defines the appropriate role for each level of government in the areas of rulemaking, enforcement, emergency response, and education. Chapter III demonstrates the need for uniform national safety standards and describes the economic and safety benefits of this approach. Chapter IV contains a detailed description of MTB's program for developing a successful intergovernmental partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

  10. Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear installations. It supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The present publication provides guidance and recommends procedures for the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. It supersedes Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3 (2002). In this publication, the following was taken into account: the need for seismic hazard curves and ground motion spectra for the probabilistic safety assessment of external events for new and existing nuclear installations; feedback of information from IAEA reviews of seismic safety studies for nuclear installations performed over the previous decade; collective knowledge gained from recent significant earthquakes; and new approaches in methods of analysis, particularly in the areas of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and strong motion simulation. In the evaluation of a site for a nuclear installation, engineering solutions will generally be available to mitigate, by means of certain design features, the potential vibratory effects of earthquakes. However, such solutions cannot always be demonstrated to be adequate for mitigating the effects of phenomena of significant permanent ground displacement such as surface faulting, subsidence, ground collapse or fault creep. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on evaluating seismic hazards at a nuclear installation site and, in particular, on how to determine: (a) the vibratory ground motion hazards, in order to establish the design basis ground motions and other relevant parameters for both new and existing nuclear installations; and (b) the potential for fault displacement and the rate of fault displacement that could affect the feasibility of the site or the safe operation of the installation at

  11. Long-Term Marine Traffic Monitoring for Environmental Safety in the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, T.; Gyftakis, S.; Charou, E.; Perantonis, S.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Koromila, I.; Makrygiorgos, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean Sea is characterized by an extremely high marine safety risk, mainly due to the significant increase of the traffic of tankers from and to the Black Sea that pass through narrow straits formed by the 1600 Greek islands. Reducing the risk of a ship accident is therefore vital to all socio-economic and environmental sectors. This paper presents an online long-term marine traffic monitoring work-flow that focuses on extracting aggregated vessel risks using spatiotemporal analysis of multilayer information: vessel trajectories, vessel data, meteorological data, bathymetric / hydrographic data as well as information regarding environmentally important areas (e.g. protected high-risk areas, etc.). A web interface that enables user-friendly spatiotemporal queries is implemented at the frontend, while a series of data mining functionalities extracts aggregated statistics regarding: (a) marine risks and accident probabilities for particular areas (b) trajectories clustering information (c) general marine statistics (cargo types, etc.) and (d) correlation between spatial environmental importance and marine traffic risk. Towards this end, a set of data clustering and probabilistic graphical modelling techniques has been adopted.

  12. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falakh, Fajrul; Setiani, Onny

    2018-02-01

    Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  13. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falakh Fajrul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Treatment Plant (WTP is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  14. Investigation of lithium thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R. C.; Dampier, F. W.; Wang, P.; Bennett, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of discharge and overdischarge in Li/SOCl2 cells has been examined with Raman emission, Fourier transform infrared, and electron spin resonance spectroscopies to determine if any hazardous reactions can occur. Under moderate discharge rate at room temperature, the electrolyte from discharged and cathode limited overdischarged cells contains primarily LiAlCl4.3 SO2, LiAlCl.2 SOCl2, and perhaps LiAlCl4.SOCl2.SO2; traces of SO3 are indicated. Three free radicals are present at low concentrations on discharge and cathode limited overdischarged with two additional radicals appearing on extended anode limited overdischarge. At least one of these is cationic polymeric sulfur. Both FTIR and ESR suggest intermediates exist with lifetimes on the order of days from discharge and overcharge. No hazardous reactions were observed at anytime. Pressure from SO2, a principal result of discharge, remains low due to the LiAlCl4.3 SO2, complex in solution. Scanning electron and optical microscopic investigations lithium dendrite structure. Individual dendrites do not grow any longer than about 50 microns or any thicker that about four microns in diameter before branching at random angles. The extent of dendritic growth and the fate of the dentrites depends on the discharge conditions. No overcharged hazards were encountered in this study though several hazard scenarios suggested themselves.

  15. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw

  16. Assessing food safety concepts on the dairy farm: the case of chemical hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to elicit farmers' and experts' preferences for attributes of improving food safety with respect to chemical hazards on the dairy farm. Groups of respondents were determined by cluster analysis based on similar farmers' and experts' perceptions of food safety

  17. Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.A.; McKernan, S.A.; Vigil, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker

  18. Traffic safety program for school children through safe action and safe condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono, Mahmudah, Amirotul Musthofiah Hidayah; Santoso, Anjar Budi

    2017-06-01

    The facts indicate that the rights of pedestrians is on the wane. Many motorists are unwilling to provide a space for pedestrians, even when they want to cross the road at zebra-cross facility. The data of traffic accident in Surakarta City showed that 7.0% of accident victims in 2014 to 2015 were children aged 5-15 or the group of school-aged children. In general, the location of schools is on the edge of the road where a lot of vehicles run at high speed. Hence, it is very dangerous for the school children to cross the road. Pertaining to this issue, the Department of Transportation implements a program named School Safety Zone (ZoSS). ZoSS is a time-dependent speed control zone consisting of road markings, traffic signs, optional traffic signals, and rumble strips. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ZoSS based on the perception of the users, including the students, teachers, parents, and community. This study was conducted through a series of activities including the distribution of questionnaire to obtain the road users' perceptions. The results showed that most of the respondents understood the meaning, aim, and benefit of ZoSS. However, it also found that traffic sign and method of cross the road (Four-T) was not recognized appropriately by the respondents. ZoSS program was generally ineffective since the pedestrians felt unsafe to cross the road due to the high-speed vehicles.

  19. ANALYSIS ON THE INFLUENCE OF ACCUMULATION EFFECT OF LANDSCAPE COLOR ON TRAFFIC SAFETY IN THE FOGGY SECTIONS OF EXPRESSWAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Xilei Li; Boming Tang; Qianghui Song

    2017-01-01

    The landscape color of expressways has a significant impact on a driver's visual response, thus affecting the incidence of expressways traffic accidents. Although this problem has been analyzed and discussed from different angles, there is rare quantitative analysis on the influence of accumulation effect of landscape color on the traffic safety in foggy sections of expressways. In this paper, the color combination and stroboflash of fog lamps on both sides of the road were designed from the ...

  20. Survey about pedestrian safety and attitudes toward automated traffic enforcement in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Wells, Joann K; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrians represent more than one third of all traffic deaths in Washington, D.C. The District plans to expand its long-standing automated traffic enforcement program in 2013 from speed and red light cameras to cameras to enforce pedestrian right-of-way laws at crosswalks and stop sign laws. This study collected information on the opinions, behaviors, and knowledge of D.C. residents related to camera enforcement and pedestrian safety issues. A telephone survey of 801 adult D.C. residents was conducted in November 2012 with approximately equal numbers of respondents in each of D.C.'s eight wards. Quotas were used to ensure that the sample was representative of the demographic characteristics of adults in each ward. For analyses combining responses across the wards, data were weighted to correspond with the demographic characteristics of adults in the city. Most respondents believed that drivers speeding, running red lights, running stop signs, and not stopping for pedestrians are serious threats to their safety. Respondents strongly supported the speed and red light camera programs, with 76 percent of respondents favoring speed cameras and 87 percent favoring red light cameras. Support was more limited for the camera enforcement that was not yet in place at the time of the survey, with 50 percent of respondents favoring stop sign cameras and 47 percent of respondents favoring crosswalk cameras. Twenty-four percent of respondents had not driven a car in D.C. in the past month, and higher proportions of these nondrivers favored speed cameras (90%), stop sign cameras (67%), and crosswalk cameras (59%) than respondents who drove in D.C. in the past month. Respondents who supported camera enforcement cited safety as their main reason. More than 9 in 10 respondents knew that D.C. law requires drivers to stop for pedestrians crossing the street in marked crosswalks at intersections without traffic signals and midblock, but only 54 percent knew that drivers must stop for

  1. Study on traffic noise level of Sylhet by multiple regression analysis associated with health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Alam, M. Jobair Bin Alam, M. M. Rahman, A. K. Dikshit, S. K. Khan

    Full Text Available The study reports the level of traffic-induced noise pollution in Sylhet City. For this purpose noise levels have been measured at thirty-seven major locations of the city from 7 am to 11 pm during the working days. It was observed that at all the locations the level of noise remains far above the acceptable limit for all the time. The noise level on the main road near residential area, hospital area and educational area were above the recommended level (65dBA. It was found that the predictive equations are in 60-70% correlated with the measured noise level. The study suggests that vulnerable institutions like school and hospital should be located about 60m away from the roadside unless any special arrangement to alleviate sound is used.

  2. Evaluating traffic informers: testing the behavioral and social-cognitive effects of an adolescent bicycle safety education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, 12-24 years old are over-represented in the total number of traffic fatalities and injuries. In this study, the traffic informer program - designed to promote safe traffic behavior in the pre-driver population - was experimentally evaluated, with a specific focus on bicycle use. Students were subjected to graphic videos of traffic accidents and listened to a first-person narrative provided by a traffic accident victim. The influence of the program on concepts derived from the theory of planned behavior and protection motivation theory (attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, risk-perception, intention and behavior) was assessed. Students from various schools (N=1593;M age=15 years, SD=.84) participated in a quasi-experimental study, either in an experimental or a control group, completing self-report questionnaires one week prior to the program implementation and approximately one month after the program implementation. Mixed regression analyses showed significant positive and negative time × intervention interaction effects on attitude toward traffic violations, relative attitude toward traffic safety, and risk comparison, but not on intention and behavior. More research is needed to find effective behavioral change techniques (other than increasing risk awareness) for promoting safe traffic behavior in adolescents. Research is also needed to address how these can be translated into effective interventions and educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the Influence of Road Lighting on Traffic Safety at Accesses Using An Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueru; Ye, Zhirui; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chao; Sun, Cuicui

    2018-05-18

    This paper focuses on the effect of road lighting on road safety at accesses and tries to quantitatively analyze the relationship between road lighting and road safety. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied in this study. This method is one of the most popular machine-learning methods in recent years and does not require any pre-defined assumptions. This method was applied using field data collected from ten road segments in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The results show that the impact of road lighting on road safety at accesses is significant. In addition, road lighting has greater influence when vehicle speeds are higher or the number of lanes is larger. A threshold illuminance was also found in this paper, and the results show that the safety level at accesses will become stable when reaching this value. The improvement of illuminance can decrease the speed variation among vehicles and improve the safety level. In addition, high-grade roads need better illuminance at accesses. A threshold value can also be obtained based on related variables and used to develop scientific guidelines for traffic management organizations.

  4. The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle--development and validation with air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, K Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Peter; Winkler, Hildegard; Vormayr, Elisabeth M

    2010-02-01

    The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle (TEST) was developed as a new computerised scaling tool for quickly visualising changes in and trade-offs between the three critical factors that determine the work situation of air traffic management (ATM), i.e. taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers. Based on a task analysis of ATM and backed up by the stress-strain model, an easy-to-interpret triangle was constructed and validated both in simulated and real ATM workplaces. Results from the validation studies show that TEST does not only reflect the most relevant task characteristics, but also provides additional insights in the controllers' working styles. The TEST tool can make ATM safety surveys more efficient and help supervisors to decide about optimal times for opening or closing additional sectors. Statement of Relevance: TEST is a new tool to assess taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers in a joint scaling. It reflects increases in taskload and effects of taskload on safety-buffers and efficiency, as well as trade-offs in opposite directions. This tool might be very useful to check sector capacity in ATM and other high risk environments.

  5. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  6. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully

  7. [Road safety measures and their effects on traffic injuries: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Sandra Lúcia Vieira Ulinski; Moysés, Simone Tetú; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2014-10-01

    To identify and summarize the findings of studies describing interventions aimed at reducing road traffic injuries. An integrative systematic review without meta-analysis was performed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used to synthesize the findings of the articles reviewed. The keywords "traffic accidents", "review" and "public policy" were used in isolation or combined with boolean operator "And" to search PubMed, Web of Science, SciELO, and LILACS for the period between 2006 and 2011 RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review. Of these, two described engineering strategies, two described other road safety policies, three described education strategies, and 15 described law enforcement policies. Law enforcement had the most effective immediate results. Engineering strategies proved important to promote a safe environment. Finally, education strategies had an informative role and served to support other strategies, but did not seem sufficient to promote cultural changes regarding road safety. Law enforcement seems to be the most effective strategy to change the behavior of drivers, especially regarding speed limits and drinking and driving.

  8. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety.

  9. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu [Department of Transportation Technology and Logistics Management, Chung Hua University, No. 707, Sec. 2, WuFu Rd., Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-22

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  10. SenSafe: A Smartphone-Based Traffic Safety Framework by Sensing Vehicle and Pedestrian Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accident involving vehicles is one of the most serious problems in the transportation system nowadays. How to detect dangerous steering and then alarm drivers in real time is a problem. What is more, walking while using smartphones makes pedestrian more susceptible to various risks. Although dedicated short range communication (DSRC provides the way for safety communications, most of vehicles have not been deployed with DSRC components. Even worse, DSRC is not supported by the smartphones for vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P communication. In this paper, a smartphone-based framework named SenSafe is developed to improve the traffic safety. SenSafe is a framework which only utilizes the smartphone to sense the surrounding events and provides alerts to drivers. Smartphone-based driving behaviors detection mechanism is developed inside the framework to discover various steering behaviors. Besides, the Wi-Fi association and authentication overhead is reduced to broadcast the compressed sensing data using the Wi-Fi beacon to inform the drivers of the surroundings. Furthermore, a collision estimation algorithm is designed to issue appropriate warnings. Finally, an Android-based implementation of SenSafe framework has been achieved to demonstrate the application reliability in real environments.

  11. Aviation safety: hazardous materials handling. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Statements concerning the safety of air transport of hazardous and radioactive materials presented before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives are presented. Statements of various personnel involved in air transport including the Air Line Pilots Association and the US Postal Service and the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization are presented for the record. Also included are appendices concerning the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metropolitan Airport Commission Ordinance number 44, Air Line Pilots Association procedures for the safe transportation of passengers, and a personal statement concerning the handling procedures of radioactive materials by the US Postal Service

  12. Relationships between safety and reliability in major hazard situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    Individual risk rates for various activities are presented and discussed. The concept of societal risk is introduced -the chance of hurting many people from one event. Major hazards present a possibility that an ensuing accident could have a very wide range of consequences from the trivial to a catastrophe. The techniques of assessing risks and consequences are being developed; these are closely related to the techniques of ensuring plant and system reliability. (author)

  13. Young worker safety in construction: do family ties and workgroup size affect hazard exposures and safety practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Runyan, Carol W; Schulman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how social aspects of the work environment influence exposures or safety practices affecting young construction workers. Our objective was to investigate whether working on a construction site with a small number of workers (≤10 vs. 11-50) or having a family-firm connection (working in a family-owned firm or one in which a family member also works) impacts hazard exposures and safety practices. Participants included 187 North Carolina construction workers 14 to 17 years old who were surveyed about their jobs. We conducted stratified analyses using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics to measure associations between workgroup size (i.e., the total number of workers on a jobsite) and family-firm connections (yes/no) and hazard exposures (e.g., saws) and safety practices (e.g., supervision). Having a family-firm connection was associated with fewer hazard exposures and greater safety practices. Youth who worked on jobsites with a larger workgroup (11-50 workers) reported more hazards but also more safety practices. Family-firm connections, in particular, may have a protective effect for youth in construction. Even though the statistical significance of our findings on workgroup size was limited in places, the pattern of differences found suggest that further research in this area is warranted.

  14. Occupational hazards and safety measures amongst the paint factory workers in lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Popoola, Temidayo D; Ogbudu, Bawo S; Akinyede, Akin; Coker, Herbert A B; Akintonwa, Alade

    2014-06-01

    The manufacture of paint involves a variety of processes that present with medical hazards. Safety initiatives are hence introduced to limit hazard exposures and promote workplace safety. This aim of this study is to assess the use of available control measures/initiatives in selected paint factories in Lagos West Senatorial District, Nigeria. A total of 400 randomly selected paint factory workers were involved in the study. A well-structured World Health Organization standard questionnaire was designed and distributed to the workers to elicit information on awareness to occupational hazards, use of personal protective devices, and commonly experienced adverse symptoms. Urine samples were obtained from 50 workers randomly selected from these 400 participants, and the concentrations of the heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results show that 72.5% of the respondents are aware of the hazards associated with their jobs; 30% have had formal training on hazards and safety measures; 40% do not use personal protective devices, and 90% of the respondents reported symptoms relating to hazard exposure. There was a statistically significant (p metal concentrations in the urine samples obtained from paint factory workers as compared with nonfactory workers. The need to develop effective frameworks that will initiate the integration and ensure implementation of safety regulations in paint factories is evident. Where these exist, there is a need to promote adherence to these practice guidelines.

  15. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility's response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences

  16. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  17. Simulation Study of the Effect of Decreasing Truck Traffic Flow on Safety on Almeria-Barcelona Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashova, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the effect of truck traffic on road safety has been analyzed through simulation study. The main objective of the study is to quantify the effect of the decreasing average annual daily traffic of heavy duty vehicles (trucks) on road safety. As the road safety indicators the frequency road accidents is considered. The data used in the study were collected from one of the most crowded routes in Spain which connects Almeria (south-east) with Barcelona (northeast). The observed data covers year 2010 and were classified into 2 road types: dual carriageways and toll roads. The estimation was carried out using negative binomial model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. Using the estimation results new traffic scenarios were proposed where the traffic flow is assumed to change its values. A total of 33 scenarios were proposed and new accidents data were generated through MCMC sampling. The comparison of the simulated and observed accident data shows that the effect of decreasing truck traffic flow could meliorate road safety in the route. The simulation tool could be applied to evaluate the effects of freight modal shift from road to rail. (Author)

  18. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengolini, A.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well

  20. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  1. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  2. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  3. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  4. Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic simulator-based surrogate safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changju; So, Jaehyun Jason; Ma, Jiaqi

    2018-01-02

    The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures using comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis. Considering the random nature of red light running (RLR) crashes, an inventive approach regardless of data availability is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each countermeasure face to face. The aims of this research are to (1) review erstwhile literature related to red light running and traffic safety models; (2) propose a practical methodology for evaluation of RLR countermeasures with a microscopic traffic simulation model and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM); (3) apply the proposed methodology to actual signalized intersection in Virginia, with the most prevalent scenarios-increasing the yellow signal interval duration, installing an advance warning sign, and an RLR camera; and (4) analyze the relative effectiveness by RLR frequency and the number of conflicts (rear-end and crossing). All scenarios show a reduction in RLR frequency (-7.8, -45.5, and -52.4%, respectively), but only increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in a reduced total number of conflicts (-11.3%; a surrogate safety measure of possible RLR-related crashes). An RLR camera makes the greatest reduction (-60.9%) in crossing conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible angle crashes), whereas increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in only a 12.8% reduction of rear-end conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible rear-end crash). Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total

  5. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T.J.; Larson, A.R.; Dexheimer, D.

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes the inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials present in the 105-C Reactor Facility and the operations associated with the Interim Safe Storage Project which includes decontamination and demolition and interim safe storage of the remaining facility. This document also establishes a final hazard classification and verifies that appropriate and adequate safety functions and controls are in place to reduce or mitigate the risk associated with those operations

  6. Information System Hazard Analysis: A Method for Identifying Technology-induced Latent Errors for Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jens H; Mason-Blakley, Fieran; Price, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Many health information and communication technologies (ICT) are safety-critical; moreover, reports of technology-induced adverse events related to them are plentiful in the literature. Despite repeated criticism and calls to action, recent data collected by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and other organization do not indicate significant improvements with respect to the safety of health ICT systems. A large part of the industry still operates on a reactive "break & patch" model; the application of pro-active, systematic hazard analysis methods for engineering ICT that produce "safe by design" products is sparse. This paper applies one such method: Information System Hazard Analysis (ISHA). ISHA adapts and combines hazard analysis techniques from other safety-critical domains and customizes them for ICT. We provide an overview of the steps involved in ISHA and describe.

  7. Impact of Minimum Driveway Spacing Policies on Safety Performance: An Integrated Traffic Micro-Simulation and Automated Conflict Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu C. Minh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A key strategy for successful access management is the adoption of driveway spacing guidelines that consider both safety and operations. The goal is to provide sufficient distance from one driveway to the next so that drivers can perceive and react to the conditions at each potential conflict point in succession. State DOTs across the country have adopted different driveway spacing standards that vary according to the access class and characteristics of the adjacent roadway, such as type of roadway, posted speed limit, and traffic volume. Utilizing the VISSIM microscopic traffic simulation tool and FHWA's Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM, this research examined safety implications of four different driveway spacing policies representing 13 states. The analysis involved calibrating the VISSIM model for an arterial roadway corridor in West Columbia, SC, and then using the calibrated model to simulate various operational changes to the corridor, including speed limits, traffic volumes, and the associated minimum driveway spacing criteria for the four different policies. SSAM was used to analyze vehicle trajectories derived from VISSIM to determine the number of conflict points. Experimental results indicate that posted speed limit and traffic volume are the primary impact factors for driveway safety, and thus, these parameters should be considered in establishing minimum driveway spacing. Findings from this study indicate that there are significant differences in safety impacts between the different driveway spacing policies adopted by various state DOTs.

  8. Comparison of evaluation guidelines for life-safety seismic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, L.A.; Love, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The guidelines presented in Design Evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subjected to natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL 15910 Draft; May 1989) include evaluation criteria for existing Department of Energy buildings subjected to earthquakes. These criteria were developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use in both the seismic design of new structures and the evaluation of existing structures. ATC-14: Evaluating The Seismic Resistance of Existing Buildings developed by the Applied Technology Council, consists of guidelines and criteria for identifying the buildings or building components that present unacceptable risk to human lives. This paper compares and contrasts the two evaluation guidelines for existing buildings using a prototype building as an example. The prototype building is a seven story, concrete shear wall building assuming a General Use Occupancy

  9. Obtention to the methodology for evaluation to the confirmation of the hazardous wastes safety isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.L.; Gil, R.; Castillo, R.; Leyva, D.

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account, the practical experience of the safety assessment in the radioactive wastes management, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations in this topics, the norms and national and international legislation about noxious substances to the environment and their restriction limits, the best international practices and approaches of isolation hazardous wastes sites, a Methodology is developed (Cuba particular conditions) to obtaining and/or confirmation of the hazardous wastes safety isolation, as a tool able to carry out the assessment of facilities to build and all installation and/or place where hazardous wastes isolated from the environment. The Methodology, embraces the evaluation of technical, economic and social topics, allowing to develop an integral safety assessment which allows to estimate the environment possible impact for hazardous waste isolation (radioactive and non radioactive); Just are shown in this paper the selection approaches for the obtaining and/or evaluation of the best site, the steps description to continue for the definition of the main scenarios and the models to take into account in the valuation of the possible liberation and pathway to the environment of the non radioactive pollutants. The main contribution of this Methodology resides in the creation of a scientific-technique necessary guide for the evident demand of carrying out the most organized, effective and hazardous wastes safety management

  10. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim; Cockburn, Andrew; Dekant, Wolfgang; Hepburn, Paul; Houben, Geert F.; König, Jürgen; Nauta, Maarten; Schuermans, Jeroen; Bánáti, Diána

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundFood legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health.Scope and approachThe advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-ba...

  11. Final Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the N Basin Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1998-08-01

    The purposes of this report are to serve as the auditable safety analysis (ASA) for the N Basin Segment, during surveillance and maintenance preceding decontamination and decommissioning; to determine and document the final hazard classification (FHC) for the N Basin Segment. The result of the ASA evaluation are: based on hazard analyses and the evaluation of accidents, no activity could credibly result in an unacceptable exposure to an individual; controls are identified that serve to protect worker health and safety. The results of the FHC evaluation are: potential exposure is much below 10 rem (0.46 rem), and the FHC for the N Basin Segment is Radiological

  12. FATIGUE AS A HAZARDOUS FACTOR FOR FLIGHT SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lushkin Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main priority of any air company activity and the main condition for its development is the achievement of the highest flight safety level. Significant positive results in this area have been recently achieved, hence, the relative stagna- tion of indexes, reflecting the flight safety as a condition of air transport system, has been revealed. It has become evident that the present accident prevention philosophy seems to be exhausted, and at the current stage of development it doesn’t allow to make a breakthrough in the solution of all the problems, which air companies face in this respect. In the perspec- tive to find new ways to solve the existing tasks, in 2011, International Civil Aviation Organization Council adopted fatigue risk management international standards as an alternative for the traditional approach to managing crewmember fatigue by prescribing limits on maximum daily, monthly and yearly flight and duty hours. It’s a well-known fact that state of fatigue has a special place among the functional states, which are professionally significant for airmen work and which are the key link in “man-aircraft-environment” system.In this article, fatigue is considered to be a risk factor that contributes to the formation and development of crew violations and errors in the process of piloting the aircraft. We have analyzed the characteristics and reasons leading to in- flight fatigue and estimated its influence on crew performance, considering the interrelation between them. The article specifies the methods and techniques to measure pilots fatigue; besides it has been substantiated the necessity of fatigue risk management system development in airlines to effectively ensure the flight safety.

  13. An assessment of the skid resistance effect on traffic safety under wet-pavement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardillo Mayora, José M; Jurado Piña, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    Pavement-tire friction provides the grip that is required for maintaining vehicle control and for stopping in emergency situations. Statistically significant negative correlations of skid resistance values and wet-pavement accident rates have been found in previous research. Skid resistance measured with SCRIM and crash data from over 1750km of two-lane rural roads in the Spanish National Road System were analyzed to determine the influence of pavement conditions on safety and to assess the effects of improving pavement friction on safety. Both wet- and dry-pavement crash rates presented a decreasing trend as skid resistance values increased. Thresholds in SCRIM coefficient values associated with significant decreases in wet-pavement crash rates were determined. Pavement friction improvement schemes were found to yield significant reductions in wet-pavement crash rates averaging 68%. The results confirm the importance of maintaining adequate levels of pavement friction to safeguard traffic safety as well as the potential of pavement friction improvement schemes to achieve significant crash reductions.

  14. Driver and Traffic Safety Education: A Lesson Plan for the Residents of Gracewood State School and Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Jonathan L.

    Outlined is a course of driver education and traffic safety taught to retarded residents of a state institution. Stressed is the importance of driver education for residents able to leave the institution. The philosophy of the program is given to emphasize individualizing instruction, instructing students who possess the potential for driving,…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of State Traffic Safety Countermeasures and Implications for Progress “Toward Zero Deaths” in the United States : Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    States use a variety of countermeasures to reduce traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities within their jurisdictions. These countermeasures focus primarily on engineering, law enforcement, and public education (NHTSA, 2006). NHTSA's bi-annual publi...

  16. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment of Health and Safety Approach JSA (Job Safety Analysis) in Plantation Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, Muchamad; Ragil Suryoputro, Muhammad; Tiya Novitasari, Adi

    2017-06-01

    Plantation company needed to identify hazard and perform risk assessment as an Identification of Hazard and Risk Assessment Crime and Safety which was approached by using JSA (Job Safety Analysis). The identification was aimed to identify the potential hazards that might be the risk of workplace accidents so that preventive action could be taken to minimize the accidents. The data was collected by direct observation to the workers concerned and the results were recorded on a Job Safety Analysis form. The data were as forklift operator, macerator worker, worker’s creeper, shredder worker, workers’ workshop, mechanical line worker, trolley cleaning workers and workers’ crepe decline. The result showed that shredder worker value was 30 and had the working level with extreme risk with the risk value range was above 20. So to minimize the accidents could provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) which were appropriate, information about health and safety, the company should have watched the activities of workers, and rewards for the workers who obey the rules that applied in the plantation.

  17. Attitude and awareness of general dental practitioners toward radiation hazards and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, B S; Joy, E Tatu; Kiran, M Shashi; Sherubin, J Eugenia; Sajesh, S; Manchil, P Redwin Dhas

    2016-10-01

    The aim and objective is to evaluate the level of awareness and attitude about radiation hazards and safety practices among general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Postanswering the questions, a handout regarding radiation safety and related preventive measures was distributed to encourage radiation understanding and protection. Statistical analysis were done by assessing the results using Chi-square statistical test, t -test, and other software (Microsoft excel + SPSS 20.0 trail version). Among 300 general practitioners (247 females and 53 males), 80.3% of the practitioners were found to have a separate section for radiographic examination in their clinics. Intraoral radiographic machines were found to be the most commonly (63.3%) used radiographic equipment while osteoprotegerin was the least (2%). Regarding the practitioner's safety measures, only 11.7% of them were following all the necessary steps while 6.7% clinicians were not using any safety measure in their clinic, and with respect to patient safety, only 9.7% of practitioners were following the protocol. The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable. However, implementation of their knowledge with respect to patient and personnel safety was found wanting. Insisting that they follow the protocols and take necessary safety measures by means of continuing medical education programs, pamphlets, articles, and workshops is strongly recommended.

  18. Practicality for Software Hazard Analysis for Nuclear Safety I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Moon, Kwon-Ki; Chang, Young-Woo; Jeong, Soo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We are using the concept of system safety in engineering. It is difficult to make any system perfectly safe and probably a complete system may not easily be achieved. The standard definition of a system from MIL-STD- 882E is: “The organization of hardware, software, material, facilities, personnel, data, and services needed to perform a designated function within a stated environment with specified results.” From the perspective of the system safety engineer and the hazard analysis process, software is considered as a subsystem. Regarding hazard analysis, to date, methods for identifying software failures and determining their effects is still a research problem. Since the success of software development is based on rigorous test of hardware and software, it is necessary to check the balance between software test and hardware test, and in terms of efficiency. Lessons learned and experience from similar systems are important for the work of hazard analysis. No major hazard has been issued for the software developed and verified in Korean NPPs. In addition to hazard analysis, software development, and verification and validation were thoroughly performed. It is reasonable that the test implementation including the development of the test case, stress and abnormal conditions, error recovery situations, and high risk hazardous situations play a key role in detecting and preventing software faults

  19. Practicality for Software Hazard Analysis for Nuclear Safety I and C System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Ho; Moon, Kwon-Ki; Chang, Young-Woo; Jeong, Soo-Hyun [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We are using the concept of system safety in engineering. It is difficult to make any system perfectly safe and probably a complete system may not easily be achieved. The standard definition of a system from MIL-STD- 882E is: “The organization of hardware, software, material, facilities, personnel, data, and services needed to perform a designated function within a stated environment with specified results.” From the perspective of the system safety engineer and the hazard analysis process, software is considered as a subsystem. Regarding hazard analysis, to date, methods for identifying software failures and determining their effects is still a research problem. Since the success of software development is based on rigorous test of hardware and software, it is necessary to check the balance between software test and hardware test, and in terms of efficiency. Lessons learned and experience from similar systems are important for the work of hazard analysis. No major hazard has been issued for the software developed and verified in Korean NPPs. In addition to hazard analysis, software development, and verification and validation were thoroughly performed. It is reasonable that the test implementation including the development of the test case, stress and abnormal conditions, error recovery situations, and high risk hazardous situations play a key role in detecting and preventing software faults.

  20. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim

    2015-01-01

    action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health. Scope and approach The advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring the safety of food chemicals, allergens, ingredients and microorganisms were...

  2. Hazard identification checklist: Occupational safety and health issues associated with green building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Ustailieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    This checklist accompanies the e-fact on the same topic and aims to help identify the potential hazards to workers’ safety and health associated with the planning and construction of green buildings, their maintenance, renovation (retrofitting), demolition, and on-site waste collection. It also

  3. Comprehension of hazard communication: effects of pictograms on safety data sheets and labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelhouwer, Eric; Davis, Jerry; Franco-Watkins, Ana; Dorris, Nathan; Lungu, Claudiu

    2013-09-01

    The United Nations has proposed the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals to make hazard communication more uniform and to improve comprehension. Two experiments were conducted to test whether the addition of hazard and precautionary pictograms to safety data sheets and product labels would improve the transfer of information to users compared to safety data sheets and product labels containing text only. Additionally, naïve users, workers, and experts were tested to determine any potential differences among users. The effect of adding pictograms to safety data sheets and labels was statistically significant for some conditions, but was not significant across all conditions. One benefit of the addition of pictograms was that the time to respond to the survey questions decreased when the pictograms were present for both the SDS and the labels. GHS format SDS and labels do provide benefits to users, but the system will need further enhancements and modifications to continue to improve the effectiveness of hazard communication. The final rule to modify the HCS to include the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals announced by OSHA (2012b) will change the information content of every chemical SDS and label used in commerce. This study suggests that the inclusion of GHS hazard pictograms and precautionary pictograms to SDS and labels may benefit the user. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of climate change on food safety hazards in the dairy production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of climate change on emerging food safety hazards in the dairy production chain. For this purpose, a holistic approach was used to select critical factors from inside and outside the production chain that are affected by climatic factors. An expert

  5. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... safety study on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems (NTSB/SS-05/02). The... indications of a leak on the SCADA interface was the impetus for this study. The NTSB examined 13 hazardous... pipelines, the line balance technique for leak detection can often be performed with manual calculations...

  6. Safety and Equality at Odds: OSHA and Title VII Clash over Health Hazards in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Donald R.; Copus, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the legal problems presented by job health hazards which have a different effect on men and women. Where methods of eliminating or minimizing exposure, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act, affect only one sex, the provisions of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act may be violated. (MF)

  7. A CONCEPTUAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of a disaster within the construction sector corresponds to the temporary or permanent ill-health or death of a construction worker. Geographical location is one of the factors that play an important role in addressing the health and safety hazards for construction workers. In addition to the location, geographical considerations equally encapsulate regional, cultural, governmental and work ethical effects. These effects may potentially contribute to disparities in the construction sector. With an increasing level of understanding for health and safety hazards in the construction domain, more efficient prevention measures can be taken in order to enable a disaster management cycle, capable of responding to the rigorous demands of the construction sector.

  8. Contribution of psychology to the safety of installations with a high hazard potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.

    1996-01-01

    Installations with a high hazard potential are usually characterised by the dual attribute 'low risk - high hazard'. Diverse strategies of safety management are employed in such installations in order to limit the great hazard potential of safety-relevant occurrences (faults, abnormal operating states, accidents) that can take place in them. These strategies include specific control principles. In nuclear engineering, for example, the feedforward principle has already been used for some time as a tool of analytic risk determination (e.g., in probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) or Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)). A further example of these strategies of safety management is the empirical determination of risks through evaluation of operating experience (feedback control, e.g., epemiological studies, accident analysis) and, derived from this, identification of the system's weak points in terms of safety. Insights derived from the application of these control principles can serve to develop specific means of intervention. These will tend to be closely oriented to the results obtained with the control method and may consist in, e.g., trainings or measures of organisation development. Independent of this, it will also be possible to identify long-term measures for preventing safety-relevant occurrences (e.g., organisational learning, safety-mindedness). The above-named strategies of safety management (control, intervention, prevention) provide a fertile basis for psychological studies in fields such as the physiology and psychology of perception (information processing), cognitive, psychology (thought and action), social psychology (division of labour, norms), paedagogic psychology (training), or organisational and environmental psychology (safety-mindedness, leadership, environmental influences). (orig./DG) [de

  9. EPR safety. Consideration of the internal and external hazards in the safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguin, H.

    2008-04-01

    The author presents the main points of the Preliminary Safety Report of EDF on the EPR reactor safety. It concerns the considerations of the internal (fire, flood, explosions, pipes failures) and external (earthquakes, airplane falls, explosions, exceptional natural disasters, extreme meteorological conditions) damages. It presents how the safety report takes into account the aggression. (A.L.B.)

  10. Standard practice for design and use of safety alert system for hazardous work locations in the coatings and lining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice covers a safety alert system for hazardous work locations and materials for the coatings and lining application industry. This practice is designed for multi-employer work sites. Limitations--This practice does not identify specific hazardous materials or work locations but provides a means for rating each. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  11. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies.

  12. Assessment of occupational health and safety hazard exposures among working college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Adesina, Adepeju; Kearney, Gregory D; Richards, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults have higher injury rates than their adult counterparts in similar jobs. This study used the working college student population to assess health and safety hazards in the workplace, characterize related occupational diseases and injuries, and describe worker health/safety activities provided by employers. College students (≥17 years old) were assessed via online surveys about work history, workplace exposure to hazards, occupational diseases/injuries, and workplace health/safety activities. Approximately half (51%) of participants (n = 1,147) were currently employed at the time of the survey or had been employed while enrolled in college. Restaurants (other than fast food) were the most frequently reported work setting. The most reported workplace hazards included noise exposure and contact with hot liquids/surfaces. Twenty percent of working students experienced injury at work; some injuries were severe enough to limit students' normal activities for >3 days (30%) or require medical attention (44%). Men had significantly higher prevalence of injuries (P = 0.05) and near-misses (P safety training and half were given personal protective equipment (PPE) by their employers. Risk reduction from workplace injuries and illnesses among working college students may be achieved by implementing occupational health and safety (OHS) strategies including incorporation of OHS in the college curriculum, promotion of OHS by university/college student health services, and improving awareness of OHS online resources among college students, employers, and educators. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Health and safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices

  14. Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilin, L.; Defu, L.; Huajun, L.; Fengqing, W.; Tao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

  15. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Karen; Jinadasa, Deepani; Maegga, Bertha; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on RTIs in low-volume, rural African settings. This study attempted to survey all individuals living in households within 200 m of two low-volume rural roads in Tanzania and to collect data on RTIs. Local communities and users of the Bago to Talawanda road (intervention site) and Kikaro to Mihuga road (control site) were targeted and received an intensive program of road safety measures tailored using the crash characteristics of the baseline sample. Demographic data on all household members were collected, and those individuals who suffered an RTI in the previous 3 months had comprehensive information collected about the crash characteristics and the socioeconomic impact. The follow-up data collection occurred nine months after the baseline data were collected. The majority of crashes that caused an RTI involved a motorcycle (71%) and the majority of victims were male (82%) with an average age of 27. Injuries to the legs (55%) were most common and the average length of time away from normal activity was 27 (±33) days. RTI incidence at the intervention site increased during the course of the study (incidence before vs. incidence after) and was unchanged in the community control (incidence before vs. incidence after). The incidence of RTIs in the low-volume rural setting is unacceptably high and most commonly associated with motorcycles. The change in incidence is unreliable due to logistic restraints of the project and more research is needed to quantify the impact of various RTI prevention strategies in this setting. This study provides insight into road traffic injuries on low-volume rural roads, areas where very little research has been captured. Additionally, it provides a replicable study design for those interested in collecting similar data on low-volume rural roads.

  16. Guaranteed safety information for rising traffic safety at roads main junctions using infrastructure-aided driver-assistance systems; Sichere Information durch infrastrukturgestuetzte Fahrerassistenzsysteme zur Steigerung der Verkehrssicherheit an Strassenknotenpunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltschko, T.

    2004-07-01

    Progress of development of driver assistance systems have more and more lead to systems assisting the driver on guidance level. These systems allow direct or indirect driving process contact thus being safety relevant vehicle systems, and their operation requires high safety and reliability standards. To realize the necessary driver assistance, complete collection and interpretation of traffic actions are required and a number of information and information sources has to be integrated, especially in case of traffic situations at junctions in urban areas. The requirements, however, cannot only be reduced to technical reliability of the system and system components but have also to be extended to the information in- and output thus guaranteeing safe operation. This information has to reach the required quality thus avoiding any hazards during the complete time of information use. It is evident that none of the existing models and methods allow a uniform description of information quality of driver assistance systems. The thesis shows a quality concept for description and evaluation of information quality within information processing systems. The quality concept consists of a quality model and an analysing procedure. The quality model is the basis of the quality concept. All types of information are described by a fixed set of quality characteristic, and suitable parameters are used for concretion and quantification. (orig.)

  17. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-09-15

    Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Final Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T.J.; Bond, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The auditable safety analysis (ASA) documents the authorization basis for the partial decommissioning and facility modifications to place the 105-F Building into interim safe storage (ISS). Placement into the ISS is consistent with the preferred alternative identified in the Record of Decision (58 FR). Modifications will reduce the potential for release and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials, as well as lower surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) costs. This analysis includes the following: A description of the activities to be performed in the course of the 105-F Building ISS Project. An assessment of the inventory of radioactive and other hazardous materials within the 105-F Building. Identification of the hazards associated with the activities of the 105-F Building ISS Project. Identification of internally and externally initiated accident scenarios with the potential to produce significant local or offsite consequences during the 105-F Building ISS Project. Bounding evaluation of the consequences of the potentially significant accident scenarios. Hazard classification based on the bounding consequence evaluation. Associated safety function and controls, including commitments. Radiological and other employee safety and health considerations

  19. Physical hazard safety awareness among healthcare workers in Tanta university hospitals, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sallamy, Rania M; Kabbash, Ibrahim Ali; El-Fatah, Sanaa Abd; El-Feky, Asmaa

    2017-05-17

    Hospital workers are exposed to many occupational hazards that may threaten their health and safety. Physical hazards encountered in hospital working environment include temperature, illumination, noise, electrical injuries, and radiation. To assess the awareness of healthcare workers (HCWs) about physical hazards in Tanta university hospitals, this cross-sectional study included 401 HCWs (physicians, nurses, technicians, and workers) from seven departments (general surgery, orthopedics, radiology, ophthalmology, kitchen, incinerator, and laundry). Data were collected through interview questionnaire to assess six types of physical hazards (noise, electric hazards, temperature, radiation, fire, and lighting,). Most of the physicians (63.7%) were aware of the level of noise. All physicians, nurses, technicians, and majority of workers reported that hearing protective devices were not available, and all HCWs reported that periodic hearing examination was not performed. Most of the nurses (75.2%) and workers (68.5%) did not attended emergency training, and more than two thirds of all HCWs were not briefed about emergency evacuation. Most HCWs were not given appropriate radiation safety training before starting work (88% of workers, 73.7% of nurses, 65.7% of physicians, and 68.3% of technicians). The majority of physicians, nurses, and technicians (70.5, 65.4, and 53.7%) denied regular environmental monitoring for radiation level inside work place. Health education programs on health and safety issues regarding physical hazards should be mandatory to all healthcare workers to improve their awareness and protect them from undue exposures they may face due to lack of adequate awareness and knowledge. There is urgent need of expanding the occupational healthcare services in Egypt to cover all the employees as indicated by the international recommendations and the Egyptian Constitution, legislation, and community necessity.

  20. A RULE-BASED SYSTEM APPROACH FOR SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN HAZARDOUS WORK SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercüment N. DİZDAR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in work life. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. Here we face this problem: Can we make it possible to forecast the possible accidents that workers can face, and prevent these accidents by taking necessary precautions? In this study made, we aimed at developing an rule-based system to forecast the occupational accidents in coming periods at the departments of the facilities in hazardous work systems. The validity of the developed system was proved by implementing it into practice in hazardous work systems in manufacturing industry.

  1. Use of the t-distribution to construct seismic hazard curves for seismic probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Dept. of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessments are used to help understand the impact potential seismic events can have on the operation of a nuclear power plant. An important component to seismic probabilistic safety assessment is the seismic hazard curve which shows the frequency of seismic events. However, these hazard curves are estimated assuming a normal distribution of the seismic events. This may not be a strong assumption given the number of recorded events at each source-to-site distance. The use of a normal distribution makes the calculations significantly easier but may underestimate or overestimate the more rare events, which is of concern to nuclear power plants. This paper shows a preliminary exploration into the effect of using a distribution that perhaps more represents the distribution of events, such as the t-distribution to describe data. The integration of a probability distribution with potentially larger tails basically pushes the hazard curves outward, suggesting a different range of frequencies for use in seismic probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore the use of a more realistic distribution results in an increase in the frequency calculations suggesting rare events are less rare than thought in terms of seismic probabilistic safety assessment. However, the opposite was observed with the ground motion prediction equation considered.

  2. Use of the t-distribution to construct seismic hazard curves for seismic probabilistic safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessments are used to help understand the impact potential seismic events can have on the operation of a nuclear power plant. An important component to seismic probabilistic safety assessment is the seismic hazard curve which shows the frequency of seismic events. However, these hazard curves are estimated assuming a normal distribution of the seismic events. This may not be a strong assumption given the number of recorded events at each source-to-site distance. The use of a normal distribution makes the calculations significantly easier but may underestimate or overestimate the more rare events, which is of concern to nuclear power plants. This paper shows a preliminary exploration into the effect of using a distribution that perhaps more represents the distribution of events, such as the t-distribution to describe data. The integration of a probability distribution with potentially larger tails basically pushes the hazard curves outward, suggesting a different range of frequencies for use in seismic probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore the use of a more realistic distribution results in an increase in the frequency calculations suggesting rare events are less rare than thought in terms of seismic probabilistic safety assessment. However, the opposite was observed with the ground motion prediction equation considered

  3. The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Thieken, A. H.

    2013-10-01

    Due to limited public budgets and the need to economize, the analysis of costs of hazard mitigation and emergency management of natural hazards becomes increasingly important for public natural hazard and risk management. In recent years there has been a growing body of literature on the estimation of losses which supported to help to determine benefits of measures in terms of prevented losses. On the contrary, the costs of mitigation are hardly addressed. This paper thus aims to shed some light on expenses for mitigation and emergency services. For this, we analysed the annual costs of mitigation efforts in four regions/countries of the Alpine Arc: Bavaria (Germany), Tyrol (Austria), South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. On the basis of PPP values (purchasing power parities), annual expenses on public safety ranged from EUR 44 per capita in the Free State of Bavaria to EUR 216 in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol. To analyse the (variable) costs for emergency services in case of an event, we used detailed data from the 2005 floods in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria) as well as aggregated data from the 2002 floods in Germany. The analysis revealed that multi-hazards, the occurrence and intermixture of different natural hazard processes, contribute to increasing emergency costs. Based on these findings, research gaps and recommendations for costing Alpine natural hazards are discussed.

  4. Estimation of average hazardous-event-frequency for allocation of safety-integrity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, Y.; Sato, Y.

    1999-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts of the draft international standard, IEC 61508, is target failure measures to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems, i.e. Safety Integrity Levels. The Safety Integrity Levels consist of four discrete probabilistic levels for specifying the safety integrity requirements or the safety functions to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems. In order to select the Safety Integrity Levels the draft standard classifies Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems into two modes of operation using demand frequencies only. It is not clear which modes of operation should be applied to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems taking into account the demand-state probability and the spurious demand frequency. It is essential for the allocation of Safety Integrity Levels that generic algorithms be derived by involving possible parameters, which make it possible to model the actuality of real systems. The present paper addresses this issue. First of all, the overall system including Electric/Electronic/programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems is described using a simplified fault-tree. Then, the relationships among demands, demand-states and proof-tests are studied. Overall systems are classified into two groups: a non-demand-state-at-proof-test system which includes both repairable and non-repairable demand states and a constant-demand-frequency system. The new ideas such as a demand-state, spurious demand-state, mean time between detections, rates of d-failure and h-failure, and an h/d ratio are introduced in order to make the Safety Integrity Levels and modes of operation generic and comprehensive. Finally, the overall system is simplified and modeled by fault-trees using Priority-AND gates. At the same time the assumptions for modeling are described. Generic algorithms to estimate hazardous

  5. Laser Safety and Hazard Analysis for the Trailer (B70) Based AURA Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.

    2003-01-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the AURA laser system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for ''Safe Use of Lasers'' and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for ''Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors''. The trailer based AURA laser system is a mobile platform, which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The trailer (B70) based AURA laser system is generally operated on the United State Air Force Starfire Optical Range (SOR) at Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), New Mexico. The laser is used to perform laser interaction testing inside the laser trailer as well as outside the trailer at target sites located at various distances from the exit telescope. In order to protect personnel, who work inside the Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ), from hazardous laser emission exposures it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength (wavelength bands) and calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (OD min ) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel and the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) to protect unauthorized personnel who may have violated the boundaries of the control area and enter into the laser's NHZ

  6. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex

  7. Current regulatory developments concerning the implementation of probabilistic safety analyses for external hazards in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Matias; Berg, Heinz-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) initiated in September 2003 a comprehensive program for the revision of the national nuclear safety regulations which has been successfully completed in November 2012. These nuclear regulations take into account the current recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). In this context, the recommendations and guidelines of the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) and the technical documents elaborated by the respective expert group on Probabilistic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants (FAK PSA) are being updated or in the final process of completion. A main topic of the revision was the issue external hazards. As part of this process and in the light of the accident at Fukushima and the findings of the related actions resulting in safety reviews of nuclear power plants at national level in Germany and on European level, a revision of all relevant standards and documents has been made, especially the recommendations of KTA and FAK PSA. In that context, not only design issues with respect to events such as earthquakes and floods have been discussed, but also methodological issues regarding the implementation of improved probabilistic safety analyses on this topic. As a result of the revision of the KTA 2201 series 'Design of Nuclear Power Plants against Seismic Events' with their parts 1 to 6, part 1 'Principles' was published as the first standard in November 2011, followed by the revised versions of KTA 2201.2 (soil) and 2201.4 (systems and components) in 2012. The modified the standard KTA 2201.3 (structures) is expected to be issued before the end of 2013. In case of part 5 (seismic instrumentation) and part 6 (post>seismic actions) draft amendments are expected in 2013. The expert group 'Probabilistic Safety Assessments for Nuclear Power Plants' (FAK PSA) is an advisory body of the Federal

  8. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Abkowitz, M. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort.

  9. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M.; Abkowitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort

  10. Developing a theoretical foundation to change road user behavior and improve traffic safety: Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas J; Schell, William; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Otto, Jay; Finley, Kari

    2018-05-19

    This study explored a theoretical model to assess the influence of culture on willingness and intention to drive under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). This model is expected to guide the design of strategies to change future DUIC behavior in road users. This study used a survey methodology to obtain a nationally representative sample (n = 941) from the AmeriSpeak Panel. Survey items were designed to measure aspects of a proposed definition of traffic safety culture and a predictive model of its relationship to DUIC. Although the percentage of reported past DUIC behaviors was relatively low (8.5%), this behavior is still a significant public health issue-especially for younger drivers (18-29 years), who reported more DUIC than expected. Findings suggest that specific cultural components (attitudes, norms) reliably predict past DUIC behavior, general DUIC willingness, and future DUIC intention. Most DUIC behavior appears to be deliberate, related significantly to willingness and intention. Intention and willingness both appear to fully moderate the relationship between traffic safety culture and DUIC behavior. This study explored a theoretical model to understand road user behavior involving drug (cannabis)-impaired driving as a significant risk factor for traffic safety. By understanding the cultural factors that increase DUIC behavior, we can create strategies to transform this culture and sustain safer road user behavior.

  11. Evaluation of the traffic safety benefits of a lower speed limit and restriction of trucks to use of right lane only on I-10 over the Atchafalaya Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    To improve traffic operation and safety, several states have implemented truck lane restriction and differential speed limit policies on freeways. In response to an 11-vehicle crash in September 2003, the Louisiana State Department of Transportation ...

  12. Determinants of road traffic safety : new evidence from Australia using state-space analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nghiem, S. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Connelly, L.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958–2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic

  13. Hazard Analysis and Safety Requirements for Small Drone Operations: To What Extent Do Popular Drones Embed Safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioutsias, Anastasios; Karanikas, Nektarios; Chatzimihailidou, Maria Mikela

    2018-03-01

    Currently, published risk analyses for drones refer mainly to commercial systems, use data from civil aviation, and are based on probabilistic approaches without suggesting an inclusive list of hazards and respective requirements. Within this context, this article presents: (1) a set of safety requirements generated from the application of the systems theoretic process analysis (STPA) technique on a generic small drone system; (2) a gap analysis between the set of safety requirements and the ones met by 19 popular drone models; (3) the extent of the differences between those models, their manufacturers, and the countries of origin; and (4) the association of drone prices with the extent they meet the requirements derived by STPA. The application of STPA resulted in 70 safety requirements distributed across the authority, manufacturer, end user, or drone automation levels. A gap analysis showed high dissimilarities regarding the extent to which the 19 drones meet the same safety requirements. Statistical results suggested a positive correlation between drone prices and the extent that the 19 drones studied herein met the safety requirements generated by STPA, and significant differences were identified among the manufacturers. This work complements the existing risk assessment frameworks for small drones, and contributes to the establishment of a commonly endorsed international risk analysis framework. Such a framework will support the development of a holistic and methodologically justified standardization scheme for small drone flights. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Intranet-based safety documentation in management of major hazards and occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Antti

    2002-01-01

    In the European Union, Council Directive 96/82/EC requires operators producing, using, or handling significant amounts of dangerous substances to improve their safety management systems in order to better manage the major accident potentials deriving from human error. A new safety management system for the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki, Finland, was implemented in this study. The system was designed to comply with both the new safety liabilities and the requirements of OHSAS 18001 (British Standards Institute, 1999). During the implementation phase experiences were gathered from the development processes in this small organisation. The complete documentation was placed in the intranet of the plant. Hyperlinks between documents were created to ensure convenience of use. Documentation was made accessible for all workers from every workstation.

  15. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, M. Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • An integrated framework is developed to optimize risk reduction. • A negative binomial regression model is developed to analyze accident-cause-specific railcar derailment probability. • A Pareto-optimality technique is applied to determine the lowest risk given any level of resource. • A multi-attribute decision model is developed to determine the optimal amount of investment for risk reduction. • The models could aid the government and rail industry in developing cost-efficient risk reduction policy and practice. -- Abstract: Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation.

  16. Determinants of road traffic safety: New evidence from Australia using state-space analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Connelly, Luke B

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic environment that may affect exposure to traffic, and hence affect the number of accidents and fatalities. The results show that the introduction of a random breath testing program in 1988 was associated with a 11.3% reduction in traffic fatalities; its expansion in 1998 was associated with a 26.2% reduction in traffic fatalities; and the effect of the "Safe4life" program, which was introduced in 2004, was a 14.3% reduction in traffic fatalities. Reductions in economic activity are also associated with reductions in road fatalities: we estimate that a one percent increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a 0.2% reduction in traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Assessment for the Effects of the External Hazard Factors on the Safety of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, So Beom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Sung Kyu; Hur, Youl

    2010-01-01

    The Ch.etsu Offshore Earthquake(2007.7.16) in Japan caused damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa(K-K) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with seismic ground motion that exceeded the design level. This incident drew the interest of the safety evaluation studies for NPPs subjected to earthquakes exceeding the design basis around the world. Also, the Indian Ocean Tsunami(2004.12.26) tripped the Madras NPP by reason of flooding of the intake pump house and inundated the construction site of a fast breeder reactor site in India. In addition, from the various man-made and natural hazards such as the oil spill accident near Mallipo, Taean, Chungnam (2007.12), the forest fire near the Ulchin NPP site, the several inflows of marine organism into the intake of the Ulchin NPP, it was confirmed that the safety of NPPs may be affected by natural and human induced disasters. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been warned about global warming; the average temperature rose about 1.5 .deg. C during the 20th century and the damages caused by typhoons and heavy rains have also increased in Korea. Accordingly, a natural disaster prevention research team(hereafter team) ,which have been organized and operated since 2009, has assessed the impact of various hazards such as earthquakes and environmental changes due to global warming on the safety of NPP and has discussed to establish countermeasures. This paper introduces that the preliminary assessment for the effects of the external hazard factors on the safety of NPPs was conducted by the team

  18. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  19. Survey of potential health and safety hazards of commercial-scale ethanol production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Smith, J.G.; Elmore, J.L.

    1982-04-01

    Generic safety and health aspects of commercial-scale (60 to 600 million L/y) anhydrous ethanol production were identified. Several common feedstocks (grains, roots and fibers, and sugarcane) and fuels (coal, natural gas, wood, and bagasse) were evaluated throughout each step of generic plant operation, from initial milling and sizing through saccharification, fermentation, distillation, and stillage disposal. The fermentation, digestion, or combustion phases are not particularly hazardous, although the strong acids and bases used for hydrolysis and pH adjustment should be handled with the same precautions that every industrial solvent deserves. The most serious safety hazard is that of explosion from grain dust or ethanol fume ignition and boiler/steam line overpressurization. Inhalation of ethanol and carbon dioxide vapors may cause intoxication or asphyxiation in unventilated areas, which could be particularly hazardous near equipment controls and agitating vats. Contact with low-pressure process steam would produce scalding burns. Benzene, used in stripping water from ethanol in the final distillation column, is a suspected leukemogen. Substitution of this fluid by alternative liquids is addressed.

  20. The effects of a new traffic safety law in the Republic of Serbia on driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Lukić, Vera; Zivadinović, Nenad; Babić, Dragan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study presented here has been to see what the effects of the new traffic safety law are, 2 years into its initial implementation, on driving under the influence of alcohol. Until the end of 2009, the legal limit for blood concentration for drivers in Serbia was 0.5g/l; however, the new traffic safety law stipulates the new limit to be 0.3g/l. A retrospective autopsy study was performed over a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011) whose sample covered cases of fatally injured drivers who had died at the scene of the incident, before being admitted to hospital. A total of 161 fatally injured drivers were examined for their blood alcohol concentration. The average age for these drivers was 40.2±15.4 years, with a significant male predominance of 152 men to 9 women (χ(2)=152.000, pdriving under the influence of alcohol, which still remains one of the major human factors, responsible for road-traffic crashes in Serbia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in traffic fatalities in Mexico: examining progress on the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin; Fabila-Carrasco, John Stewart; Rojas-Vargas, Roy

    2016-11-01

    We explore demographic, temporal and geographic patterns of 256,588 road traffic fatalities from 1998 to 2013 in Mexico, in context of UN´s decade of action for road safety 2010-2020 (DARS). Combined traffic mortality data and population counts were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression, distinguishing sex-age groups, vulnerable and protected road users, and municipal size. Rapid growth from 1998 to 2008 in traffic mortality rates has been reversed since 2009. Most deaths averted are among young male protected road users (reduction of 0.95 fatalities per 100,000 per year in males 12-49). In spite of a steady decrease over the full study period, mortality rates remain high in vulnerable road users over 50, with a high mortality rate of 26 per 100,000 males over 75 years in 2013. Progress on the reduction of deaths advances in Mexico, in line with DARS targets. National road safety efforts require strengthening. Initiatives should target vulnerable road users, specifically adults >50 years in urban areas. Strengthening of drink driving programs aimed at young drivers/occupants is promising.

  2. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems (MMITSS) Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data were collected during the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal Systems (MMITSS) study. MMITSS is a next-generation traffic signal system that seeks to...

  4. Timing of Formal Phase Safety Reviews for Large-Scale Integrated Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2010-01-01

    Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is a process used to identify and control unacceptable risk. As such, it does not occur in a vacuum. IHA approaches must be tailored to fit the system being analyzed. Physical, resource, organizational and temporal constraints on large-scale integrated systems impose additional direct or derived requirements on the IHA. The timing and interaction between engineering and safety organizations can provide either benefits or hindrances to the overall end product. The traditional approach for formal phase safety review timing and content, which generally works well for small- to moderate-scale systems, does not work well for very large-scale integrated systems. This paper proposes a modified approach to timing and content of formal phase safety reviews for IHA. Details of the tailoring process for IHA will describe how to avoid temporary disconnects in major milestone reviews and how to maintain a cohesive end-to-end integration story particularly for systems where the integrator inherently has little to no insight into lower level systems. The proposal has the advantage of allowing the hazard analysis development process to occur as technical data normally matures.

  5. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting in unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  6. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. P.; Crandall, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin.

  7. A hazard and probabilistic safety analysis of a high-level waste transfer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Sasser, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a safety analysis of a transfer process for high-level radioactive and toxic waste. The analysis began with a hazard assessment that used elements of What If, Checklist, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Hazards and Operability Study (HAZOP) techniques to identify and rough-in accident sequences. Based on this preliminary analysis, the most significant accident sequences were developed further using event trees. Quantitative frequency estimates for the accident sequences were based on operational data taken from the historical record of the site where the process is performed. Several modeling challenges were encountered in the course of the study. These included linked initiating and accident progression events, fire propagation modeling, accounting for administrative control violations, and handling mission-phase effects

  8. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the N basin segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.; Smith, R.I.; Larson, A.R.; Duncan, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the following: To serve as the auditable safety analysis (ASA) for the N Basin Segment, including both the quiescent state and planned intrusive activities. The ASA is developed through the realistic evaluation of potential hazards that envelope the threat to personnel. The ASA also includes the specification of the programmatic, baseline, and activity- specific controls that are necessary for the protection of workers. To determine and document the final hazard classification (FHC) for the N Basin Segment. The FHC is developed through the use of bounding accident analyses that envelope the potential exposures to personnel. The FHC also includes the specification of the special controls that are necessary to remain within the envelope of those accident analyses

  9. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  10. The role of health and safety experts in the management of hazardous and toxic wastes in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi; Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Occupational Safety and Health Experts in Indonesia have an important role in integrating environmental health and safety factors, including in this regard as human resources assigned to undertake hazardous waste management. Comprehensive knowledge and competence skills need to be carried out responsibly, as an inherent professional occupational safety and health profession. Management leaders should continue to provide training in external agencies responsible for science in the management of toxic waste to enable occupational safety and health experts to improve their performance in the hierarchy of control over the presence of hazardous materials. This paper provides an overview of what strategies and competencies the Occupational Safety and Health expert needs to have in embracing hazardous waste management practices.

  11. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  12. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  13. Performance Measurement of Location Enabled e-Government Processes: A Use Case on Traffic Safety Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2016-12-01

    The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperable Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC DG DIGIT), aims to enhance the interactions between governments, businesses and citizens by embedding location information into e-Government processes. The challenge remains to find scientific sound and at the same time practicable approaches to estimate or measure the impact of location enablement of e-Government processes on the performance of the processes. A method has been defined to estimate process performance in terms of variables describing the efficiency, effectiveness, as well as the quality of the output of the work processes. A series of use cases have been identified, corresponding to existing e-Government work processes in which location information could bring added value. In a first step, the processes are described by means of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) to better understand the process steps, the actors involved, the spatial data flows, as well as the required input and the generated output. In a second step the processes are assessed in terms of the (sub-optimal) use of location information and the potential enhancement of the process by better integrating location information and services. The process performance is measured ex ante (before using location enabled e-Government services) and ex-post (after the integration of such services) in order to estimate and measure the impact of location information. The paper describes the method for performance measurement and highlights how the method is applied to one use case, i.e. the process of traffic safety monitoring. The use case is analysed and assessed in terms of location enablement and its potential impact on process performance. The results of applying the methodology on the use case revealed that performance is highly impacted by factors such as the way location information is collected, managed and shared throughout the

  14. A consideration of hazards, earthquakes, aircraft crashes, explosions and fires in the safety of laboratories and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.; Mohammadioun, B.; Jacquet, P.

    1987-03-01

    Although laboratories and plants differ from nuclear reactors both in their characteristics and sitings, safety measures developed for the hazards of earthquakes, aircraft crashes, explosions and fires are very similar. These measures provide a satisfactory level of safety for these installations [fr

  15. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... must be based on the (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture. The food safety...

  16. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A.; Plys, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented

  17. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented.

  18. Identifying the Safety Factors over Traffic Signs in State Roads using a Panel Quantile Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Željko; Xu, Xuecai; Duan, Li; Babić, Darko

    2018-06-20

    This study intended to investigate the interactions between accident rate and traffic signs in state roads located in Croatia, and accommodate the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. The data from 130 state roads between 2012 and 2016 were collected from Traffic Accident Database System maintained by the Republic of Croatia Ministry of the Interior. To address the heterogeneity, a panel quantile regression model was proposed, in which quantile regression model offers a more complete view and a highly comprehensive analysis of the relationship between accident rate and traffic signs, while the panel data model accommodates the heterogeneity attributed to unobserved factors. Results revealed that (1) low visibility of material damage (MD) and death or injured (DI) increased the accident rate; (2) the number of mandatory signs and the number of warning signs were more likely to reduce the accident rate; (3)average speed limit and the number of invalid traffic signs per km exhibited a high accident rate. To our knowledge, it's the first attempt to analyze the interactions between accident consequences and traffic signs by employing a panel quantile regression model; by involving the visibility, the present study demonstrates that the low visibility causes a relatively higher risk of MD and DI; It is noteworthy that average speed limit corresponds with accident rate positively; The number of mandatory signs and the number of warning signs are more likely to reduce the accident rate; The number of invalid traffic signs per km are significant for accident rate, thus regular maintenance should be kept for a safer roadway environment.

  19. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinguishing between Rural and Urban Road Segment Traffic Safety Based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the traffic crash rate, total crash frequency, and injury and fatal crash frequency were taken into consideration for distinguishing between rural and urban road segment safety. The GIS-based crash data during four and half years in Pikes Peak Area, US were applied for the analyses. The comparative statistical results show that the crash rates in rural segments are consistently lower than urban segments. Further, the regression results based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB regression models indicate that the urban areas have a higher crash risk in terms of both total crash frequency and injury and fatal crash frequency, compared to rural areas. Additionally, it is found that crash frequencies increase as traffic volume and segment length increase, though the higher traffic volume lower the likelihood of severe crash occurrence; compared to 2-lane roads, the 4-lane roads have lower crash frequencies but have a higher probability of severe crash occurrence; and better road facilities with higher free flow speed can benefit from high standard design feature thus resulting in a lower total crash frequency, but they cannot mitigate the severe crash risk.

  1. An examination of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA): A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    On November 16,1990, President Bush signed into law the most comprehensive amendments to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) in 15 years. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (HMTUSA) was created by Congress in an effort to strengthen and clarify the HMTA. This paper will discuss the act's provisions as they affect shipments of spent fuel and high-level radioactive materials as well as the impact of those provisions on routing and emergency response issues in the southern region. HMTUSA consists of seven key provisions that affect radioactive materials: clarification of regulatory jurisdiction; highway routing standards; broadened industry registration; safety permits for motor carriers of high risk materials; expanded nuclear transportation requirements; new provisions for emergency response training and planning; and a public process for assessing the feasibility of a federally operated central reporting system and data center. In addition to amending various HMTA provisions, the new HMTUSA act provides appropriations to carry out the specific goals of the legislation. The act authorizes appropriations for the 1991, 1992 and 1993 fiscal years

  2. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksjeongl@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo [Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-ro, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  3. Effects of sleep disorders and pharmacological treatment on driving ability and traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Operating a vehicle is a form of complex skilled behavior, which requires the driver to be alert. Sleepiness and fatigue behind the wheel are important causes of driver errors and traffic accidents and are associated with sleep deprivation, sleep disorders, circadian factors, use of recreational or

  4. A Report on Traffic Safety and Montana's Children. 1999 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report looks at major problems, available data, and some solutions for Montana's children as passengers in and drivers of vehicles on Montana's roads and highways. The report also presents information about adults' roles and responsibilities for preventing traffic accidents and protecting children. Facts presented in the…

  5. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-05-19

    Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6-7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55). However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84). No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  6. Experiences of frontline nursing staff on workplace safety and occupational health hazards in two psychiatric hospitals in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Poku, Kwabena Adu

    2018-06-06

    Psychiatric hospitals need safe working environments to promote productivity at the workplace. Even though occupational health and safety is not completely new to the corporate society, its scope is largely limited to the manufacturing/processing industries which are perceived to pose greater dangers to workers than the health sector. This paper sought to explore the experiences of frontline nursing personnel on the occupational health and safety conditions in two psychiatric hospitals in Ghana. This is an exploratory cross-sectional study among 296 nurses and nurse-assistants in Accra (n = 164) and Pantang (n = 132) psychiatric hospitals using the proportional stratified random sampling technique. Multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression test was conducted to ascertain the determinants of staff exposure to occupational health hazards and the frequency of exposure to these occupational health hazards on daily basis. Knowledge levels on occupational health hazards was high in Accra and Pantang psychiatric hospitals (i.e. 92 and 81% respectively), but barely 44% of the 296 interviewed staff in the two hospitals said they reported their most recent exposure to an occupational health hazard to hospital management. It was found that staff who worked for more years on the ward had higher likelihood of exposure to occupational health hazards than those who worked for lesser years (p = 0.002). The category of occupational health hazards reported most were the physical health hazards. Psychosocial hazards were the least reported health hazards. Frequency of exposure to occupational health hazards on daily basis was positively associated with work schedules of staff particularly, staff on routine day schedule (Coef = 4.49, p = 0.011) and those who alternated between day and night schedules (Coef = 4.48, p = 0.010). Occupational health and safety conditions in the two hospitals were found to be generally poor. Even though majority of

  7. A test of safety, violence prevention, and civility climate domain-specific relationships with relevant workplace hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazica, Michele W; Spector, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Safety climate, violence prevention climate, and civility climate were independently developed and linked to domain-specific workplace hazards, although all three were designed to promote the physical and psychological safety of workers. To test domain specificity between conceptually related workplace climates and relevant workplace hazards. Data were collected from 368 persons employed in various industries and descriptive statistics were calculated for all study variables. Correlational and relative weights analyses were used to test for domain specificity. The three climate domains were similarly predictive of most workplace hazards, regardless of domain specificity. This study suggests that the three climate domains share a common higher order construct that may predict relevant workplace hazards better than any of the scales alone.

  8. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...

  9. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  10. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. A systematic review of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Zalat, Marwa M; Qabshawi, Reem I

    2015-04-01

    To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers' faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA.

  11. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  12. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; SLAC; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference

  13. Wind farms' influences for traffic safety. Study of distance requirements for road traffic, railway traffic, sea traffic and air travel; Tuulivoimaloiden vaikutukset liikenneturvallisuuteen. Selvitys etaeisyysvaatimuksista tie-, rautatie-, meri- ja lentoliikenteen osalta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytoenen, K.; Harju, M.; Piispanen, J.; Haulos, S.

    2012-11-15

    As wind power projects, both design and implementation, have increased rapidly, wind power manufacturers have stated that infrastructure of traffic restricts and complicates implementation of wind power projects. Failure of wind farm and both snow and ice thrown from blades and tower are commonly thought to be dangerous for settlement and for road, railway and sea traffic. Based on the accessible information accidents, which are connected to wind farms, won't cause notable harm for outsiders. Majority of the human injury and fatal accidents concerns the personnel of the wind farm in implementation and operational phases, not outsiders. Purpose of this study has been to clarify how distances requirements in different forms of traffic in Finland differ from other countries that are included in this comparison, and to find grounds for possibly revising these guidelines. In Finland there are still longest distance requirements when placing wind farm nearby the main roads, even after Finnish Traffic Agency revised guidelines in 2012. Regarding roads, differences between all the countries were minor. Also distance requirements regarding railways differ relatively little. Sweden has shortest distance requirement. Distance requirements in Finland and Denmark have been reduced in past few years. Any of these countries have not stated actual defined distance requirements related for example to shipping channels or lanes. International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has settled internationally rules for obstacle limitation surface nearby airports and marking flight obstacles. Countries have stated national aviation regulations according to these rules and for this reason these regulations are quite consistent. In this study distance requirements are recommended to be calculated for certain basis. In case of roads and railways a general minimum distance requirement is suggested to be 1 x wind farm overall height. Road owner is allowed to require higher distance for

  14. Worker safety for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    A study group under the auspices of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) Labor Committee and the High-level Radioactive Waste/Hazardous Materials Transportation Task Force examined worker protection and safety programs for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials. Concern about the risks posed to people who live along spent nuclear fuel transportation routes has led to demands for redundant inspections of the transported spent fuel. It would also be prudent to examine the radiological risk to the inspectors themselves before state of federal regulations are promulgated which require redundant inspections. Other workers may also come close to a spent fuel cask during normal operations. The dose rate to which these inspectors and handlers are exposed is higher than the dose rate to which any other group is exposed during incident-free truck transportation and higher than the dose rate to the drivers when they are in the truck cab. This report consists of miscellaneous papers covering topics related to determining radiation doses to workers involved in the transport of radioactive materials

  15. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  16. Evaluation of Fire Hazard and Safety Management of Heritage Buildings in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a subject that is always neglected and ignored as far as heritage buildings are concerned. Unlike newly-built buildings, which are required under UBBL to undergo certain fire protection system tests, people are less likely to carry out such tests and detailed assessments for heritage buildings. Thus, this research is significant as it is aimed at accomplishing several objectives including studying the current fire emergency plan, besides identifying and assessing the possible fire hazards in heritage buildings in Penang. Several case studies were carried out at a few premises such as the Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and the Teochew Temple with the aid of the Fire Rescue Department Malaysia (FRDM. The results obtained from this study will be discussed according to several aspects focusing on general health and safety management at the site, the fire-fighting system, fire exit routes and signage at the temples, fire hazards, and fire detection and alarm.

  17. Environmental Health and Safety Hazards Experienced by Home Health Care Providers: A Room-by-Room Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J; Wills, Celia E; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The number of personnel providing in-home health care services is increasing substantially. The unique configuration of environmental hazards in individual client homes has a significant impact on the safety and health of home health care providers (HHPs). This mixed-methods study used data from a standardized questionnaire, focus groups, and individual interviews to explore environmental health and safety hazards encountered by HHPs in client homes. The participant sample (N = 68) included nurses, aides, therapists, and owners/managers from a variety of geographic locations. The most often-reported hazards were trip/slip/lift hazards, biohazards, and hazards from poor air quality, allergens, pests and rodents, and fire and burns. Frequency of identified key hazards varied by room, that is, kitchen (e.g., throw rugs, water on floor), bathroom (e.g., tight spaces for client handling), bedroom (e.g., bed too low), living room (e.g., animal waste), and hallway (e.g., clutter). Findings indicate the need for broader training to enable HHPs to identify and address hazards they encounter in client homes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Determinants of Knowledge and Safety Practices of Occupational Hazards of Textile Dye Workers in Sokoto, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafoagu, Nneka Christina; Oche, Mansur; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Abdulmulmuni, Hashim Bala; Gana, Godwin Jiya; Ango, Jessica Timane; Raji, Ismail

    2017-06-23

    Textile dye workers are subject to occupational hazards on a daily basis due to exposure to precarious conditions in the workplace. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and safety practices and its determinants among textile dye workers in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 200 textile dye workers and the respondents were selected by multi stage sampling technique. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was processed using SPSS IBM version 20 and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of the respondents (74.0%) had good knowledge of workplace hazards; (81.0%) had positive attitude and only 20% observed all the safety practices. Formal education (P=0.047); working less than 5 days a week (P=0.001) and permanent employment (P=0.013) were found to be determinants of respondents' knowledge and attitude towards workplace hazards. Although the respondents had good knowledge and positive attitude, their lack of observance of safety practices brings to fore the need for direct safety instruction and training and retraining of textile dye workers on workplace hazards and safety practices.

  19. Relative hazard potential: the basis for definition of safety criteria for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, L.; Ilberg, D.

    1977-02-01

    One of the main safety criteria to be met for larger thermal reactors is that the probability of exceeding the dose limits imposed by 10 CRF 100 should not be greater than 10 per reactor year. The potential hazard presented by a fast reactor could be substantially greater than that due to an LWR. The potential for harm of a reactor system may be judged by the effects which would arise from a severe accident. Several different types of effects may be considered: number of latent fatal cancers; number of deaths due to acute effects; number of thyroid tumors or nodules; extent of property damage; and genetic effects. Analytical methods for comparison are employed in this paper. A second important parameter reviewed in this report is the radio-toxicity attributed to the various isotopes. It was found that the worst conceivable accident to a 1000 MW(e) fast reactor would lead to effects on health greater by an order of magnitude than the worst accident usually considered for an LWR. Therefore, some reconsideration of the need for additional safety criteria for LMFBRs, as a guide to designers in relation to the control of the effects of very severe accidents, is desirable

  20. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, K.; Verta, M.; Marttinen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  1. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, K., E-mail: kimmo.suominen@evira.fi [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland); Verta, M. [Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Marttinen, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  2. Playground Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Fall Prevention Playground Safety Poisoning Prevention Road Traffic Safety Sports Safety Get Email Updates To receive ... at the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Playground Safety website . References U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Injuries and ...

  3. Data rate based congestion control in V2V communication for traffic safety applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belagal Math, C.; Özgür, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Li, H.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication systems intend to increase safety and efficiency of the transportation networks. At high vehicle density, the communication channel may become congested, impairing the reliability of the safety applications. As a counter measure, the European Telecommunications

  4. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. Copyright

  5. Toward risk assessment 2.0: Safety supervisory control and model-based hazard monitoring for risk-informed safety interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favarò, Francesca M.; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a staple in the engineering risk community, and it has become to some extent synonymous with the entire quantitative risk assessment undertaking. Limitations of PRA continue to occupy researchers, and workarounds are often proposed. After a brief review of this literature, we propose to address some of PRA's limitations by developing a novel framework and analytical tools for model-based system safety, or safety supervisory control, to guide safety interventions and support a dynamic approach to risk assessment and accident prevention. Our work shifts the emphasis from the pervading probabilistic mindset in risk assessment toward the notions of danger indices and hazard temporal contingency. The framework and tools here developed are grounded in Control Theory and make use of the state-space formalism in modeling dynamical systems. We show that the use of state variables enables the definition of metrics for accident escalation, termed hazard levels or danger indices, which measure the “proximity” of the system state to adverse events, and we illustrate the development of such indices. Monitoring of the hazard levels provides diagnostic information to support both on-line and off-line safety interventions. For example, we show how the application of the proposed tools to a rejected takeoff scenario provides new insight to support pilots’ go/no-go decisions. Furthermore, we augment the traditional state-space equations with a hazard equation and use the latter to estimate the times at which critical thresholds for the hazard level are (b)reached. This estimation process provides important prognostic information and produces a proxy for a time-to-accident metric or advance notice for an impending adverse event. The ability to estimate these two hazard coordinates, danger index and time-to-accident, offers many possibilities for informing system control strategies and improving accident prevention and risk mitigation

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of a sustainable safe road traffic system. Contribution to the conference `Traffic safety on two continents', Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this report it is shown, using cost-benefit techniques, that for different variations of estimates, investments in a sustainable safe road traffic system are profitable from a societal point of view. (A)

  7. Effects of alcohol (BAC 0.5‰) and ecstasy (MDMA 100 mg) on simulated driving performance and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldstra, Janet L; Brookhuis, Karel A; de Waard, Dick; Molmans, Barbara H W; Verstraete, Alain G; Skopp, Gisela; Jantos, Ricarda

    2012-08-01

    An increasing number of fatal road-accidents have been reported in which ecstasy was found in the blood of drivers. Although, ecstasy is frequently found to have been used in combination with alcohol, studies on the acute effects of ecstasy co-administered with alcohol on driving performance are relatively rare. The present study was designed to establish the extent of driver impairment as a consequence of ecstasy or combined ecstasy and alcohol use as compared to driving under the influence of 0.3‰, 0.5‰ and 0.8‰ alcohol. Furthermore, subjective performance was also assessed. Alcohol and ecstasy mainly influenced automated driving performance such as lateral and speed control. However, small to no effects of the substances were found on more complex driving behaviour. Overall, variance within the different driving measures was high especially when participants were treated with 3.4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and alcohol. Furthermore, equivalence testing showed that combined use may lead to impaired driving for some, but not all, drivers. Participants rated their own performance to be slightly worse than normal in both studies. Since driving was actually seriously deteriorated, this was a falsely positive assessment of their condition. The dissociation between subjective perceptions and objective performance decrements are important notions for traffic safety since this may affect a driver's judgement of whether or not it is safe to drive. For example, an intoxicated individual might decide to drive because the feelings of alertness caused by MDMA cloud the impairing effects of other drugs such as alcohol, thereby creating a potentially serious risk for traffic safety.

  8. ANALYSIS ON THE INFLUENCE OF ACCUMULATION EFFECT OF LANDSCAPE COLOR ON TRAFFIC SAFETY IN THE FOGGY SECTIONS OF EXPRESSWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilei Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The landscape color of expressways has a significant impact on a driver's visual response, thus affecting the incidence of expressways traffic accidents. Although this problem has been analyzed and discussed from different angles, there is rare quantitative analysis on the influence of accumulation effect of landscape color on the traffic safety in foggy sections of expressways. In this paper, the color combination and stroboflash of fog lamps on both sides of the road were designed from the perspective of the color research of road landscapes, and the cumulative effect of colors and stroboflash of fog lamps on the drivers’ mind was also studied. Then the interactive cumulative model based on landscape color and driving time in heavy-fog environment was established. Finally, multi-group of fog-lamp colors and spacing experiment program allowing a visibility of 200–500m in fog environments was designed by using Tobii eye-movement instrument and the UC-win/Road simulation software. According to the program, simulations were performed on several drivers to test the influence of road-landscape colors in foggy environments on the drivers' visual psychology. The results of the simulation experiment showed that the colors and stroboflash of fog lamps on both sides of the road have a positive effect on the drivers’ safety when the visibility range is 200–500m, and the driving speed is less than 70 km/h, in addition, the red and yellow were found to have the largest influence among all the studied colors. These results show that it is necessary to design landscape colors in the foggy sections of expressways.

  9. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... rail tank car due to chemical self-reaction and expansion of the toluene diisocyanate matter wastes. On...: Cheryl West Freeman, Division of Engineering and Research, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... catastrophically ruptured at a transfer station at the BASF Corporation chemical facility in Freeport, Texas. The...

  10. Traffic enforcement in Europe: effects, measures, needs and future. Final report of the ESCAPE Consortium. (The acroynm ESCAPE stands for Enhanced Safety Coming from Appropriate Police Enforcement).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Zaidel, D.M. Andersson, G. Biecheler-Fretel, M.-B. Christ, R. Cauzard, J.-P. Elvik, R. Goldenbeld, C. Gelau, C. Heidstra, J. Jayet, M.-C. Nilsson, G. Papaioanou, P. Quimby, A. Rehnova, V. & Vaa, T.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the project were to identify important issues of traffic law enforcement in the EU, examine traditional and innovative enforcement approaches and tools, and assess their potential to improve compliance for increased safety on roads. The following main issues were addressed: the

  11. Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals PUSSYCATS : new pedestrian facilities : technique, observations and opinions, a drive-project in France, the UK and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    PUSSYCATS (Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals) is a new system incorporating technical improvements better adapted to pedestrians needs and behaviour. A Kerb-side detector mat replaces the push buttons, with infrared sensors detecting the presence of pedestrians on the

  12. Senior executive transportation & public safety summit : national traffic incident management leadership & innovation roadmap for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    This report summarizes the proceedings, findings, and recommendations from a two-day Senior Executive Summit on Transportation and Public Safety, held June 26 and 27, 2012 at the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) in Washington, D.C. ...

  13. Traffic safety in the U.S.: re-examining major opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Luoma, Juha; Flannagan, Michael J; Bingham, C Raymond; Eby, David W; Shope, Jean T

    2007-01-01

    This article examines five major road-safety risk factors: exceeding posted speed limits, not using safety belts, driving while intoxicated, nighttime driving, and young drivers. The importance of each of these factors is documented, known effective countermeasures (both policy and technology based) are discussed, and impediments to the implementation of these countermeasures in the United States are examined. Based on current understanding of the five major risk factors, and of the available countermeasures, there appear to be a variety of opportunities to make substantial gains in road safety using existing knowledge. The limited implementation of a variety of known countermeasures therefore appears to be inconsistent with high-level, strategic goals to improve road safety. Consequently, a recommendation is made to comprehensively re-examine the balance between the countermeasures discussed in this article and economic, mobility, and privacy concerns. IMPACT ON PUBLIC SAFETY: Such a re-examination is likely to result in broad support for these countermeasures, with a consequent major improvement in road safety.

  14. [Road traffic injuries in Mexico: evidences to strengthen the Mexican road safety strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar, Martha; Celis, Alfredo; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    Based on a review of secondary data and the scientific literature and an analysis of the ENSANut-2012 database, the current study provides a comprehensive overview of the current burden of road traffic injuries (RTI) in Mexico and analyzes the country's social response to RTI. The high collision, injury, mortality, and disability rates associated with this public health problem represent a high cost for Mexican society, especially for families. The paper argues that the Mexican response has focused on vehicle occupants while overlooking vulnerable road users and has prioritized strategies with limited effectiveness. Although the country's existing legislation addresses the main risk factors, enforcement has been limited. Finally, the paper makes some recommendations for strengthening the Mexican strategy to prevent RTI, such as safe, equitable, healthy, and sustainable mobility for all types of road users. Despite some strides in RTI prevention, there are still challenges and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  15. Application of the AHP method to analyze the significance of the factors affecting road traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SORDYL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technology. Thus the detailed assessment of the importance of individual elements determining road safety is difficult. The starting point is to organize the factors by grouping them into categories which are components of the DVE system (driver - vehicle - environment. In this work, to analyze the importance of individual factors affecting road safety, the use of analytic hierarchy process method (AHP was proposed. It is one of the multi-criteria methods which allows us to perform hierarchical analysis of the decision process, by means of experts’ opinions. Usage of AHP method enabled us to evaluate and rank the factors affecting road safety. This work attempts to link the statistical data and surveys in significance analysis of the elements determining road safety.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Certifications for Professional Hazardous Materials and Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for determining a curriculum to provide qualified hazardous waste personnel. Describes the needed role of colleges and universities and current hazardous materials certification requirements. Lists requirements for 18 professional certifications. (MVL)

  17. Cryogenic Hazard at ESS – strategy, safety studies and lessons learned

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is building a linear accelerator (linac) aiming at delivering a 2 GeV proton beam on a tungsten target wheel at 5 MW nominal power. The entire accelerator will be housed in an underground tunnel and will be fully operational by 2023. The superconducting section of the linac is composed of 21 High Beta cryomodules, 9 Medium Beta cryomodules and 13 Spoke cryomodules, as well as a Cryogenic Distribution System (CDS) that will be provided with liquid helium. A total of 146 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities operating at 2 K will be housed in those cryomodules. Additionally, cryogenic fluids will also be used for the cold hydrogen moderator surrounding the target as well as for several neutron instruments. In order to achieve a proper cooling, different facilities are being built to house the future cryogenic installation and therefore will be subject to Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH). In order to address cryogenic safety issues ESS wide, a long-term strategy has ...

  18. Industry-specific risk models for numerical scoring of hazards and prioritization of safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khali, Y.F.; Johnson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Risk analysis consists of five cornerstones that have to be viewed in an holistic manner by risk practitioners of any organization regardless of the industry type or nature of its critical infrastructures. The cornerstones are hazard identification, risk assessment and consequence analysis, determination of risk management actions required to reduce risks to acceptable levels, communication of risk insights among the stake-holders, and continuous monitoring and verification to ensure sustained attainment of tolerable risk levels. Our primary objectives in this research are two fold: first, we compare and contrast a wide spectrum of current industry-specific and application-dependent semi-quantitative risk models. Secondly, based on the insights to be gained from the first task, we propose a framework for a robust risk-based approach for conducting security vulnerability assessment (SVA). Risk practitioners of critical infrastructures, such as commercial nuclear power plants, water utilities, chemical plants, transmission and distribution substations... etc., could readily use this proposed approach to classify, evaluate, and prioritize risks to support allocation of resources required to ensure protection of public health and safety. (author)

  19. Job safety analysis and hazard identification for work accident prevention in para rubber wood sawmills in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaksorn, Phayong; Thongjerm, Supawan; Incharoen, Salee; Siriwong, Wattasit; Harada, Kouji; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-11-25

    We utilized job safety analysis (JSA) and hazard identification for work accident prevention in Para rubber wood sawmills, which aimed to investigate occupational health risk exposures and assess the health hazards at sawmills in the Trang Province, located in southern Thailand. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included a walk-through survey, JSA, occupational risk assessment, and environmental samplings from March through September 2015 at four Para rubber wood sawmills. We identified potential occupational safety and health hazards associated with six main processes, including: 1) logging and cutting, 2) sawing the lumber into sheets, 3) planing and re-arranging, 4) vacuuming and wood preservation, 5) drying and planks re-arranging, and 6) grading, packing, and storing. Working in sawmills was associated with high risk of wood dust and noise exposure, occupational accidents injuring hands and feet, chemicals and fungicide exposure, and injury due to poor ergonomics or repetitive work. Several high-risk areas were identified from JSA and hazard identification of the working processes, especially high wood dust and noise exposure when sawing lumber into sheets and risk of occupational accidents of the hands and feet when struck by lumber. All workers were strongly recommended to use personal protective equipment in any working processes. Exposures should be controlled using local ventilation systems and reducing noise transmission. We recommend that the results from the risk assessment performed in this study be used to create an action plan for reducing occupational health hazards in Para rubber sawmills.

  20. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  1. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  2. Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: Addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2011-01-01

    North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars to make them more robust in accidents generally increases their weight thereby reducing their capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. This paper presents a generalized tank car safety design optimization model that addresses this tradeoff. The optimization model enables evaluation of each element of tank car safety design, independently and in combination with one another. We present the optimization model by identifying a set of Pareto-optimal solutions for a baseline tank car design in a bicriteria decision problem. This model provides a quantitative framework for a rational decision-making process involving tank car safety design enhancements to reduce the risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  3. Evaluating the Impacts of Red Light Camera Deployment on Intersection Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Red-light cameras (RLC) are a popular countermeasure to reduce red-light running and improve intersection safety. Studies show that the reduction in side impact crashes at RLC intersections are often accompanied by no-change or an increase in the num...

  4. Energy. Health, environment, and safety hazards. Final report from the Energy Commission. Energi. Haelso- miljoe- och saekerhetsrisker. Slutbetaenkande av energikommissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The Swedish Energy Commission in its main report (''Energy'', SOU 1978:17) presented its considerations and put forward its proposals for a Swedish Energy policy for the next decade. This report contains complementary information on health hazards, risks of major accidents and sabotage, and problems of waste management. The presentation takes the form of a comparison of such risks in relation to different sources of energy. The Commission is not unanimous in its estimates of the relative hazards of different energysystems. The Commission recommends the initiation of a large number of studies concerning the possible ways the increase the safety and reduce the adverse effects of energy production.

  5. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  6. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  7. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  8. Heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in the Russian cities and the need of usage various methods of transport safety management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. I.; Petrova, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers one of the topical problems of road safety management at the federal level - the problem of the heterogeneity of road traffic accident rate in Russian cities. The article analyzes actual statistical data on road traffic accident rate in the administrative centers of Russia. The histograms of the distribution of the values of two most important road accidents characteristics - Social Risk HR and Severity Rate of Road Accidents - formed in 2016 in administrative centers of Russia are presented. On the basis of the regression model of the statistical connection between Severity Rate of Road Accidents and Social Risk HR, a classification of the Russian cities based on the level of actual road traffic accident rate was developed. On the basis of this classification a differentiated system of priority methods for organizing the safe functioning of transport systems in the cities of Russia is proposed.

  9. Identifying factors affecting the safety of mid-block bicycle lanes considering mixed 2-wheeled traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Chan, Ching-Yao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-10-03

    Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs). Traffic conflict technology was applied as a surrogate measure to evaluate the safety of 2-wheeled vehicles. The safety performance model was developed by adopting a generalized linear regression model for relating the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and regular bikes to the operating speeds of BSEBs, SSEBs, and RBs in mid-block bike lanes. The frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes increased with an increase in the operating speeds of e-bikes and the volume of e-bikes and bikes and decreased with an increase in the width of bike lanes. The large speed difference between e-bikes and bikes increased the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes in mid-block bike lanes. A 1% increase in the average operating speed of e-bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes by 1.48%. A 1% increase in the speed difference between e-bikes and bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes/bikes by 0.16%. The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference between e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes, and the width of bike lanes. The

  10. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  11. Life on the line: Job demands, perceived co-worker support for safety, and hazardous work events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Hershcovis, M Sandy; Walls, Melanie

    2010-10-01

    The present study of 334 United Kingdom trackside workers tested an interaction hypothesis. We hypothesized, drawing on the job demands-resources framework, that perceived support for safety (from senior managers, supervisors, and coworkers) as job resources would weaken the relationship between higher job demands and more frequent hazardous work events. Consistent with social impact theory, we predicted that perceived coworker support for safety would be particularly influential when trackside workers faced higher job demands. Moderated multiple regression showed that, of all three sources of perceived support for safety, perceived coworker support for safety was most important for keeping employees safe in the face of high job demands. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. How can Saudi Arabia use the Decade of Action for Road Safety to catalyse road traffic injury prevention policy and interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. The rate of road traffic accidents caused by four-wheeled vehicles is the highest globally reported road traffic accidents statistic. In Saudi Arabia, the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation with one person killed and four injured every hour. Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling at excess speed and/or drivers disobeying traffic signals. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. Strategic prevention plans should be implemented soon by various sectors (health, police, transport, and education) to decrease the mortality and morbidity among adolescent and young age group. Strong and effective coordination between ministry of health and other ministries together with World Health Organization and other related organisations will be an important step towards implementing the international Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020). The aim of this review article is to highlight some aspects of the health impacts of road traffic accidents.

  13. Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cautley, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Viner, J. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Lord, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Pearce, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

  14. Standarized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W.W. III; Andrews, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation; routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level or resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. 2 refs

  15. 78 FR 69745 - Safety and Security Plans for Class 3 Hazardous Materials Transported by Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... material (considering the material's underlying chemical properties, corrosivity, and other characteristics) is fundamental to ensuring the selection of proper packaging and that the hazards of the materials...

  16. Standardized radiological hazard analysis for a broad based operational safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, W. III; Andrews, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiological Hazard Analysis (RHA) Manual provides a methodology and detailed guidance for systematic analysis of radiological hazards over a broad spectrum of program functions, housed in a wide variety of facilities. Radiological programs at LANL include: research and experimentation routine materials operations; production; non-destructive examination or testing; isotope and machine produced radiations; chemistry; and metallurgy. The RHA permits uniform evaluation of hazard types over a range of several orders of magnitude of hazard severity. The results are used to estimate risk, evaluate types and level of resource allocations, identify deficiencies, and plan corrective actions for safe working environments. (author)

  17. The Effect of Educational Intervention Based on PRECEDE-PROCEED Model on Promoting Traffic Safety Behaviors in Primary Schools Students of Tabriz in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Omidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pedestrian injuries are a public health problem and one of the major victims of road traffic injuries are children. Education is one of the most important strategies to solve traffic problems. To achieve effective results, education should be defined on the basis of theories and models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRECEDE-PROCEED based intervention for promoting traffic safety behaviors in elementary schools students of Tabriz. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial. The sample included 75 elementary students who were randomly selected from two different schools. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the PRECEDE-PROCEED model constructs and demographic variables. Participants completed questionnaires before and one month after intervention. The intervention consisted of six sessions and was conducted in experimental group schools. The data were analyzed with fisher’s exact test, chi square, t-test and paired t-test, using SPSS-18 software. Results: The average age of participants was 10.11 ± 0.68 years. There was no significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05. The findings showed that after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in knowledge, attitude, enabling factors, reinforcing factors and behavior scores in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusions: An educational intervention based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model could promote students’ traffic safety behaviors.

  18. Environmental supports for walking/biking and traffic safety: income and ethnicity disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigates the influence of income, ethnicity, and built environmental characteristics on the percentages of workers who walk/bike as well as on pedestrian/cyclist crash rates. Furthermore, income and ethnicity disparities are also explored. This study chose 162 census tracts in Austin as the unit of analysis. To explore income and ethnicity differences in built environments, this study examined the associations of the poverty rate, the percentage of white population, and the percentage of Hispanic population to each built environmental variable. Path models were applied to examine environmental supports of walking/biking and pedestrian/cyclist safety. Areas with high poverty rates had more biking trips and experienced more cyclist crashes, while areas with a high percentage of white population generated more walking trips and fewer pedestrian crashes. Sidewalk completeness and mixed land uses promoted walking to work but increased the crash risk for pedestrians as well. In terms of biking behaviors, road density and transit stop density both increased biking trips and cyclist crashes. Environmental designs that both encourage walking/biking trips and generate more safety threats should attract more attention from policy makers. Policies should also be more devoted to enhancing the mobility and health for areas with high poverty rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Real-Time Construction Safety Monitoring System for Hazardous Gas Integrating Wireless Sensor Network and Building Information Modeling Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Weng-Fong; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2018-02-02

    In recent years, many studies have focused on the application of advanced technology as a way to improve management of construction safety management. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), one of the key technologies in Internet of Things (IoT) development, enables objects and devices to sense and communicate environmental conditions; Building Information Modeling (BIM), a revolutionary technology in construction, integrates database and geometry into a digital model which provides a visualized way in all construction lifecycle management. This paper integrates BIM and WSN into a unique system which enables the construction site to visually monitor the safety status via a spatial, colored interface and remove any hazardous gas automatically. Many wireless sensor nodes were placed on an underground construction site and to collect hazardous gas level and environmental condition (temperature and humidity) data, and in any region where an abnormal status is detected, the BIM model will alert the region and an alarm and ventilator on site will start automatically for warning and removing the hazard. The proposed system can greatly enhance the efficiency in construction safety management and provide an important reference information in rescue tasks. Finally, a case study demonstrates the applicability of the proposed system and the practical benefits, limitations, conclusions, and suggestions are summarized for further applications.

  20. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  1. Crash Prediction and Risk Evaluation Based on Traffic Analysis Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety evaluation for traffic analysis zones (TAZs plays an important role in transportation safety planning and long-range transportation plan development. This paper aims to present a comprehensive analysis of zonal safety evaluation. First, several criteria are proposed to measure the crash risk at zonal level. Then these criteria are integrated into one measure-average hazard index (AHI, which is used to identify unsafe zones. In addition, the study develops a negative binomial regression model to statistically estimate significant factors for the unsafe zones. The model results indicate that the zonal crash frequency can be associated with several social-economic, demographic, and transportation system factors. The impact of these significant factors on zonal crash is also discussed. The finding of this study suggests that safety evaluation and estimation might benefit engineers and decision makers in identifying high crash locations for potential safety improvements.

  2. Microbiological performance of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based food safety management systems: A case of Nile perch processing company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kussaga, J.B.; Luning, P.A.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based Food Safety Management System (FSMS) of a Nile perch exporting company by using a combined assessment, This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output

  3. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  4. Sicurezza e circolazione stradale/Sécurité et circulation routière/Safety Issues and Road Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo intende affrontare l’attualissima problematica riguardante la sicurezza e la circolazione stradale, mantenendoun occhio di riguardo sul fenomeno della guida in stato di ebbrezza. Il punto viene fatto sulle modifiche introdotte dallalegge del 2010, sugli strumenti e le proposte di accertamento, nonché sull’importanza di conoscere gli effetti dell’alcolsulla guida.RésuméCet article aborde la problématique actuelle de la sécurité sur la route et tout particulièrement le phénomène de laconduite sous l’emprise de l’alcool. Les principaux points qui vont être analysés dans l’article sont les suivants : lesmodifications introduites par la loi de 2010, les instruments et les propositions pour prouver une conduite sousl’emprise de l’alcool et, enfin, l’importance de connaître les effets de l’alcool sur la conduite.AbstractThe article analyzes the present situation on safety issues and road traffic, focusing on issues related to driving whileintoxicated. The main points of the article are: the changes introduced by the Act of 2010, the means and theassessment proposals along with the importance of knowing the effects of alcohol on driving.

  5. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 308 Building Complex during post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes the inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials present within the 308 Building Complex, and presents the hazard evaluation methodology used to prepare the hazard classification for the Complex. The complex includes the 308 Building (process area and office facilities) and the 308 Building Annex, which includes the former Neutron Radiography Facility containing a shutdown (and partially decommissioned) reactor. This document applies to the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance mode only, and provides an authorization basis limited to surveillance and maintenance activities. This document does not authorize decommissioning and decontamination activities, movement of fissile materials, modification to facility confinement structures, nor the introduction or storage of additional radionuclides in the 308 Building Complex. This document established a final hazard classification and identifies appropriate and adequate safety functions and controls to reduce or mitigate the risk associated with the surveillance and maintenance mode. The most consequential hazard event scenario is a postulated unmitigated release from an earthquake event involving the entire complex. That release is equivalent to 30% of the Nuclear Category 3 threshold adjusted as allowed by DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE 1992). The dominant isotopes are 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am in the gloveboxes

  6. 77 FR 36607 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... modification of special permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes... hazardous materials. 12102-M EQ Industrial 49 CFR 173.56(i); To modify the special Services, Inc. 173.56(b... 4.1. 13102-M Robertshaw Industrial 49 CFR 173.150(b); To modify the special Products dba 173.222(c...

  7. Innovative neuro-fuzzy system of smart transport infrastructure for road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinarovica, Anna; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2017-09-01

    The proposed study describes applying of neural network and fuzzy logic in transport control for safety improvement by evaluation of accidents’ risk by intelligent infrastructure devices. Risk evaluation is made by following multiple-criteria: danger, changeability and influence of changes for risk increasing. Neuro-fuzzy algorithms are described and proposed for task solution. The novelty of the proposed system is proved by deep analysis of known studies in the field. The structure of neuro-fuzzy system for risk evaluation and mathematical model is described in the paper. The simulation model of the intelligent devices for transport infrastructure is proposed to simulate different situations, assess the risks and propose the possible actions for infrastructure or vehicles to minimize the risk of possible accidents.

  8. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A

  9. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  10. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  11. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes. Workshop Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, 17-20 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident triggered discussions about the significance of external hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In addition, stress tests results have shown vulnerabilities and potential of cliff-edge effects in plant responses to external hazards and have identified possibilities and priorities for improvements and safety measures' implementation at specific sites and designs. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) directed, in cooperation with the CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE), a workshop hosted by UJV Rez. The key objectives of the workshop were to collect information from the OECD member states on methods and approaches being used, and experience gained in probabilistic safety assessment of natural external hazards, as well as to support the fulfillment of the CSNI task on 'PSA of natural external hazards including earthquakes'. These objectives are described more in detail in the introduction in Chapter 1 of this report. The WGRISK activities preceding the workshop and leading to the decision to organize it are described in Chapter 2 of this report. The focus of the workshop was on external events PSA for nuclear power plants, including all modes of operation. The workshop scope was generally limited to external, natural hazards, including those hazards where the distinction between natural and man-made hazards is not sharp. The detailed information about the presentations, discussions, and results of the workshop is presented in Chapter 3 of this report. Some general conclusions were agreed on during the workshop, which are presented in the following paragraphs. - The lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents and related actions at the national, regional, and global level have emphasized the importance to assess risks associated (authors) with

  12. Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aurélie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Salmi, L Rachid

    2018-02-28

    Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels. We used freely available data sets (WHO, International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group, the WB). Delays in implementation were calculated until 2013, from the year mandatory use of safety belts by motor vehicle front seat occupants was first introduced worldwide. We used life expectancy tables and age groups as social values in the DALY calculation model. From the estimated total burden, avoidable DALYs were calculated using estimates of the effectiveness of seat belt laws on fatal and nonfatal injuries combined, as extracted from published international reviews of evidence. From the reference year 1972, implementation delays varied from 27 years (Uzbekistan) to 41 years in Bolivia (no seat belt law as of 2013). During delays, total absolute numbers of DALYs lost due to road traffic injuries reached 8,462,099 in Nigeria, 7,203,570 in Morocco, 4,695,500 in Uzbekistan, 3,866,391 in Cambodia, 3,253,359 in Bolivia, and 3,128,721 in Sri Lanka. Using effectiveness estimates ranging from 3 to 20% reduction, the avoidable burden of road traffic injuries for car occupants was highest in Uzbekistan (avoidable part from 1.2 to 10.4%) and in Morocco (avoidable part from 1.5 to 12.3%). In countries where users of public transport and pedestrians were the most affected by the burden, the avoidable parts ranged from 0.5 to 4.4% (Nigeria) and from 0.5 to 3.4% (Bolivia). Burden of road traffic injuries mostly affected motorcyclists in Sri Lanka and Cambodia where the avoidable parts were

  13. A risk-informed framework for establishing a beyond design basis safety basis for external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, P. [Hughes Associates, Inc, Baltimore, MD (United States); Anoba, R. [Hughes Associates, Inc, Raleigh, NC (United States); Najafi, B. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Los Gatos, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi taught us that meeting a deterministic design basis requirement for external hazards does not assure that the risk is low. As observed at the plant, the two primary reasons for this are failure cliffs above the design basis event and that combined hazard effects are not considered in design. Because the possible combinations of design basis exceedences and external hazard combinations are very large and complex, an approach focusing only on the most important ones is needed. For this reason, a risk informed approach is the most effective approach, which is discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Introduction of the system of hazard analysis critical control point to ensure the safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive system for food safety. It identifies safety risks faced by food. Identified points are controlled ensuring product safety. Because of presence of many of the pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in food which caused cases of food poisoning and many diseases transmitted through food, the current methods of food production could not prevent food contamination or prevent the growth of these pathogens completely because of being a part of the normal flora in the environment. Irradiation technology helped to control diseases transmitted through food, caused by pathological microorganisms and parasites present in food. The application of a system based on risk analysis as a means of risk management in food chain, demonstrated the importance of food irradiation. (author)

  15. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  16. Hazardous materials safety and security technology field operational test. Volume II, evaluation final report synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-11

    The catastrophic events of September 11, 2001 and the ongoing war on terrorism have heightened the level of concern from Federal government officials and the transportation industry regarding the secure transport of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). Secu...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... B to this section); (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended inventory; (D) Safe upper and lower... with process chemistry information including runaway reaction and over pressure hazards if applicable... American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Petroleum Institute, American National Standards...

  18. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  19. Detection and analyse of hazardous roads in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    For the last period of 5-10 years the notion "Grey roads" (hazardous roads) has appeared in Danish traffic safety work and improvement of these roads has become a very important part of the traffic safety work in many countries. The problem is, that the notion never has been clearly defined......, and therefore there are no unambiguos methods to point out and analyse "Grey roads". In this article based on a ph.D.-project a method to detecting "Grey roads" is introduced....

  20. Reducing health care hazards: lessons from the commercial aviation safety team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Goeschel, Christine A; Olsen, Kyle L; Pham, Julius C; Miller, Marlene R; Berenholtz, Sean M; Sexton, J Bryan; Marsteller, Jill A; Morlock, Laura L; Wu, Albert W; Loeb, Jerod M; Clancy, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    The movement to improve quality of care and patient safety has grown, but examples of measurable and sustained progress are rare. The slow progress made in health care contrasts with the success of aviation safety. After a tragic 1995 plane crash, the aviation industry and government created the Commercial Aviation Safety Team to reduce fatal accidents. This public-private partnership of safety officials and technical experts is responsible for the decreased average rate of fatal aviation accidents. We propose a similar partnership in the health care community to coordinate national efforts and move patient safety and quality forward.

  1. Auditable Safety Analysis and Final Hazard Classification for the 105-N Reactor Zone and 109-N Steam Generator Zone Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1998-07-01

    This document is a graded auditable safety analysis (ASA) and final hazard classification (FHC) for the Reactor/Steam Generator Zone Segment. The Reactor/Steam Generator Zone Segment, part of the N Reactor Complex, that is also known as the Reactor Building and Steam Generator Cells. The installation of the modifications described within to support surveillance and maintenance activities are to be completed by July 1, 1999. The surveillance and maintenance activities addressed within are assumed to continue for the next 15- 20 years, until the initiation of facility D ampersand D (i.e., Interim Safe Storage). The graded ASA in this document is in accordance with EDPI-4.30-01, Rev. 1, Safety Analysis Documentation, (BHI-DE-1) and is consistent with guidance provided by the U.S. Department of Energy. This ASA describes the hazards within the facility and evaluates the adequacy of the measures taken to reduce, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. This document also serves as the FHC for the Reactor/Steam Generator Zone Segment. This FHC is developed through the use of bounding accident analyses that envelope the potential exposures to personnel

  2. Approaches that use seismic hazard results to address topics of nuclear power plant seismic safety, with application to the Charleston earthquake issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.R.; Stepp, J.C.; Cornell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant seismic safety indicators include seismic hazard at the SSE (safe shut-down earthquake) acceleration, seismic margin, reliability against core damage, and reliability against offsite consequences. This work examines the key role of hazard analysis in evaluating these indicators and in making rational decisions regarding plant safety. The paper outlines approaches that use seismic hazard results as a basis for plant seismic safety evaluation and applies one of these approaches to the Charleston earthquake issue. This approach compares seismic hazard results that account for the Charleston tectonic interpretation, using the EPRI-Seismicity Owners Group (SOG) methodology, with hazard results that are consistent with historical tectonic interpretations accepted in regulation. Based on hazard results for a set of 21 eastern U.S. nuclear power plant sites, the comparison shows that no systematic 'plant-to-plant' increase in hazard accompanies the Charleston hypothesis; differences in mean hazards for the two interpretations are generally insignificant relative to current uncertainties in seismic hazard. (orig.)

  3. School Area Road Safety Assessment and Improvements (SARSAI) programme reduces road traffic injuries among children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poswayo, Ayikai; Kalolo, Simon; Rabonovitz, Katheryn; Witte, Jeffrey; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2018-05-19

    To determine the impact of a paediatric road traffic injury (RTI) prevention programme in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. Dares Salaam, Republic of Tanzania. Household surveys were conducted in catchment areas around 18 primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Republic of Tanzania; the catchment areas were divided into control and intervention groups. Collected data included basic demographic information on all school-aged household members and whether or not they had been involved in an RTI in the previous 12 months, and, if so, what the characteristics of that RTI were. Based on these findings, a separate road safety engineering site analysis and consultation with the communities and other stakeholders, an injury-prevention programme was developed and implemented, consisting of infrastructure enhancements and a site-specific educational programme. The programme was initially implemented at the intervention schools. After 1 year, data were collected in the same manner. The control group received the same intervention after follow-up data were collected. Data were collected on 12 957 school-aged children in the baseline period and 13 555 school-aged children in the post-intervention period, in both the control and intervention communities. There was a statistically significant reduction in RTIs in the intervention group and a non-significant increase in RTI in the control group. The greatest reduction was in motorcycle-pedestrian RTI, private vehicle-pedestrian RTI and morning RTI. The programme demonstrated a significant reduction in paediatric RTI after its implementation, in very specific ways. This study demonstrates that for a reasonable investment, scientifically driven injury-prevention programmes are feasible in resource-limited settings with high paediatric RTI rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Anticipation and the adaptive control of safety margins in driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, M.; Meijman, T.F.; Rothengatter, J.A.

    Driving is a task that requires the timely detection of critical events and relevant changes in traffic circumstances. Adaptation of speed and safety margins allows drivers to control the time available to react to potential hazards. One of the basic safety margins in driving is the time headway

  5. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  6. Geotechnical approach for occupational safety risk analysis of critical slope in open pit mining as implication for earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirwansyah; Irsyam, Masyhur; Munirwan, Reza P.; Yunita, Halida; Zulfan Usrina, M.

    2018-05-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a planned effort to prevent accidents and diseases caused by work. In conducting mining activities often occur work accidents caused by unsafe field conditions. In open mine area, there is often a slump due to unstable slopes, which can disrupt the activities and productivity of mining companies. Based on research on stability of open pit slopes conducted by Febrianti [8], the Meureubo coal mine located in Aceh Barat district, on the slope of mine was indicated unsafe slope conditions, it will be continued research on OSH for landslide which is to understand the stability of the excavation slope and the shape of the slope collapse. Plaxis software was used for this research. After analyzing the slope stability and the effect of landslide on OSH with Job Safety Analysis (JSA) method, to identify the hazard to work safety, risk management analysis will be conducted to classified hazard level and its handling technique. This research aim is to know the level of risk of work accident at the company and its prevention effort. The result of risk analysis research is very high-risk value that is > 350 then the activity must be stopped until the risk can be reduced to reach the risk value limit < 20 which is allowed or accepted.

  7. The Impact Of Occupational Hazards In Workplaces - Maintenance, A Main Target For Ensuring The Safety Of Working Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Anca Elena; Buica, Georgeta; Darabont, Doru Costin; Beiu, Constantin

    2015-07-01

    For use of work equipment having the economic performance and the highest level of safety, it must be ensured that it complies with the conditions set by the manufacturer in terms of putting into service, use and maintenance operations, ensuring appropriate technical and environmental requirements, including appropriate measures and means of protection. The research aimed to identify and analyze the occupational hazards associated to maintenance operations, in terms of the history of the adjustments, maintenance, cleaning and repair, including the case that occur after the incidents, capital repairs and upgrades. The results of the research consisted in the development of recommendations on the effective management of maintenance activities of work equipment and a software model to enable an efficient management of maintenance, as a tool for occupational hazards in companies - premise for increasing the competitiveness of employers in the market economy.

  8. Compliance of SLAC's Laser Safety Program with OSHA Requirements for the Control of Hazardous Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    2009-01-01

    SLAC's COHE program requires compliance with OSHA Regulation 29CFR1910.147, 'The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)'. This regulation specifies lockout/tagout requirements during service and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment, or release of stored energy, could cause injury to workers. Class 3B and Class 4 laser radiation must be considered as hazardous energy (as well as electrical energy in associated equipment, and other non-beam energy hazards) in laser facilities, and therefore requires careful COHE consideration. This paper describes how COHE is achieved at SLAC to protect workers against unexpected Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation, independent of whether the mode of operation is normal, service, or maintenance

  9. Risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in poultry husbandry by citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P M; Ekkel, E D; Kemp, B; Stassen, E N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Differences in risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in various poultry husbandry systems by various stakeholder groups, may affect the acceptability of those husbandry systems. Therefore, the objective was to gain insight into risk perceptions of citizens, poultry farmers, and poultry veterinarians regarding food safety and public health hazards in poultry husbandry systems, and into factors explaining these risk perceptions. We surveyed risk perceptions of Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat, avian influenza introduction in laying hens, and altered dioxin levels in eggs for the most commonly used broiler and laying hen husbandry systems in Dutch citizens (n = 2,259), poultry farmers (n = 100), and poultry veterinarians (n = 41). Citizens perceived the risks of the three hazards in the indoor systems higher and in the outdoor systems lower than did the professionals. Citizens reported higher concerns regarding aspects reflecting underlying psychological factors of risk perception compared to professionals. Professionals indicated a relatively low level of personal control, which might imply risk denial. Of the socio-demographic characteristics, gender and childhood residence were associated with risk perceptions. The influence of other factors of risks perception are discussed. It is suggested that risk perceptions of all stakeholder groups are influenced by affect, stigma, and underlying values. To adapt current or new husbandry systems that can count on societal support, views of key stakeholders and multiple aspects such as animal welfare, public health, food safety, and underlying values should be considered integrally. When trade-offs, such as between animal welfare and public health have to be made, insight into underlying values might help to find consensus among stakeholders. PMID:29161444

  10. Can cycling safety be improved by opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions? A theoretical examination of available literature and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methorst, Rob; Schepers, Paul; Kamminga, Jaap; Zeegers, Theo; Fishman, Elliot

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have found bicycle-motor vehicle crashes to be more likely on bidirectional cycle paths than on unidirectional cycle paths because drivers do not expect cyclists riding at the right side of the road. In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions prevent this lack of expectancy and accordingly improves cycling safety. A new national standard requires careful consideration because a reversal is difficult once cyclists are used to their new freedom of route choice. We therefore explored the hypothesis using available data, research, and theories. The results show that of the length of cycle paths along distributor roads in the Netherlands, 72% is bidirectional. If drivers would become used to cyclists riding at the left side of the road, this result raises the question of why bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands still have a poor safety record compared to unidirectional cycle paths. Moreover, our exploration suggested that bidirectional cycle paths have additional safety problems. It increases the complexity of unsignalized intersections because drivers have to scan more directions in a short period of time. Moreover, there are some indications that the likelihood of frontal crashes between cyclists increases. We reject the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions will improve cycle safety. We recommend more attention for mitigating measures given the widespread application of bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  12. Safety Analysis (SA) of the Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities (Buildings 514, 612, and 614) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Toy, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    This safety analysis was performed for the Manager of Plant Operations at LLL and fulfills the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. The analysis was based on field inspections, document review, computer calculations, and extensive input from Waste Management personnel. It was concluded that the quantities of materials handled do not pose undue risks on- or off-site, even in postulated severe accidents. Risks from the various hazards at these facilities vary from low to moderate as specified in DOE Order 5481.1. Recommendations are made for additional management and technical support of waste disposal operations

  13. Safety Analysis (SA) of the Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities (Buildings 514, 612, and 614) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Toy, A.J.

    1979-12-13

    This safety analysis was performed for the Manager of Plant Operations at LLL and fulfills the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. The analysis was based on field inspections, document review, computer calculations, and extensive input from Waste Management personnel. It was concluded that the quantities of materials handled do not pose undue risks on- or off-site, even in postulated severe accidents. Risks from the various hazards at these facilities vary from low to moderate as specified in DOE Order 5481.1. Recommendations are made for additional management and technical support of waste disposal operations.

  14. Thin-layer boilover in diesel-oil fires: Determining the increase of thermal hazards and safety distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Munoz, Miguel; Arnaldos, Josep

    2007-01-01

    A study of the effects of thin-layer boilover on large hydrocarbon fires was carried out. In the experiments, diesel-oil was burned in pools with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 6 m. Previous models used to predict emissive power during the stationary state were analysed and successively modified in order to accurately predict thermal hazard during the water ebullition phase. It was discovered that the increase in emissive power during thin-layer boilover is greater when the pool diameter is smaller. Furthermore, the required increases in safety distances in the case of accidents involving this dangerous phenomenon are provided

  15. Integrated risk management for improving internal traffic control, work-zone safety, and mobility during major construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Highway construction is among the most dangerous industries in the US. Internal traffic control design, along with how construction : equipment and vehicles interact with the traveling public, have a significant effect on how safe a highway construct...

  16. An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model

    OpenAIRE

    Attaullah, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and...

  17. Identification of Hazardous Road Locations on the basis of jerks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Jensen, Robin; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    The dark figures for the Danish traffic safety have increased for decades and are now around 91%. As the Hazardous Road Location (HRL) identification, a cornerstone in the traffic safety work, is based on the registered accidents, the identification is increasingly more random and uncertain...... on data from three months of driving by 380 cars, which is equivalent to a distance of 1.9 million km. This indicates that concentrations of decelerations are located where there are high traffic volumes, but not that the design and furniture of the road on the location can explain an HRL. This also...... indicates that concentrations of jerks can be found where the road has safety problems or is inappropriately designed. This is supported by literature dealing with this topic. On the other hand, jerks are very sensitive to unevenness in the road surface, and data from these locations must be removed...

  18. 75 FR 45195 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14860-M Alaska... authorizing the transportation in commerce of compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other...

  19. 75 FR 57830 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... special permit Application No. Docket No. Applicant affected thereof 7951-M ConAgra Foods, 49 CFR To... outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14953-M Applied 49 CFR To modify the...

  20. 75 FR 52385 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Actions on Special Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... communication requirements, quantity limitations and certain loading and stowage requirements (mode 4). Nature... Dog 172.101 Column transportation in Operations, 9(B). commerce of Anchorage, AK. Xanthates, which... subject to hazard communication requirements, quantity limitations and certain loading and stowage...

  1. Investigation of lithium thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Final technical report Sep 81-Nov 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.C.; Dampier, F.W.; Wang, P.; Bennett, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of discharge and overdischarge in Li/SOCl/sub 2/ cells has been examined with Raman emission, Fourier transform infrared, and electron spin resonance spectroscopies to determine if any hazardous reactions can occur. Under moderate discharge rate at room temperature, the electrolyte from discharged and cathode limited overdischarged cells contains primarily LiAlCl/sub 4/.3 SO/sub 2/, LiAlCl.2 SOCl/sub 2/, and perhaps LiAlCl/sub 4/.SOCl/sub 2/.SO/sub 2/; traces of SO/sub 3/ are indicated. Three free radicals are present at low concentrations on discharge and cathode limited overdischarged with two additional radicals appearing on extended anode limited overdischarge. At least one of these is cationic polymeric sulfur. Both FTIR and ESR suggest intermediates exist with lifetimes on the order of days from discharge and overcharge. No hazardous reactions were observed at anytime. Pressure from SO/sub 2/, a principal result of discharge, remains low due to the LiAlCl/sub 4/.3 SO/sub 2/, complex in solution. Scanning electron and optical microscopic investigations lithium dendrite structure. Individual dendrites do not grow any longer than about 50 microns or any thicker that about four microns in diameter before branching at random angles. The extent of dendritic growth and the fate of the dentrites depends on the discharge conditions. No overcharged hazards were encountered in this study though several hazard scenarios suggested themselves.

  2. An Assessment of the Fire Safety Hazard Associated with External Fire Spread in Tall Buildings with Combustible Façade Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavard Brogaard, Nicholas; Torero, Jose L.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    in order to obtain a conclusive assessment of the fire safety hazards associated with combustible facades. Prescriptive fire safety codes are typically not allowing any type of combustible façade in buildings that are taller than 2-3 stories. However, a performance based approach does not contain height...

  3. Theoretical Aspects of Erroneous Actions During the Process of Decision Making by Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersone Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Theoretical Aspects of Erroneous Actions During the Process of Decision Making by Air Traffic Control evaluates the factors affecting the operational decision-making of a human air traffic controller, interacting in a dynamic environment with the flight crew, surrounding aircraft traffic and environmental conditions of the airspace. This article reviews the challenges of air traffic control in different conditions, ranging from normal and complex to emergency and catastrophic. Workload factors and operating conditions make an impact on air traffic controllers’ decision-making. The proposed model compares various operating conditions within an assumed air traffic control environment subsequently comparing them against a theoretically “perfect” air traffic control system. A mathematical model of flight safety assessment has been proposed for the quantitative assessment of various hazards arising during the process of Air Traffic Control. The model assumes events of various severity and probability ranging from high frequency and low severity up to less likely and catastrophic ones. Certain limitations of the model have been recognised and further improvements for effective hazard evaluation have been suggested.

  4. Occupational safety in the nuclear power plant. The contribution of sociology to the development of a communication tool for the elimination of hazardous situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedler, Christien; Huber, Veit

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power plant companies make efforts to enhance the operational safety in the plant. Despite a variety of measures the number of accidents at work is still too high, esp. for external personnel. Social psychological considerations were used to develop communication tools for the elimination of hazardous situations, for instance by safety dialogues between employees. The observation of hazardous situations should trigger communication and discussion on the risk of the specific situation. In the contribution practical experiences and recommendations for the realization of a safety dialogue culture in the NPP Grafenrheinfeld are summarized and illustrated by examples.

  5. Occupational Hazards and Safety Measures Amongst the Paint Factory Workers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunsho Awodele

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The need to develop effective frameworks that will initiate the integration and ensure implementation of safety regulations in paint factories is evident. Where these exist, there is a need to promote adherence to these practice guidelines.

  6. Fact Sheet: Revisions to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hazard Communication Standards (HCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 26, 2012, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) modified its HCS to conform to the United Nations’ (UN) Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), to improve consistency and quality of information.

  7. Safety Analysis Report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI's employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMs). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance

  8. Safety in Serbian animal source food industry and the impact of hazard analysis and critical control points: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašević, I.; Đekić, I.

    2017-09-01

    There is a significant lack of HACCP-educated and/or HACCP-highly trained personnel within the Serbian animal source food workforces and veterinary inspectors, and this can present problems, particularly in hazard identification and assessment activities. However, despite obvious difficulties, HACCP benefits to the Serbian dairy industry are widespread and significant. Improving prerequisite programmes on the farms, mainly through infrastructural investments in milk collectors and transportation vehicles on one hand, and increasing hygiene awareness of farmers through training on the other hand has improved the safety of milk. The decline in bacterial numbers on meat contact surfaces, meat handlers’ hands and cooling facilities presents strong evidence of improved process hygiene and justifies the adoption of HACCP in Serbian meat establishments. Apart from the absence of national food poisoning statistics or national foodborne disease databases, the main obstacle to fully recognising the impact of HACCP on the safety of animal source food in Serbia is the lack of research regarding the occurrence of chemical and/or physical hazards interrelated with its production.

  9. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Final report 28 Sep 81-31 Dec 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A.I.; Gabriel, K.A.; Burns, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Expolsions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  10. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  11. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  12. The Study of Implement of HCS Program at Hazardous Chemicals Knowledge and Safety performance in Tehran refinery, s laboratory unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hassanzadeh-Rangi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   The HCS standard includes listing of chemicals, labeling of chemical  containers, preparation of material safety data sheets, writing plan and employee training  programs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of implemented program to enhance the knowledge and safety performance level of employees.   Methods   The knowledge level and unsafe act ratio were measured using both questionnaire  and behavior checklist (with safety sampling method before and after enforcing this interface.   Results   In this study, the mean and standard deviation of the knowledge level of employees  related to chemical safety before enforcing the interface was 46% and 14%. However, after  enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 88% and 12%. The paired-t-test result   in this parameter was significant (p-value <0.0001. The mean and standard deviation of  knowledge level of employees related to warning labels before to enforcing the interface was 29%  and 22%. After enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 80% and 16%. The paired-t-test result in this parameter was significant (p-value <0.0001. The mean and standard  deviation of the knowledge level of employees related to hazard communication methods before enforcing the interface was 25% and 11%. After enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 79% and 16%. The paired-t-test result in this parameter was significant (p-value   <0.001.   Conclusion   The obtained result revealed that enhancement of the knowledge related to chemical safety, hazard communication methods and warning labels was significant. Statistical paired-t-test and control chart methods was used to comparison between unsafe act ratio before  and after enforcing the interface. The mean and standard deviation of unsafe act ratio before implementation of HCS program was 23.6% and 5.49%. However, mean and standard deviation of unsafe act ratio

  13. 76 FR 1362 - Safety Zone; Ice Conditions for the Baltimore Captain of Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... hazards include vessels becoming beset or dragged off course, sinking or grounding, and creating hazards... safety zone's intended objectives of protecting persons and vessels from becoming beset or dragged off... there is little vessel traffic associated with recreational boating and commercial fishing during the...

  14. European protection principles against external hazards by means of Emergency Power Supply and Control Safety System Building in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Dipl Ing [Max Aicher Engineering GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    One of the most important nuclear power plant safety requirements is a redundant and independent power system. This requires such a design of emergency power systems that failure of one will not adversely impact the other. External hazards of natural origin or linked to human activity could potentially affect plant safety. The general objective of the design provisions is to ensure that the safety functions of the systems and components required to return the plant to a safe shutdown state and to prevent and limit radioactive release are not adversely affected. As external hazards are site dependent, Technical Guidelines specify that 'it is not necessary to take all of the hazards in a standardized design; such external hazards as external flooding, drought, ice formation and toxic, corrosive or combustible gases may be dealt with only for a specific plant, on a plant specific basis'. In accordance with the Technical Guidelines, external hazards are taken into consideration at the design stage consistently with internal events or hazards. The basic design principle is to protect against external hazards in accordance with the Technical Guidelines using a 'load case' procedure.

  15. Safety analysis report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI's employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMS). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance. This document contains the appendices to the NREL safety analysis report.

  16. Hazards ahead: Managing cleanup worker health and safety at the nuclear weapons complex. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Cold War nuclear weapons production has left a legacy of environmental contamination that is unprecented in scope and complexity. The Department of Energy has begun cleaning up pollution at the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC)--an expensive, decades-long task that will require a workforce numbering tens of thousands of scientists, technicians, and laborers. Protecting their health and safety must be a major goal of the cleanup effort. Achieving the goal will require DOE to successfully confront significant technical and managerial challenges, but it also poses a unique opportunity to advance state-of-the-art occupational health and safety technologies and practices. The report provides an evaluation of environmental restoration and waste management at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. It examines risks workers might face in cleaning up contamination at the complex and evaluates the effectiveness of DOE's occupational safety and health programs for cleanup workers

  17. Development of a Probabilistic Flood Hazard Assessment (PFHA) for the nuclear safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Daoued, Amine; Guimier, Laurent; Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to lay the basis for a probabilistic evaluation of flood hazard (PFHA). Probabilistic assessment of external floods has become a current topic of interest to the nuclear scientific community. Probabilistic approaches complement deterministic approaches by exploring a set of scenarios and associating a probability to each of them. These approaches aim to identify all possible failure scenarios, combining their probability, in order to cover all possible sources of risk. They are based on the distributions of initiators and/or the variables caracterizing these initiators. The PFHA can characterize the water level for example at defined point of interest in the nuclear site. This probabilistic flood hazard characterization takes into account all the phenomena that can contribute to the flooding of the site. The main steps of the PFHA are: i) identification of flooding phenomena (rains, sea water level, etc.) and screening of relevant phenomena to the nuclear site, ii) identification and probabilization of parameters associated to selected flooding phenomena, iii) spreading of the probabilized parameters from the source to the point of interest in the site, v) obtaining hazard curves and aggregation of flooding phenomena contributions at the point of interest taking into account the uncertainties. Within this framework, the methodology of the PFHA has been developed for several flooding phenomena (rain and/or sea water level, etc.) and then implemented and tested with a simplified case study. In the same logic, our study is still in progress to take into account other flooding phenomena and to carry out more case studies.

  18. The Geohazard Safety Classification: how resilience could play a role in the geo-hydrological hazards assessment of school buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of adverse events related to geological hazards are unevenly distributed among communities and groups of individuals concentrated in restricted workplaces. Their consequent safety level is the result of differential exposures to these events and of diversified levels of preparation to them. Nowadays, the exposure and coping ability as co-determinants of people's safety are of particular interest for institutions managing the schools systems. According to the disaster risk reduction experts, the geo-hydrological processes can be mitigated with knowledge and planning, physical and environmental protection measures, and response preparedness. UNISDR is promoting a global culture of safety and resilience through the integration of disaster risk reduction in school curricula. The Comprehensive School Safety (CSS) framework is intended to advance the goals of the Worldwide Initiative for Safe Schools and the Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector, and to promote school safety as a priority area of post-2015 frameworks for sustainable development, risk reduction and resilience. In Italy, according the latest ministerial survey (June 2010), there are 41,902 school buildings. Their alarming condition in terms of safety for their daily occupants is reflected by 39 fatalities ascribable to structural failures in the last 21 years. In 95% of these cases victims are a sad tribute due to natural phenomena. A rigorous evaluation of the total risk of a school building, as defined by the well known risk equation (R=HxVxE), would require a complete probability density function describing the exposure to specific types of events of all the pupils and personnel in the school. In addition, the probability that the inhabitants are present in the school during an event should be estimated depending on the time of day, day of week, or month of the year, as well as on local holiday schedules. The inclusion of resilience as a component

  19. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  20. 48 CFR 52.223-3 - Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offeror is the actual manufacturer of these items. Failure to submit the Material Safety Data Sheet prior... data. (f) Neither the requirements of this clause nor any act or failure to act by the Government shall... resistant envelope. [56 FR 55375, Oct. 25, 1991, as amended at 60 FR 34740, July 3, 1995; 62 FR 238, Jan. 2...

  1. Radiological safety assessment of Thoron inhalation hazards during DDU handling at UMP, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shailesh, M.; Belhe, M.S.; Malti; Narayani, K.; Satpati, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has been producing nuclear grade uranium metal from Ammonium di-uranate received from IRE to meet the fuel requirement of research reactors of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) in Trombay. In UMP, uranium oxide powder (U 3 O 8 and UO 3 ) is first reduced to uranium dioxide in reduction reactor and is converted to uranium tetra fluoride in hydro fluorination reactor. After removing moisture and acid vapour in expulsion area, reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is carried out with magnesium in magnesio-thermic reduction (MTR) reactor, pure uranium metal ingot with magnesium fluoride slag is produced. Finally natural uranium ingot is separated from slag in ingot discharging area. However deeply depleted uranium (DDU) metal was produced from uranium oxide (reprocessed uranium) received from PREFRE, Tarapur, as a special campaign. External radiation hazards are not dominant during the processing of natural uranium in uranium metal Plant. However it was observed that during processing of DDU metal, external and internal hazards are significant because of daughter products of thoron. Inhalation dose due to thoron was found less during charging of UO 3 powder operation than ingot discharge operation because of pneumatic powder transport system used for charging operation. It is estimated that after introduction of new blower system in different powder handling operation areas, the potential effective inhalation dose due to thoron inhalation may get reduced by 60% - 80%

  2. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  3. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  4. Screening of external hazards for NPP with bank type reactor. Modeling of safety related systems and equipment for RBMK. Probabilistic assessment of NPP safety on aircraft impact. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostarev, V.

    1999-01-01

    This progress report was produced within the frame of IAEA research project on screening the hazards for NPP with bank type reactor. It covers the following tasks; development of the model for the primary loop system of RBMK; developing the models for safety related equipment of RBMK; developing of models for safety related models of EGP-6 type reactor (Bilibinskaya Nuclear Co-generated heat and Power Plant); and probabilistic assessment of NPP safety on aircraft impact

  5. On necessity of revaluation of nuclear power safety of Ukraine in the tornado hazardous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalozubov, V.I.; Gablaya, T.V.; Vasilchenko, S.V.; Kozlov, I.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the main provisions regulating the tornado danger of objects of atomic energy, as well as analysis of the known results of evaluations of the impact of hurricanes on the safety of nuclear power plants of Ukraine, received in the ''before'' and ''post Fukushima'' periods. As a result of analysis is insufficient justification to the estimated frequency of passing tornadoes and exclusion from consideration emergency events with flooding of indus-trial sites under the influence of tornadoes not less than 2-th class intensity, defined a reassessment of NPP safety of Ukraine taking into account reasonably established performance tornado dangerous areas and lessons Fukushima accident

  6. Hazardous properties and toxicological update of mercury: From fish food to human health safety perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Sardo, Giacomo; Vitale, Sergio; Bono, Gioacchino; Arukwe, Augustine

    2017-04-10

    The mercury (Hg) poisoning of Minamata Bay of Japan widely activated a global attention to Hg toxicity and its potential consequences to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. This has resulted to an increased need for a dynamic assembly, contextualization, and quantification of both the current state-of-the-art and approaches for understanding the cause-and-effect relationships of Hg exposure. Thus, the objective of this present review is to provide both hazardous toxic properties and toxicological update of Hg, focusing on how it ultimately affects the aquatic biota to potentially produce human health effects. Primarily, we discussed processes that relate to Hg exposure, including immunological aspects and risk assessment, vulnerability, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics, using edible fish, swordfish (Xiphias gladius), as a model. In addition, we summarized available information about Hg concentration limits set by different governmental agencies, as recognized by national and international standardization authorities.

  7. Screening for transfusion transmissible infections using rapid diagnostic tests in Africa: a potential hazard to blood safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, C.; Laperche, S.; Murphy, E. L.; Bloch, E. M.; Kaidarova, Z.; Tafflet, M.; Lefrère, J.-J.; Jouven, X.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are routinely used in African blood centres. We analysed data from two cross-sectional studies representing 95 blood centres in 29 African countries. Standardized panels of sera containing varying concentrations of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies (Ab), hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C virus (HCV) Ab were screened using routine operational testing procedures at the centres. Sensitivity of detection using RDTs was high for HIV Ab-positive samples, but low for intermediately HBsAg (51·5%) and HCV Ab (40·6%)-positive samples. These findings suggest that current RDT use in Africa could pose a hazard to blood safety. PMID:26646317

  8. Chemical Contaminants Associated with Palm Wine from Nigeria Are Potential Food Safety Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review of the concentrations of these compounds in palm wine found that the benzene concentrations in all samples reviewed ranged from 56–343 ppm and were within permissible limits, whereas the styrene values (1505–5614 ppm in all the palm wine samples evaluated were well over the recommended concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health. Other chemical compounds evaluated varied according to location or sample source. The concentrations obtained are estimates only and a quantitative study needs to be carried out before the impact of these chemicals on health is evaluated. A search on The PubChem Project, the open chemical database, showed the description, properties and uses of these chemicals. Further searches carried out within other databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar, using each chemical’s name as a search term, showed possible hazards and adverse health conditions caused by these chemicals, especially styrene, benzene and dichloromethane. The point at which the chemicals are introduced into the drink is still not clear and requires further investigation. The chemicals can be hazardous to humans and there is need to establish and maintain a system that can guarantee permissible levels in the drink. This can be carried out using concentrations of the chemicals that are already known to be immediately dangerous to life or health as a reference point.

  9. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : heavy goods vehicles and buses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are defined as goods vehicles of over 3,5 tons maximum permissible gross vehicle weight. Road traffic accidents involving HGVs tend to be more severe than other accidents because of the great size and mass of these vehicles. Buses and coaches are included in this Basic

  10. Traffic control concepts for incident clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This document discusses various aspects of traffic control for incidents with the focus on the traffic control roles and responsibilities of the responders as well as the safety of the responders and the motoring public. It also recognizes that activ...

  11. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  12. New Developments in Natural Hazard Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stötter, J.; Meißl, G.; Weck-Hannemann, H.; Veulliet, E.

    2003-04-01

    Natural hazard processes such as avalanches, debris flows, rockfalls, slides, slow mass movements and floods inherently threaten areas used for settlements, economic activities or transport in mountain regions like the Alps. In the recent past an increasing demand for new settlement, traffic and other land use areas has arisen, resulting in intensified utilization of land known to be threatened by natural hazard processes. In the same time a decrease of individual responsibility can be observed, leading to a growing call for protection by public authorities. As public financial resources become more limited in these days and the outsourcing of areas of traditional government responsibility increases, there is an urgent need for new, more effective and efficient strategies in natural hazard management, involving all relevant actors. To meet these new demands in dealing with natural hazards, the "alpS - Centre of Natural Hazard Management" was founded in October 2002 in Innsbruck/Austria, supported by the Austrian Government. Central goal of the alpS - Centre is to elaborate the basis for future sustainable safety of the alpine lebensraum. The following objectives will be addressed by an interdisciplinary team: - Systematic compilation and evaluation of the present situation. - Developing a more efficient and effective way of natural hazard management. - Implementation of a paradigm change. - Development of strategies for natural hazard management under changed frame conditions in the future (global change). Strong emphasis is laid on research on the socio-economic aspects of Natural Hazard Management, which have been more or less neglected up to now.

  13. Application of EREP imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards and environmental problems in mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous fracture traces were detected on both the color transparencies and black and white spectral bands. Fracture traces of value to mining hazards analysis were noted on the EREP imagery which could not be detected on either the ERTS-1 or high altitude aircraft color infrared photography. Several areas of mine subsidence occurring in the Busseron Creek area near Sullivan, Indiana were successfully identified using color photography. Skylab photography affords an increase over comparable scale ERTS-1 imagery in level of information obtained in mined lands inventory and reclamation analysis. A review of EREP color photography permitted the identification of a substantial number of non-fuel mines within the Southern Indiana test area. A new mine was detected on the EREP photography without prior data. EREP has definite value for estimating areal changes in active mines and for detecting new non-fuel mines. Gob piles and slurry ponds of several acres could be detected on the S-190B color photography when observed in association with large scale mining operations. Apparent degradation of water quality resulting from acid mine drainage and/or siltation was noted in several ponds or small lakes and appear to be related to intensive mining activity near Sullivan, Indiana.

  14. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  15. Roadside design in The Netherlands for enhancing safety : contribution to the conference `Traffic safety on Two Continents', Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Safety barriers are often used on motorways. Accident figures, however, show that a safety barrier is involved in approximately 20% of all fatal accidents. This paper considers safety barriers within the context of safe designs for shoulders on motorways. This research is related to the European

  16. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck, Daniela, E-mail: bleck.daniela@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany); Wettberg, Wieland, E-mail: wettberg.wieland@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  17. Waste collection in developing countries – Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-01-01

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  18. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and mercury (Hg. Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd, and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg. The dietary exposure level (median value of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.

  19. Health and safety training for hazardous waste site activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Implementation of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.120(e)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Among the requirements set forth by the interim final rule, 29 CFR Part 1910.120, promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in response to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), are specific provisions for health and safety training of employees involved in hazardous waste operations. These training provisions require a minimum of 40 hours of initial instruction off the site for employees involved in corrective operations and cleanup activities at hazardous waste sites. A less detailed training requirement of 24 hours is specified for employees working in more routine treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Managers and supervisors who are directly responsible for or who supervise employees engaged in hazardous waste operations must complete 8 additional hours of training related to management of hazardous waste site activities. Consistent with the intent of 29 CFR 1910.120, a training program has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to comply with the need to protect the safety and health of hazardous waste workers. All hourly requirements specified in the interim final rule are met by a comprehensive program structure involving three stages of training. This paper will outline and discuss the content of each of these stages of the program. The involvement of various ORNL organizations in facilitating the training will be highlighted. Implementation strategies will be discussed as well as progress made to date

  20. Revenue sources for financing transportation safety activities in Virginia : phase three, feasibility of a surcharge on traffic fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Senate Bill 85, an action of the 1978 General Assembly, amended the Code of Virginia to provide, in part, that the Division of Highway Safety be succeeded by the newly created Department of Transportation Safety effective July 1, 1978. In its Declara...

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  2. A cross-sectional study of travel patterns of older adults in the USA during 2015: implications for mobility and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Koech, Wilson; Feng, Jing; Rice, Thomas M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-08-11

    With an ever increasing population of older adults (65+ years) in the USA, a better understanding of this population's travel patterns is needed to improve travel mobility and transportation safety. In this study, we described the travel patterns of older adults in the USA during 2015. Travel patterns of older adults (65-74 and 75+ years) were compared with younger adults (25-64 years) by frequency and proportion of daily trips. The daily trips of various age groups were estimated using the 2015 American Time Use Survey. The percentage of daily travellers was 88% for adults (25-64 years), 75% for adults (65-74 years) and 68% for adults (75+ years). While the percentage of privately owned vehicle (POV) drivers and average time of driving POVs decreased, the percentage of POV passengers increased as adults aged. Females were less likely to drive POVs and had decreased average daily driving time, but they were more likely to ride in POVs as passengers and had longer average daily riding times than their male counterparts across all age groups. Older adults were more likely to travel in the mornings and early afternoons (from 8:00 to 15:59) while younger adults were more likely to travel in the late afternoons and early evenings (from 16:00 to 19:59). POV use is the predominant mode of transit in the USA. As adults age, the percentages of daily travellers and POV drivers decrease. This pattern is more apparent among females than males. This study delineated travel patterns of older adults using a 2015 national survey, and the findings facilitate traffic systems designers and policy-makers to develop and implement initiatives to accommodate older adults' mobility needs and improve traffic safety. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The rapidly changing racial and ethnic composition of the : U.S. population is important to traffic safety specialists : because involvement in fatal traffic crashes varies across : racial and ethnic groups. Some research suggests that certain : mino...

  4. Physical and psychological consequences of serious road traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.

    2017-01-01

    SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of

  5. A novel process for introducing a new intraoperative program: a multidisciplinary paradigm for mitigating hazards and improving patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Paz, Jose M; Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Michelson, James D; Grogan, Kelly L; Herman, Joseph; Hunt, David; Wardlow, Linda; Armour, Elwood P; Pronovost, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine's report, To Err is Human, was published, numerous interventions have been designed and implemented to correct the defects that lead to medical errors and adverse events; however, most efforts were largely reactive. Safety, communication, team performance, and efficiency are areas of care that attract a great deal of attention, especially regarding the introduction of new technologies, techniques, and procedures. We describe a multidisciplinary process that was implemented at our hospital to identify and mitigate hazards before the introduction of a new technique: high-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy, (HDR-IORT). A multidisciplinary team of surgeons, anesthesiologists, radiation oncologists, physicists, nurses, hospital risk managers, and equipment specialists used a structured process that included in situ clinical simulation to uncover concerns among care providers and to prospectively identify and mitigate defects for patients who would undergo surgery using the HDR-IORT technique. We identified and corrected 20 defects in the simulated patient care process before application to actual patients. Subsequently, eight patients underwent surgery using the HDR-IORT technique with no recurrence of simulation-identified or unanticipated defects. Multiple benefits were derived from the use of this systematic process to introduce the HDR-IORT technique; namely, the safety and efficiency of care for this select patient population was optimized, and this process mitigated harmful or adverse events before the inclusion of actual patients. Further work is needed, but the process outlined in this paper can be universally applied to the introduction of any new technologies, treatments, or procedures.

  6. Community variations in population exposure to near-field tsunami hazards as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize population exposure to near-field tsunami threats typically focus on quantifying the number and type of people in tsunami-hazard zones. To develop and prioritize effective risk-reduction strategies, emergency managers also need information on the potential for successful evacuations and how this evacuation potential varies among communities. To improve efforts to properly characterize and differentiate near-field tsunami threats among multiple communities, we assess community variations in population exposure to tsunamis as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety. We focus our efforts on the multiple coastal communities in Grays Harbor and Pacific Counties (State of Washington, USA), where a substantial resident and visitor population is threatened by near-field tsunamis related to a potential Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Anisotropic, path-distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety and results are merged with various population data, including residents, employees, public venues, and dependent-care facilities. Results suggest that there is substantial variability among communities in the number of people that may have insufficient time to evacuate. Successful evacuations may be possible in some communities assuming slow-walking speeds, are plausible in others if travel speeds are increased, and are unlikely in another set of communities given the large distances and short time horizon. Emergency managers can use these results to prioritize the location and determine the most appropriate type of tsunami risk-reduction strategies, such as education and training in areas where evacuations are plausible and vertical-evacuation structures in areas where they are not.

  7. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey natural hazards science strategy: promoting the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10–year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical

  9. A sustainable safe traffic and transport system : déjà-vu in urban planning ? Contribution to the conference `Traffic safety on two continents', Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of how to reconcile urban development with traffic structure, traffic flows and transport modes. A distinction is drawn between the so-called `pan-urban' projects and those within individual residential areas. A sketch of developments and trends is given, designed

  10. Traffic crash involvement: experiential driving knowledge and stressful contextual antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legree, Peter J; Heffner, Tonia S; Psotka, Joseph; Martin, Daniel E; Medsker, Gina J

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have rarely examined stressful environments and psychological characteristics as predictors of driving behavior in the same study. The authors hypothesized that (a) safer drivers more accurately assess physical and emotional traffic hazards and (b) stress and emotional states elevate crash risk. The hypotheses were evaluated with procedural and declarative tacit driving knowledge tests requiring assessment of emotional and contextual hazards and with accident reports describing crash antecedents, including stressful events and environmental conditions. Analyses identified separate driving knowledge factors corresponding to emotional and contextual hazards that were significantly related to the crash criteria. Accident report analyses show that stress significantly elevates at-fault crash risk. The results demonstrate the importance of experiential knowledge acquired without instruction (procedural or tacit knowledge) and provide safety recommendations.

  11. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  12. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  13. Simulation of traffic control signal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P. J.; Concannon, P. A.; Ricci, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development and testing of control strategies for networks of urban traffic signal systems by simulation. Simulation is an inexpensive and timely method for evaluating the effect of these traffic control strategies since traffic phenomena are too complex to be defined by analytical models and since a controlled experiment may be hazardous, expensive, and slow in producing meaningful results. This paper describes the application of an urban traffic corridor program, to evaluate the effectiveness of different traffic control strategies for the Massachusetts Avenue TOPICS Project.

  14. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  15. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  16. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  17. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  18. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  19. Sustainable road safety in The Netherlands : contribution to the conference `Traffic safety in the future', Aalborg, Denmark, August 24-25, 1998.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Dutch Government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels) and a further reduction of 50% and 40% respectively by the year 2010 (compared with 1986 levels). Various

  20. Strengthening air traffic safety management by moving from outcome-based towards risk-based evaluation of runway incursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeve, Sybert H.; Som, Pradip; Doorn, Bas A. van; Bakker, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Current safety management of aerodrome operations uses judgements of severity categories to evaluate runway incursions. Incident data show a small minority of severe incursions and a large majority of less severe incursions. We show that these severity judgements are mainly based upon the outcomes of runway incursions, in particular on the closest distances attained. As such, the severity-based evaluation leads to coincidental safety management feedback, wherein causes and risk implications of runway incursions are not well considered. In this paper we present a new framework for the evaluation of runway incursions, which effectively uses all runway incursions, which judges same types of causes similarly, and which structures causes and risk implications. The framework is based on risks of scenarios associated with the initiation of runway incursions. As a basis an inventory of scenarios is provided, which can represent almost all runway incursions involving a conflict with an aircraft. A main step in the framework is the assessment of the conditional probability of a collision given a runway incursion scenario. This can be effectively achieved for large sets of scenarios by agent-based dynamic risk modelling. The results provide detailed feedback on risks of runway incursion scenarios, thus enabling effective safety management. - Highlights: • Current evaluation of runway incursions is primarily based on their outcomes. • A new framework assesses collision risk given initiation of runway incursions. • Agent-based dynamic risk modelling can evaluate the risks of many scenarios. • A developed scenario inventory can represent almost all runway incursions. • The framework provides detailed feedback to safety management.

  1. Safety : the challenge of today for transportation safety in the future. General report on theme -V "Safety" at the 14th International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Strasbourg, September 7-10, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transportation (un)safety is the result of a complex process in the transportation system. A large number of variables (characteristics of the system elements) with many interactions, produce a complex network of relationships expressed in "system behaviour". In this network of relationships, man as

  2. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was about the design and development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS) that would ease storage and retrieval of traffic offence cases in the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and the Traffic department of Nigeria Police force. The method used to manage traffic cases is manual; information ...

  3. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: Optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2008-01-01

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or 'risk reduction options' (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  4. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  5. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  6. Locating Errors Through Networked Surveillance: A Multimethod Approach to Peer Assessment, Hazard Identification, and Prioritization of Patient Safety Efforts in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David A; Marsteller, Jill A; Pronovost, Peter J; Gurses, Ayse; Lubomski, Lisa H; Goeschel, Christine A; Gosbee, John W; Wahr, Joyce; Martinez, Elizabeth A

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to develop a scientifically sound and feasible peer-to-peer assessment model that allows health-care organizations to evaluate patient safety in cardiovascular operating rooms and to establish safety priorities for improvement. The locating errors through networked surveillance study was conducted to identify hazards in cardiac surgical care. A multidisciplinary team, composed of organizational sociology, organizational psychology, applied social psychology, clinical medicine, human factors engineering, and health services researchers, conducted the study. We used a transdisciplinary approach, which integrated the theories, concepts, and methods from each discipline, to develop comprehensive research methods. Multiple data collection was involved: focused literature review of cardiac surgery-related adverse events, retrospective analysis of cardiovascular events from a national database in the United Kingdom, and prospective peer assessment at 5 sites, involving survey assessments, structured interviews, direct observations, and contextual inquiries. A nominal group methodology, where one single group acts to problem solve and make decisions was used to review the data and develop a list of the top priority hazards. The top 6 priority hazard themes were as follows: safety culture, teamwork and communication, infection prevention, transitions of care, failure to adhere to practices or policies, and operating room layout and equipment. We integrated the theories and methods of a diverse group of researchers to identify a broad range of hazards and good clinical practices within the cardiovascular surgical operating room. Our findings were the basis for a plan to prioritize improvements in cardiac surgical care. These study methods allowed for the comprehensive assessment of a high-risk clinical setting that may translate to other clinical settings.

  7. Using a multi-method, user centred, prospective hazard analysis to assess care quality and patient safety in a care pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escoto Kamisha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care pathways can be complex, often involving multiple care providers and as such are recognised as containing multiple opportunities for error. Prospective hazard analysis methods may be useful for evaluating care provided across primary and secondary care pathway boundaries. These methods take into account the views of users (staff and patients when determining where potential hazards may lie. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of prospective hazard analysis methods when assessing quality and safety in care pathways that lie across primary and secondary care boundaries. Methods Development of a process map of the care pathway for patients entering into a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD supported discharge programme. Triangulation of information from: care process mapping, semi-structured interviews with COPD patients, semi-structured interviews with COPD staff, two round modified Delphi study and review of prioritised quality and safety challenges by health care staff. Results Interview themes emerged under the headings of quality of care and patient safety. Quality and safety concerns were mostly raised in relation to communication, for example, communication with other hospital teams. The three highest ranked safety concerns from the modified Delphi review were: difficulties in accessing hospital records, information transfer to primary care and failure to communicate medication changes to primary care. Conclusion This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using mixed methods to review the quality and safety of care in a care pathway. By using multiple research methods it was possible to get a clear picture of service quality variations and also to demonstrate which points in the care pathway had real potential for patient safety incidents or system failures to occur. By using these methods to analyse one condition specific care pathway it was possible to uncover a number of hospital

  8. HYGIENE PRACTICES IN URBAN RESTAURANTS AND CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING FOOD SAFETY AND HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) PROGRAMMES IN THIKA TOWN, KENYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinde, R K; Kiinyukia, C; Rombo, G O; Muoki, M A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the microbial load in food, examination of safety measures and possibility of implementing an Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. The target population for this study consisted of restaurants owners in Thika. Municipality (n = 30). Simple randomsamples of restaurantswere selected on a systematic sampling method of microbial analysis in cooked, non-cooked, raw food and water sanitation in the selected restaurants. Two hundred and ninety eight restaurants within Thika Municipality were selected. Of these, 30 were sampled for microbiological testing. From the study, 221 (74%) of the restaurants were ready to eat establishments where food was prepared early enough to hold and only 77(26%) of the total restaurants, customers made an order of food they wanted. 118(63%) of the restaurant operators/staff had knowledge on quality control on food safety measures, 24 (8%) of the restaurants applied these knowledge while 256 (86%) of the restaurants staff showed that food contains ingredients that were hazard if poorly handled. 238 (80%) of the resultants used weighing and sorting of food materials, 45 (15%) used preservation methods and the rest used dry foods as critical control points on food safety measures. The study showed that there was need for implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system to enhance food safety. Knowledge of HACCP was very low with 89 (30%) of the restaurants applying some of quality measures to the food production process systems. There was contamination with Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus microbial though at very low level. The means of Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas microbial in sampled food were 9.7 x 103CFU/gm, 8.2 x 103 CFU/gm and 5.4 x 103 CFU/gm respectively with Coliforms taking the highest mean.

  9. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  10. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  11. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  12. Auditory localisation of conventional and electric cars : laboratory results and implications for cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Agterberg, M.J.H. & Wee, B. van

    2016-01-01

    When driven at low speeds, cars operating in electric mode have been found to be quieter than conventional cars. As a result, the auditory cues which pedestrians and cyclists use to assess the presence, proximity and location oncoming traffic may be reduced, posing a safety hazard. This laboratory

  13. Auditory localisation of conventional and electric cars: laboratory results and implications for cycling safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Commandeur, J.J.F.; Agterberg, M.J.H.; van Wee, B.

    2016-01-01

    When driven at low speeds, cars operating in electric mode have been found to be quieter than conventional cars. As a result, the auditory cues which pedestrians and cyclists use to assess the presence, proximity and location oncoming traffic may be reduced, posing a safety hazard. This laboratory

  14. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  15. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  16. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  17. Flight to the future : human factors in air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The nation's air traffic control system is responsible for managing a complex : mixture of air traffic from commercial, general, corporate, and military : aviation. Despite a strong safety record, the system does suffer occasional : serious disruptio...

  18. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chiara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2014-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico's most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene-Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl's reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the "Ochre Pumice" Plinian eruption (4965 14C yr BP

  19. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chirara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau

    2013-01-01

    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene–Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl’s reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the “Ochre Pumice” Plinian eruption (4965 14C

  20. WE-G-BRA-07: Analyzing the Safety Implications of a Brachytherapy Process Improvement Project Utilizing a Novel System-Theory-Based Hazard-Analysis Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, A; Samost, A [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Damato, A [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute - Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the hazards in cervical-cancer HDR brachytherapy using a novel hazard-analysis technique, System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA). The applicability and benefit of STPA to the field of radiation oncology is demonstrated. Methods: We analyzed the tandem and ring HDR procedure through observations, discussions with physicists and physicians, and the use of a previously developed process map. Controllers and their respective control actions were identified and arranged into a hierarchical control model of the system, modeling the workflow from applicator insertion through initiating treatment delivery. We then used the STPA process to identify potentially unsafe control actions. Scenarios were then generated from the identified unsafe control actions and used to develop recommendations for system safety constraints. Results: 10 controllers were identified and included in the final model. From these controllers 32 potentially unsafe control actions were identified, leading to more than 120 potential accident scenarios, including both clinical errors (e.g., using outdated imaging studies for planning), and managerial-based incidents (e.g., unsafe equipment, budget, or staffing decisions). Constraints identified from those scenarios include common themes, such as the need for appropriate feedback to give the controllers an adequate mental model to maintain safe boundaries of operations. As an example, one finding was that the likelihood of the potential accident scenario of the applicator breaking during insertion might be reduced by establishing a feedback loop of equipment-usage metrics and equipment-failure reports to the management controller. Conclusion: The utility of STPA in analyzing system hazards in a clinical brachytherapy system was demonstrated. This technique, rooted in system theory, identified scenarios both technical/clinical and managerial in nature. These results suggest that STPA can be successfully used to analyze safety in