WorldWideScience

Sample records for traffic operations utilities

  1. A Comparison of Traffic Operations among Beijing and Several International Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-Efficient traffic system is very important for economy and society of cities. Previous studies on the traffic comparison mostly took a city as a whole, but ignored the differences among areas inside the city. But in fact, the traffic congestion in different areas with a city is mostly different. Taking typical mega cities like Beijing, London, New York, and Tokyo as objects, this paper makes cross-comparison in the traffic operation and performance based on intelligent algorithm. Transportation infrastructure and travel demand data are discussed and unbalanced transport system is found in Beijing because of the conflict between too much traffic demand and defect road networks. From the aspects of traffic load, operational efficiency and safety, indexes including traffic v/c ratio, average vehicle speed and accident rate are selected to assess the performance of road traffic. It is concluded that road networks of Beijing have the worst performance compared with other three mega-cities and the primary reasons are the inappropriate distribution of utilization rate among the freeways, arterials, and local streets, and the high traffic concentration in urban area. So, several measures are recommended to improve the operation efficiency of traffic in Beijing especially for the green intelligent traffic system. Keywords: Traffic operation; Operational efficiency; Intelligent traffic system (ITS; Traffic load; traffic safety; Intelligent algorithm.

  2. Digital Advertising Traffic Operation: Flow Management Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2017-01-01

    In a Web Advertising Traffic Operation the Trafficking Routing Problem (TRP) consists in scheduling the management of Web Advertising (Adv) campaign between Trafficking campaigns in the most efficient way to oversee and manage relationship with partners and internal teams, managing expectations through integration and post-launch in order to ensure success for every stakeholders involved. For our own interest we did that independent research projects also through specific innovative tasks val...

  3. Fiber fault location utilizing traffic signal in optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Wang, Anbang; Wang, Yuncai; Zhang, Mingjiang; Chang, Xiaoming; Xiong, Lijuan; Hao, Yi

    2013-10-07

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for fault location in optical communication network. This method utilizes the traffic signal transmitted across the network as probe signal, and then locates the fault by correlation technique. Compared with conventional techniques, our method has a simple structure and low operation expenditure, because no additional device is used, such as light source, modulator and signal generator. The correlation detection in this method overcomes the tradeoff between spatial resolution and measurement range in pulse ranging technique. Moreover, signal extraction process can improve the location result considerably. Experimental results show that we achieve a spatial resolution of 8 cm and detection range of over 23 km with -8-dBm mean launched power in optical network based on synchronous digital hierarchy protocols.

  4. Improving traffic signal management and operations : a basic service model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides a guide for achieving a basic service model for traffic signal management and : operations. The basic service model is based on simply stated and defensible operational objectives : that consider the staffing level, expertise and...

  5. An annotated outline for a traffic management center operations manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This draft Traffic Management Center (TMC) and Operations manual outline is meant to serve as a model "checklist" for the development of similar manuals used in deployed environments. The purpose of this outline is to provide a reference for agencies...

  6. Data mining of air traffic control operational errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of : applying data mining techniques to identify patterns and : anomalies in air traffic control operational errors (OEs). : Reducing the OE rate is of high importance and remains a : challenge in the aviation saf...

  7. Lane Changing and Lane Utilization Behavior for Three Lane Normal Section in Iraq Traffic Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, different programs or methods have been produced to solve the traffic problem everywhere in the world. Iraq is one of the countries which suffer from high problems in traffic operation, design and planning. Therefore, to use the sophisticated traffic programs or models such as simulation models there is an urgent need to investigate specified field parameters which correspond to calibrated parameters used in the model under study. This study has focused on studying driver behavior which represents the core stone in a traffic simulation. This behavior represents lane changing (LC and lane utilization (LU in normal sections. Three normal sections with three lanes have been selected in different sites in Iraq: two sites in Al-Najaf city and one site in Al-Muthna city. The results of data analysis show that the driver behavior in both LC and LU is similar to the behavior in the UK. The current observed data could be used for the calibration process for any traffic simulation model in order to mimic the reality of Iraqi drivers.

  8. Modelling Vessel Traffic Service to understand resilience in everyday operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praetorius, Gesa; Hollnagel, Erik; Dahlman, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a service to promote traffic fluency and safety in the entrance to ports. This article's purpose has been to explore everyday operations of the VTS system to gain insights in how it contributes to safe and efficient traffic movements. Interviews, focus groups and an observation have been conducted to collect data about everyday operations, as well as to grasp how the VTS system adapts to changing operational conditions. The results show that work within the VTS domain is highly complex and that the two systems modelled realise their services vastly differently, which in turn affects the systems' ability to monitor, respond and anticipate. This is of great importance to consider whenever changes are planned and implemented within the VTS domain. Only if everyday operations are properly analysed and understood, it can be estimated how alterations to technology and organisation will affect the overall system performance

  9. Experiments simulation and design to set traffic lights operation rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Garcia, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper it is used the experimental design to minimize the travel time of motor vehicles, in one of the most important avenues of Celaya City in Guanajuato, Mexico, by means of optimal synchronization of existing traffic lights. In the optimization process three factors are considered: the traffic lights’ cycle times, the synchrony defined as stepped, parallel and actual, and speed limit, each one with 3 evaluation levels. The response variables to consider are: motor vehicles’ travel time, fuel consumption and greenhouse effect gas (CO2) emissions. The different experiments are performed using the simulation model developed in the PTV-VISSIM software, which represents the vehicle traffic system. The obtained results for the different proposed scenarios allow to find proper levels at which the vehicle traffic system must be operated in order to improve mobility, to reduce contamination rates and decrease the fuel consumption for the different motor vehicles that use the avenue. (Author)

  10. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  11. Pilot visual acquisition of traffic : operational communications from air traffic control operational communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Avionics devices designed to provide pilots with graphically displayed traffic information will enable pilots to acquire and verify the identity of any intruder aircraft within the general area, either before or in accordance with a controller-issued...

  12. Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor Operational Field Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd; Landry, Steven J.; Hoang, Ty; Nickelson, Monicarol; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (McTMA) is a research prototype system which seeks to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic control (ATC) operations. Time-based metering is an efficient alternative to traditional air traffic management techniques such as distance-based spacing (miles-in-trail spacing) and managed arrival reservoirs (airborne holding). While time-based metering has demonstrated significant benefit in terms of arrival throughput and arrival delay, its use to date has been limited to arrival operations at just nine airports nationally. Wide-scale adoption of time-based metering has been hampered, in part, by the limited scalability of metering automation. In order to realize the full spectrum of efficiency benefits possible with time-based metering, a much more modular, scalable time-based metering capability is required. With its distributed metering architecture, multi-center TMA offers such a capability.

  13. Problem Sets: Fundamentals Of Transportation And Traffic Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Daganzo, Carlos F.

    1998-01-01

    These problem sets comprise a supplement to Fundamentals of Transportation and Traffic Operations (C. Daganzo, Pergamon, 1997). Academicians can also obtain a companion set of solutions by writing to "Institute of Transportation Studies, Publications Office, 109 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720" or by sending e-mail to .

  14. Operating Room Utilization at Frederick Memorial Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    .... A logistical regression analysis was used to identify the impact of variables on operating room utilization rates and therefore help explain how or why some operating rooms incurred higher utilization rates than others...

  15. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  16. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  17. OPERATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON THE SECTIONS OF RAILWAY OPERATING DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Моzolevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The task of the operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of operating domain is the optimization one. It is solved in the operational conditions by the dispatch station. The article sets the problem of formalizing and finding the new ways to solve this urgent problem. Methodology. A new approach to solving the problem of operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of the rail network with a choice of routes for all train traffics was proposed. Findings. A study of possible routes for the train traffic handle on the operating domain used for mass freight transportations between Krivyi Rih and Donbas was carried out. The use of the proposed method allowed us to obtain a rational distribution of trains on the rail network sections. Originality. The method of train traffic volume distribution in the network under operational conditions was improved. The method, as opposed to the current one allows one to select the route of separate units handle (according to the criteria of the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo. Practical value. The use of the proposed technology of the operational distribution of train traffic volume will increase the efficiency of the railways in general and ensure the competitiveness of rail transportations. The methodology implementation involves the use of railway dispatch station for the automated workplaces with appropriate informational support.

  18. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better achieve the operator's preferred business trajectory. Requests are currently made with limited information and are often denied because the change is not compatible with traffic. Also, request opportunities can be overlooked due to lack of automation that advises aircrews of trajectory changes that improve flight time, fuel burn, and other objectives. The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept leverages Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance information to advise the aircrew of beneficial trajectory changes that are probed for traffic compatibility prior to issuing the request to ATC. This document describes the features, benefits, and limitations of TASAR automation hosted on an Electronic Flight Bag. TASAR has two modes: (1) auto mode that continuously assesses opportunities for improving the performance of the flight and (2) manual mode that probes trajectory changes entered by aircrews for conflicts and performance objectives. The roles and procedures of the aircrew and ATC remain unchanged under TASAR.

  19. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Vincent, Danny; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have designed and developed and an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The system was operationally evaluated at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators and En Route Air Traffic Controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the capacity of a demand impacted airport. The TMA consists of trajectory prediction, constraint-based runway scheduling, traffic flow visualization and controllers advisories. The TMA was used and operationally evaluated for forty-one rush traffic periods during a one month period in the Summer of 1996. The evaluations included all shifts of air traffic operations as well as periods of inclement weather. Performance data was collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations without the TMA. The engineering data indicates that the operations with the TMA show a one to two minute per aircraft delay reduction during rush periods. The human factor data indicate a perceived reduction in en route controller workload as well as an increase in job satisfaction. Upon completion of the evaluation, the TMA has become part of the normal operations at the Ft. Worth ARTCC.

  20. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  1. 14 CFR 93.177 - Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area. 93.177 Section 93.177 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Luke AFB, AZ §...

  2. Decision support tools to support the operations of traffic management centers (TMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The goal of this project is to develop decision support tools to support traffic management operations based on collected intelligent transportation system (ITS) data. The project developments are in accordance with the needs of traffic management ce...

  3. The Denver region traffic signal system improvement program : planning for management and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) works with over 30 local jurisdictions on the Traffic Signal System Improvement Program (TSSIP), a combination of management and operations strategies designed to time and coordinate traffic signals ...

  4. Trajectory Assessment and Modification Tools for Next Generation Air Traffic Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Connie; Lee, Paul; Mainini, Matthew; Lee, Homola; Lee, Hwasoo; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) based high fidelity air traffic control human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations, with a focus on the expected requirement of enhanced automated trajectory assessment and modification tools to support future air traffic flow management (ATFM) planning positions. The simulations were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Centers Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) in 2009 and 2010. The test airspace for all three simulations assumed the mid-term NextGenEn-Route high altitude environment utilizing high altitude sectors from the Kansas City and Memphis Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Trajectory assessment, modification and coordination decision support tools were developed at the AOL in order to perform future ATFM tasks. Overall tool usage results and user acceptability ratings were collected across three areas of NextGen operatoins to evaluate the tools. In addition to the usefulness and usability feedback, feasibility issues, benefits, and future requirements were also addressed. Overall, the tool sets were rated very useful and usable, and many elements of the tools received high scores and were used frequently and successfully. Tool utilization results in all three HITLs showed both user and system benefits including better airspace throughput, reduced controller workload, and highly effective communication protocols in both full Data Comm and mixed-equipage environments.

  5. Operation and utilization of Indonesia Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntoro, Iman; Sujalmo, Saiful; Tarigan, Alim

    2004-01-01

    For supporting the R and D in nuclear science and technology and its application, BATAN own and operate three research reactors namely, TRIGA-2000, KARTINI and RSG-GAS having thermal power of 2 MW, 100 kW and 30 MW respectively. The main features, operation and utilization progress of the reactors are described in this report. (author)

  6. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    Congestion begins when an excess of vehicles on a segment of roadway at a given time, resulting in speeds that are significantly slower than normal or 'free flow' speeds. Congestion often means stop-and-go traffic. The transition occurs when vehicle density (the number of vehicles per mile in a lane) exceeds a critical level. Once traffic enters a state of congestion, recovery or time to return to a free-flow state is lengthy; and during the recovery process, delay continues to accumulate. The breakdown in speed and flow greatly impedes the efficient operation of the freeway system, resulting in economic, mobility, environmental and safety problems. Freeways are designed to function as access-controlled highways characterized by uninterrupted traffic flow so references to freeway performance relate primarily to the quality of traffic flow or traffic conditions as experienced by users of the freeway. The maximum flow or capacity of a freeway segment is reached while traffic is moving freely. As a result, freeways are most productive when they carry capacity flows at 60 mph, whereas lower speeds impose freeway delay, resulting in bottlenecks. Bottlenecks may be caused by physical disruptions, such as a reduced number of lanes, a change in grade, or an on-ramp with a short merge lane. This type of bottleneck occurs on a predictable or 'recurrent' basis at the same time of day and same day of week. Recurrent congestion totals 45% of congestion and is primarily from bottlenecks (40%) as well as inadequate signal timing (5%). Nonrecurring bottlenecks result from crashes, work zone disruptions, adverse weather conditions, and special events that create surges in demand and that account for over 55% of experienced congestion. Figure 1.1 shows that nonrecurring congestion is composed of traffic incidents (25%), severe weather (15%), work zones, (10%), and special events (5%). Between 1995 and 2005, the average percentage change in increased peak traveler

  7. Traffic control on a railway crossing with elements of utility theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramova L.S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the management of vehicles at a railway crossing in order to improve the road safety is considered. To do this, it is suggested to introduce the dynamic motion control modes on the road, which consist in reducing the speed at a certain distance from the railway crossing and depends on its condition. The value of the recommended speed is displayed on the managed road signs and is calculated in real-time traffic controller at the railway crossing control point. The mark location is determined based on traffic intensity equalization that affects both the traffic intensity of the railway crossing and the road section on the approach to it. To analyze such events directed to improve the traffic on level crossings it is suggested to use the elements of utility theory to further develop the traffic control algorithm. For this purpose there was built a decision tree for the existing conditions at the railway crossing and at the introduction of the dynamic management, which indicates the result of decision taken by the change in the selected criteria of efficiency of traffic management at the railway crossing. Such an approach can reduce the number of road accidents and to increase the capacity of vehicular traffic at a particular road section to the technical means of attracting the driver's attention to the complex road by forced reduction in speed not only before the railway crossing, but also in at the approach to it.

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 60...

  9. Cost effective shift schedules enhance utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how new shift scheduling concepts can save utility operations millions of dollars every year and yet maintain safety and improve employee morale. The key to scheduling is to define and match the work load. This includes discretionary as well as daily, weekly, and yearly core work loads. In most power plants the overall work load (including maintenance, operations, materials handling, etc.) on day shift is greater than on other shifts, hence an unbalanced schedule would be appropriate

  10. Investigating Traffic Avoidance Maneuver Preferences of Unmanned Aircraft Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    aircraft in the NAS under instrument flight rules ( IFR ), in radio communications with ATC, and with a traffic display highlighting traffic within 80...Lincoln Laboratory developed uncorrelated encounter model [13] for evaluation of a preliminary pilot model. The UAS was assumed to be on an IFR ...Vol. 59, No. 1, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA, 2015, pp. 45-49. [10] Rorie, R. C., Fern, L., and Shively R. J., “The impact

  11. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : state of Utah final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Utah. The document discusses evaluation findings in the followin...

  12. Portable traffic management system smart work zone application : operational test evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    As part of its statewide Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) sponsored an operational test of the Portable Traffic Management System (PTMS) in a work zone application in cooperation with its pr...

  13. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  14. Instruction manual for operating the Sensys System for temporary traffic counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This instruction manual provides information and the procedures for using the Sensys System, which was initially designed to operate in a server controlled network, for temporary traffic counts. The instructions will allow the user to fully understan...

  15. The Challenges of Field Testing the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) in an Operational Air Traffic Control Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Swenson, Harry N.

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), the sequence and schedule tool of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), was evaluated at the Fort Worth Center (ZFW) in the summer of 1996. This paper describes the challenges encountered during the various phases of the TMA field evaluation, which included system (hardware and software) installation, personnel training, and data collection. Operational procedures were developed and applied to the evaluation process that would ensure air safety. The five weeks of field evaluation imposed minimal impact on the hosting facility and provided valuable engineering and human factors data. The collection of data was very much an opportunistic affair, due to dynamic traffic conditions. One measure of the success of the TMA evaluation is that, rather than remove TMA after the evaluation until it could be fully implemented, the prototype TMA is in continual use at ZFW as the fully operational version is readied for implementation.

  16. THE REMOTE AND MOBILE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER AND ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION TO THE OPERATIONAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea VAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of remote and mobile Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC TWR and its development has started in Europe, Australia and also in the USA, in order to improve the efficiency of Air Traffic Management (ATM systems in terms of air transportation safety. These new technologies are applicable in many countries in peace time, but on mobility reasons these are promoted to achieve commitments in the operational area. This article describes the devices and range of equipment of mobile and remote tower, and their specifications, which can even serve a medium sized airport, furthermore examines, whether how can those provide the air traffic services at an operational airfield.

  17. Macroscopic discontinuity modeling for multiclass multilane traffic flow operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngoduy, D.

    2006-01-01

    Congestion in traffic networks causes severe problems in and around large cities. It is the source of important economic inefficiencies, both on the level of individual persons and of the society as a whole. However, societal and environmental constraints prohibit large-scale extensions of the

  18. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  19. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  20. Analysis of hydrogen operation in the Danish Traffic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The main report of a study of the utilisation of hydrogen in the Danish energy and traffic system.The report contains an overview and assessment of the potential hydrogen technologies as well as analyses of the energy and environmental effects of different applications in the Danish transport sec...... sector (passenger car, bus, van, truck). The report concludes that hydrogen along with electric and hybrid propulsion can be a very interesting element in a strategy for sustainable transport, but only if based mainly on renewable energy....

  1. Demonstration of TRAF-NETSIM for traffic operations management : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    The utility of the simulation package TRAF-NETSIM to the traffic engineer is assessed and demonstrated by means of a case study. The methodology employed in performing the analysis is presented in a way that will aid future users of TRAF-NETSIM. The ...

  2. NASA UAS Traffic Management National Campaign Operations across Six UAS Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph; Mulfinger, Daniel; Homola, Jeff; Venkatesan, Priya

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management research aims to develop policies, procedures, requirements, and other artifacts to inform the implementation of a future system that enables small drones to access the low altitude airspace. In this endeavor, NASA conducted a geographically diverse flight test in conjunction with the FAA's six unmanned aircraft systems Test Sites. A control center at NASA Ames Research Center autonomously managed the airspace for all participants in eight states as they flew operations (both real and simulated). The system allowed for common situational awareness across all stakeholders, kept traffic procedurally separated, offered messages to inform the participants of activity relevant to their operations. Over the 3- hour test, 102 flight operations connected to the central research platform with 17 different vehicle types and 8 distinct software client implementations while seamlessly interacting with simulated traffic.

  3. Relations and Utilities Operation monthly report, September, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1956-10-24

    This document contains the September 1956 management and operations statistics of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation (HAPO) for their ``Relations and Utilities Operations.`` This is a monthly report. (BN)

  4. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS flight operations. Given this, and understanding that the FAA faces a mandate to modernize the present air traffic management system through computer automation and significantly reduce the number of air traffic controllers by FY 2020, the FAA maintains that a comprehensive, yet fully automated UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace is needed. The concept of UTM is to begin by leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today. Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management (ATM), NASA is working with industry to develop prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that would evolve airspace integration procedures for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude flight operations that autonomously manage UAS operating in an approved low-altitude airspace environment. UTM is a cloud-based system that will autonomously manage all traffic at low altitudes to include UASs being operated beyond visual line of sight of an operator. UTM would thus enable safe and efficient flight operations by providing fully integrated traffic management services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning re-routing, separation management, sequencing spacing, and contingency management. UTM removes the need for human operators to continuously monitor aircraft operating in approved areas. NASA envisions concepts for two types of UTM systems. The first would be a small portable system, which could be moved between geographical areas in support of operations such as precision agriculture and public safety. The second would be a Persistent system, which would support low-altitude operations in an approved area by providing continuous automated

  5. Fleet size estimation for spreading operation considering road geometry, weather and traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I-Jy Chien

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions(i.e. snow storm in winter time have caused significant travel disruptions and increased delay and traffic accidents. Snow plowing and salt spreading are the most common counter-measures for making our roads safer for motorists. To assist highway maintenance authorities with better planning and allocation of winter maintenance resources, this study introduces an analytical model to estimate the required number of trucks for spreading operation subjective to pre-specified service time constraints considering road geometry, weather and traffic. The complexity of the research problem lies in dealing with heterogeneous road geometry of road sections, truck capacities, spreading patterns, and traffic speeds under different weather conditions and time periods of an event. The proposed model is applied to two maintenance yards with seven road sections in New Jersey (USA, which demonstrates itself fairly practical to be implemented, considering diverse operational conditions.

  6. Traffic in the operating room: a review of factors influencing air flow and surgical wound contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Marian; Byers, Karin

    2013-06-01

    Surgical wound contamination leading to surgical site infection can result from disruption of the intended airflow in the operating room (OR). When personnel enter and exit the OR, or create unnecessary movement and traffic during the procedure, the intended airflow in the vicinity of the open wound becomes disrupted and does not adequately remove airborne contaminants from the sterile field. An increase in the bacterial counts of airborne microorganisms is noted during increased activity levels within the OR. Researchers have studied OR traffic and door openings as a determinant of air contamination. During a surgical procedure the door to the operating room may be open as long as 20 minutes out of each surgical hour during critical procedures involving implants. Interventions into limiting excessive movement and traffic in the OR may lead to reductions in surgical site infections in select populations.

  7. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-19

    NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have designed and developed an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and ...

  8. Evaluating the Interference of Bicycle Traffic on Vehicle Operation on Urban Streets with Bike Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyuan Pu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have significant impact on vehicle delay. Findings of the study are helpful to regions around the world in bike infrastructure design in order to improve operations of both bicycles and vehicles.

  9. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Zhang, Li [Mississippi State University (MSU); Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Wen, Yi [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  10. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  11. Utilization and cost for animal logging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2001-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. Due to the development of efficient machines and high volume demands from the forest products industry, mechanization of logging developed very fast, leaving behind the traditional horse and mule logging. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically...

  12. SAE for the prediction of road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengfeng, Huang; Pengjun, Zheng; Wenjun, Xu; Gang, Ren

    Road traffic status is significant for trip decision and traffic management, and thus should be predicted accurately. A contribution is that we consider multi-modal data for traffic status prediction than only using single source data. With the substantial data from Ningbo Passenger Transport Management Sector (NPTMS), we wished to determine whether it was possible to develop Stacked Autoencoders (SAEs) for accurately predicting road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data. We show that SAE performed better than linear regression model and Back Propagation (BP) neural network for determining the relationship between road traffic status and those factors. In a 26-month data experiment using SAE, we show that it is possible to develop highly accurate predictions (91% test accuracy) of road traffic status from daily taxicab operating data and bus smart card data.

  13. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  14. Complexity analysis of the Next Gen Air Traffic Management System: trajectory based operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    According to Federal Aviation Administration traffic predictions currently our Air Traffic Management (ATM) system is operating at 150 percent capacity; forecasting that within the next two decades, the traffic with increase to a staggering 250 percent [17]. This will require a major redesign of our system. Today's ATM system is complex. It is designed to safely, economically, and efficiently provide air traffic services through the cost-effective provision of facilities and seamless services in collaboration with multiple agents however, contrary the vision, the system is loosely integrated and is suffering tremendously from antiquated equipment and saturated airways. The new Next Generation (Next Gen) ATM system is designed to transform the current system into an agile, robust and responsive set of operations that are designed to safely manage the growing needs of the projected increasingly complex, diverse set of air transportation system users and massive projected worldwide traffic rates. This new revolutionary technology-centric system is dynamically complex and is much more sophisticated than it's soon to be predecessor. ATM system failures could yield large scale catastrophic consequences as it is a safety critical system. This work will attempt to describe complexity and the complex nature of the NextGen ATM system and Trajectory Based Operational. Complex human factors interactions within Next Gen will be analyzed using a proposed dual experimental approach designed to identify hazards, gaps and elicit emergent hazards that would not be visible if conducted in isolation. Suggestions will be made along with a proposal for future human factors research in the TBO safety critical Next Gen environment.

  15. Metropolis Parking Problems and Management Planning Solutions for Traffic Operation Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobility are clearly illustrated by the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in developing countries. Following the dramatic incensement of traffic demand, the parking problem has been becoming much more seriously important in many metropolises. With the aim of seeking solutions as to how the parking system could operate more efficiently by using new technologies and new methodologies, this paper discusses the application of geographic information system into the parking planning and management for traffic operation effectiveness in metropolis. The concentration of this paper includes the characteristics of parking demand and the causations of parking problems, especially the basic parking principle and strategies for solving parking problems from the perspective of geographic information system are discussed in enough detail in this paper.

  16. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Capital Gains on the Alienation of Assets Operated in International Traffic Under Double Taxation Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Arango, José Manuel; Universidad Externado de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the taxation of capital gains on the alienation of assets, particularly vessels, ships and aircrafts operated in international traffic from the perspective of double taxation conventions. Therefore, Article 13 of the OECD Model convention is analyzed from its respective commentaries, the history of the Model and the proposed changes. The research also cover the comparison with the United States Model Convention and the treaty practice. Finally, as an auxiliary source, th...

  18. The possibilities of municipal operations to control greenhouse gas emissions of road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeily, S.

    2004-07-01

    Kyoto protocol obligates industrialized countries to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions averagely by 5,2 percent from the 1990 level before 2008-2012. Finland is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions to the level of year 1990 before 2008-2012. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, particles and carbon dioxide are regarded as hazardous emissions of road traffic. These gases are generated by impure burning which is generally expected. From these gases carbon dioxide is considered to be the actual greenhouse gas. Nitric oxide, vaporizing hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are considered to be indirect greenhouse gases. 20 percent of Finland's carbon dioxide emissions comes from road traffic. Actions aimed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions can be executed at various levels. The smaller the size of an actor is, the more specific the possible actions are. The actions of public administration are based on controlling economy, traffic systems and maintenance of order. The actions of private companies and communities are based on economical profitability. Decisions of individual persons are still the most significant factor in decreasing green house gases generated by passenger traffic. In this study an operations model was developed for municipalities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. As a case city of the study was the city of Tampere. Tampere is the third largest city in Finland and has over 15,000 employees. A more specific set of measures was introduced to three different operational units, the University Hospital of Tampere, the primary school of Tammela and the amusement park Saerkaenniemi. For each unit suitable measures were searched by studying the unit's traffic-related significance to help to decrease the unit's greenhouse gas emissions. The traffic generated by municipal operations is mainly related to commuting, work-related, customer and maintenance traffic. Measures which are

  19. Mobile Offshore Base Operational Utility and Cost Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greer, William

    2001-01-01

    .... This study responds to the portion of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 that directs the Secretary of Defense to provide an analysis of the operational utility and life cycle costs of the MOB...

  20. Enhancement opportunities in operating room utilization; with a statistical appendix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; van Logten, Sanne; Buhre, Wolfgang F.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Kazemier, Geert; Balm, Ron; Cornelisse, Diederich C. C.; Ackermans, Hub J.; Stolker, Robert Jan; Bezstarosti, Jeanne; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Schaad, Roald R.; Krooneman-Smits, Irmgard; Meyer, Peter; van Dijk-Jager, Mirjam; Broecheler, Simon A. W.; Kroese, A. Christiaan; Kanters, Jeffrey; Krabbendam, Johannes J.; Hans, Erwin W.; Veerman, Derk P.; Aij, Kjeld H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the direct and indirect relationships between first-case tardiness (or "late start"), turnover time, underused operating room (OR) time, and raw utilization, as well as to determine which indicator had the most negative impact on OR utilization to

  1. Enhancement opportunities in operating room utilization; with a statistical appendix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen-Berkx, E. van; Elkhuizen, S.G.; Logten, S. van; Buhre, W.F.; Kalkman, C.J.; Gooszen, H.G.; Kazemier, G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the direct and indirect relationships between first-case tardiness (or "late start"), turnover time, underused operating room (OR) time, and raw utilization, as well as to determine which indicator had the most negative impact on OR utilization to

  2. Operation and utilizations of Dalat nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The reconstructed Dalat nuclear research reactor was commissioned in March 1984 and up to September 1988 more than 6200 hours of operation at nominal power have been recorded. The major utilizations of the reactor include radioisotope production, activation analysis, nuclear data research and training. A brief review of the utilizations of the reactor is presented. Some aspects of reactor safety are also discussed. (author)

  3. The Study of Expert System Utilization for the Accelerator Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi-Santosa; Slamet-Santosa; Subari-Santosa

    2000-01-01

    The utilization of expert system in the accelerator laboratory has been studied. The study covers the utilization of expert system in the setting up experiment (tuning parameter), controlling system, safety or warning system. The results study shows, that using the expert system in the accelerator would be easy to operate the accelerator for user and operator. Increasing the skill of expert system could be updated without logical mechanism modification. (author)

  4. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  5. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  6. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final detailed test plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment". This document defines the objective, approach,...

  7. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final test plans : state of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : state of Utah". This document defines the objective, approach, an...

  8. Operation strategy analysis of a geothermal step utilization heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guozhong; Li, Feng; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng; Li, Qianru; Zhu, Han

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been successfully applied in many district heating systems. In order to promote better use of geothermal energy, it is important to analyze the operation strategy of geothermal heating system. This study proposes a comprehensive and systematic operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system (GSUHS). Calculation models of radiator heating system (RHS), radiant floor heating system (RFHS), heat pump (HP), gas boiler (GB), plate heat exchanger (PHE) and pump are first established. Then the operation strategy of the GSUHS is analyzed with the aim to substantially reduce the conventional energy consumption of the whole system. Finally, the energy efficiency and geothermal tail water temperature are analyzed. With the operation strategy in this study, the geothermal energy provides the main heating amount for the system. The heating seasonal performance factor is 15.93. Compared with coal-fired heating, 75.1% of the standard coal equivalent can be saved. The results provide scientific guidance for the application of an operation strategy for a geothermal step utilization heating system. -- Highlights: ► We establish calculation models for the geothermal step utilization heating system. ► We adopt minimal conventional energy consumption to determine the operation strategy. ► The geothermal energy dominates the heating quantity of the whole system. ► The utilization efficiency of the geothermal energy is high. ► The results provide guidance to conduct operation strategy for scientific operation.

  9. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  11. Operational evaluation of the RLINE dispersion model for studies of traffic-related air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad W.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) remains a key public health issue, and improved exposure measures are needed to support health impact and epidemiologic studies and inform regulatory responses. The recently developed Research LINE source model (RLINE), a Gaussian line source dispersion model, has been used in several epidemiologic studies of TRAP exposure, but evaluations of RLINE's performance in such applications have been limited. This study provides an operational evaluation of RLINE in which predictions of NOx, CO and PM2.5 are compared to observations at air quality monitoring stations located near high traffic roads in Detroit, MI. For CO and NOx, model performance was best at sites close to major roads, during downwind conditions, during weekdays, and during certain seasons. For PM2.5, the ability to discern local and particularly the traffic-related portion was limited, a result of high background levels, the sparseness of the monitoring network, and large uncertainties for certain processes (e.g., formation of secondary aerosols) and non-mobile sources (e.g., area, fugitive). Overall, RLINE's performance in near-road environments suggests its usefulness for estimating spatially- and temporally-resolved exposures. The study highlights considerations relevant to health impact and epidemiologic applications, including the importance of selecting appropriate pollutants, using appropriate monitoring approaches, considering prevailing wind directions during study design, and accounting for uncertainty.

  12. Utility systems operation: Optimisation-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco-Garcia, Patricia; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Arellano-Garcia, Harvey; Wozny, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Utility systems provide heat and power to industrial sites. The importance of operating these systems in an optimal way has increased significantly due to the unstable and in the long term rising prices of fossil fuels as well as the need for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the problem for supporting operator decision making under conditions of variable steam demands from the production processes on an industrial site. An optimisation model has been developed, where besides for running the utility system, also the costs associated with starting-up the operating units have been modelled. The illustrative case study shows that accounting for the shut-downs and start-ups of utility operating units can bring significant cost savings. - Highlights: → Optimisation methodology for decision making on running utility systems. → Accounting for varying steam demands. → Optimal operating specifications when a demand change occurs. → Operating costs include start-up costs of boilers and other units. → Validated on a real-life case study. Up to 20% cost savings are possible.

  13. Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yen-Liang

    2015-01-26

    To increase the traffic rate in phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC), a multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) modulation is first proposed and demonstrated. In the measurement, we do not utilize optical blue filter to increase modulation bandwidth of phosphor-LED in the VLC system. In this proposed scheme, different bands of OFDM signals are applied to different LED chips in a LED lamp, this can avoid the power fading and nonlinearity issue by applying the same OFDM signal to all the LED chips in a LED lamp. Here, the maximum increase percentages of traffic rates are 41.1%, 17.8% and 17.8% under received illuminations of 200, 500 and 1000 Lux, respectively, when the proposed three-band OFDM modulation is used in the VLC system. In addition, the analysis and verification by experiments are also performed.

  14. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  15. Status and perspective of the HANARO operation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Chung Young

    2005-01-01

    Since the commencement of HANARO operations in 1995, some parts of the reactor systems have been gradually improved for a stable operation of the reactor, while the operation mode has been flexibly adjusted to meet users and customers' demands. During the same period, a significant number of experimental facilities have been developed and installed for the use of the 32 vertical holes and the 7 horizontal beam ports. Owing to a stable operation of the reactor and a rapid proliferation in the utilization fields, more experimental facilities are continuously being added to satisfy the increasing and new research needs arising. As a nation-wide neutron research facility, HANARO is now successfully utilized in various fields including neutron beam research, fuel and material tests, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, and neutron transmutation doping, etc. (Author)

  16. Utility communication networks and services specification, deployment and operation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This CIGRE green book begins by addressing the specification and provision of communication services in the context of operational applications for electrical power utilities, before subsequently providing guidelines on the deployment or transformation of networks to deliver these specific communication services. Lastly, it demonstrates how these networks and their services can be monitored, operated, and maintained to ensure that the requisite high level of service quality is consistently achieved.

  17. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S; Galatioto, Fabio; Thorpe, Neil; Namdeo, Anil K; Davies, Richard J; Bird, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to sanctioning the technique to provide additional security over the future supply of domestic energy. However, relatively high population densities in many countries and the potential negative environmental impacts that may be associated with fracking operations has stimulated controversy and significant public debate regarding if and where fracking should be permitted. Road traffic generated by fracking operations is one possible source of environmental impact whose significance has, until now, been largely neglected in the available literature. This paper therefore presents a scoping-level environmental assessment for individual and groups of fracking sites using a newly-created Traffic Impacts Model (TIM). The model produces estimates of the traffic-related impacts of fracking on greenhouse gas emissions, local air quality emissions, noise and road pavement wear, using a range of hypothetical fracking scenarios to quantify changes in impacts against baseline levels. Results suggest that the local impacts of a single well pad may be short duration but large magnitude. That is, whilst single digit percentile increases in emissions of CO2, NOx and PM are estimated for the period from start of construction to pad completion (potentially several months or years), excess emissions of NOx on individual days of peak activity can reach 30% over baseline. Likewise, excess noise emissions appear negligible (fracking water and flowback waste requirements. The TIM model is designed to be adaptable to any geographic area where the required input data are available (such as fleet characteristics, road type and quality), and we suggest could be deployed as a

  18. Experiences on operation, maintenance and utilization in JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Japan Research Reactor No.2 (JRR-2) is a high performance 10 MW multi purpose research reactor, heavy water moderated and cooled enriched uranium fuel used. Since the first criticality was attained in October, 1960, JRR-2 has been operated to satisfy the utilization demands, such as irradiation of fuel and materials, neutron beam experiments, radio isotope production and B.N.C.T (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). During the operation, various kinds of troubles mainly caused by the old design concept had been occurred at the JRR-2 systems and components. Those troubles were solved with adequate countermeasures of timely repairs and large scale modifications with newest techniques. The works above were completely carried out by the staff of JRR-2 and related divisions. As a result, JRR-2 became one of the oldest research reactors which are still under operation in the world. Since JRR-2 has been utilized for more than 30 years, the operation mode was changed from 12 days-one cycle to 3 days-one cycle in April, 1994, taking into consideration aging of the reactor systems. In this paper, the experiences of JRR-2 for more than 30 years such as operation, maintenance, repair, modifications and utilization on JRR-2 are described. (author)

  19. Improvement of human operator vibroprotection system in the utility machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, P. A.; Teterina, I. A.; Rahuba, L. F.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to an urgent problem of improving efficiency of road-building utility machines in terms of improving human operator vibroprotection system by determining acceptable values of the rigidity coefficients and resistance coefficients of operator’s cab suspension system elements and those of operator’s seat. Negative effects of vibration result in labour productivity decrease and occupational diseases. Besides, structure vibrations have a damaging impact on the machine units and mechanisms, which leads to reducing an overall service life of the machine. Results of experimental and theoretical research of operator vibroprotection system in the road-building utility machine are presented. An algorithm for the program to calculate dynamic impacts on the operator in terms of different structural and performance parameters of the machine and considering combination of external pertrubation influences was proposed.

  20. Types and severity of operated supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries caused by traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Radek; Waldauf, Petr; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Brachial plexus injuries occur in up to 5% of polytrauma cases involving motorcycle accidents and in approximately 4% of severe winter sports injuries. One of the criteria for a successful operative therapy is the type of lesion. Upper plexus palsy has the best prognosis, whereas lower plexus palsy is surgically untreatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group of patients with brachial plexus injury caused by traffic accidents, categorize the injuries according to type of accident, and look for correlations between type of palsy (injury) and specific accidents. A total of 441 brachial plexus reconstruction patients from our department were evaluated retrospectively(1993 to 2011). Sex, age, neurological status, and the type and cause of injury were recorded for each case. Patients with BPI caused by a traffic accident were assessed in detail. Traffic accidents were the cause of brachial plexus injury in most cases (80.7%). The most common type of injury was avulsion of upper root(s) (45.7%) followed by rupture (28.2%), complete avulsion (16.9%) and avulsion of lower root(s) (9.2%). Of the patients, 73.9% had an upper,22.7% had a complete and only 3.4% had a lower brachial plexus palsy. The main cause was motorcycle accidents(63.2%) followed by car accidents (23.5%), bicycle accidents(10.7%) and pedestrian collisions (3.1%) (paccidents had a higher percentage of lower avulsion (22.7%) and a lower percentage of upper avulsion (29.3%), whereas cyclists had a higher percentage of upper avulsion (68.6%) based on the data from the entire group of patients (paccidents (9.3%,paccidents),significantly more upper and fewer lower palsies were present. In the bicycle accident group, upper palsy was the most common (89%). Study results indicate that the most common injury was an upper plexus palsy. It was characteristic of bicycle accidents, and significantly more common in car and motorcycle accidents. The results also indicate that it is important to consider the

  1. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  2. Uses of communication satellites in water utility operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, W. S.

    This paper proposes a system to serve the communications needs of the operating side of a water utility and estimates the requirements and capabilities of the equipment needed. The system requires the shared use of a satellite transponder with 100% backup. Messages consist of data packets containing data and control information, plus voice transmission. Satellite communication may have a price advantage in some instances over wire line or VHF radio and have greater survivability in case of a natural disaster. Water and other utilities represent a significant market for low cost mass produced satellite earth terminals.

  3. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  4. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  5. Evaluation of High Density Air Traffic Operations with Automation for Separation Assurance, Weather Avoidance and Schedule Conformance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey S.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Brasil, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and evaluation of our prototype technologies and procedures for far-term air traffic control operations with automation for separation assurance, weather avoidance and schedule conformance. Controller-in-the-loop simulations in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center in 2010 have shown very promising results. We found the operations to provide high airspace throughput, excellent efficiency and schedule conformance. The simulation also highlighted areas for improvements: Short-term conflict situations sometimes resulted in separation violations, particularly for transitioning aircraft in complex traffic flows. The combination of heavy metering and growing weather resulted in an increased number of aircraft penetrating convective weather cells. To address these shortcomings technologies and procedures have been improved and the operations are being re-evaluated with the same scenarios. In this paper we will first describe the concept and technologies for automating separation assurance, weather avoidance, and schedule conformance. Second, the results from the 2010 simulation will be reviewed. We report human-systems integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. Next, improvements will be discussed that were made to address identified shortcomings. We conclude that, with further refinements, air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can routinely provide currently unachievable levels of traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  6. Operation and utilization of the FR2 in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemle, J.

    1977-04-01

    The heavy-water moderated FR2 research and material testing reactor was operated according to schedule in 1976 at 44 MW nominal power. The percentage of time the reactor was operating at full load, related to the scheduled operating time at full load, was about 89%. Noticeable disturbances having effects on the reactor operation did not occur within the period of reporting. The utilization by experiments continued to be good. The isotope production of 2627 irradiated capsules attained its maximum. Besides, silicium specimens (production of semi-conductors) with a total specimen length of 163 running meters were irradiated. To produce fission product moybdenum from U-235, a separate heavy-water cooled reactor insert was commissioned. At the 12 beams tube outlets, which can be reasonably used, up to 18 beam tube experiments were conducted in parallel. The number of instrumented fuel capsule test rigs slightly decreased; up to 9 rigs in total had been inserted at the same time. In addition, three rigs for pr-irradiations had been installed. Of the four large-scale loop experiments three were operated the whole year, the fourth was operated several times for one or two days each, depending on the test program. The operation of the thermionic converter and of the γ-irradiation device was according to schedule. A total of 85 pictures were taken with the neutron radiography system. (orig.) [de

  7. Vehicle emission implications of drivers' smart advisory system for traffic operations in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Wireless communication systems have been broadly applied in various complicated traffic operations to improve mobility and safety on roads, which may raise a concern about the implication of the new technology on vehicle emissions. This paper explores how the wireless communication systems improve drivers' driving behaviors and its contributions to the emission reduction, in terms of Operating Mode (OpMode) IDs distribution used in emission estimation. A simulated work zone with completed traffic operation was selected as a test bed. Sixty subjects were recruited for the tests, whose demographic distribution was based on the Census data in Houston, Texas. A scene of a pedestrian's crossing in the work zone was designed for the driving test. Meanwhile, a wireless communication system called Drivers Smart Advisory System (DSAS) was proposed and introduced in the driving simulation, which provided drivers with warning messages in the work zone. Two scenarios were designed for a leading vehicle as well as for a following vehicle driving through the work zone, which included a base test without any wireless communication systems, and a driving test with the trigger of the DSAS. Subjects' driving behaviors in the simulation were recorded to evaluate safety and estimate the vehicle emission using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released emission model MOVES. The correlation between drivers' driving behavior and the distribution of the OpMode ID during each scenario was investigated. Results show that the DSAS was able to induce drivers to accelerate smoothly, keep longer headway distance and stop earlier for a hazardous situation in the work zone, which driving behaviors result in statistically significant reduction in vehicle emissions for almost all studied air pollutants (p-values range from 4.10E-51 to 2.18E-03). The emission reduction was achieved by the switching the distribution of the OpMode IDs from higher emission zones to lower emission zones

  8. The Flexible Solar Utility. Preparing for Solar's Impacts to Utility Planning and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, John [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Davidovich, Ted [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This paper seeks to provide a flexible utility roadmap for identifying the steps that need to be taken to place the utility in the best position for addressing solar in the future. Solar growth and the emergence of new technologies will change the electric utility of tomorrow. Although not every utility, region, or market will change in the same way or magnitude, developing a path forward will be needed to reach the Electric System of the Future in the coming decades. In this report, a series of potential future states are identified that could result in drastically different energy mixes and profiles: 1) Business as Usual, 2) Low Carbon, Centralized Generation, 3) Rapid Distributed Energy Resource Growth, 4) Interactivity of Both the Grid and Demand, and 5) Grid or Load Defection. Complicating this process are a series of emerging disruptions; decisions or events that will cause the electric sector to change. Understanding and preparing for these items is critical for the transformation to any of the future states to be successful. Predicting which future state will predominate 15 years from now is not possible; however, utilities still will need to look ahead and try to anticipate how factors will impact their planning, operations, and business models. In order to dig into the potential transformations facing the utility industry, the authors conducted a series of utility interviews, held a working session at a major industry solar conference, and conducted a quantitative survey. To focus conversations, the authors leveraged the Rapid Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Growth future to draw out how utilities would have to adapt from current processes and procedures in order to manage and thrive in that new environment. Distributed solar was investigated specifically, and could serve as a proxy resource for all distributed generation (DG). It can also provide the foundation for all DERs.

  9. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  10. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  11. 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP Model Utilization: Case Studies on Collision in Indonesian and Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP model is a new model, proposed by authors, to characterized MTS which is adopting epidemiological model that determines causes of accidents, including not only active failures but also latent failures and barriers. This model is still being developed. One of utilization of MOP model is characterizing accidents in MTS, i.e. collision in Indonesia and Japan that is written in this paper. The aim of this paper is to show the characteristics of ship collision accidents that occur both in Indonesian and Japanese maritime traffic systems. There were 22 collision cases in 2008–2012 (8 cases in Indonesia and 14 cases in Japan. The characteristics presented in this paper show failure events at every stage of the three accident development stages (the beginning of an accident, the accident itself, and the evacuation process.

  12. Operation and utilization of the FR2 in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemle, J.

    1978-06-01

    In its twelfth year of operation after the increase in power to 44 MW, the FR2 reactor again was operated at that design power according to schedule. The utilization of the reactor time at full power relative to the scheduled period of full power operation was 88% in 1977, the power output was 10,066 MWd. There were no major difficulties affecting reactor operation. Use of the reactor for experimental purposes again was good. Isotope production including irradiation of silicon for doping purposes for the production of semiconductors reached the level of the previous year. The production of fission product molybdenum medicine has shown a promising start. 20 experiments in the research areas of nuclear solid state physics and structural analysis (neutron diffraction) are attached to the beamhole outlets, some of them operated in the beamhole sharing mode. Up to 8 instrumented fuel capsule rigs and 3 pre-irradiation rigs were simultaneously loaded in the reactor core within the framework of the LWR Safety Program. Operation of the four large scale loop experiments proceeded according to schedule. While the superheated steam high pressure loop is becoming more and more important for purposes of the LWR safety program, the pressurized helium gas loop previously used for the Fast Breeder Project was decommissioned on May 2, 1977. In the way of this decommissioning also the thermionic converter, although still functioning, was removed after an unexpected in-pile time of some 31.800 hours of operation (N > 43 MW). The neutron radiography system was used for 176 pictures of test specimens, capsule rigs and biological material in the year under review. The γ-in-pile rig was used to capacity, holding 35 samples examined to study the radiation resistance of various materials. 24 argon samples were extracted from the gas activation system for a program of measuring two-phase flows. (orig.) [de

  13. Status of operation and utilization of JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, H.; Niiho, T.; Matsuura, H.; Iida, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Funayama, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) is a swimming pool type research reactor, 93% enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used, light water moderated and cooled. It was initially constructed to pursue mainly shielding experiments for nuclear ship. Today, it is widely utilized for many researches and experiments and reactor operation training of Nuclear Engineering School students. The construction of JRR-4 started in June 1962 and the initial criticality reached on January 28, 1965. The maximum power of JRR-4 was raised to 3500 kW in October 1976. The reactor has been operated satisfactorily for about 23 years since the initial criticality. In this paper, a general description is given on the JRR-4 including future plans. (author)

  14. Risk based decision support for new air traffic operations with reduced aircraft separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijker, L.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    With the steady increase in air traffic, the aviation system is under continuous pressure to increase aircraft handling capacity. Various new Air Traffic Management systems and flight procedures are proposed to increase airport capacity while maintaining the required level of safety. Newly proposed

  15. Site utility system optimization with operation adjustment under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Gai, Limei; Smith, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors. • Multi-period operation and recourses deal with uncertainty implementation. • Operation scheduling are specified at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. • Steam mains superheating affects steam distribution and power generation in the system. - Abstract: Utility systems must satisfy process energy and power demands under varying conditions. The system performance is decided by the system configuration and individual equipment operating load for boilers, gas turbines, steam turbines, condensers, and let down valves. Steam mains conditions in terms of steam pressures and steam superheating also play important roles on steam distribution in the system and power generation by steam expansion in steam turbines, and should be included in the system optimization. Uncertainties such as process steam power demand changes and electricity price fluctuations should be included in the system optimization to eliminate as much as possible the production loss caused by steam power deficits due to uncertainties. In this paper, uncertain factors are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors, and operation scheduling containing multi-period equipment load sharing, redundant equipment start up, and electricity import to compensate for power deficits, have been presented to deal with the happens of uncertainties, and are formulated as a multi-period item and a recourse item in the optimization model. There are two case studies in this paper. One case illustrates the system design to determine system configuration, equipment selection, and system operation scheduling at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. The other case provides operational optimization scenarios for an existing system, especially when the steam superheating varies. The proposed method can provide practical guidance to system energy efficiency improvement.

  16. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Christian; Miccichè, Salvatore; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2017-01-01

    We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i) in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii) in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  17. An empirically grounded agent based model for modeling directs, conflict detection and resolution operations in air traffic management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bongiorno

    Full Text Available We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories. Our model performs a local conflict detection and resolution procedure. Once a flight trajectory has been made conflict-free, the model searches for possible improvements of the system efficiency by issuing directs. We give an example of model calibration based on real data. We then provide an illustration of the capability of our model in generating scenario simulations able to give insights about the air traffic management system. We show that the calibrated model is able to reproduce the existence of a geographical localization of air traffic controllers' operations. Finally, we use the model to investigate the relationship between directs and conflict resolutions (i in the presence of perfect forecast ability of controllers, and (ii in the presence of some degree of uncertainty in flight trajectory forecast.

  18. Data-Link and Surface Map Traffic Intent Displays for NextGen 4DT and Equivalent Visual Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Jones, Deise R.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2009-01-01

    By 2025, U.S. air traffic is predicted to increase 3-fold and may strain the current air traffic management system, which may not be able to accommodate this growth. In response to this challenge, a consortium of industry, academia and government agencies have proposed a revolutionary new concept for U.S. aviation operations, termed the Next Generation Air Transportation System or "NextGen". Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of "net-centric" operations whereby each aircraft and air services provider shares information to allow real-time adaptability to ever-changing factors such as weather, traffic, flight trajectories, and security. Data-link is likely to be the primary source of communication in NextGen. Because NextGen represents a radically different approach to air traffic management and requires a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck, there are numerous research issues and challenges that must be overcome to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system. Flight deck display and crew-vehicle interaction concepts are being developed that proactively investigate and overcome potential technology and safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen.

  19. High road utilizers surveys compared to police data for road traffic crash hotspot localization in Rwanda and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Catherine A; De Silva, Vijitha; Krebs, Elizabeth; Andrade, Luciano; Rulisa, Stephen; Mallawaarachchi, Badra Chandanie; Jin, Kezhi; RicardoVissoci, Joao; Østbye, Truls

    2016-01-20

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a leading cause of death. In low and middle income countries (LMIC) data to conduct hotspot analyses and safety audits are usually incomplete, poor quality, and not computerized. Police data are often limited, but there are no alternative gold standards. This project evaluates high road utilizer surveys as an alternative to police data to identify RTC hotspots. Retrospective police RTC data was compared to prospective data from high road utilizer surveys regarding dangerous road locations. Spatial analysis using geographic information systems was used to map dangerous locations and identify RTC hotspots. We assessed agreement (Cohen's Kappa), sensitivity/specificity, and cost differences. In Rwanda police data identified 1866 RTC locations from 2589 records while surveys identified 1264 locations from 602 surveys. In Sri Lanka, police data identified 721 RTC locations from 752 records while survey data found 3000 locations from 300 surveys. There was high agreement (97 %, 83 %) and kappa (0.60, 0.60) for Rwanda and Sri Lanka respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 92 % and 95 % for Rwanda and 74 % and 93 % for Sri Lanka. The cost per crash location identified was $2.88 for police and $2.75 for survey data in Rwanda and $2.75 for police and $1.21 for survey data in Sri Lanka. Surveys to locate RTC hotspots have high sensitivity and specificity compared to police data. Therefore, surveys can be a viable, inexpensive, and rapid alternative to the use of police data in LMIC.

  20. Dhruva: Main design features, operational experience and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, S.K. [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: swarajagarwal2000@yahoo.com; Karhadkar, C.G. [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Zope, A.K. [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Kanchhi [Reactor Group, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    Dhruva is a product of technological initiatives taken during mid seventies when a need was felt for another research reactor having a high neutron flux to meet the growing demands of research and development in the frontier areas of science and engineering. In addition production of radioisotopes of high specific activity and the diverse requirements of a broad based user community had to be synthesized into a viable system, which could be engineered within the limited means available in the country. This high neutron flux reactor was designed, constructed and commissioned entirely by Indian scientists and engineers and it reflects the country's resolve to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear reactor technology. Dhruva is a 100 MW (thermal) research reactor with metallic natural uranium as fuel, heavy water as moderator, coolant and reflector, giving a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1.8 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Since its first criticality on 8th August 1985, a number of experimental facilities have been added which have proven to be highly attractive for universities and industrial researchers for their scientific merits in various fields. One of the major utilization areas has been the neutron beam research using several neutron spectrometers, all of which were built in-house. A guide tube facility comprising of two neutron guides and another experimental set-up with a multi-instrument beam line have enabled further enhancement of the utilization of this National Facility by the academic institutions in the country. Production of radioisotopes of high specific activity and in increased quantity has fulfilled growing demands for many applications. The write-up provides an overview of the reactor covering its design; layout, safety features, utilization and operating experience along with description of some of the specific experimental facilities.

  1. Analysis of a tool ergonomic working in air traffic control: perceptions of operators and contributions to workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Ana Motter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of the operators and the role of the strips in the workload of air traffic controllers in light of the ergonomic analysis of work. It was developed during the data collection for the doctoral thesis defended in 2007 at the Post-graduate in Production Engineering at UFSC. Submitted to and approved by the Ethics Committee  in Research of the  Tuiuti University of Paraná. A number of 35 military operators of both sexes (80% male and 20% female participated, all belonging to the Brazilian Air Force, which carried out their functions in the Second Integrated Center of Air Defense and Air Traffic Control (CINDACTA II, located in Curitiba-PR. It was used the methodology of analysis of work ergonomics. The results made it possible to know the content of the prescribed electronic strip and the complexity of work in real activity, such as the manual entry of the strip and the AFIL flight plan. It was verified that the operators build operational strategies in terms of organization of the strips in order to facilitate their work. The conclusion is that in the work of air traffic controller there are several interacting variables, and when the content of the work required is different from what is established, the workload increases, which may endanger the health of workers as well as aircraft safety.

  2. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  3. Validating an Air Traffic Management Concept of Operation Using Statistical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuning; Davies, Misty Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Validating a concept of operation for a complex, safety-critical system (like the National Airspace System) is challenging because of the high dimensionality of the controllable parameters and the infinite number of states of the system. In this paper, we use statistical modeling techniques to explore the behavior of a conflict detection and resolution algorithm designed for the terminal airspace. These techniques predict the robustness of the system simulation to both nominal and off-nominal behaviors within the overall airspace. They also can be used to evaluate the output of the simulation against recorded airspace data. Additionally, the techniques carry with them a mathematical value of the worth of each prediction-a statistical uncertainty for any robustness estimate. Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is the process of quantitative characterization and ultimately a reduction of uncertainties in complex systems. UQ is important for understanding the influence of uncertainties on the behavior of a system and therefore is valuable for design, analysis, and verification and validation. In this paper, we apply advanced statistical modeling methodologies and techniques on an advanced air traffic management system, namely the Terminal Tactical Separation Assured Flight Environment (T-TSAFE). We show initial results for a parameter analysis and safety boundary (envelope) detection in the high-dimensional parameter space. For our boundary analysis, we developed a new sequential approach based upon the design of computer experiments, allowing us to incorporate knowledge from domain experts into our modeling and to determine the most likely boundary shapes and its parameters. We carried out the analysis on system parameters and describe an initial approach that will allow us to include time-series inputs, such as the radar track data, into the analysis

  4. Do Stochastic Traffic Assignment Models Consider Differences in Road Users Utility Functions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker

    1996-01-01

    of travel time versus travel length). A simple heuristic modification on SUE is presented which models both. To illustrate the theoretical discussions in the paper, bundles of routes between two zones in Copenhagen are presented according to the different principles and compared with results from a stop...... to overcome this problem. Sheffi & Powell (1981) presented a practically operational solution algorithm in which the travel resistance for each road segment is adjusted according to a Monte Carlo simulation following the Normal-distribution. By this the road users’ ‘perceived travel resistances’ are simulated....... A similar concept is used as a part of the Sto-chastic User Equilibrium model (SUE) suggested by Daganzo and Sheffi (1977) and operationalized by Sheffi & Powell (1982). In the paper it is discussed whether this way of modelling the ‘perceived travel resistance’ is sufficient to describe the road users...

  5. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  6. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  7. Assessment of operators' mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the operators' mental workload (MW) of cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers using subjective and objective measures during system vital parameters monitoring. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015 at the cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers. Electrocardiography and electroencephalography data were recorded from forty males during performing their daily working in resting, low mental workload (LMW), high mental workload (HMW) and recovery conditions (each block 5 minutes). The NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was used to evaluate the subjective workload of the operators. The results showed that increasing MW had a significant effect on the operators subjective responses in two conditions ([1,53] = 216.303, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.803). Also,the Task-MW interaction effect on operators subjective responses was significant (F [3, 53] = 12.628,P < 0.001, η2 = 0.417). Analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that increasing mental demands had a significant effect on heart rate, low frequency/high frequency ratio, theta and alpha band activity. The results suggested that when operators' mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers. Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions.

  8. TRACC_PB SOSS Integrated Traffic Simulation for CLT Ramp Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuniek, Nikolai; Zhu, Zhifan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides the current task under the NASA-DLR research collaboration for airport surface. It presents the effort done to adapt TRACC and SOSS software components to simulate airport (CLT) ramp area traffic management using TRACC's conflict free taxi trajectory optimization and SOSS's fast time simulation platform.

  9. Utilization scenarios for driving support systems in cargo traffic and their evaluation; Einsatzszenarien fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme im Gueterverkehr und deren Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.; Preuschoff, E. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    The report presents a summary of the project of the above title (EFAS project). While earlier projects focused on the technical side, EFAS is the first to present a systematic analysis, presentation and evaluation of the parameters influencing driving support systems. With the aid of a systemic analysis, the key influencing factors are defined and analyzed, and three scenarios are developed which take account of user-oriented, organizational, operational, technical, infrastructural and legal aspects. The scenarios are evaluated with the aid of driving and traffic simulations in the fields of humans, organization and technology, and actions are recommended on this basis for driving support systems in cargo transport. [German] Der Bericht fasst die Ergebnisse des Projektes ''Einsatzszenarien fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme im Gueterverkehr'' (EFAS) zusammen. Bisher wurde die Thematik Fahrerassistenzsysteme hauptsaechlich auf der Seite der Fahrzeugtechnik vorangetrieben. Das Projekt EFAS stellt nun zum ersten Mal eine umfassende Analyse, Darstellung und Bewertung dar. Mit Hilfe einer systemischen Analyse werden die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren fuer die Einbindung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen in das Gesamtsystem ''Verkehr'' bestimmt und untersucht. Hieraus werden drei Einsatzszenarien entwickelt, die nutzerbezogene, organisatorische, betriebliche, fahrzeugtechnische, infrastukturelle und rechtliche Aspekte zu Zukunftsbildern zusammenfuegen. Die Szenarien werden mit Hilfe von Fahr- und Verkehrssimulationen in den Bereichen Mensch, Organisation und Technik bewertet. Aus den Ergebnissen werden konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen fuer den Einsatz von Fahrerassistenzsystemen im Strassengueterverkehr abgeleitet. (orig.)

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald D.

    2018-01-01

    UTM is an 'air traffic management' ecosystem for uncontrolled operations. UTM utilizes industry's ability to supply services under FAA's regulatory authority where these services do not exist. UTM development will ultimately enable the management of large scale, low-altitude UAS operations. Operational concept will address beyond visual line of sight UAS operations under 400 ft. AGL. Information architecture, data exchange protocols, software functions. Roles/responsibilities of FAA and operators. Performance requirements.

  11. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 8. Operational Logic Flow Diagrams for a Generic Advanced Air Traffic Management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of the services a generic Advanced Air Traffic Management System (AATMS) should provide to the useres of the system to facilitate the safe, efficient flow of traffic. It provides a definition of the functions which t...

  12. Traffic condition with road upgrading during construction and operation stages based on level-of-service (LOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A. C.; Lee, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, traffic survey was done at signalized intersection of both ends of an upgrading road during morning and afternoon peak hours throughout construction period. The intersections of Tudan Road located at Miri City in Sarawak State, Malaysia were chosen as study sites. The aim of this research was to investigate the traffic condition for the signalized intersections of a R3 secondary road that being upgrading to standard U5 dual carriageway during peak hours for construction and operation stages. Data collected from these sites were analyzed according to Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. From the results, the level-of-services (LOS) of Kuala Baram By Pass Road intersection improved from Level F to Level E at operation stage for weekday during peak hours in the morning. LOS of Lutong-Kuala Baram Road intersection at construction stage were Level C during peak hours in the morning and Level D during peak hours in the afternoon for weekends. However, the LOS during both peak hours for weekends were projected to improve to Level B at the operation stage. It proved that the road construction has affected LOS, and this temporary issue can be solved after the upgraded road is in operation.

  13. Packet traffic features of IPv6 and IPv4 protocol traffic

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİFLİKLİ, Cebrail; GEZER, Ali; ÖZŞAHİN, Abdullah Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the IPv6 protocol is in a transition phase in operational networks. The ratio of its traffic volume is increasing day by day. The many provided facilities for IPv6 connection increasethe total IPv6 traffic load. IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnels, pilot programsto provide IPv6 connections, IPv6/IPv4 dual stack operating systems,and free IPv6 tunnel brokers cause the IPv6 protocol to expand quickly. For efficient resource utilization, the characteristics of network traffic should be determ...

  14. Light duty utility arm (LDUA) operability test report (OTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the test was to demonstrate that the LDUA and subsystems that are applicable to the T-106 deployment could be safely deployed in the field and operated as designed per the operating procedures

  15. Annunciation - building product team capabilities to support utility operational improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, R.; Brown, R.; Trask, D.; Leger, R.; Mitchel, G.; Judd, R.; Davey, E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an AECL initiative to enhance the capabilities to assist utilities with undertaking annunciation improvement. This initiative was undertaken to complement a recent annunciation product upgrade, and in anticipation of developing commercial opportunities to assist Canadian and foreign utilities with control room annunciation improvement. Utilities are relying more and more on external engineering product and service providers to meet their plant support needs as they reduce in-house staffing to lower ongoing support costs. This evolving commercial environment places new demands on product and service providers, and provides new opportunities for increasing the proportion of product and service provider participation in plant improvement projects. This paper outlines recent AECL experience in the annunciation product area. The paper discusses the rationale for product support capability improvement, discusses the approaches undertaken, describes lessons learned, and outlines a proposed utility support model for assisting with future annunciation improvements. (author)

  16. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  17. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  18. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  19. Utilizing Robot Operating System (ROS) in Robot Vision and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Palmer, “Development of a navigation system for semi-autonomous operation of wheelchairs,” in Proc. of the 8th IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Mechatronic ...and Embedded Systems and Applications, Suzhou, China, 2012, pp. 257-262. [30] G. Grisetti, C. Stachniss, and W. Burgard, “Improving grid-based SLAM...OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL by Joshua S. Lum September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Co-Advisor: Zac Staples

  20. Economic evaluation of nuclear reactor operation utilizing power effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinsky, M.; Mydliar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The operation of a reactor at the so-called power effect may substantially increase the burnup of fuel to be removed. The aim of the evaluation of such reactor operation is the optimal determination of the time over which the yield of the higher use of fuel exceeds economic losses resulting from the increased share of constant expenditure of the price of generated kWh of electric power which ensues from such operation. A mathematical model is presented for such evaluation of reactor operation with regard to benefits for the national economy which is the basis of the ESTER 2 computer program. The calculations show that the prices of generated and delivered kWh are minimally 2% less than the prices of generated power without the power effect use. The minimum ranges in the interval of 30 to 50 days. The dependence of the price of generated and delivered kWh from the point of view of the operator of the power plant as well as the component of fuel price of generated kWh will not reach the minimum even after 50 days of operation. From the operating and physical points of view the duration of power effect is not expected to exceed 20 to 30 days which means that from the point of view of the national economy the price of generated and delivered kWh will be 1.6 to 2% less and the fuel component of the price of the generated kWh will be 3 to 4.5% lower. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 3 refs

  1. Utilization of Virtual Server Technology in Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Larry; Lankford, Kimberly; Pitts, R. Lee; Pruitt, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization provides the opportunity to continue to do "more with less"---more computing power with fewer physical boxes, thus reducing the overall hardware footprint, power and cooling requirements, software licenses, and their associated costs. This paper explores the tremendous advantages and any disadvantages of virtualization in all of the environments associated with software and systems development to operations flow. It includes the use and benefits of the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) specification, and identifies lessons learned concerning hardware and network configurations. Using the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an example, we demonstrate that deploying virtualized servers as a means of managing computing resources is applicable and beneficial to many areas of application, up to and including flight operations.

  2. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  3. ENDF/B-V utility programs: description and operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, K.

    1984-03-01

    A description and operating instructions are supplied for the following ENDF/B-V Processing Programs: CHECKER, CRECT, STNDRD, FIZCON, PSYCHE, RESEND, INTER, INTEND, SUMRIZ, PLOTEF, LSTFCV, RIGEL. These programs can be obtained on magnetic tape, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  4. Utilizing an eye tracker device for operator support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, T.E. de; Lafeber, H.

    2007-01-01

    At present a number of studies have attempted to embed eye-tracking devices into closed-loop systems to augment the cognitive state of the human operator. It has been demonstrated that the pupil diameter and blinking frequency serve as such indicators. Although these two factors serve cognitive

  5. Report on the operation and utilization of general purpose use computer system 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Reiko; Tsugawa, Kazuko; Tsuda, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Osamu; Kamimura, Tetsuo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    The General Purpose Use Computer System of National Institute for Fusion Science was replaced in January, 2001. The System is almost fully used after the first three months operation. Reported here is the process of the introduction of the new system and the state of the operation and utilization of the System between January and March, 2001, especially the detailed utilization of March. (author)

  6. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  7. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  8. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  9. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  10. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicles based on similar traffic operating characteristics are grouped into ... of distances to the video monitor involved using a measuring wheel to mark ... Secondly, the observers reviewed the videotape to sample traffic entity ...... makes a strong case for including service lanes for slow moving vehicles for improving the.

  11. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight (BVLOS) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    Many applications of small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) have been envisioned. These include surveillance of key assets such as pipelines, rail, or electric wires, deliveries, search and rescue, traffic monitoring, videography, and precision agriculture. These operations are likely to occur in the same airspace in the presence of many static and dynamic constraints such as airports, and high wind areas. Therefore, operations of small UAS need to be managed to ensure safety and operation efficiency is maintained. NASA has advanced a concept for UAS Traffic Management (UTM) and has initiated a research effort to refine that concept and develop operational and system requirements. A UTM research platform is in development and flight test activities to evaluate core functions and key assumptions focusing exclusively on UAS operations in different environments are underway. This seminar will present lessons learned from a recent flight test focused on enabling operations of multiple UAS in lower-risk environments within and beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).

  12. [Analysis and evaluation of the visual effort in remote-control public traffic operators working with computer-based equipments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullà, F; Zambelli, P; Bergamaschi, A; Piccoli, B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is the objective evaluation of the visual effort in 6 public traffic controllers (4 male, 2 female, mean age 29,6), by means of electronic equipment. The electronic equipment quantify the observation distance and the observation time for each controller's occupational visual field. The quantification of these parameters is obtained by the emission of ultrasound at 40 KHz from an emission sensor (placed by the VDT screen) and the ultrasound reception by means of a receiving sensor (placed on the operator's head). The travelling time of the ultrasound (US), as the air speed is known and costant (about 340 m/s), it is used to calculate the distance between the emitting and the receiving sensor. The results show that the visual acuity required is of average level, while accommodation's and convergence's effort vary from average to intense (depending on the visual characteristics of the operator considered), ranging from 26,41 and 43,92% of accommodation and convergence available in each operator. The time actually spent in "near observation within the c.v.p." (Tscr) was maintained in a range from 2h 54' and 4h 05'.

  13. Results from an Interval Management (IM) Flight Test and Its Potential Benefit to Air Traffic Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian; Swieringa, Kurt; Berckefeldt, Rick; Boyle, Dan

    2017-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) subproject successfully completed a 19-day flight test of an Interval Management (IM) avionics prototype. The prototype was built based on IM standards, integrated into two test aircraft, and then flown in real-world conditions to determine if the goals of improving aircraft efficiency and airport throughput during high-density arrival operations could be met. The ATD-1 concept of operation integrates advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and the IM avionics to enable multiple time-based arrival streams into a high-density terminal airspace. IM contributes by calculating airspeeds that enable an aircraft to achieve a spacing interval behind the preceding aircraft. The IM avionics uses its data (route of flight, position, etc.) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) state data from the Target aircraft to calculate this airspeed. The flight test demonstrated that the IM avionics prototype met the spacing accuracy design goal for three of the four IM operation types tested. The primary issue requiring attention for future IM work is the high rate of IM speed commands and speed reversals. In total, during this flight test, the IM avionics prototype showed significant promise in contributing to the goals of improving aircraft efficiency and airport throughput.

  14. Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Plummer, Joseph; Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important-rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities

  15. Integrated arterial and freeway operation control strategies for IVHS advanced traffic management systems : research report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The main focus of this study is congestion, primarily that occurring on freeway corridors in metropolitan areas. Lack of coordination in the operation of various components of the system is often a major source of inefficiency, : resulting in greater...

  16. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  17. Risk Factors of Road Traffic Accidents Associated Mortality in Northern Iran; A Single Center Experience Utilizing Oaxaca Blinder Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafati, Faranak; Homaie-Rad, Enayatollah; Afkar, Abolhassan; Gholampoor-Sigaroodi, Ramin; Sirusbakht, Soheil

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the differences in death after receiving emergency services in traffic accidents between urban and rural regions, and decompose factors of the gap in Langerood, Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Langrood, Northern Iran during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. The hospital data of traffic crashes were used. Data contained those patients who survived at the scene of accident. Injury severity score, time to admission, age, gender, season of crash and type of collision were variables used in this study. Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to show the amount of inequity. In addition, three regression models were used to show the reason of inequity. Overall 1520 patients with road traffic accidents were admitted to our center during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 35.45 ± 17.9 years, and there were 1158 (76.1 %) men among the victims. Motorbike accidents accounted for 869 (57.1%) injuries and 833 (54.8 %) accidents occurred in rural regions. The in-hospital mortality rate was 60 (3.9%). The results of this study showed that 95% of inequity came from factors used in this study and 2.04% disadvantages were for rural crashes. Severity of crash and time to admission had relationship with death, while the effects of time to admission was higher in rural region and severity of the accident had more effect on mortality in urban regions in comparison with rural ones. The high rate of fatal accidents could be decreased by deleting the gap of access to health care services between urban and rural regions. This study suggested that more efforts of health system are needed to reduce the gap.

  18. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilities get more involved in Inpo [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) was established four years ago in a bid to foster self improvement and self regulation among the American nuclear power utilities. A significant increase in utility commitment and involvement in many of its programmes appears to have made 1983 a very good year for INPO. (U.K.)

  20. Traffic flow and microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a major teaching hospital in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, M. T.; Bediako-Bowan, A.; Andersen, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    . Aim: To assess microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a Ghanaian teaching hospital and the association with door-openings and number of people present. Moreover, we aimed to document reasons for door-opening. Methods: We conducted active air-sampling using an MAS 100® portable impactor...

  1. Assessing the Impact of Operational Constraints on the Near-Term Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management Supported Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascik, Parker D.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2016-01-01

    An economic impact market analysis was conducted for 16 leading sectors of commercial Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) applications predicted to be enabled by 2020 through the NASA UAS Traffic Management (UTM) program. Subject matter experts from seven industries were interviewed to validate concept of operations (ConOps) and market adoption assumptions for each sector. The market analysis was used to estimate direct economic impacts for each sector including serviceable addressable market, capital investment, revenue recovery potential, and operations cost savings. The resultant economic picture distinguishes the agricultural, pipeline and railroad inspection, construction, and maritime sectors of the nascent commercial UAS industry as providing the highest potential economic value in the United States. Sensitivity studies characterized the variability of select UAS sectors economic value to key regulatory or UTM ConOps requirements such as weight, altitude, and flight over populated area constraints. Takeaways from the analysis inform the validation of UTM requirements, technologies and timetables from a commercial market need and value viewpoint. This work concluded in August 2015 and reflects the state of the UAS industry and market projections at that time.

  2. Modeling real time CBTC operation in mixed traffic networks: A simulation-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Martinis, Valerio; Toletti, Ambra; Weidmann, Ulrich; Nash, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Vehicle automation and continuous connection with communication networks are the key innovations currently redefining transport systems. Just as autonomous cars are rapidly changing road transport, increasing railway automation will help to maximize the use of infrastructure, increase schedule reliability, improve safety, and increase energy efficiency. However, railway operations are fundamentally different from road-based transport systems and automation must be specifically tailored to rai...

  3. A Novel Performance Framework and Methodology to Analyze the Impact of 4D Trajectory Based Operations in the Future Air Traffic Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Sergio; Lopez Leones, Javier; Ranieri, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts such as Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) may produce a significant impact in all performance areas, that is, safety, capacity, flight efficiency, and others. The performance framework in use today has been tailored to the operational needs of the current ATM system and must evolve to fulfill the new needs and challenges brought by the TBO content. This paper presents a novel performance assessment framework and methodology adapted...

  4. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  5. Traffic flow and microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a major teaching hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, M T; Bediako-Bowan, A; Andersen, L P; Opintan, J A; Labi, A-K; Kurtzhals, J A L; Bjerrum, S

    2018-07-01

    Current literature examining the relationship between door-opening rate, number of people present, and microbial air contamination in the operating room is limited. Studies are especially needed from low- and middle-income countries, where the risk of surgical site infections is high. To assess microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a Ghanaian teaching hospital and the association with door-openings and number of people present. Moreover, we aimed to document reasons for door-opening. We conducted active air-sampling using an MAS 100 ® portable impactor during 124 clean or clean-contaminated elective surgical procedures. The number of people present, door-opening rate and the reasons for each door-opening were recorded by direct observation using pretested structured observation forms. During surgery, the mean number of colony-forming units (cfu) was 328 cfu/m 3 air, and 429 (84%) of 510 samples exceeded a recommended level of 180 cfu/m 3 . Of 6717 door-openings recorded, 77% were considered unnecessary. Levels of cfu/m 3 were strongly correlated with the number of people present (P = 0.001) and with the number of door-openings/h (P = 0.02). In empty operating rooms, the mean cfu count was 39 cfu/m 3 after 1 h of uninterrupted ventilation and 52 (51%) of 102 samples exceeded a recommended level of 35 cfu/m 3 . The study revealed high values of intraoperative airborne cfu exceeding recommended levels. Minimizing the number of door-openings and people present during surgery could be an effective strategy to reduce microbial air contamination in low- and middle-income settings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  7. Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor, Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1978-12-01

    It has been planned for 1978 that the RA reactor would be operated for 158 dana at nominal power of 6.5 MW meaning production of 24 648 MWh. The plan was fulfilled since 24 652 MWh was produces. Reactor operation for 158 days is relevant to reactor operation for 200 days in the period before 1975. The reason is increased neutron flux achieved due to improved fuel management and the characteristics of the new 80% enriched fuel. At the end of 1978 the reactor core contained 45% of 80% enriched fuel elements. Increase of neutron flux has shortened the typical time needed for irradiation of the most important samples for isotope production. This significant success in reactor operation is at the same time an obligation for increasing its utilization. Some new trends proposed for increasing reactor utilization capacities were presented at the Conference on utilization of research nuclear reactors in Yugoslavia held in May 1978 [sr

  8. Training and qualification of licensed reactor operators at General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.L.; Coe, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) accident in 1979, the utility responsible for managing the facility has looked closely at the training and qualification of its reactor operators. Performance-based operator training programmes are now in place, as required by the United States National Academy for Nuclear Training. Operators also participate directly in the development of a professional code of behaviour. (UK)

  9. Building the Traffic, Navigation, and Situation Awareness System (T-NASA) for Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    We report the results of a part-task simulation evaluating the separate and combined effects of an electronic moving map display and newly developed HUD symbology on ground taxi performance, under moderate- and low-visibility conditions. Twenty-four commercial airline pilots carried out a series of 28 gate-to-runway taxi trials at Chicago O'Hare. Half of the trials were conducted under moderate visibility (RVR 1400 ft), and half under low visibility (RVR 700 ft). In the baseline condition, where navigation support was limited to surface features and a Jeppesen paper map, navigation errors were committed on almost half of the trials. These errors were virtually abolished when the electronic moving map or the HUD symbology was available; in addition, compare, the baseline condition, both forms of navigation aid yielded an increase in forward taxi speed. The speed increase was greater for HUD than the electronic moving map, and greater under low visibility than under moderate visibility. These results suggest that combination of electronic moving map and HUD symbology has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of ground operations, particularly under low-visibility conditions.

  10. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Annual report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the activities of the Department of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal year of 1989. It also presents some technical topics on the reactor operation and utilization in details. The Department is responsible for operation of the research reactors, JRR-2 and JRR-4, and the Hot Laboratory. The research reactor JRR-3 was reconstructed to enhance the performance for utilization. The first criticality was achieved on March 22, 1989, and it subsequently went into operation. In connection with the reactor operation, the various research and development activities in the area of fuel management, water chemistry, radiation monitoring and material irradiation have been made. In the Hot Laboratory, post-irradiation examinations of fuels and materials have been carried out along with the development of related techniques. (author)

  12. Integrating Emerging Data Sources into Operational Practice : Opportunities for Integration of Emerging Data for Traffic Management and TMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    With the emergence of data generated from connected vehicles, connected travelers, and connected infrastructure, the capabilities of traffic management systems or centers (TMCs) will need to be improved to allow agencies to compile and benefit from u...

  13. 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP) Model Utilization: Case Studies on Collision in Indonesian and Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah; Masao Furusho

    2016-01-01

    4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP) model is a new model, proposed by authors, to characterized MTS which is adopting epidemiological model that determines causes of accidents, including not only active failures but also latent failures and barriers. This model is still being developed. One of utilization of MOP model is characterizing accidents in MTS, i.e. collision in Indonesia and Japan that is written in this paper. The aim of this paper is to show the characteristics of ship collision accidents...

  14. Dynamic traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE) in flexible grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Guoying; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Flexible grid has emerged as an evolutionary technology to satisfy the ever increasing demand for higher spectrum efficiency and operational flexibility. To optimize the spectrum resource utilization, this paper introduces the concept of Spectrum Engineering in flex-grid optical networks. The sliceable optical transponder has been proposed to offload IP traffic to the optical layer and reduce the number of IP router ports and transponders. We discuss the impact of sliceable transponder in traffic grooming and propose several traffic-grooming schemes with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE). Our results show that there is a tradeoff among different traffic grooming policies, which should be adopted based on the network operator's objectives. The proposed traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering schemes can reduce OPEX as well as increase spectrum efficiency by efficiently utilizing the bandwidth variability and capability of sliceable optical transponders.

  15. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  16. A high sensitivity process variation sensor utilizing sub-threshold operation

    OpenAIRE

    Meterelliyoz, Mesut; Song, Peilin; Stellari, Franco; Kulkarni, Jaydeep P.; Roy, Kaushik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel low-power, bias-free, high-sensitivity process variation sensor for monitoring random variations in the threshold voltage. The proposed sensor design utilizes the exponential current-voltage relationship of sub-threshold operation thereby improving the sensitivity by 2.3X compared to the above-threshold operation. A test-chip containing 128 PMOS and 128 NMOS devices has been fabri...

  17. An operating nuclear utility's experience with the ALARA design of a new nuclear unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This talk presents a review of how operating experience at Northeast Utilities has been factored into the design of a new nuclear unit and the development and management of the radiation protection program. Their operational experience has indicated that there are two facets to keeping radiation exposures ALARA. The first is the proper ALARA design of the unit. The other facet is the design of a comprehensive radiation protection program. The author discusses these facets in some detail

  18. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight (BVLOS) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.

  19. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.

  20. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  1. Utility of Interactional Strategies in the Study of Formal Operations Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    This paper argues in favor of using interactional strategies in the study of formal operations reasoning. Interactional designs allow a convergent approach to specifying processes underlying the interaction of variables. In contrast, current methodologies contain two inherent disadvantages: they have limited utility in specifying the processes…

  2. Analysis of 1014 consecutive operative cases to determine the utility of intraoperative neurophysiological data

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Namath Syed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) during neurosurgical procedures has become the standard of care at tertiary care medical centers. While prospective data regarding the clinical utility of IOM are conspicuously lacking, retrospective analyses continue to provide useful information regarding surgeon responses to reported waveform changes. Methods: Data regarding clinical presentation, operative course, IOM, and postoperative neurological examination were compiled...

  3. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  4. Longer operating times of nuclear power plants. Options for compensating public utility advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Sven; Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The current German government of CDU/CSU and FDP intends to prolong the operating time of existing nuclear power plants in Germany. The advantages resulting for public utilities are to be compensated. The authors discuss how compensation may be achieved and outline the available instruments. (orig.)

  5. Shortcomings in safety management: symptoms, examples and recovery processes. Omission of Operational Culture can be fatal for the power utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezoucky, F.; )

    2006-01-01

    During recent years, many utilities and their nuclear branches have undergone substantial change. The effectiveness of management in handling the change varies considerably from utility to utility. At the extreme, the way the change is managed and nuclear safety and operational performance aspects are integrated can either help lead a plant to operational excellence or destroy what was once an effective organisation. (author)

  6. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  7. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  8. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  9. Liquid radwaste processing, operational experience utilizing Duratek Mobile Process System (MPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunkele, W.; Jensen, C.E.; Duratek Corp., Beltsville, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The use of Duratek's Mobile Process System (MPS) employing sluiceable pressure vessels and improved operational techniques generates operational efficiencies including volume reduction (VR), reduced personnel labor and exposure and higher flowrates for cleanup of liquid radwaste streams in an operating nuclear power plant (Salem Generating Station). Significant additional VR is achievable based on laboratory and on-site experience utilizing Durasil 70. Under high conductivity, actual waste stream conditions, this proprietary media has demonstrated through-puts of a magnitude 15 times higher than organic cation resin. A long-term problem, cobalt species removal, is mitigated by this media

  10. Light Duty Utility Arm system pre-operational (cold test) test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility (LDUA) Cold Test Facility, located in the Hanford 400 Area, will be used to support cold testing (pre- operational tests) of LDUA subsystems. Pre-operational testing is composed of subsystem development testing and rework activities, and integrated system qualification testing. Qualification testing will be conducted once development work is complete and documentation is under configuration control. Operational (hot) testing of the LDUA system will follow the testing covered in this plan and will be covered in a separate test plan

  11. Lessons learned from the Maintenance Rule implementation at Northeast Utilities operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, K.B.; Khalil, Y.F.; Johnson, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Maintenance Rule as described in 10CFR50.65 requires holders of all operating nuclear power plants to monitor the performance of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) against licensee-established performance criteria. The Industry with the assistance of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) developed a guideline, which includes all parts of the Maintenance Rule, to establish these performance criteria while incorporating safety and reliability of the operating plants. The NUMARC 93-01 Guideline introduced the term ''Risk Significant'' to categorize subsets of the SSCs which would require increased focus, from a Maintenance Rule perspective, in setting their performance criteria. Northeast Utilities Company (NU) operates five nuclear plants three at Millstone Station in Waterford, Connecticut; the Connecticut Yankee plant in Haddam Neck, Connecticut; and the Seabrook Station in Seabrook, New Hampshire. NU started the implementation process of the Maintenance Rule program at its five operating plants since early 1994, and have identified a population of risk significant SSCs at each plant. Recently, Northeast Utilities' Maintenance Rule Team re-examined the initial risk significant determinations to further refine these populations, and to establish consistencies among its operating units. As a result of the re-examination process, a number of inconsistencies and areas for improvement have been identified. The lessons learned provide valuable insights to consider in the future as one implements more risk based initiatives such as Graded QA and Risk-Based ISI and IST. This paper discusses the risk significance criteria, how Northeast Utilities utilized NUMARC 93-01 Guideline to determine the risk significant SSCs for its operating plants, and lessons learned. The results provided here do not include the Seabrook Station

  12. Carbon footprint of construction, operation and maintenance of waterways and traffic; Merenkulun ja liikenteen hiilijalanjaelki. Osa 1: Merenkulun hiilijalanjaelki, Osa 2: Tie-, rata- ja meriliikenteen hiilijalanjaeljet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illman, J.; Kumpulainen, A.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Transport Agency launched a project to study the carbon footprint of the construction, use and maintenance of Finland's transport network infrastructure. This report presents the results of the second phase, where the carbon footprint was calculated for the coastal ports and fairways used for merchant shipping (part 1 of this report). In addition, the carbon footprint of traffic operating on the road and rail networks and on the coastal fairways was calculated (part 2 of this report). The carbon footprints of four Finnish coastal merchant shipping ports and the fairways leading into them were calculated during a 100-year period. Based on these four cases and statistics the rest of the coastal ports were categorised into four groups: passenger ports, unitized cargo ports, bulk ports and liquid bulk ports. Based on this categorisation the carbon footprint for the infrastructure of coastal merchant shipping was estimated. A carbon footprint tool was developed to enable the modelling of the impacts of different port and fairway planning parameters on the life-cycle emissions. The main source of emissions in the selected cases was the energy used during the use phase: the fuel used by the machinery or the electricity consumed during the operation of the port. In the construction of the examined ports and fairways, the materials used, their transportation and installation do not have a significant impact on the life-cycle emissions. The carbon footprint of Finland's coastal merchant shipping ports and fairways (35 ports and 3 230 km of fairways) during the 100-year period was estimated at 150 000 tCO{sub 2}/a. The emissions of ports vary between 1 900-15 000 tCO{sub 2}/a. The largest sources of emissions do not always originate from the use phase as in the selected cases. The emissions of construction and maintenance can be larger than of the use phase in ports that occupy a large area of land in relation to the amount of traffic flowing

  13. Rupture of the aorta following road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom 1992-1999. The results of the co-operative crash injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, D; Kotidis, K; Neale, M; Oakley, C; Fails, A

    2003-02-01

    The true incidence and survivability of blunt traumatic aortic rupture following road traffic accidents in the UK is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in the UK after road traffic accidents and the conditions under which it occurs. Data for the study was obtained from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database. Road traffic accidents that happened between 1992 and 1999 and included in the Co-operative Crash Injury Study database were retrospectively investigated. A total of 8285 vehicles carrying 14,435 occupants were involved in 7067 accidents. There were 132 cases of blunt traumatic aortic rupture, of which the scene survival was 9% and the overall mortality was 98%. Twenty-one percent of all fatalities had blunt traumatic aortic rupture (130/613). Twenty-nine percent were due to frontal impacts and 44% were due to side impacts. Twelve percent of the blunt traumatic aortic rupture cases in frontal vehicle impacts were wearing seat belts and had airbag protection and 19% had no restraint mechanism. The Equivalent Test Speed of the accident vehicles, (where equivalent test speed provides an estimate of the vehicle impact severity and not an estimate of the vehicle speed at the time of the accident), ranged from 30 to 110 km/h in frontal impacts and from 15 to 82 km/h in side impacts. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture carries a high mortality and occurred in 21% of car occupant deaths in this sample of road traffic accidents. Impact scenarios varied but were most common from the side. The use of an airbag or seat belt does not eliminate risk. The injury can occur at low severity impacts particularly in side impact. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1 entitled Fundamental Safety Principles: Safety Fundamentals states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations, operating experience is utilized and corrective actions are effectively implemented. This publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to nuclear installations and related institutions, including contractors and support organizations, to strengthen and enhance their own feedback process through the implementation of best practices in the utilization and dissemination of operating experience and to assess their effectiveness. Dissemination and utilization of internal and external operating experience is essential in supporting a proactive safety management approach of preventing events from occurring. Few new events reveal a completely new cause or failure mechanism. Although not recognized prior to the event, most subsequent investigations identify internal or external industry operating experience that, if applied effectively, would have prevented the event. Therefore, the establishment of an effective utilization and dissemination process is very beneficial in raising awareness of the organization and individuals of available operating experience, and focussing effort in the implementation of the lessons learnt. This leads to improved safety and reliability. The present publication is the outcome of a coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It was written to complement the publication IAEA Services Series No. 10 entitled PROSPER Guidelines - Guidelines for Peer Review and for Plant Self-assessment of

  15. Inter-utility operating data exchange concepts, standards and implementation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virmani, S.; Leichner, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Operating a modern interconnected electric utility in a secure and reliable manner requires a knowledge of the state of critical elements of the outside or external network. As noted in reference 1: In this paper, the authors focus on considerations in the implementation of communication processors which can be used as front ends to an EMS in order to accomplish data exchange in a multiple EMS vendor, multiple computer environment. Before discussing the implementation aspects, the paper also discusses the basic data exchange concepts in terms of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) seven layer model and the standards that are in existence or are emerging for inter-utility data exchange

  16. Implementation of utilities operation and maintenance experience into the European pressurized water reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Lallier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992 Electricite de France EDF and German Utilities GU work together with Nuclear Power International NPI, a subsidiary of Framatome and Siemens, in the development of the future European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR. The EPR is an evolutionary concept, based on the French N4 plants and the German KONVOI plants. From the beginning, experienced operation and maintenance people from the precursor plants participate at the design process. Their experience will lead to a plant, which is not only characterised by low investment costs, but also by good operability, high availability and low operation and maintenance costs. No expensive back-fittings should be necessary after commissioning, to reach these availability and maintenance targets. The utility specialists give design requirements for outage performance, system design, and layout. These design requirements are really determining the system performances, and not what was design basis before. It does not necessarily lead to system increases. Mainly it is a shifting of the emphasis to other items. There are even cases, where the system performances can be reduced. Mostly very small modifications, which are nearly cost neutral when implemented early in the design, have big impact on the further operation. If there are big cost influences, a sound balance between investment and gained availability is made together with the designers. There is very fruitful discussion between designers and operators, which is highly estimated by both sides. In this frame also new, revolutionary ideas are coming up, which are going mostly in the direction of investment cost reduction, without loosing operation freedom. It is the first time in Europe, that designers and operators are working so close together. It is also the first time, that the management and the decision making is dominated by the utilities. (author)

  17. Energy and water quality management systems for water utility's operations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Bros, Christopher M; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-04-15

    Holistic management of water and energy resources is critical for water utilities facing increasing energy prices, water supply shortage and stringent regulatory requirements. In the early 1990s, the concept of an integrated Energy and Water Quality Management System (EWQMS) was developed as an operational optimization framework for solving water quality, water supply and energy management problems simultaneously. Approximately twenty water utilities have implemented an EWQMS by interfacing commercial or in-house software optimization programs with existing control systems. For utilities with an installed EWQMS, operating cost savings of 8-15% have been reported due to higher use of cheaper tariff periods and better operating efficiencies, resulting in the reduction in energy consumption of ∼6-9%. This review provides the current state-of-knowledge on EWQMS typical structural features and operational strategies and benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. The review also highlights the challenges encountered during installation and implementation of EWQMS and identifies the knowledge gaps that should motivate new research efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ENDF utility codes release 6.10. Description and operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Description and operating instructions are given for a package of utility codes operating on evaluated nuclear data files in the formats ENDF-6 (and ENDF-5). Included are the data checking codes CHECKER, FIZCON, PSYCHE; the code INTER for retrieving thermal cross-sections and some other data; graphical plotting subroutines PLOTEF, GRALIB, INTLIB; and the file maintenance and retrieval codes LISTEF, SETMDC, GETMAT, STANEF. This program package which is designed for CDC, IBM, DEC and PC computers, can be obtained on magnetic tape or floppy diskette, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  19. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-05-04

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy.

  20. Proceedings of recent innovations and experience with plant monitoring and utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, I.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Recent Innovations and Experience with Plant Monitoring and Utility Operations. Topics covered include: a number of innovative actions recently applied at plants in the United States, Australia, and the People's Republic of China. A preview of forthcoming instrumentation and monitoring techniques, enhanced boiler and turbine operations and maintenance, determining root causes of boiler related problems, welding technique that eliminates high temperature, post weld heat treatment, successful application of a portable oil filtration skid, and a method of evaluation for high pressure turbine life assessment using the EPRI rotor life assessment software

  1. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (psurgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  2. Research on Utilizing a Multivariate Feedback Algorithm to Maintain Stable Operation of Variable Energy Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ausdeln, L.A.; Cordes, G.A.; Haskell, K.J.; Jones, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements performed utilizing particle accelerators rely on the stability and reproducibility of the accelerator operation, most notably for beam flux (beam current) and beam energy. This can be vital when the measurements rely on previous calibrations performed to establish a standard on which to base the end result of the measurement. The authors have designed a monitoring and control virtual instrument (VI) based on National Instruments LabVIEW TM which calls external modeling code that is written in a standard programming language. The LabVIEWTM virtual instrument allows the user to monitor multiple accelerator parameters while permitting user control of the most important four of these parameters which determine machine operation. The external modeling code, the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), incorporates as a kernel the Universal Process Model (UPM) software from Triant Technologies, Inc. The kernel executes the accelerator modeling function based on previously acquired history data of the relevant parameters for accelerator operation for conditions of interest. This history data is stored as a reference set prior to subsequent operation. During accelerator operation, 11 accelerator parameters are input to ADVVS from the LabVIEW TM virtual instrument. The ADVVS uses the reference files to predict the eleven parameter values that would normally be expected for optimal accelerator operation. The set of 11 model values is the nearest model state. This multivariate modeling approach presented two principal advantages: 1. The ADVVS allowed rapid detection of anomalous accelerator behavior variant from normal accelerator behavior recorded in the reference set of the kernel. 2. The ADVVS presented a methodology to incrementally tune the accelerator back to optimal operation, thus maintaining highly stable and reproducible operation. In the future, this methodology may also be utilized to tune the accelerator initially or move

  3. Remediation of a uranium-contaminated quarry utilizing submersible, remotely operated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) Disposal Site on the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation was previously used to treat and dispose of pyrophoric and water-reactive wastes contaminated with small quantities of radioactive materials (almost exclusively uranium and uranium daughters) from processes at the Department of Energy-owned, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes remediation techniques utilizing a small, remotely operated submarine with an attached camera to visually locate waste containers, determine whether containers have been breached, transport small containers, and direct a larger remotely operated grappling machine to move larger waste for shredding operations. Most of the solid waste is reduced under water by a metal shredder. Non-shreddable items (e. g. , gas cylinders and larger structures) are mechanically breached under water to allow the contents to fully react. The waste is then removed from the water, monitored, the material is segregated, and transported to a temporary waste storage area until disposal

  4. Utilization of a full-scope simulation for training the operating personel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A full-scope simulator of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant has been installed at the NUCLEBRAS Training Center in Mambucaba - close to the site where that Plant is being built -, the goal of providing training for the operating personnel of the KWU-design nuclear power plants to be installed in Brazil. Due to the delays which occurred in the construction of Angra-2, NUCLEBRAS has established an extensive program for the utilization of the simulator for the training of operators for German nuclear power plants and for Spain's Trillo Plant. Besides yielding profits to NUCLEBRAS, that program is resulting in considerable experience in the area of nuclear power plant operators' training generating international recognition to the NUCLEBRAS Training Center. (Author) [pt

  5. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  6. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part I - RA nuclear reactor operation, maintenance and utilization in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Sulem, B.; Badrljica, R.; Majstorovic, D.; Sanovic, V.

    1984-12-01

    During the 1984 the reactor operation was limited by the temporary operating license issued by the Committee of Serbian ministry for health and social care. The reason was the non existing emergency cooling system and lack of appropriate filters in the special ventilation system. This temporary license has limited the reactor power to 2 MW from 1981. Operation of the primary cooling system was changed in order to avoid appearance of the previously noticed aluminium oxyhydrate on the surface of the fuel element claddings. The new cooling regime enabled more efficient heavy water purification. Control and maintenance of the reactor instrumentation and tools was done regularly but dependent on the availability of the spare parts. In order to enable future reliable operation of the RA reactor, according to new licensing regulations, during 1984, three major tasks are planned: building of the new emergency system, reconstruction of the existing ventilation system, and renewal of the reactor instrumentation. Financing of the planned activities will be partly covered by the IAEA. this Part I of the report includes 8 Annexes describing in detail the reactor operation, and 6 special papers dealing with the problems of reactor operation and utilization

  7. The Effects of Operational and Environmental Variables on Efficiency of Danish Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement is one of three patterns a public utility should follow in order to get funds for investments realization. The other two are recourse to bank loans or to private equity and tariff increase. Efficiency can be improved, for example, by growth and vertical integration and may be conditioned by environmental variables, such as customer and output density. Prior studies into the effects of these variables on the efficiency of water utilities do not agree on certain points (e.g., scale and economies of scope and rarely consider others (e.g., density economies. This article aims to contribute to the literature by analysing the efficiency of water utilities in Denmark, observing the effects of operational and environmental variables. The method is based on two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA applied to 101 water utilities. We found that the efficiency of the water sector was not affected by the observed variables, whereas that of wastewater was improved by smaller firm size, vertical integration strategy, and higher population density.

  8. Adaptive Control of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Operating in Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to nonlinear applications, such as wind turbines, which are difficult to accurately model and which have effects from poorly known operating environments. The turbulent and unpredictable conditions in which wind turbines operate create many challenges for their operation. In this paper, we design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility scale, variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller in Region 3 is to regulate generator speed and reject step disturbances. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. We use an extension of the Direct Model Reference Adaptive Control (DMRAC) approach to track a reference point and to reject persistent disturbances. The turbine simulation models the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The CART is a utility-scale wind turbine which has a well-developed and extensively verified simulator. The adaptive collective pitch controller for Region 3 was compared in simulations with a bas celliansesical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. In the simulations, the adaptive pitch controller showed improved speed regulation in Region 3 when compared with the baseline PI pitch controller and it demonstrated robustness to modeling errors.

  9. Results of Operation and Utilization of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien; Luong Ba Vien; Le Vinh Vinh; Duong Van Dong; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Pham Ngoc Son; Cao Dong Vu

    2014-01-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) with the nominal power of 500 kW was reconstructed and upgraded from the USA 250-kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor built in early 1960s. The renovated reactor was put into operation on 20 March 1984. It was designed for the purposes of radioisotope production (RI), neutron activation analysis (NAA), basic and applied researches, and nuclear education and training. During the last 30 years of operation, the DNRR was efficiently utilized for producing many kinds of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine centers and other users in industry, agriculture, hydrology and scientific research; developing a combination of nuclear analysis techniques (INAA, RNAA, PGNAA) and physic-chemical methods for quantitative analysis of about 70 elements and constituents in various samples; carrying out experiments on the reactor horizontal beam tubes for nuclear data measurement, neutron radiography and nuclear structure study; and establishing nuclear training and education programs for human resource development. This paper presents the results of operation and utilization of the DNRR. In addition, some main reactor renovation projects carried out during the last 10 years are also mentioned in the paper. (author)

  10. Co-operative planning by utilities and local authorities. A solution to solve climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenzing, C.; Steidle, T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the deregulation of German energy markets 1998 we can observe diverging planning interests and priorities of the local communities on one side and the local energy utilities on the other side. This seriously endangers the consensus in local energy planning achieved in the past which will be crucial in order to identify and implement effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies. This paper presents a co-operative planning approach which embeds systems analysis into a well structured communication, mediation and learning process for decision making. This process is supported by the cooperative modeling system MESAP, a software for energy and environmental planning, which integrates different energy models with an energy information system. This allows to combine traditional local energy planning with the more business oriented view of the utilities. The specific design of MESAP allows for a continuous 'sustainable' planning and monitoring similar to business tools for accounting and controlling in companies. (author)

  11. Mobile Virtual Network Operator Information Systems for Increased Sustainability in Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Hallur Leivsgard; Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    sales from efficiency of business processes, underlying information systems, and the ability to make the link from consumption to cost visual and transparent to consumers. The conclusion is that the energy sector should look into other sectors and learn from information systems which ease up business......, sales and buying processes are separated from physical networks and energy production. This study aims to characterise and evaluate information systems supporting the transformation of the free market-orientation of energy and provision of utilities in a cross-sectorial proposition known as Mobile...... Virtual Network Operator (MVNO). Emphasis is particularly on standardised information systems for automatically linking consumers, sellers and integration of network infrastructure actors. The method used is a feasibility study assessing business and information processes of a forthcoming utilities market...

  12. Integrating solar PV (photovoltaics) in utility system operations: Analytical framework and Arizona case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Heaney, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with sub-hourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. - Highlights: • We propose an analytical framework to estimate grid integration costs for solar PV. • Increased operating costs from variability and uncertainty in solar PV are computed. • A case study of a utility in Arizona is conducted. • Grid integration costs are found in the $1.0–4.4/MWh range for a 17% PV penetration. • Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing grid integration costs

  13. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  14. Current status of operation and utilization of the Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien; Le Van So

    2004-01-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW swimming pool type reactor using the Soviet WWR-SM fuel assembly with 36% enrichment of U-235. It was upgraded from the USA 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor. The first criticality of the renovated reactor was in November 1983 and its regular operation at nominal power of 500 kW has been since March 1984. The DNRR is operated mainly in continuous runs of 100 hrs, once every 4 weeks, for radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses and research purposes. The remaining time between two continuous runs is devoted to maintenance activities and also to short run for physics experiments and training purpose. From the first start-up to the end of December 2002, it totaled about 24,700 hrs of operation and the total energy released was 490 MWd. After 10 years of operation with the core of 89-fuel assembly configuration, in April 1994, the first refueling work was done and the 100-fuel assembly configuration was set-up. The second fuel reloading was executed in March 2002. At present time, the working configuration of the reactor core consists of 104 fuel assemblies. This fuel reloading will ensure efficient exploitation of the reactor for about 3 years with 1200-1300 hrs per year at nominal power. The current status of operation and utilization and some activities related to the reactor core management of the DNRR are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Current status of operation and utilization of the Dalat Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien

    2006-01-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW pool-type reactor using the Soviet VVR-M2 fuel assembly with 36% enrichment of U-235. It was renovated and upgraded from the USA 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor. The first criticality of the renovated reactor was in November 1983 and its regular operation at nominal power of 500 kW has been since March 1984. The DNRR is operated mainly in continuous runs of 100 hrs, once every 4 weeks, for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, scientific research and training. The remaining time between two continuous runs is devoted to maintenance activities and also to short run for reactor physics and thermal hydraulics experiments. From the first start-up to the end of December 2003, it totaled about 26,000 hrs of operation and the total energy released was about 515 MWd. After 10 years of operation with the core of 89-fuel assembly configuration, in April 1994, the first refueling work was done and the 100-fuel assembly configuration was set-up. The second fuel reloading was executed in March 2002. At present time, the working configuration of the reactor core consists of 104 fuel assemblies. The next fuel reloading has been planned at the end of 2004. The current status of operation and utilization of the DNRR is presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  17. Analysis of air safety in the European system of air traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Є. Луппо

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  Article describes air traffic safety provision requirements in the Air Traffic Management system of Europe. Consideration of air traffic variation which affecting the air traffic management operations have been reviewed.

  18. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  19. Current status of operation, utilization and refurbishment of the Dalat nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien.

    1993-01-01

    The reconstructed nuclear research reactor at Dalat, Vietnam has been put into operation since March 1984. Up to present a cumulative operation time of 13,172 hrs at nominal power (500 kW) has been recorded. Production of radioisotopes for medical uses, element analysis by using activation techniques, as well as fundamental and applied research with filtered neutrons are the main activities of reactor utilizations. The problems facing Dalat Nuclear Research Institute are the ageing of the re-used TRIGA-MARK-II reactor components (especially the corrosion of the reactor tank), as well as the obsolescence of many equipment and components of the reactor control and instrumentation system. Refurbishment works are being in process with the technical and financial supports from the Vietnam government and the IAEA. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs, 10 figs

  20. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  1. Reducing operating costs: A collaborative approach between industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyers, B.; Sibbald, L.

    1993-01-01

    The unit cost of electricity to industrial consumers is expected to increase at a rate of 5% annually in the 1990s. The partnership that has been created between Amoco Canada Petroleum Company and TransAlta Utilities to control the cost of electricity is described. To allow the company to receive lower rates for interruptible power, a number of measures have been taken. The Amoco Whitecourt plant has standby generators in reserve that can be used when utility power is not available. A Pembina compressor can be turned off for up to 12 hours, at 30 minutes notice, without affecting field pressure. At the East Crossfield plant sales gas can be compressed using electricity or a gas-driven engine. Spot market energy is used in a number of plants allowing electric drive alternatives to plant operators and offering short term energy markets. TransAlta invests in electrical equipment such as switchgear as well as transmission lines and transformers. New rate alternatives offered by TransAlta Utilities include review of the need for a demand ratchet, additional time of use rates, unbundling of rates allowing power purchase from alternative sources, rates that follow product costs, reduced rates for conversion of gas to electric drives certain circumstances, energy audits, and power factor credits. 5 figs

  2. RA Research reactor Annual report 1982 - Part 1, Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Kozomara-Maic, S.; Cupac, S.; Radivojevic, J.; Stamenkovic, D.; Skoric, M.; Miokovic, J.

    1982-12-01

    Reactor test operation started in September 1981 at 2 MW power with 80% enriched fuel continued during 1982 according to the previous plan. The initial reactor core was made of 44 fuel channel each containing 10 fuel slugs. The first half of 1982 was used for the needed measurements and analysis of operating parameters and functioning of reactor systems and equipment under operating conditions. Program concerned with the testing operation at higher power levels was started in the second half of this year. It was found that the inherent excess reactivity and control rod worths ensure safe operation according to the IAEA safety standards. Excess reactivity is high enough to enable higher power level of 4.7 MW during 4 monthly cycles each lasting 15-20 days. Favourable conditions for cooling exist for the initial core configuration. Effects of poisoning at startup on the reactivity and power density distribution were measured as well as initial spatial distribution of the neutron flux which was 3,9 10 13 cm -2 s -1 at 2 MW power. Modification of the calibration coefficient in the system for automated power level control was determined. All the results show that all the safety criteria and limitations concerned with fuel utilization are fulfilled if reactor power would be 4.7 MW. Additional testing operation at 3, 4, and 4.7 MW power levels will be needed after obtaining the licence for operating at nominal power. Transition from the initial core with 44 fuel channels to the equilibrium lattice configuration with 72 fuel channels each containing 10 fuel slugs, would be done gradually. Reactor was not operated in September because of the secondary coolant pipes were exchanged between Danube and the horizontal sedimentary. Control and maintenance of the reactor equipment was done regularly and efficiently dependent on the availability of the spare parts. Difficulties in maintenance of the reactor instrumentation were caused by unavailability of the outdated spare parts

  3. Traffic Command Gesture Recognition for Virtual Urban Scenes Based on a Spatiotemporal Convolution Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent recognition of traffic police command gestures increases authenticity and interactivity in virtual urban scenes. To actualize real-time traffic gesture recognition, a novel spatiotemporal convolution neural network (ST-CNN model is presented. We utilized Kinect 2.0 to construct a traffic police command gesture skeleton (TPCGS dataset collected from 10 volunteers. Subsequently, convolution operations on the locational change of each skeletal point were performed to extract temporal features, analyze the relative positions of skeletal points, and extract spatial features. After temporal and spatial features based on the three-dimensional positional information of traffic police skeleton points were extracted, the ST-CNN model classified positional information into eight types of Chinese traffic police gestures. The test accuracy of the ST-CNN model was 96.67%. In addition, a virtual urban traffic scene in which real-time command tests were carried out was set up, and a real-time test accuracy rate of 93.0% was achieved. The proposed ST-CNN model ensured a high level of accuracy and robustness. The ST-CNN model recognized traffic command gestures, and such recognition was found to control vehicles in virtual traffic environments, which enriches the interactive mode of the virtual city scene. Traffic command gesture recognition contributes to smart city construction.

  4. Utility of an airframe referenced spatial auditory display for general aviation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M. Hassan; Wigdahl, Alan J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    2009-05-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) completed flight testing with an airframe-referenced localized audio cueing display. The purpose was to assess its affect on pilot performance, workload, and situational awareness in two scenarios simulating single-pilot general aviation operations under instrument meteorological conditions. Each scenario consisted of 12 test procedures conducted under simulated instrument meteorological conditions, half with the cue off, and half with the cue on. Simulated aircraft malfunctions were strategically inserted at critical times during each test procedure. Ten pilots participated in the study; half flew a moderate workload scenario consisting of point to point navigation and holding pattern operations and half flew a high workload scenario consisting of non precision approaches and missed approach procedures. Flight data consisted of aircraft and navigation state parameters, NASA Task Load Index (TLX) assessments, and post-flight questionnaires. With localized cues there was slightly better pilot technical performance, a reduction in workload, and a perceived improvement in situational awareness. Results indicate that an airframe-referenced auditory display has utility and pilot acceptance in general aviation operations.

  5. Pick-up and Delivery: A Comparison of Functional Alignments and the Impact on Customer Service and Vehicle Operator Utilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Booher, Shawn K

    2005-01-01

    ...) to the Vehicle Operations section (LGRVO). The motivation of this initiative, more specifically referred to as Supply/Transportation Reengineering, was to streamline similar processes, and to effectively and efficiently utilize resources...

  6. Research and development of power reactor technology supporting work, 3; Development of utility facility operation management technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Demands on utility facilities for nuclear technology development are increasingly sophisticated and diversified. It is important to meet requirements of securing the reliability of utility supply and ensuring the safety of facility operation and maintenance by means of technical supporting, data supply and quick contingency responses. A New computer system to make practicable man-machine interface, real-time data acquisition and operation data centralization has been developed based on the knowledge. Obtained from data base information and operation experience for the purpose of operation efficiency and labor saving. (author).

  7. Air Traffic Control Officer AFSC 13MX OSSN 2335

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Air Traffic Control Officer utilization field was surveyed to better understand the utilization of AFSC 1 3MX personnel, validate training requirements, empirically determine career progression...

  8. Current status of operation and utilization of the Dalat Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Nguyen Nhi

    2006-01-01

    research reactors used Russia fuels was submitted to Russian Government though IAEA. After that, the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program was established and trilateral discussions among the United State, the Russian Federation and the IAEA started. In this aspect, the Dalat reactor core has been considered to insert fresh LEU FAs instead of fresh HEU FAs. It means the mixed core of HEU and LEU FAs may be used in the coming years. For these purposes, neutronics and thermal hydraulics calculations and safety analyses should be done. The current status of the reactor operation and utilization as well as some results on in-core fuel management of the DNRR are presented in this paper. Some activities to participating in the project on Research Reactor Technology for Effective Utilization are proposed for discussions. (author)

  9. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    MATRIX is a group of scientists who have common interests in utilizing x-ray synchrotron radiation for materials research. This group has developed a specialized beam line (X-18A) for x-ray scattering studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beam line was designed to optimize experimental conditions for diffuse scattering and surface/interface studies. An extension of diffuse scattering to provide better quantitative data has been shown as well as a unique application to the solution of the phase problem. In the x-ray surface scattering area the first reported experiment to illustrate the capabilities for studying monolayers on water was performed. Current beam line upgrade projects are also described. In addition to a change to a UHV system and improvements dictated by operational experience, two new systems are described, a unique small angle scattering chamber (SAXS) for dynamic studies of nucleation and growth and a surface scattering chamber. 5 figs

  10. Cogeneration with natural gas fired internal combustion engines: Italian utility's 10 years operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montermini, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experience that AGAC, an Italian gas and water utility, has acquired in the operation of a 116 Km long district heating network serving about 40,000 inhabitants. The network is powered by a mix of methane fuelled Otto and diesel cycle engines, coal fired fluidized bed boilers, and methane fired boilers producing annually about 153,000 kW of thermal energy, 2,300 kW of cooling energy, and 28.8 million kWh of electric power. This paper reports on the performance of this system in terms of production and sales trends, equipment efficiency and compatibility with new European Communities air pollution standards

  11. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  12. Project financing consequences on cogeneration: industrial plant and municipal utility co-operation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Gunnel; Sjoedin, J.Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The liberalisation of the European electricity market influences investment decisions in combined heat and power plants. Energy companies modify their business strategies and their criteria for investments in power generation capacity. In this paper, the gains from a co-operation between a paper mill and municipal utility are studied. We find that a widened system boundary, including both the industrial plant and the district heating company, increases cost-effectiveness by 7-11%, compared to a situation with two separately optimised systems. Furthermore, optimal investments are strongly influenced by the actors' different required returns. With a relatively low required rate of return on energy investments, typical for a municipally owned utility, the most profitable investment is a wood chips-fuelled cogeneration plant. With a higher rate of return on capital, typical for a competitive industry, the optimal investment is mainly a heat-only steam boiler. Finally, some general influences on required rate of return caused by electricity market deregulation are observed. Whilst tending to increase companies' required returns, deregulation may, besides extending the outlet for locally generated electricity, also obstruct long-term high-cost investments such as cogeneration based on conventional technology

  13. Demographic, Operational, and Healthcare Utilization Factors Associated with Emergency Department Patient Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew W.; Salzman, Joshua G.; LeFevere, Robert C.; Thomas, Avis J.; Isenberger, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The primary aim of this study was to determine which objectively-measured patient demographics, emergency department (ED) operational characteristics, and healthcare utilization frequencies (care factors) were associated with patient satisfaction ratings obtained from phone surveys conducted by a third-party vendor for patients discharged from our ED. Methods This is a retrospective, observational analysis of data obtained between September 2011 and August 2012 from all English- and Spanish-speaking patients discharged from our ED who were contacted by a third-party patient satisfaction vendor to complete a standardized nine-item telephone survey by a trained phone surveyor. We linked data from completed surveys to the patient’s electronic medical record to abstract additional demographic, ED operational, and healthcare utilization data. We used univariate ordinal logistic regression, followed by two multivariate models, to identify significant predictors of patient satisfaction. Results We included 20,940 patients for analysis. The overall patient satisfaction ratings were as follows: 1=471 (2%); 2=558 (3%); 3=2,014 (10%), 4=5,347 (26%); 5=12,550 (60%). Factors associated with higher satisfaction included race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic Black; Hispanic patients), age (patients ≥65), insurance (Medicare), mode of arrival (arrived by bus or on foot), and having a medication ordered in the ED. Patients who felt their medical condition did not improve, those treated in our ED behavioral health area, and those experiencing longer wait times had reduced satisfaction. Conclusion These findings provide a basis for development and evaluation of targeted interventions that could be used to improve patient satisfaction in our ED. PMID:26265963

  14. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  15. Present status of operation and utilization of Kyoto University Reactor, KUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro

    1988-01-01

    The Research Reactor Institute was established as an inter-university research institute in 1963. The main installation of the Institute is the KUR, a light water moderated, tank type reactor of 5,000 kW. In addition, a 46 MeV electron linear accelerator and a gamma ray irradiation facility with 10,000 Ci Co-60 are actively used for research. In 1974, Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) was constructed, and it has been used for research and education. The Reactor Utilization Center and the Fundamental Research Laboratory for Neutron Therapy were established in 1975 and 1976, respectively. Approximately 200 people work there, of them, some 80 do research and education, including 13 professors and 12 associate professors. All the experimental facilities of the Institute are available for the cooperative research projects of other universities and public research institutions in the fields of natural science and engineering, medical science, agriculture and forestry, fishery and stock-raising, environment science, cultural science and others. As a rule, the KUR is operated for about 70 hours from Tuesday morning to Friday evening every week. The annual examination by the government is carried out in spring. The total operation time was about 45,000 hours as of the end of 1987. The recent topics are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-01-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ''like for like'' replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants

  17. Modeling the heterogeneous traffic correlations in urban road systems using traffic-enhanced community detection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Liu, Kang; Duan, Yingying; Cheng, Shifen; Du, Fei

    2018-07-01

    A better characterization of the traffic influence among urban roads is crucial for traffic control and traffic forecasting. The existence of spatial heterogeneity imposes great influence on modeling the extent and degree of road traffic correlation, which is usually neglected by the traditional distance based method. In this paper, we propose a traffic-enhanced community detection approach to spatially reveal the traffic correlation in city road networks. First, the road network is modeled as a traffic-enhanced dual graph with the closeness between two road segments determined not only by their topological connection, but also by the traffic correlation between them. Then a flow-based community detection algorithm called Infomap is utilized to identify the road segment clusters. Evaluated by Moran's I, Calinski-Harabaz Index and the traffic interpolation application, we find that compared to the distance based method and the community based method, our proposed traffic-enhanced community based method behaves better in capturing the extent of traffic relevance as both the topological structure of the road network and the traffic correlations among urban roads are considered. It can be used in more traffic-related applications, such as traffic forecasting, traffic control and guidance.

  18. Concept of Operations : SeaTA-Enhanced Travel Time Estimates and Traffic Management Practices for the St. Lawrence Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    This Concept of Operations (ConOps) is the final installment in a series of three reports focused on identifying opportunities for the application of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologyor equivalentwithin the maritime transportat...

  19. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  20. Decline traffic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  1. An integrated GIS environment enhancing the operation and planning of power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yared, George Antoine

    1996-05-01

    The evolution of electrical power systems was tightly geared by the development of two fields: power engineering, with the advanced technology of physical elements comprising all parts of a power system, and information processing tools to manage the performance of electric power utilities. Compared to power engineering that has gone through tremendous developments, information technology applications for electrical power systems are relatively young. The possible improvements of these applications are in their graphical, mapping an data analysis capabilities. State-of-the art information technology such as Geographic Information Systems provides these facilities. The objective of this thesis is to devise a technique that combines power system software tools with the Geographic Information Systems software to enhance the operation, control and planning of electrical transmission systems. The load flow, voltage control and fault analysis models for the transmission system will be re-engineered in a Geographic Information System environment.The research is generic, special attention is given to its application to the Lebanese electrical power system, which is recovering from an infrastructure devastating war. The research entails integrating power systems analysis and control package, or PSACP developed at the AUB within a Geographic Information Systems environment. This will enhance the power modeling capabilities by the use of powerful thematic mapping, geographic and data analysis and user interface techniques that come with Geographic Information Systems. An overview of the two technologies involved is presented, followed by a detailed description of the integration technique before describing the integrated system. Moving to a higher level, the features of the system are presented, followed by sample applications of the integrated system on the Lebanese electrical power system. The thesis contributes to the research arena by developing a software re

  2. 76 FR 49841 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Commission-approved RTOs and ISOs. The Commission stated that it expected all non-public utility transmission... transmission planning processes that public utility transmission providers in regions outside of RTOs and ISOs...

  3. Performance evaluation of traffic sensing and control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    High quality vehicle detection is essential to properly operate actuated phases at traffic signals and to facilitate effective : management of technician and engineering resources. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 20...

  4. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 193 [Docket No.: FAA-2013-0375] Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and... Disclosure. SUMMARY: The FAA is proposing that safety information provided to it under the T-SAP, established... to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address aviation safety hazards...

  5. Prediction of post-operative necrosis after mastectomy: A pilot study utilizing optical diffusion imaging spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xian-Jin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Flap necrosis and epidermolysis occurs in 18-30% of all mastectomies. Complications may be prevented by intra-operative detection of ischemia. Currently, no technique enables quantitative valuation of mastectomy skin perfusion. Optical Diffusion Imaging Spectroscopy (ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter measures the ratio of oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin over a 1 × 1 cm area to obtain a non-invasive measurement of perfusion (StO2. Methods This study evaluates the ability of ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter to predict mastectomy flap necrosis. StO2 measurements were taken at five points before and at completion of dissection in 10 patients. Data collected included: demographics, tumor size, flap length/thickness, co-morbidities, procedure length, and wound complications. Results One patient experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Five patients underwent immediate reconstruction, including the patient with necrosis. Statistically significant factors contributing to necrosis included reduction in medial flap StO2 (p = 0.0189, reduction in inferior flap StO2 (p = 0.003, and flap length (p = 0.009. Conclusion StO2 reductions may be utilized to identify impaired perfusion in mastectomy skin flaps.

  6. Operational verification of a blow out preventer utilizing fiber Bragg grating based strain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan L.; Loustau, Philippe; Thibodeau, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Ultra-deep water BOP (Blowout Preventer) operation poses numerous challenges in obtaining accurate knowledge of current system integrity and component condition- a salient example is the difficulty of verifying closure of the pipe and shearing rams during and after well control events. Ascertaining the integrity of these functions is currently based on a manual volume measurement performed with a stop watch. Advances in sensor technology now permit more accurate methods of BOP condition monitoring. Fiber optic sensing technology and particularly fiber optic strain gauges have evolved to a point where we can derive a good representation of what is happening inside a BOP by installing sensors on the outside shell. Function signatures can be baselined to establish thresholds that indicate successful function activation. Based on this knowledge base, signal variation over time can then be utilized to assess degradation of these functions and subsequent failure to function. Monitoring the BOP from the outside has the advantage of gathering data through a system that can be interfaced with risk based integrity management software and/or a smart monitoring system that analyzes BOP control redundancies without the requirement of interfacing with OEM control systems. The paper will present the results of ongoing work on a fully instrumented 13-½" 10,000 psi pipe ram. Instrumentation includes commonly used pressure transducers, accelerometers, flow meters, and optical strain gauges. Correlation will be presented between flow, pressure, acceleration signatures and the fiber optic strain gauge's response as it relates to functional verification and component level degradation trending.

  7. THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL OPERATIONS OF UTILITY COMPANIES ON THE FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Stanić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main topic will be the financing of utility companies and the financial impact on the budget of the local business units. A special emphasis will be placed on the financing of utility companies in Slavonski Brod. The paper defines each area of utility services and presents the utilities as services of public interest as well their privatization in general. The paper reports on the financing of these services and on the European Union regulations and directives concerning them. In addition, the paper includes an overview of the sources of funding of utility companies and loan opportunities. Guarantees and subsidies are included as financing measures of the activities of communal companies. The practical part presents an interview with key individuals of the city of Slavonski Brod with regard to the impact of the budget on the financing of utility services of the utility company in this city – “Komunalac Ltd.”.

  8. Traffic Perturbation

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM

  9. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  10. Coordinated Traffic Incident and Congestion Management (TIM-CM) : Mitigating Regional Impacts of Major Traffic Incidents in the Seattle I-5 Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Within the Seattle metropolitan area, traffic incident management (TIM) operations provide a multi-jurisdictional and coordinated strategy to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents so that traffic flow can be restored quickly and safely. The...

  11. Utilization of the NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites (NOS3) for V&V of STF-1’s Semiautonomous On-Orbit Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Grubb, Matthew; Lucas, John; Morris, Justin; Zemerick, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Operational Simulator for Small Satellites (NOS3) is a suite of software tools that significantly aids the SmallSat community with software development, integration and test (I&T), mission operations/training, verification and validation (V&V), and software systems check-out. NOS3 has been utilized extensively for NASA’s Simulation-to-Flight 1 (STF-1) cubesat mission with respect to V&V of its semiautonomous science operations. NOS3 provides a software development environment, a mult...

  12. Controlled deposition and utilization of carbon on Ni-YSZ anodes of SOFCs operating on dry methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Yong; Zhang, Liqin; An, Wenting; Zhou, Wei; Sha, Yujing; Shao, Zongping; Bai, Jianping; Li, Si-Dian

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising power-generation systems to utilize methane or methane-based fuels with a high energy efficiency and low environmental impact. A successive multi-stage process is performed to explore the operation of cells using dry methane or the deposited carbon from methane decomposition as fuel. Stable operation can be maintained by optimizing the fuel supply and current density parameters. An electrochemical impedance analysis suggests that the partial oxidization of Ni can occur at anodes when the carbon fuel is consumed. The stability of cells operated on pure methane is investigated in three operating modes. The cell can run in a comparatively stable state with continuous power output in an intermittent methane supply mode, where the deposition and utilization of carbon is controlled by balancing the fuel supply and consumption. The increase in the polarization resistance of the cell might originate from the small amount of NiO and residual carbon at the anode, which can be removed via an oxidation-and-reduction maintenance process. Based on the above strategy, this work provides an alternative operating mode to improve the stability of direct methane SOFCs and demonstrates the feasibility of its application. - Highlights: • A new strategy to control the deposition and utilization of carbon was developed. • A stable fuel cell operation was obtained with an intermittent fuel supply mode. • Polarization resistance increased due to small amount of NiO and residual carbon.

  13. Simulation of emergency response operations for a static chemical spill within a building using an opportunistic resource utilization network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilien, L.T.; Elbes, M.W.; Ben Othmane, L.; Salih, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate supporting emergency response operations with opportunistic resource utilization networks ("oppnets"), based on a network paradigm for inviting and integrating diverse devices and systems available in the environment. We simulate chemical spill on a single floor of a building and

  14. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for a nuclear power plant. Guidelines for utility organization and administration plan. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Sommers, P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The Guidelines are intended to provide guidance to the user in preparing a written plan for a proposed nuclear organization and administration. The Guidelines allow for individual approaches to organizational structures to account for differences in plant size, number of operating units, number of plant sites, and the individual utility approach to providing technical support. These unique approaches, however, should meet the criteria of a reasoned, fully developed, and logically consistent focus on the user's organization in terms of organization of work, policies and procedures, staffing, and external relationships

  15. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or parking a vehicle upon a park road, except as authorized by the superintendent, or in the event of an accident or other condition beyond the control of the operator. (b) Operating a vehicle so slowly as to...

  16. Scenarios and business models for mobile network operators utilizing the hybrid use concept of the UHF broadcasting spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yrjölä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and presents scenarios and business models for mobile network operators (MNOs in the novel hybrid use spectrum sharing concept of the Ultra High Frequency broadcasting spectrum (470-790 MHz used for Digital Terrestrial TV (DTT and Mobile Broadband (MBB. More flexible use of the band could lead to higher efficiency in delivering fast growing and converging MBB, media and TV content to meet changing consumer needs. On one hand, this could be beneficial for broadcasters (BC, e.g., by preserving the spectrum, by providing additional revenues, or by lowering cost of the spectrum and, on the other hand, for MNOs to gain faster access to new potentially lower cost, licensed, below 1GHz spectrum to cope with booming data traffic. As a collaborative benefit, the concept opens up new business opportunities for delivering TV and media content using MBB network with means to introduce this flexibly. This paper highlights the importance of developing sound business models for the new spectrum use concept, as they need to provide clear benefits to the key stakeholders to be adopted in real life. The paper applies a future and action oriented approach to the MBB using the concept to derive scenarios and business models for MNOs for accessing hybrid UHF bands. In order to address the convergence and transformation coming with the concept, business models are first developed for the current situation with separate exclusive spectrum bands. Novel business scenarios are then developed for the introduction of the new flexible hybrid UHF spectrum concept. The created business model indicates that the MNOs could benefit significantly from the new UHF bands, which would enable them to cope with increasing data traffic asymmetry, and to offer differentiation through personalized broadcasting and new media services. Moreover, it could significantly re-shape the business ecosystem around both the broadcasting and the mobile broadband by introducing

  17. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot

  18. Operational synergy in the US electric utility industry under an influence of deregulation policy: A linkage to financial performance and corporate value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2011-01-01

    have examined a synergy effect between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. They have compared electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in their financial performance and corporate value. A problem of their study is that it has not empirically measured the operational performance of the electric utility firms. As an extension of the preceding study, this research investigates the operational performance of 104 US electric utility firms (1990-2004) by fully utilizing DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). This study finds the three new policy implications. First, the synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. Thus, core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. Second, the operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996. Thus, the US deregulation policy has been influential on their operational performance. Third, the enhancement in operational performance of electric utility firms has improved their financial performance. The improvement in financial performance has increased their corporate value. Thus, this study finds the business causality among operational performance, financial performance and corporate value in the US electric utility industry. - Research Highlights: →The synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. →Core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. →The operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996.

  19. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  20. Drawing for Traffic Marking Using Bidirectional Gradient-Based Detection with MMS LIDAR Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, G.; Takeda, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014). The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  1. DRAWING FOR TRAFFIC MARKING USING BIDIRECTIONAL GRADIENT-BASED DETECTION WITH MMS LIDAR INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014. The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  2. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section 91.139 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This...

  3. Solution of operational problems utilization of an EX-IRT-2000 heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, Abdu

    1986-01-01

    The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been successfully operated for 21 years, especially in low power operation or as neutron sources for various experiments. Most of the operating time, approximately 80% of routine operation, was dedicated for radio-isotope production. During routine operation for radio-isotope production, the reactor could not be operated at full power. The reactor was operated at 60% of the maximum power (1 MWth) due to the inability of the original heat exchanger to operate properly. The reason is that slack deposition was built-up on the secondary side of the heat exchanger. Therefore, it reduced the coefficient of heat transfer considerably. To solve the problems, a set of heat exchanger including the pump was installed In parallel with the original unit. The heat exchanger was an IRT-2000 Reactor Heat exchanger which was collected from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project. The heat exchanger has capacity of 1.25 MW. The new heat exchanger could reduced the outlet temperature of the primary coolant Into 42 deg. C. While the original-heat exchanger at the worst condition and at 600 kW of power reach outlet temperature 49 deg. C. The IRT Heat Exchanger is a counter flow heat exchanger. (author)

  4. Solution of operational problems utilization of an EX-IRT-2000 heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razak, Abdu [Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques, National Atomic Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    1986-07-01

    The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been successfully operated for 21 years, especially in low power operation or as neutron sources for various experiments. Most of the operating time, approximately 80% of routine operation, was dedicated for radio-isotope production. During routine operation for radio-isotope production, the reactor could not be operated at full power. The reactor was operated at 60% of the maximum power (1 MWth) due to the inability of the original heat exchanger to operate properly. The reason is that slack deposition was built-up on the secondary side of the heat exchanger. Therefore, it reduced the coefficient of heat transfer considerably. To solve the problems, a set of heat exchanger including the pump was installed In parallel with the original unit. The heat exchanger was an IRT-2000 Reactor Heat exchanger which was collected from the abandoned IRT-2000 Project. The heat exchanger has capacity of 1.25 MW. The new heat exchanger could reduced the outlet temperature of the primary coolant Into 42 deg. C. While the original-heat exchanger at the worst condition and at 600 kW of power reach outlet temperature 49 deg. C. The IRT Heat Exchanger is a counter flow heat exchanger. (author)

  5. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local

  6. Operational management within PGEM (Provincial Public Utility for Gelderland and Flevoland in the Netherlands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwland, S.

    1992-01-01

    An impression is given of the present and future electricity, natural gas, heat and water supply area of the Dutch energy utility for the provinces Gelderland and Flevoland PGEM. Also the role of power control is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the company's philosophy 'do locally what can be done locally'. 4 figs

  7. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Conflict Mitigation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    This is a presentation that describes the UAS Traffic Management Approach to an alternate means of compliance with 91.113 right of way regulations. UTM is an "air traffic management" ecosystem for uncontrolled operations.

  8. Impact of standardized clinical assessment and management plans on resource utilization and costs in children after the arterial switch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Rahul H; Jurgen, Brittney; Hamershock, Rose A; Friedman, Kevin G; Marshall, Audrey C; Samnaliev, Mihail; Graham, Dionne A; Jenkins, Kathy; Lock, James E; Powell, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs) are a quality improvement initiative designed to reduce unnecessary utilization, decrease practice variation, and improve patient outcomes. We created a novel methodology, the SCAMP managed episode of care (SMEOC), which encompasses multiple encounters to assess the impact of the arterial switch operation (ASO) SCAMP on total costs. All ASO SCAMP patients (dates March 2009 to July 2015) were compared to a control group of ASO patients (January 2001 to February 2009). Patients were divided into "younger" (operation while maintaining quality of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. RA Research reactor Annual report 1981 - Part 1, Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Milosevic, M.; Martinc, R.; Kozomara-Maic, S.; Cupac, S.; Radivojevic, J.; Stamenkovic, D.; Skoric, M.

    1981-12-01

    The RA nuclear reactor stopped operation after March 1979 campaign due to appearance of aluminium oxyhydrates deposits on the surface of fuel element claddings. Relevant decisions of the Sanitary inspection body of the Ministry of health and the Director General of the 'Boris Kidric' Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, banned further reactor operation until reasons caused aluminium oxyhydrates deposition are investigated and removed to enable regular reactor operation. Until the end of 1979 and during 1980, after a series of analyses and findings that caused cease of reactor operation, all the preparatory actions needed for restart were performed. Due to the fact that there is no emergency cooling system and no appropriate filtering system at the reactor, and according to the new regulations about start up of nuclear facilities, the Sanitary inspection body made a decision about temporary licence for reactor start-up meaning performance of the 'zero experiment' limiting the operating power to 1% of the nominal power. Accordingly the reactor was restarted on January 21 1981. Criticality was reached with the core made of 80% enriched fuel elements only. After the experiment was finished by the end of March a permission was demanded for operation at higher power levels at full power. Taking into account the state of the reactor components the operating licence was issued limiting the power to 2 MW until reconstruction of the ventilation system and construction of the emergency cooling system are fulfilled. Program of testing operation started on September 15 1981 increasing gradually the operating power. Thus the reactor was operated at 2 MW power for 15 days during November and December. The total production achieved in 1981 was 1698 MWh. This enabled isotopes production at the reactor during last two months. Control and maintenance of the reactor components and systems was done regularly and efficiently within limits imposed by availability of spare parts. The

  10. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  11. Modeling of human operator dynamics in simple manual control utilizing time series analysis. [tracking (position)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. C.; Osafo-Charles, F.; Oneill, W. D.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Time series analysis is applied to model human operator dynamics in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. The normalized residual criterion is used as a one-step analytical tool to encompass the processes of identification, estimation, and diagnostic checking. A parameter constraining technique is introduced to develop more reliable models of human operator dynamics. The human operator is adequately modeled by a second order dynamic system both in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. In comparing the data sampling rates, 100 msec between samples is adequate and is shown to provide better results than 200 msec sampling. The residual power spectrum and eigenvalue analysis show that the human operator is not a generator of periodic characteristics.

  12. Operational programs in forest management and priority in the utilization of remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given on operational remote sensing programs in forest management and the importance of remote sensing in forestry is emphasized. Forest service priorities in using remote sensing are outlined.

  13. A Medical Logistics Officer Training Needs Assessment Utilizing Feedback from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waddick, James L

    2004-01-01

    ... their missions during the initial Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment (OIF 1). Additionally, the study sought to identify the potential benefit of additional training on key medical logistics tasks and training events...

  14. Report on operation utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1980 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  15. Operation, maintenance, and utilization of the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimic, V.; Gabrovsek, Z.

    1972-01-01

    The operational data in the years 1970, 1971 and until June 1972 are summarized in the report. No big difference in the total operational hours between different years is observed. Thermal power generation from first criticality in 1966 until 1972 is shown. In the last two years there was in an average 60 MWh generated per month. Only minor modifications have been made in the reporting period

  16. Report on operation, utilization and technical development of research reactors and hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1978 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  17. Report on operation, utilization and technical development of Research Reactors and Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Activities of the Division of Research Reactor Operation in fiscal 1981 are described. The division is responsible for operation and maintenance of JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and Hot Laboratory. In the above connection, various other works are performed, including technical management of fuel and coolant, radiation control, irradiation technique, etc. In Hot Laboratory, postirradiation examinations of fuels and materials are made, and also development of examination methods. (author)

  18. Detection circuit of solenoid valve operation and control rod drive mechanism utilizing the circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takehiko.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To detect the operation of a plunger and detect opening and closing operations of a solenoid valve driving device due to change in impedance of a coil for driving the solenoid valve to judge normality and abnormality of the solenoid valve, thereby increasing reliance and safety of drive and control apparatus of control rods. Structure: An arrangement comprises a drive and operation detector section wherein the operation of a solenoid driving device for controlling power supply to a coil for driving the solenoid valve to control opening and closing of the solenoid valve, and a plunger operation detector section for detecting change in impedance of the drive coil to detect that the plunger of the solenoid valve is either in the opening direction or closing direction, whereby a predetermined low voltage such as not to activate the solenoid valve even when the solenoid valve is open or closed is applied to detect a current flowing into the coil at that time, thus detecting an operating state of the plunger. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. RA Research nuclear reactor, Part I - RA nuclear reactor operation, maintenance and utilization in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Martinc, R.; Kozomara-Maic, S.; Cupac, S.; Raickovic, N.; Radivojevic, J.; Badrljica, R.; Majstorovic, D.; Sanovic, V.

    1983-12-01

    After regular shutdown in November 1982, inspection of the fuel elements from the RA reactor core which was done from December 1982 - February 1983 has shown that there are deposits of aluminium oxides on the surface of the fuel cladding. After restart The RA reactor was operated at power levels from 1.8 - 2 MW, with 80% enriched uranium dioxide fuel elements. It was found that there was no corrosion of the fuel element cladding and that it was not possible to find the cause of surface deposition on the cladding surfaces without further operation. It was decided to purify the heavy water permanently during operation and to increase the heavy water flow by operating two pumps. This procedure was adopted in order to decrease the possibility of corrosion. The Safety committee of the Institute has approved this procedure for operating the RA reactor in 1983. The core was made of 80% enriched fuel, critical experiments were done until June 1983, and after that the operation was continued at power levels up to 2 MW [sr

  20. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  1. Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

  2. A System-Wide Approach to Physician Efficiency and Utilization Rates for Non-Operating Room Anesthesia Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mitchell H; Huynh, Tinh T; Breidenstein, Max W; O'Donnell, Stephen E; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    There has been little in the development or application of operating room (OR) management metrics to non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) sites. This is in contrast to the well-developed management framework for the OR management. We hypothesized that by adopting the concept of physician efficiency, we could determine the applicability of this clinical productivity benchmark for physicians providing services for NORA cases at a tertiary care center. We conducted a retrospective data analysis of NORA sites at an academic, rural hospital, including both adult and pediatric patients. Using the time stamps from WiseOR® (Palo Alto, CA), we calculated site utilization and physician efficiency for each day. We defined scheduling efficiency (SE) as the number of staffed anesthesiologists divided by the number of staffed sites and stratified the data into three categories (SE 1). The mean physician efficiency was 0.293 (95% CI, [0.281, 0.305]), and the mean site utilization was 0.328 (95% CI, [0.314, 0.343]). When days were stratified by scheduling efficiency (SE 1), we found differences between physician efficiency and site utilization. On days where scheduling efficiency was less than 1, that is, there are more sites than physicians, mean physician efficiency (95% CI, [0.326, 0.402]) was higher than mean site utilization (95% CI, [0.250, 0.296]). We demonstrate that scheduling efficiency vis-à-vis physician efficiency as an OR management metric diverge when anesthesiologists travel between NORA sites. When the opportunity to scale operational efficiencies is limited, increasing scheduling efficiency by incorporating different NORA sites into a "block" allocation on any given day may be the only suitable tactical alternative.

  3. Common data buffer system. [communication with computational equipment utilized in spacecraft operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A high speed common data buffer system is described for providing an interface and communications medium between a plurality of computers utilized in a distributed computer complex forming part of a checkout, command and control system for space vehicles and associated ground support equipment. The system includes the capability for temporarily storing data to be transferred between computers, for transferring a plurality of interrupts between computers, for monitoring and recording these transfers, and for correcting errors incurred in these transfers. Validity checks are made on each transfer and appropriate error notification is given to the computer associated with that transfer.

  4. Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this…

  5. "Knife to skin" time is a poor marker of operating room utilization and efficiency in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suvitesh; Ramady, Omar; Monge, Mary; Fitzsimons, Michael G; Kaleta, Terry R; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2015-06-01

    Markers of operation room (OR) efficiency in cardiac surgery are focused on "knife to skin" and "start time tardiness." These do not evaluate the middle and later parts of the cardiac surgical pathway. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate knife to skin time as an efficiency marker in cardiac surgery. We looked at knife to skin time, procedure time, and transfer times in the cardiac operational pathway for their correlation with predefined indices of operational efficiency (Index of Operation Efficiency - InOE, Surgical Index of Operational Efficiency - sInOE). A regression analysis was performed to test the goodness of fit of the regression curves estimated for InOE relative to the times on the operational pathway. The mean knife to skin time was 90.6 ± 13 minutes (23% of total OR time). The mean procedure time was 282 ± 123 minutes (71% of total OR time). Utilization efficiencies were highest for aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting and least for complex aortic procedures. There were no significant procedure-specific or team-specific differences for standard procedures. Procedure times correlated the strongest with InOE (r = -0.98, p knife to skin is not as strong an indicator of efficiency. A statistically significant linear dependence on InOE was observed with "procedure times" only. Procedure times are a better marker of OR efficiency than knife to skin in cardiac cases. Strategies to increase OR utilization and efficiency should address procedure times in addition to knife to skin times. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  7. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, K.F.; Berriochoa, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, 'Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective', University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted

  8. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are

  9. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This document updates the operating scenario and plans for feed delivery to BNFL Inc. of retrieval and waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases 1 and 2 of the River Protection Project. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent guidance from ORP and tank-by-tank inventory. The results provide the technical basis for the RTP-2 planning effort. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the effect of changes on key parameters

  10. Growing Effective Strength without Growing End Strength: Operational Utilization of the Reserve Component during Training Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Assistant Secretary for Legislative Affairs ( ASD (LA)) to identify legislation that impedes the use of RMI to meet operational requirements during active...Its Major Components. Washington DC: Department of Defense, December 21, 2010. ———. DoD Instruction 5100.20: National Security Agency/ Central ...course and speed; communicate that information coherently to the platform launching the weapon; and, launch the attack using anything from a kinetic

  11. Geothermal waste heat utilization from in situ thermal bitumen recovery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakevska, Nevenka; Schincariol, Robert A; Dehkordi, S Emad; Cheadle, Burns A

    2015-01-01

    In situ thermal methods for bitumen extraction introduce a tremendous amount of energy into the reservoirs raising ambient temperatures of 13 °C to as high as 200 °C at the steam chamber edge and 50 °C along the reservoir edge. In essence these operations have unintentionally acted as underground thermal energy storage systems which can be recovered after completion of bitumen extraction activities. Groundwater flow and heat transport models of the Cold Lake, Alberta, reservoir, coupled with a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) model, allowed for investigating the use of closed-loop geothermal systems for energy recovery. Three types of BHEs (single U-tube, double U-tube, coaxial) were tested and analyzed by comparing outlet temperatures and corresponding heat extraction rates. Initial one year continuous operation simulations show that the double U-tube configuration had the best performance producing an average temperature difference of 5.7 °C, and an average heat extraction of 41 W/m. Given the top of the reservoir is at a depth of 400 m, polyethylene piping provided for larger extraction gains over more thermally conductive steel piping. Thirty year operation simulations illustrate that allowing 6 month cyclic recovery periods only increases the loop temperature gain by a factor of 1.2 over continuous operation. Due to the wide spacing of existing boreholes and reservoir depth, only a small fraction of the energy is efficiently recovered. Drilling additional boreholes between existing wells would increase energy extraction. In areas with shallower bitumen deposits such as the Athabasca region, i.e. 65 to 115 m deep, BHE efficiencies should be larger. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Stochastic Optimisation of Battery System Operation Strategy under different Utility Tariff Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Jørgen Sørgård

    2017-01-01

    This master thesis develops a stochastic optimisation software for household grid-connected batteries combined with PV-systems. The objective of the optimisation is to operate the battery system in order to minimise the costs of the consumer, and it was implemented in MATLAB using a self-written stochastic dynamic programming algorithm. Load was considered as a stochastic variable and modelled as a Markov Chain. Transition probabilities between time steps were calculated using historic load p...

  13. Computer utilization for design and operation of the SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.B.; Spence, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    The in-house constructed computer codes at the SuperHILAC can be divided into three main categories: (1) accelerator and component design; (2) control and operation; and (3) performance and diagnostics. The first category includes design programs of rf cavities, magnets, and beam optics. The second group contains programs for administration and logbook entries, machine parameter specifications, and openloop parameter control. Programs in the third category are those which directly or indirectly test the mechanical design and geometry of the machine, such as magnet testing, drift-tube-alignment, beam behavior and diagnostics. The present conversion of the SuperHILAC to computer control and a dual-ion time-sharing mode of operation is outlined in context with the complexities of operating this multi-ion, variable energy accelerator. Routines are discussed from the user's standpoint, covering such topics as on-line/off-line implementation, expected gain, actual results, and differences in characteristics which determine the method of computation. (U.S.)

  14. The success of operation and utilization of the Indonesia multipurpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taryo, Taswanda; Kuntoro, Iman

    2000-01-01

    The Indonesia Multipurpose Reactor G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS), operated by Multipurpose Reactor Center (MPRC/PRSG-BATAN), went its first criticality in July 1987. The reactor then achieved the power of 30 MW thermal in March 1992. Based on user requirement, the reactor is usually operated at the power of 20 MW thermal. The RSG-GAS is put to use mainly for radioisotope production, R and D on reactor safety and by using beam tubes, the reactor can also be applied for R and D on science and materials. Operation and maintenance of the reactor have been well organized due to well technical and administrative management from the top manager to all people involved in those two activities. Within their support, the RSG-GAS has occupied great advantages not only for man power development in our center but also for scientific cooperation with whoever would like to apply the RSG-GAS for R and D with mutual benefit agreement. (author)

  15. Evaluating the Utility of Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture Retrievals for Operational Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John D.; Crow, Wade T.; Zhan, Xiwu; Jackson, Thomas J.; Reynolds,Curt

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental data source used by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) to monitor crop growth stage and condition and subsequently, globally forecast agricultural yields. Currently, the USDA IPAD estimates surface and root-zone soil moisture using a two-layer modified Palmer soil moisture model forced by global precipitation and temperature measurements. However, this approach suffers from well-known errors arising from uncertainty in model forcing data and highly simplified model physics. Here we attempt to correct for these errors by designing and applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA modified Palmer soil moisture model. An assessment of soil moisture analysis products produced from this assimilation has been completed for a five-year (2002 to 2007) period over the North American continent between 23degN - 50degN and 128degW - 65degW. In particular, a data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing EnKF soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline Palmer model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model simulation suggests that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals can add significant value to USDA root-zone predictions derived from real-time satellite precipitation products.

  16. Integration of Behind-the-Meter PV Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Thomas Hoff [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States); Kankiewicz, Adam [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Four major research objectives were completed over the course of this study. Three of the objectives were to evaluate three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models. The fourth objective was to improve the California Independent System Operator’s (ISO) load forecasts by integrating behind-the-meter (BTM) PV forecasts. The three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models included: the infrared (IR) satellite-based cloud motion vector (CMV) model; the WRF-SolarCA model and variants; and the Optimized Deep Machine Learning (ODML)-training model. The first two forecasting models targeted known weaknesses in current operational solar forecasts. They were benchmarked against existing operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts, visible satellite CMV forecasts, and measured PV plant power production. IR CMV, WRF-SolarCA, and ODML-training forecasting models all improved the forecast to a significant degree. Improvements varied depending on time of day, cloudiness index, and geographic location. The fourth objective was to demonstrate that the California ISO’s load forecasts could be improved by integrating BTM PV forecasts. This objective represented the project’s most exciting and applicable gains. Operational BTM forecasts consisting of 200,000+ individual rooftop PV forecasts were delivered into the California ISO’s real-time automated load forecasting (ALFS) environment. They were then evaluated side-by-side with operational load forecasts with no BTM-treatment. Overall, ALFS-BTM day-ahead (DA) forecasts performed better than baseline ALFS forecasts when compared to actual load data. Specifically, ALFS-BTM DA forecasts were observed to have the largest reduction of error during the afternoon on cloudy days. Shorter term 30 minute-ahead ALFS-BTM forecasts were shown to have less error under all sky conditions, especially during the morning time periods when traditional load forecasts often experience their largest

  17. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  18. Heavy precipitation and the responses within emergency management - a new approach for emergency planning and disaster prevention by utilizing fire brigade operation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An increase of intense rainfall events in the center regions of Europe is one of the assumed effects of climate change. Climate scenarios indicate also large seasonal and regional differences concerning the magnitude. Structural damages and financial loss resulting from heavy precipitation depend on natural parameters such as topography and vegetation cover of the specific area, but also on socio-economic parameters such as urbanized and industrialized areas, population density and the presence of critical infrastructure. In particular mudflows and floods cause damages such as flooded basements and streets, undercutting of roads or spilled sewage drains. The emergency management has to consider these effects appropriately. Commonly, this is the responsibilities is taken by the fire brigades and civil protection units. Within their daily routines, numerous data is collected, but commonly not utilized for scientific purposes. In particular fire brigade operation data can be used accordingly to describe the intensity of the aftermath when heavy precipitation strikes a certain area. One application is described in this study based on a example in Offenbach, Germany. The civil protection in Germany is based on a federal system with a bottom-up command-structure and responsibility to the local community. Therefore it is not easy to collect the overall incident data for a widespread affected area. To examine particular local effects of heavy precipitation events it is necessary to match the meteorological data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) with the incident data of all effected fire brigades, which sometimes is impeded by the usual resolution of meteorological data. In this study, a method of comprehensive evaluation of meteorological data and the operation data from local fire brigades has been developed for the Rhine-Main-Area. This area is one of the largest metropolitan regions in Germany with a very high density in population as well as

  19. Upgrading security at nuclear power plants: effect on utility operations and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvesen, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of the new security regulation on Salem Unit No. 1 is discussed. The upgrading of security requirements in 10CFR 73.55 did not alter the basic elements of a security plan established in ANSI 18.17, but rather upgraded the level of the threat to which a security plan must respond. Its basic thrust is first to require a hardening of physical barriers and/or increase the security organization response capability to better neutralize a threat from the outside. Secondly, to implement more extensive search requirements to reduce the threat from inside by preventing the entry of unauthorized material that might be used for sabotage. Thirdly, it requires a reevaluation of security organization responsibilities and preplanning for contingencies to assure effective coordination of all involved parties. The new regulations impact most significantly on two of the five elements of a basic security plan--Physical Barriers and the Security Force and to some extent on administrative controls. At this time, I cannot accurately estimate the cost increase but would guess it will be double or triple our initial costs. There will be reduced productivity to some extent in stores and material handling activities and some impediment to all employees who must pass access control points, however, its overall affect on operating a its overall affect on operating activities should not be significant

  20. General outline of the operation and utilization of the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugnet, J.M.; Leonard, F.; Gandolfo, J.M.; Lenders, H.

    1978-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is a high-flux material testing reactor of the thermal heterogeneous type. The fuel is 93% 235 U enriched uranium in the form of plates clad in aluminium. The moderator consists of beryllium and light water, the water being pressurized (12.5kg/cm 2 )and acting also as coolant. The pressure vessel is of aluminium, and is placed in a pool of demineralized water. One should stress the following main features of the design: the experimental channels are skew, the tube bundle presenting the form of a hyperboloid of revolution (see figure 1)-this gives easy access at the top and bottom reactor covers allowing complex instrumented devices, while maintaining a very high neutron flux at the core; great flexibilty of utilization, due to the fact that it is possible to adapt the core configuration to the experimental loading as the fissile charge can be centred on different experimental channels; although BR2 is a thermal reactor, it is possible to achieve neutron spectra very similar to those obtained in a fast reactor, either by the use of absorbing screens or by the use of fissile material within the experimental device; five 200mm diameter channels are available for loading large experimental irradiation devices, as in-pile sodium, gas or water loops. (author)

  1. Traffic modelling validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, R. van; Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a microscopic traffic model for the validation of advanced driver assistance systems. This model describes single-lane traffic and is calibrated with data from a field operational test. To illustrate the use of the model, a Monte Carlo simulation of single-lane traffic scenarios

  2. The utility experience of implementing the emergency operating procedure tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.C.; Cheng, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the experience of a project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Taiwan Power Company (TPC) and supported by the Nuclear Software Service (NSS), General Electric Company (GE) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to implement the Emergency Operating Procedure Tracking System (EOPTS) in Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station Simulator. Before implement the EOPTS in Kuosheng Simulator, the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) of the Energency Response Facility Technical Data System (ERFTDS) shall be simulated, the hardware and software linkage between the simulator and ERFTDS shall be established, that include installation of a VAX-8200 computer, Gould - Vax computer hardware linkage, ERFTDS software installation, simulator source variables selection and linkage it to the ERFTDS database

  3. Optimization of temperature differences in a utilizer in relation to the lowest sum of capital and operating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustrin, I.; Tuma, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our environment and nature are currently overburdened with the emission of noxious substances. Steam boilers fired with coal are therefore not very popular. Wherever possible, they are being replaced by devices which are less harmful for the environment because they use different fuel. This paper discusses replacing a steam boiler with a gas turbine and an utilizer. A mathematical model for performing the optimization of capital and operating costs is presented. The model optimizes the degree of preheating of the flue gases i.e. the temperature of the entering flue gases. The smallest temperature difference (pinch point) was not estimated by the pinch technology because the presented example is relatively simple and the pinch point temperature difference was chosen according to the values reported in various literature sources. The optimization is supplemented with an analysis of the thermal and exergetical efficiencies of the utilizer under different conditions (average temperature difference between the hot gases and water or steam, exit temperature of the hot gases), which condition the choice of the type of utilizer

  4. Distributed Dynamic Traffic Modeling and Implementation Oriented Different Levels of Induced Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to respond to the variable state of traffic network in time, a distributed dynamic traffic assignment strategy is proposed which can improve the intelligent traffic management. The proposed dynamic assignment method is based on utility theory and is oriented to different levels of induced users. A distributed model based on the marginal utility is developed which combines the advantages of both decentralized paradigm and traveler preference, so as to provide efficient and robust dynamic traffic assignment solutions under uncertain network conditions. Then, the solution algorithm including subroute update and subroute calculation is proposed. To testify the effectiveness of the proposed model in optimizing traffic network operation and minimizing traveler’s cost on different induced levels, a sequence numerical experiment is conducted. In the experiment, there are two test environments: one is in different network load conditions and the other is in different deployment coverage of local agents. The numerical results show that the proposed model not only can improve the running efficiency of road network but also can significantly decrease the average travel time.

  5. Traffic effects on the soil preconsolidation pressure due to eucalyptus harvest operations Efeito do tráfego nas pressões de preconsolidação do solo devido as operações de colheita do eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir de Souza Dias Junior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations for reaching sustainable forest development is related to the traffic of machines and vehicles during harvest operations and wood transport, which may cause soil structure degradation. Seeking a way to analyze this problem, the objective of this study was to determine the traffic effects due to harvest operations and wood transport, on the preconsolidation pressure (sigmap in a Typic Acrustox cultivated with eucalyptus. This study was conducted using undisturbed soil samples collected at the 0.1-0.125 m depth. Undisturbed soil samples were used in the uniaxial compression tests. Soil sampling consisted of two stages, before and after the mechanized harvest operations. The traffic effects on the sigmap in the dry season indicated that the soil compaction process was neither evident nor important. However, in the rainy season the traffic effects on the sigmap indicated that the operations performed with Harvester and Forwarder caused greater soil compaction than those with Motorized Saw and Manual, which caused less soil compaction.Uma das limitações para alcançar o desenvolvimento florestal sustentável está relacionado ao tráfico de máquinas e veículos durante as operações de colheita e transporte de madeira que podem causar degradação da estrutura do solo. Buscando uma maneira para analisar este problema, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito do tráfego devido a operações de colheita e transporte de madeira, nas pressões de preconsolidação (sigmap de um Latosol Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com Eucalyptus. Este estudo foi realizado usando amostras de solo indeformadas coletadas a 0,10-0,125 m de profundidade. As amostras indeformadas foram usadas nos ensaios de compressão de uniaxial. A amostragem consistiu de duas fases, antes e depois das operações de colheita mecanizada. As alterações causadas pelo tráfego nas sigmap na estação seca indicaram que o processo de compactação não foi

  6. Utilizing Strategic and Operational Methods for Whole-Community Disaster Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Stevee; Seaton, Ellen

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of response and recovery efforts to disasters over the past 2 decades has identified a consistent gap that plagues the nation in regard to persons with access and functional needs. This gap can be highlighted by Hurricane Katrina, where the majority of those killed were a part of the access and functional needs population. After a disaster, many individuals with access and functional needs require assistance recovering but often have difficulty accessing services and resources. These difficulties are due to a combination of issues, such as health problems and the disruption of community support services. We sought to help bridge this gap by focusing on strategic and operational methods used while planning for the whole community. This article highlights the many partnerships that must be fostered for successful whole-community planning. These partnerships include, but are not limited to, local government departments, health agencies, nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations, and other volunteer organizations. We showcase these methods by using a developmental Post-Disaster Canvassing Plan to highlight planning methods that may aid jurisdictions across the United States in disaster planning for the whole community. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:741-746).

  7. Study of cold and hot sources in a research reactor. (Physics, specifications, operation, utilization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safieh, J.

    1982-10-01

    A brief description of the reactor, sources and experimental channels (ORPHEE being taken as example) is first given. The first part deals with the hot neutron source, mainly made of a graphite block to be carried at a temperature of 1500 0 K by nuclear heating. The present study focused on the determination, with the code MERCURE IV, of heat sources generated in the graphite block. From these results the spatial distribution of temperatures have been calculated with two different methods. Mechanical and thermal stresses have been calculated for the hot points. Then, the outlet neutron spectra is determined by means of the code APOLLO. Finally, the operation of the device is presented and the risks and the safety measures are given. The second part deals with cold neutron sources comprising mainly a cold moderator (liquid hydrogen 20.4 0 K). The helium coolant circuit liquefies the hydrogen by means of heat exchange in a condenser. Cold neutron yields calculations are developed by means of the code THERMOS in the plane and cyclindrical geometries. Heat sources generated by nuclear radiations are calculated. A detailed description of the device and its coolant circuit is given, and a risk analysis is finally presented. The third part deals with the part of thermal cold and hot neutrons in the study of matter and its dynamics. Technical means needed to obtain a monochromatic beam, for diffraction experiments, are recalled emphasizing on the interest of these neutrons with regard to X radiation. Then, one deals with cold neutron guides. Finally, the efficiency of two neutron guides is calculated. 78 refs [fr

  8. Using GoPro to Give Video-Assisted Operative Feedback for Surgery Residents: A Feasibility and Utility Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maureen D; Abelson, Jonathan S; O'Mahoney, Paul; Bagautdinov, Iskander; Yeo, Heather; Watkins, Anthony C

    As an adjunct to simulation-based teaching, laparoscopic video-based surgical coaching has been an effective tool to augment surgical education. However, the wide use of video review in open surgery has been limited primarily due to technological and logistical challenges. The aims of our study were to (1) evaluate perceptions of general surgery (GS) residents on video-assisted operative instruction and (2) conduct a pilot study using a head-mounted GoPro in conjunction with the operative performance rating system to assess feasibility of providing video review to enhance operative feedback during open procedures. GS residents were anonymously surveyed to evaluate their perceptions of oral and written operative feedback and use of video-based operative resources. We then conducted a pilot study of 10 GS residents to assess the utility and feasibility of using a GoPro to record resident performance of an arteriovenous fistula creation with an attending surgeon. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-square test. Academic, tertiary medical center. GS residents and faculty. A total of 59 GS residents were anonymously surveyed (response rate = 65.5%). A total of 40% (n = 24) of residents reported that structured evaluations rarely or never provided meaningful feedback. When feedback was received, 55% (n = 32) residents reported that it was only rarely or sometimes in regard to their operative skills. There was no significant difference in surveyed responses among junior postgraduate year (PGY 1-2), senior (PGY 3-4), or chief residents (PGY-5). A total of 80% (n = 8) of residents found the use of GoPro video review very or extremely useful for education; they also deemed video review more useful for operative feedback than written or communicative feedback. An overwhelming majority (90%, n = 9) felt that video review would lead to improved technical skills, wanted to review the video with the attending surgeon for further feedback, and desired expansion of

  9. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  10. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  11. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  12. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis of organic Rankine cycle for low grade heat utilization coupling with operation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxiang; Ling, Xiang; Peng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the influence of working fluids selection and operation conditions on the cost-effectiveness performance and net power output of an ORC for low grade heat utilization. A net power output model has been proposed theoretically and compared with the theoretical data calculated from thermodynamic analysis, exhibiting excellent agreements with the theoretical data. The proposed net power output model theoretically indicates that Jacob number and the ratio of evaporating temperature and heat rejected temperature play essential roles in discriminating the net power output among various working fluids at the same operation condition. For a given condensing and evaporating temperature, it can be concluded theoretically that fluid with low Jacob number will show attractive performance in an ORC. The maximum net power output is determined by the heat source rather than working fluids with a low inlet temperature of heat source. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis reveals that the maximum net power output and the best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time and compromise must be made when choosing the most suitable organic working fluids in different ORC designs. -- Highlights: • A net power output model is proposed and compared with theoretical data. • For fixed operation condition, low Ja fluid shows attractive performance in ORC. • The heat source rather than working fluid determines ORC performance at low T hs,in • The peak W net and best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time, compromise must be made

  13. What Can Wireless Cellular Technologies Do about the Upcoming Smart Metering Traffic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Madueño, Germán Corrales; Pratas, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    of distributed energy resources increases, the household power will become more variable and thus unpredictable from the viewpoint of the Distribution System Operator (DSO). It is therefore expected, in the near future, to have an increased number of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) devices with Phasor...... Measurement Unit (PMU)-like capabilities in the distribution grid, thus allowing the utilities to monitor the low voltage grid quality while providing information required for tighter grid control. From a communication standpoint, the traffic profile will change drastically towards higher data volumes...... and higher rates per device. In this paper, we characterize the current traffic generated by smart electricity meters and supplement it with the potential traffic requirements brought by introducing enhanced Smart Meters, i.e., meters with PMU-like capabilities. Our study shows how GSM/GPRS and LTE cellular...

  14. Kansas Department of Transportation enterprise energy and carbon accounting and utility usage research phase 2B : improving energy and fuel efficiencies in KDOT operations, [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of facilities and operations has become an important function for many organizations. In many cases, such as utility and fuel use, reducing these impacts can also be coupled to financial savings. The Kansas Departmen...

  15. Kansas Department of Transportation enterprise energy and carbon accounting and utility usage research phase 2B : improving energy and fuel efficiencies in KDOT operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of facilities and operations has become an important function for many organizations. In many : cases, such as utility and fuel use, reducing these impacts can also be coupled to financial savings. The Kansas Departm...

  16. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  17. Operating experiences and utilization programmes of the BAEC 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.M.; Soner, M.A.M.; Saha, P.K.; Salam, M.A.; Zulquarnain, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    reactor is operated 4 days a week at a power level of 3 MW for production of Iodine-131. During the other one weekday, the reactor is operated at lower power levels (250-500 kW) to cater the needs of NAA and NR groups. At present the total burn-up of the core stands at about 549 Megawatt Days. BAEC has a plan to increase the production of Iodine-131 to install more dry tubes in the core so as to meet the total demand of RI in the country. There is also plan to develop unused experimental facilities such as, thermal column and radial beam ports for strengthening the R and D activities around the reactor. A total of 1147 irradiation requests (IRs) have been catered so far for different reactor uses. The total amount of RI produced stands at about 4200 GBq. The total amount of burn-up-fuel is about 13180 MWh. An ADP project already been taken by BAEC to convert the analog console and I and C system of the reactor into digital one. The paper summarizes the reactor operation, maintenance experiences and utilization programmes focusing on troubleshooting, rectification, modification, RI production, various R and D activities and training program being conducted at the facility. (author)

  18. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  19. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  20. User-driven health care: answering multidimensional information needs in individual patients utilizing post-EBM approaches: an operational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rakesh; Maniam, Jayanthy; Lee, Edwin Wen Huo; Gopal, Premalatha; Umakanth, Shashikiran; Dahiya, Sumit; Ahmed, Sayeed

    2008-10-01

    The hypothesis in the conceptual model was that a user-driven innovation in presently available information and communication technology infrastructure would be able to meet patient and health professional users information needs and help them attain better health outcomes. An operational model was created to plan a trial on a sample diabetic population utilizing a randomized control trial design, assigning one randomly selected group of diabetics to receive electronic information intervention and analyse if it would improve their health outcomes in comparison with a matched diabetic population who would only receive regular medical intervention. Diabetes was chosen for this particular trial, as it is a major chronic illness in Malaysia as elsewhere in the world. It is in essence a position paper for how the study concept should be organized to stimulate wider discussion prior to beginning the study.

  1. IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor: 58 Years of Operating Experience and Utilization for Research, Teaching and Radioisotopes Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Saxena, Rajendra; Filho, Walter Ricci [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 Cid Universitaria CEP: 05508-000- Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    IEA-R1 research reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Nuclear and Energy Research Institute) IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil is the largest power research reactor in Brazil, with a maximum power rating of 5 MWth. It is being used for basic and applied research in the nuclear and neutron related sciences, for the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, and for providing services of neutron activation analysis, real time neutron radiography, and neutron transmutation doping of silicon. IEA-R1 is a swimming pool reactor, with light water as the coolant and moderator, and graphite and beryllium as reflectors. The reactor was commissioned on September 16, 1957 and achieved its first criticality. It is currently operating at 4.5 MWth with a 60-hour cycle per week. In the early sixties, IPEN produced {sup 131}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 198}Au, {sup 24}Na, {sup 35}S, {sup 51}Cr and labeled compounds for medical use. During the past several years, a concerted effort has been made in order to upgrade the reactor power to 5 MWth through refurbishment and modernization programs. One of the reasons for this decision was to produce {sup 99}Mo at IPEN. The reactor cycle will be gradually increased to 120 hours per week continuous operation. It is anticipated that these programs will assure the safe and sustainable operation of the IEA-R1 reactor for several more years, to produce important primary radioisotopes {sup 99}Mo, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 192}Ir. Currently, all aspects of dealing with fuel element fabrication, fuel transportation, isotope processing, and spent fuel storage are handled by IPEN at the site. The reactor modernization program is slated for completion by 2015. This paper describes 58 years of operating experience and utilization of the IEA-R1 research reactor for research, teaching and radioisotopes production. (authors)

  2. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  3. Utilization of independent component analysis for accurate pathological ripple detection in intracranial EEG recordings recorded extra- and intra-operatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Shoichi; Waldman, Zachary J; Orosz, Iren; Song, Inkyung; Bragin, Anatol; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard; Sharan, Ashwini; Wu, Chengyuan; Sperling, Michael R; Weiss, Shennan A

    2018-01-01

    To develop and validate a detector that identifies ripple (80-200 Hz) events in intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings in a referential montage and utilizes independent component analysis (ICA) to eliminate or reduce high-frequency artifact contamination. Also, investigate the correspondence of detected ripples and the seizure onset zone (SOZ). iEEG recordings from 16 patients were first band-pass filtered (80-600 Hz) and Infomax ICA was next applied to derive the first independent component (IC1). IC1 was subsequently pruned, and an artifact index was derived to reduce the identification of high-frequency events introduced by the reference electrode signal. A Hilbert detector identified ripple events in the processed iEEG recordings using amplitude and duration criteria. The identified ripple events were further classified and characterized as true or false ripple on spikes, or ripples on oscillations by utilizing a topographical analysis to their time-frequency plot, and confirmed by visual inspection. The signal to noise ratio was improved by pruning IC1. The precision of the detector for ripple events was 91.27 ± 4.3%, and the sensitivity of the detector was 79.4 ± 3.0% (N = 16 patients, 5842 ripple events). The sensitivity and precision of the detector was equivalent in iEEG recordings obtained during sleep or intra-operatively. Across all the patients, true ripple on spike rates and also the rates of false ripple on spikes, that were generated due to filter ringing, classified the seizure onset zone (SOZ) with an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of >76%. The magnitude and spectral content of true ripple on spikes generated in the SOZ was distinct as compared with the ripples generated in the NSOZ (p ripple rates and properties defined using this approach may accurately delineate the seizure onset zone. Strategies to improve the spatial resolution of intracranial EEG and reduce artifact can help improve the clinical utility of

  4. Minimal-delay traffic grooming for WDM star networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongsik; Garg, Nikhil; Choi, Hyeong-Ah

    2003-10-01

    All-optical networks face the challenge of reducing slower opto-electronic conversions by managing assignment of traffic streams to wavelengths in an intelligent manner, while at the same time utilizing bandwidth resources to the maximum. This challenge becomes harder in networks closer to the end users that have insufficient data to saturate single wavelengths as well as traffic streams outnumbering the usable wavelengths, resulting in traffic grooming which requires costly traffic analysis at access nodes. We study the problem of traffic grooming that reduces the need to analyze traffic, for a class of network architecture most used by Metropolitan Area Networks; the star network. The problem being NP-complete, we provide an efficient twice-optimal-bound greedy heuristic for the same, that can be used to intelligently groom traffic at the LANs to reduce latency at the access nodes. Simulation results show that our greedy heuristic achieves a near-optimal solution.

  5. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  6. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  7. Multi-Agent Based Microscopic Simulation Modeling for Urban Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyan Kuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic simulation plays an important role in the evaluation of traffic decisions. The movement of vehicles essentially is the operating process of drivers, in order to reproduce the urban traffic flow from the micro-aspect on computer, this paper establishes an urban traffic flow microscopic simulation system (UTFSim based on multi-agent. The system is seen as an intelligent virtual environment system (IVES, and the four-layer structure of it is built. The road agent, vehicle agent and signal agent are modeled. The concept of driving trajectory which is divided into LDT (Lane Driving Trajectory and VDDT (Vehicle Dynamic Driving Trajectory is introduced. The “Link-Node” road network model is improved. The driving behaviors including free driving, following driving, lane changing, slowing down, vehicle stop, etc. are analyzed. The results of the signal control experiments utilizing the UTFSim developed in the platform of Visual Studio. NET indicates that it plays a good performance and can be used in the evaluation of traffic management and control.

  8. Heavy Traffic Feasible Hybrid Intracycle and Cyclic Sleep for Power Saving in 10G-EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON, a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain.

  9. Dynamic methods of air traffic flow management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek SKORUPSKI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic management is a complex hierarchical system. Hierarchy levels can be defined according to decision making time horizon or to analyze area volume. For medium time horizon and wide analysis area, the air traffic flow management services were established. Their main task is to properly co-ordinate air traffic in European airspace, so as to minimize delays arising in congested sectors. Those services have to assure high safety level at the same time. Thus it is a very complex task, with many goals, many decision variables and many constraints.In the paper review of the methods developed for aiding air traffic flow management services is presented. More detailed description of a dynamic method is given. This method is based on stochastic capacity and scenario analysis. Some problems in utilization of presented methods are also pointed out, so are the next research possibilities.

  10. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  11. Traffic flow dynamics. Data, models and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiber, Martin [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Wirtschaft und Verkehr; Kesting, Arne [TomTom Development Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    First comprehensive textbook of this fascinating interdisciplinary topic which explains advances in a way that it is easily accessible to engineering, physics and math students. Presents practical applications of traffic theory such as driving behavior, stability analysis, stop-and-go waves, and travel time estimation. Presents the topic in a novel and systematic way by addressing both microscopic and macroscopic models with a focus on traffic instabilities. Revised and extended edition of the German textbook ''Verkehrsdynamik und -simulation''. This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on traffic instabilities and model calibration/validation present these topics in a novel and systematic way. Finally, the theoretical framework is shown at work in selected applications such as traffic-state and travel-time estimation, intelligent transportation systems, traffic operations management, and a detailed physics-based model for fuel consumption and emissions.

  12. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  13. Models of Weather Impact on Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Flight delays have been a serious problem in the national airspace system costing about $30B per year. About 70 of the delays are attributed to weather and upto two thirds of these are avoidable. Better decision support tools would reduce these delays and improve air traffic management tools. Such tools would benefit from models of weather impacts on the airspace operations. This presentation discusses use of machine learning methods to mine various types of weather and traffic data to develop such models.

  14. Implementation of Traffic Information Zone in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of airspace, defined as traffic information zone for small aerodromes in the Czech Republic. This airspace should be around uncontrolled aerodromes introducing IFR operation to replace aerodrome traffic zone and to ensure the safe operation of aircraft flying by instruments.

  15. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  16. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  17. Utilizing the ECHO Model in the Veterans Health Affairs System: Guidelines for Setup, Operations and Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herschel Knapp

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA consulted with the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes team at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, to reproduce their successful model within the VHA. Methods: The VHA launched SCAN-ECHO (Specialty Care Access Network-Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes, a multisite videoconferencing system to conduct live clinical consultations between specialists at a VHA Medical Center (hospital and primary care providers stationed at satellite VHA CBOCs (Community-Based Outpatient Clinic. Results: Analysis of the first three years rendered a mean attendee satisfaction of 89.53% and a consultation satisfaction score of 88.10%. About half of the SCAN-ECHO consultations resulted in patients receiving their treatment from their local primary care providers; the remaining half were referred to the VHA Medical Center when the treatment involved equipment or services not available at the CBOCs (e.g., MRI, surgery. Conclusion: This paper details the setup, operation logistics and preliminary findings, suggesting that SCAN-ECHO is a viable model for providing quality specialty clinical consultation service, prompter access to care, reduced commutes and continuing education. Additionally, the use of a secured Internet-based videoconferencing system that supports connectivity to multiple (mobile devices could expand the utilization of this service.

  18. Hybrid electrical generation system utilizing wind, diesel and hydropower for operation of an underground zinc mine in southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridley, Norman [Minera El Toqui (Chile); Banto, Marcelo [Seawind Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid electrical generation system used for underground zinc mine operations that utilizes wind, diesel and hydropower. This mine is located in Coyhaique and had a total energy consumption of 32,567 MWh in 2010 which is anticipated to increase by 25% in 2011. Power generation in this mine is independent of the power grid. It consists of four main portals: ventilation, electrical and drainage systems and ramp access to all mining zones. The technical details for all the parts of the mine and the hybrid generation system are given. A tabular form shows the energy consumed every month from 2005-2010 for all three systems involved, namely wind power generation, diesel generation and the hydro generation system. Benefits of this hybrid system include stability and constant power generation under variable loads. This system can also be applied to other mines using a grid. From the study it can be concluded that the hybrid system is environmentally friendly, economical and sustainable.

  19. Capacity Drop on Freeways: Traffic Dynamics, Theory and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies on the traffic flow on freeways reveal that queue discharge rate cannot
    reach as high as the free-flow capacity. This important phenomenon is called the
    “Capacity drop”, which indicates that the potential freeway capacity cannot be fully
    utilized when discharging traffic

  20. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  1. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  2. Performance evaluation of traffic sensing and control devices : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    High quality sensing and control systems are essential for providing efficient signalized arterial operations. INDOT operates over 2600 traffic signal controllers, approximately 2000 of which use some form of vehicle detection. The private sector con...

  3. Green Wave Traffic Optimization - A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warberg, Andreas; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    The objective of this survey is to cover the research in the area of adaptive traffic control with emphasis on the applied optimization methods. The problem of optimizing traffic signals can be viewed in various ways, depending on political, economic and ecological goals. The survey highlights some...... important conflicts, which support the notion that traffic signal optimization is a multi-objective problem, and relates this to the most common measures of effectiveness. A distinction can be made between classical systems, which operate with a common cycle time, and the more flexible, phase......-based, approach, which is shown to be more suitable for adaptive traffic control. To support this claim three adaptive systems, which use alternatives to the classical optimization procedures, are described in detail....

  4. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  5. Optimal sizing of utility-scale photovoltaic power generation complementarily operating with hydropower: A case study of the world’s largest hydro-photovoltaic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Wei; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Shengzhi; Yang, Jie; Meng, Erhao; Li, Yunyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation across the world is revealed. • Three scenarios of the novel operation mode are proposed to satisfy different load demand. • A method for optimally sizing a utility-scale photovoltaic plant is developed by maximizing the net revenue during lifetime. • The influence of complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation upon water resources allocation is investigated. - Abstract: The high variability of solar energy makes utility-scale photovoltaic power generation confront huge challenges to penetrate into power system. In this paper, the complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation is explored, aiming at improving the power quality of photovoltaic and promoting the integration of photovoltaic into the system. First, solar-rich and hydro-rich regions across the world are revealed, which are suitable for implementing the complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation. Then, three practical scenarios of the novel operation mode are proposed for better satisfying different types of load demand. Moreover, a method for optimal sizing of a photovoltaic plant integrated into a hydropower plant is developed by maximizing the net revenue during lifetime. Longyangxia complementary hydro-photovoltaic project, the current world’s largest hydro-photovoltaic power plant, is selected as a case study and its optimal photovoltaic capacities of different scenarios are calculated. Results indicate that hydropower installed capacity and annual solar curtailment rate play crucial roles in the size optimization of a photovoltaic plant and complementary hydro-photovoltaic operation exerts little adverse effect upon the water resources allocation of Longyangxia reservoir. The novel operation mode not only improves the penetration of utility-scale photovoltaic power generation but also can provide a valuable reference for the large-scale utilization of other kinds of renewable energy worldwide.

  6. Electronic Toll And Traffic Management Systems, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION OR ETC AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OR ETTM, AUTOMATIC VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION OR AVI : ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (ETTM) SYSTEMS ARE NOT A FUTURISTIC DREAM, THEY ARE OPERATING OR ARE BEING TESTED TODAY I...

  7. Air Traffic ControL : FAA Order 7110.65K

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-17

    This order prescribes air traffic control procedures and phraseology for use by : personnel providing air traffic control services. Controllers are required to : be familiar with the provisions of this order that pertain to their operational : respon...

  8. Guidelines for deploying connected vehicle-enabled weather responsive traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    State and local Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are interested in providing effective traffic management and operations strategies to mitigate the roadway mobility and safety problems due to adverse weather. Weather Responsive Traffic Management...

  9. Outline of operation and control system and analytical investigation of transient behavior of an out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro.

    1997-10-01

    The hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas is to be constructed to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization systems with the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test system is planned to investigate the system characteristics, to develop high-temperature components such as a reformer, a high-temperature isolation valve and so on, and to verify operation and control technologies and safety technology at accidents. This paper presents outline of operation and control systems and analytical review of transient behavior of the out-of-pile hydrogen production system. Main function of the operation and control systems is made not to give disturbance to the HTTR at transient state under start-up and stop operations. The operation modes are separated into two ones, namely normal and accident operation modes, and operation sequences are made for each operation mode. The normal operation sequence includes start-up, steady operation and stop of the out-of-pile system. The accident one deals with accident conditions at which supply of feed gas is stopped and helium gas is cooled passively by the steam generator. Transient behavior of the out-of-pile system was analyzed numerically according as the operation sequences. As the results, it was confirmed that the designed operation and control systems are adequate to the out-of-pile system. (author)

  10. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  11. Research of convolutional neural networks for traffic sign recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Stadalnikas, Kasparas

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the convolutional neural networks application for traffic sign recognition is analyzed. Thesis describes the basic operations, techniques that are commonly used to apply in the image classification using convolutional neural networks. Also, this paper describes the data sets used for traffic sign recognition, their problems affecting the final training results. The paper reviews most popular existing technologies – frameworks for developing the solution for traffic sign recogni...

  12. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  13. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  14. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2007. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Awa, Yasuaki; Isaka, Koji; Kutsukake, Kenichi; Komeda, Masao; Shibata, Ko; Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Mayu; Sone, Takuya; Ohuchi, Tomoaki; Terakado, Yuichi; Sataka, Masao

    2009-06-01

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor-4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator. (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator. (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, plans and outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  15. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2010. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuro; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kawamata, Satoshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Kawashima, Kazuhiro; Asozu, Takuhiro; Nakamura, Takemi; Arai, Masaji; Yoshinari, Shuji; Sataka, Masao

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011. The activities were categorized into five service/development fields: (1) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (2) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (3) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (4) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator, (5) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, commendation, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  16. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  17. Consideration to keep the know-how in the technical divisions in the headquarter of a utility for safe plant operation in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Willeke, A.; Teichel, H.; Neumann, J.; Peters, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Special know-how in nuclear technology is and will be a basic element in the business of a utility operating nuclear power plants today and in the future. The acquisition and maintenance of nuclear know-how is necessary to maximize the economic success of the business. The presentation will report about the results of a study carried out by PreussenElektra Kemkraft at the end of 1999. Identified possibilities keeping the nuclear know-how will be discussed, i. e. - maintenance and development of know-how in the existing organisation; - utility overlapping competence center; - commercial know-how agency; - engineering consultant office for other utilities; - cooperation with manufacturers and other utilities, building new nuclear plants; - participation in projects planning new nuclear power plants, as EPR, in a independent project organisation. (authors)

  18. Traffic sign classification with dataset augmentation and convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Kurnianggoro, Laksono; Jo, Kang-Hyun

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a method for traffic sign classification using a convolutional neural network (CNN). In this method, firstly we transfer a color image into grayscale, and then normalize it in the range (-1,1) as the preprocessing step. To increase robustness of classification model, we apply a dataset augmentation algorithm and create new images to train the model. To avoid overfitting, we utilize a dropout module before the last fully connection layer. To assess the performance of the proposed method, the German traffic sign recognition benchmark (GTSRB) dataset is utilized. Experimental results show that the method is effective in classifying traffic signs.

  19. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  20. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  1. 32 CFR 634.26 - Traffic law enforcement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic law enforcement principles. 634.26 Section 634.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... law enforcement principles. (a) Traffic law enforcement should motivate drivers to operate vehicles...

  2. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  3. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  4. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  5. Contributing to a green energy economy? A macroeconomic analysis of an energy efficiency program operated by a Swiss utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushchenko, Alisa; Patel, Martin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our input–output model allows estimating impacts of energy efficiency programs on GDP and employment in Switzerland. • We provide with a deeper insight into modeling of income impacts of energy savings with regard to input–output method. • Geneva case study demonstrates that energy efficiency programs can have positive macroeconomic impacts in Switzerland. • Our results help to understand how to enhance positive macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs. • We provide policy recommendations for further development of energy efficiency programs. - Abstract: In order to enhance energy efficiency as a pillar of transition to a green energy economy it is important to understand whether and under which conditions energy efficiency programs could have positive economic and social impacts. There are a growing number of studies on macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs for various countries and regions. However, in Switzerland only few evaluations have been performed. The present study evaluates the impacts on GDP and employment of Geneva’s energy efficiency program portfolio éco21 which is operated by the local utility. Two programs aiming for electricity savings in the residential sector are analyzed: Eco-sociales targets social housing and Communs d’immeubles focuses on common spaces in buildings. An input–output model is developed, based on the Swiss input–output table, program administrator data, Swiss, and European statistics. Both impacts of initial expenditure and energy cost savings are evaluated. We estimate and compare the impacts of the two programs and discuss factors that cause differences. Our results show that energy efficiency programs can have positive impacts on GDP and employment. According to our estimates, each Swiss Franc (CHF) spent within the energy efficiency program creates approximately 0.2 CHF of additional GDP compared to the reference case scenario. Net impacts on employment are

  6. Timeliness of Operating Room Case Planning and Time Utilization: Influence of First and To-Follow Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Meissner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resource and cost constraints in hospitals demand thorough planning of operating room schedules. Ideally, exact start times and durations are known in advance for each case. However, aside from the first case’s start, most factors are hard to predict. While the role of the start of the first case for optimal room utilization has been shown before, data for to-follow cases are lacking. The present study therefore aimed to analyze all elective surgery cases of a university hospital within 1 year in search of visible patterns. A total of 14,014 cases scheduled on 254 regular working days at a university hospital between September 2015 and August 2016 underwent screening. After eliminating 112 emergencies during regular working hours, 13,547 elective daytime cases were analyzed, out of which 4,346 ranked first, 3,723 second, and 5,478 third or higher in the daily schedule. Also, 36% of cases changed start times from the day before to 7:00 a.m., with half of these (52% resulting in a delay of more than 15 min. After 7:00 a.m., 87% of cases started more than 10 min off schedule, with 26% being early and 74% late. Timeliness was 15 ± 72 min (mean ± SD for first, 21 ± 84 min for second, and 25 ± 93 min for all to-follow cases, compared to preoperative day planning, and 21 ± 45, 23 ± 61, and 19 ± 74 min compared to 7:00 a.m. status. Start time deviations were also related to procedure duration, with cases of 61–90 min duration being most reliable (deviation 9.8 ± 67 min compared to 7:00 a.m., regardless of order. In consequence, cases following after 61–90 min long cases had the shortest deviations of incision time from schedule (16 ± 66 min. Taken together, start times for elective surgery cases deviate substantially from schedule, with first and second cases falling into the highest mean deviation category. Second cases had the largest deviations from scheduled times compared to

  7. Analysis of factors temporarily impacting traffic sign readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign readability can be affected by the existence of dirt on traffic sign faces. However, among damaged signs, dirty traffic signs are unique since their damage is not permanent and they just can be cleaned instead of replaced. This study aimed to identify the most important factors contributing to traffic sign dirt. To do so, a large number of traffic signs in Utah were measured by deploying a vehicle instrumented with mobile LiDAR imaging and digital photolog technologies. Each individual daytime digital image was inspected for dirt. Location and climate observations obtained from official sources were compiled using ArcGIS throughout the process. To identify contributing factors to traffic sign dirt, the chi-square test was employed. To analyze the data and rank all of the factors based on their importance to the sign dirt, Random forests statistical model was utilized. After analyzing the data, it can be concluded that ground elevation, sign mount height, and air pollution had the highest effect on making traffic signs dirty. The findings of this investigation assist transportation agencies in determining traffic signs with a higher likelihood of sign dirt. In this way, agencies would schedule to clean such traffic signs more frequently.

  8. Operating and impact of the compensation mechanism of the electric utility charges on the energy offer in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levratto, N.

    2005-01-01

    Since the law of the 10 february 2000 relative to the modernization and the development of the electric utility, the France adopted a mechanism aiming to compensate the costs subjected by EDF and other suppliers providing a public utility mission in the domain of the electricity production and distribution. This document takes stock on the organization, the evaluation and the economical and environmental consequences of the implementing of a compensation system of costs bond to the electricity production in non connected areas. (A.L.B.)

  9. Comparison of Microscopic Drivers' Probabilistic Lane-changing Models With Real Traffic Microscopic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Sadat Hoseini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties of microscopic-level simulation models to accurately reproduce real traffic phenomena stem not only from the complexity of calibration and validation operations, but also from the structural inadequacies of the sub-models themselves. Both of these drawbacks originate from the scant information available on real phenomena because of the difficulty in gathering accurate field data. This paper studies the traffic behaviour of individual drivers utilizing vehicle trajectory data extracted from digital images collected from freeways in Iran. These data are used to evaluate the four proposed microscopic traffic models. One of the models is based on the traffic regulations in Iran and the three others are probabilistic models that use a decision factor for calculating the probability of choosing a position on the freeway by a driver. The decision factors for three probabilistic models are increasing speed, decreasing risk of collision, and increasing speed combined with decreasing risk of collision. The models are simulated by a cellular automata simulator and compared with the real data. It is shown that the model based on driving regulations is not valid, but that other models appear useful for predicting the driver’s behaviour on freeway segments in Iran during noncongested conditions.

  10. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  11. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  12. Penalties in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect

  13. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  14. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  15. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  16. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  17. Autonomous System Technologies for Resilient Airspace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing autonomous systems within the aircraft cockpit begins with an effort to understand what autonomy is and developing the technology that encompasses it. Autonomy allows an agent, human or machine, to act independently within a circumscribed set of goals; delegating responsibility to the agent(s) to achieve overall system objective(s). Increasingly Autonomous Systems (IAS) are the highly sophisticated progression of current automated systems toward full autonomy. Working in concert with humans, these types of technologies are expected to improve the safety, reliability, costs, and operational efficiency of aviation. IAS implementation is imminent, which makes the development and the proper performance of such technologies, with respect to cockpit operation efficiency, the management of air traffic and data communication information, vital. A prototype IAS agent that attempts to optimize the identification and distribution of "relevant" air traffic data to be utilized by human crews during complex airspace operations has been developed.

  18. Utilization of lunar materials and expertise for large scale operations in space: Abstracts. [lunar bases and space industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The practicality of exploiting the moon, not only as a source of materials for large habitable structures at Lagrangian points, but also as a base for colonization is discussed in abstracts of papers presented at a special session on lunar utilization. Questions and answers which followed each presentation are included after the appropriate abstract. Author and subject indexes are provided.

  19. Occupant traffic estimation through structural vibration sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2016-04-01

    The number of people passing through different indoor areas is useful in various smart structure applications, including occupancy-based building energy/space management, marketing research, security, etc. Existing approaches to estimate occupant traffic include vision-, sound-, and radio-based (mobile) sensing methods, which have placement limitations (e.g., requirement of line-of-sight, quiet environment, carrying a device all the time). Such limitations make these direct sensing approaches difficult to deploy and maintain. An indirect approach using geophones to measure floor vibration induced by footsteps can be utilized. However, the main challenge lies in distinguishing multiple simultaneous walkers by developing features that can effectively represent the number of mixed signals and characterize the selected features under different traffic conditions. This paper presents a method to monitor multiple persons. Once the vibration signals are obtained, features are extracted to describe the overlapping vibration signals induced by multiple footsteps, which are used for occupancy traffic estimation. In particular, we focus on analysis of the efficiency and limitations of the four selected key features when used for estimating various traffic conditions. We characterize these features with signals collected from controlled impulse load tests as well as from multiple people walking through a real-world sensing area. In our experiments, the system achieves the mean estimation error of +/-0.2 people for different occupant traffic conditions (from one to four) using k-nearest neighbor classifier.

  20. Novel utilization of 3D technology and the hybrid operating theatre: Peri-operative assessment of posterior sterno-clavicular dislocation using cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowhurst, James A; Campbell, Douglas; Whitby, Mark; Pathmanathan, Pavthrun

    2013-01-01

    A patient with a medial and posterior dislocation of the right sterno-clavicular (SC) joint and displacement of the trachea and brachiocephalic artery by the medial head of the clavicle underwent general anaesthetic in the operating theatre for an open reduction procedure. The surgeon initially attempted a closed reduction, but this required imaging to check SC alignment. The patient was transferred to an adjacent hybrid operating theatre for imaging. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, which successfully demonstrated a significant reduction in the dislocation of the SC joint. The trachea and brachiocephalic artery were no longer compressed or displaced. This case study demonstrates an alternative to the patient being transferred to the medical imaging department for multi-slice CT. It also describes a novel use of the hybrid operating theatre and its CBCT capabilities

  1. Novel utilization of 3D technology and the hybrid operating theatre: Peri-operative assessment of posterior sterno-clavicular dislocation using cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowhurst, James A; Campbell, Douglas; Whitby, Mark; Pathmanathan, Pavthrun [The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A patient with a medial and posterior dislocation of the right sterno-clavicular (SC) joint and displacement of the trachea and brachiocephalic artery by the medial head of the clavicle underwent general anaesthetic in the operating theatre for an open reduction procedure. The surgeon initially attempted a closed reduction, but this required imaging to check SC alignment. The patient was transferred to an adjacent hybrid operating theatre for imaging. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, which successfully demonstrated a significant reduction in the dislocation of the SC joint. The trachea and brachiocephalic artery were no longer compressed or displaced. This case study demonstrates an alternative to the patient being transferred to the medical imaging department for multi-slice CT. It also describes a novel use of the hybrid operating theatre and its CBCT capabilities.

  2. Minimizing the disruptive effects of prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Remington, Roger W

    2013-09-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or nonadjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40-min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared with a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39-42 min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of nonprospective memory air traffic management (nontarget aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by nonadjacent aids compared with no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared with nonadjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multitask performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning

  4. PC-aided scheduling of transportation truck in utility operations; PC-unterstuetzte Einsatzplanung der Transport-Lkw im EVU-Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreele, H. von; Hartwich, D.; Rolke, D. [RWE Energie AG, Regionalversorgung Nike, Osnabrueck (Germany); Leidig, R. [PLS Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-02-23

    The DP software system Plantour is used to optimize truck operations meeting the transportation needs of a regional supply utility taking into account the specific operational requirements. The chance to centralized scheduling was based on logistic principles. New practice-oriented software had to be developed using standards. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe des DV-Software-Systems Plantour werden die Einsaetze der Lkw fuer das Transportwesen einer Regionalversorgung unter Beruecksichtigung der spezifischen betrieblichen Belange optimiert. Dabei wurde die Umstellung auf eine zentrale Einsatzplanung unter Beruecksichtigung logistischer Prinzipien vorgenommen. Die erforderliche Software musste neu unter Verwendung von Standards praxisnah entwickelt werden. (orig.)

  5. Automated Traffic Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A data management system and method that enables acquisition, integration, and management of real-time data generated at different rates, by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources. The system achieves this functionality by using an expert system to fuse data from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control tower sources, to establish and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation. The system may be configured as a real-time airport surface traffic management system (TMS) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline data, and airport operations data to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. In the TMS operational mode, empirical data shows substantial benefits in ramp operations for airlines, reducing departure taxi times by about one minute per aircraft in operational use, translating as $12 to $15 million per year savings to airlines at the Atlanta, Georgia airport. The data management system and method may also be used for scheduling the movement of multiple vehicles in other applications, such as marine vessels in harbors and ports, trucks or railroad cars in ports or shipping yards, and railroad cars in switching yards. Finally, the data management system and method may be used for managing containers at a shipping dock, stock on a factory floor or in a warehouse, or as a training tool for improving situational awareness of FAA tower controllers, ramp and airport operators, or commercial airline personnel in airfield surface operations.

  6. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity... reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported items...

  7. Ambulance traffic accidents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen-Long; Fang, Pin-Hui; Lu, Chien-Hsin; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2018-04-01

    Ambulance traffic accidents (ATAs) are the leading cause of occupation-related fatalities among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. We aim to use the Taiwan national surveillance system to analyze the characteristics of ATAs and to assist EMS directors in developing policies governing ambulance operations. A retrospective, cross-sectional and largely descriptive study was conducted using Taiwan national traffic accidents surveillance data from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2016. Among the 1,627,217 traffic accidents during the study period, 715 ATAs caused 8 deaths within 24 h and 1844 injured patients. On average, there was one ATA for every 8598 ambulance runs. Compared to overall traffic accidents, ATAs were 1.7 times more likely to result in death and 1.9 times more likely to have injured patients. Among the 715 ATAs, 8 (1.1%) ATAs were fatal and 707 (98.9%) were nonfatal. All 8 fatalities were associated with motorcycles. The urban areas were significantly higher than the rural areas in the annual number of ATAs (14.2 ± 7.3 [7.0-26.7] versus 3.1 ± 1.9 [0.5-8.4], p = 0.013), the number of ATA-associated fatalities per year (0.2 ± 0.2 [0.0-0.7] versus 0.1 ± 0.1 [0.0-0.2], p = 0.022), and the annual number of injured patients (who needed urgent hospital visits) in ATAs (19.4 ± 7.3 [10.5-30.9] versus 5.2 ± 3.8 [0.9-15.3], p traffic accident reporting system should be built to provide EMS policy guidance for ATA reduction and outcome improvements. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Automatic road traffic safety management system in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskarbski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.

  9. Operational and layup cycle protection of high-pressure fossil-fired utility boilers using an organic filming amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verib, George J. [FirstEnergy Corp., Akron, OH (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Economic conditions have caused many fossil-fired units to either drastically cycle load or shut down during low demand periods, where previously the units had been under a constant-load operation. The most current cycle chemistry guidelines employed are excellent in protecting the steam-water cycle during constant-load operation, but they have not minimized corrosion and provided protection of unit equipment during economic reserve off periods. Alternate methods of off-line protection and transient-load operation have been explored to minimize corrosion during these periods. The FirstEnergy Corp. has been using an alternate proprietary, organic filming amine to protect units during operation and short-term non-operational periods. Explored are the initial issues of high steam cation conductivity, use of the filming amine to protect the cycle during idle production periods, and the chemical amounts needed. The proprietary chemistry has shown the ability to successfully and significantly reduce corrosion throughout the steam-water cycle during transient-load situations and during non-operational periods while maintaining the chemistry guidelines of the industry and OEMs. (orig.)

  10. Provision of utility support services to the US Department of Energy San Francisco Operations Office. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The main purpose of this project was to provide to DOE/SAN continuing, follow-up support to realize savings from a number of alternate supply arrangements that had already been and/or were expected to be identified under the original project. This expected continuation of these efforts is demonstrated by certain of the tasks that are spelled out in the Statement of Work. For example: Evaluate and propose alternative options and methods for improving efficiency, reducing cost, and making effective use of the energy supplies and facilities under various conditions of use; Provide engineering and economic analysis and recommendations for utility-related facilities and service issues, such as high voltage discounts, ownership of facilities, etc.; Assist in developing strategy and documentation in support of negotiating utility contracts and modifications thereto. In addition, the follow-on contract provided for monitoring and intervening in rate cases that had particular relevance to the DOE/SAN laboratories.

  11. TCP/IP Communication System for Controlling a Vehicular Traffic Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza-Martínez Luis Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a prototype of a vehicular traffic controller, whose system of communication is based on the TCP/IP protocol, in order to re- motely monitor and control the operation of traffic lights for a vehicular intersection. The results show the times of communication between the central and the traffic controller. The conclusions highlight the importance of using the TCP/IP protocol in traffic light systems.

  12. What kinds of traffic forecasts are possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Based on metatheoretical considerations, this paper discusses which kinds of traffic forecasts are possible and which kinds are impossible to make with any reasonable degree of accuracy. It will be argued on ontological and epistemological grounds that it is inherently impossible to make exact......-called strategic, tactical and operational levels of traffic forecasting into three distinct methodological approaches reflecting the different degrees of openness/closure of the systems at hand: Scenario analyses at the strategic level; theoryinformed, mainly qualitative analyses supplemented with simple...

  13. Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor - Report on operation in 1979; Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora RA, Izvestaj o radu u 1979. godini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosevic, M

    1979-12-15

    During 1979 the RA reactor was in operation only three months, i.e. only 24% of the planned activity was achieved. The reactor operation was interrupted in March due to problems that could not be solved by the existing equipment. Alkalinity of the heavy water resulting from the existing ammonia ions could not be removed by the existing distillation system. In addition deposition of aluminium oxyhydrate on the fuel elements was increased. This was noticed during routine control when the reactor was shutdown for refueling. The decision of the Director general of the Institute and sanitary Inspector followed, prohibiting further reactor operation. A separate chapter of this report is devoted to the analysis of the difficulties and possible solution of the problem in cooperation with the experts from different laboratories of the Institute. Aged and damaged instruments at the reactor were not exchange due to lack of budget. During the operation there were no accidents. [Serbo-Croat] U toku 1979. godine plan rada ostvaren je sa 24%, odnosno reaktor je radio samo prva tri meseca. U martu je doslo do prekida rada reaktora zbog pojave koja se nije mogla otkloniti postojecom opremom. Alkalnost teske vode, posledica prisustva amonijum jona, ne moze se odstraniti sistemom destilacije. Pored toga usled dotrajalosti opreme povecano je talozenje aluminijum oksihidroksida na gorivnim elementima. Ova pojava uocena je tokom rutinske kontrole prilikom izmene goriva a usledila je obustava rada resenjem Direktora i sanitarnog inspektora. Posebno poglavlje ovog izvestaja posveceno je analizi teskoca u radu i reaktora i resavanju nastalih problema sa gorivom u saradnji sa saradnicima drugih laboratorija Instituta. Dotrajali uredjaji i oprema nisu zamenjeni usled nedostatka sredstava. U toku rada nije bilo akcidenata.

  14. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  15. development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION ... The SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimization Technique) signal control system implements an adaptive ... An electronic traffic signal controller is basically a sequential machine whose operation can be modeled using finite ...

  16. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  17. Electrical engineering research support for FDOT Traffic Statistics Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this project was to provide electrical engineering support for the telemetered traffic monitoring sites (TTMSs) operated by the Statistics Office of the Florida Department of Transportation. This project was a continuation of project BD-54...

  18. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19 Section 129.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS: FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF ...

  19. Study on the utilization of the cognitive architecture EPIC to the task analysis of a nuclear power plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Herculano Vieira

    2003-02-01

    This work presents a study of the use of the integrative cognitive architecture EPIC - Executive-Process - Interactive-Control, designed to evaluate the performance of a person performing tasks in parallel in a man-machine interface, as a methodology for Cognitive Task Analysis of a nuclear power plant operator. A comparison of the results obtained by the simulation by EPIC and the results obtained by application of the MHP model to the tasks performed by a shift operator during the execution of the procedure PO-E-3 - Steam Generator Tube Rupture of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant is done. To subsidize that comparison, an experiment was performed at the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant Full Scope Simulator in which three operator tasks were executed, its completion time measured and compared with the results of MHP and EPIC modeling. (author)

  20. Safety Impacts of Push-Button and Countdown Timer on Nonmotorized Traffic at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the random parameters negative binominal model to investigate safety impacts of push-button and countdown timer on pedestrians and cyclists at urban intersections. To account for possible unobserved heterogeneity which could vary from one intersection to another, random parameters model is introduced. A simulation-based maximum likelihood method using Halton draws is applied to estimate the maximum likelihood of random parameters in the model. Dataset containing pedestrians’ and cyclists’ crash data of 1,001 intersections from Chicago is utilized to establish the statistical relationship between crash frequencies and potential impact factors. LIMDEP (Version 9.0 statistical package is utilized for modeling. The parameter estimation results indicate that existence of push-button and countdown timer could significantly reduce crash frequencies of pedestrians and cyclists at intersections. Increasing number of through traffic lanes, left turn lanes, and ratio of major direction AADT to minor direction AADT, tend to increase crash frequencies. Annual average daily left turn traffic has a negative impact on pedestrians’ safety, but its impact on cyclists’ crash frequency is statistically insignificant at 90% confidence level. The results of current study could provide important insights for nonmotorized traffic safety improvement projects in both planning and operational levels.

  1. Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S.; Stock, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow and occupancy using long and short term information. Mechanistic interpolation using macroscopic traffic models and based on the traffic flow and occupancy forecasted (item-1), and the empirical relationships (item-2) for the specific highway configuration at the time of simulation (construction, lane closure, etc.). Statistical routine for detection and classification of anomalies and their impact on the highway capacity which are fed back to previous items.

  2. A utility viewpoint on R and D needs to support design, construction and operation of generation 3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The author underscored the importance of harmonizing design and licensing methodology for new reactors. He addressed the use of probabilistic approaches, the adoption of advanced man-system interface systems to facilitate plant operation and maintenance, better inspections methods and the progress on numerical simulation. New fuels and new fuel cycle technologies can be applied to improve efficiency and to close the fuel cycle. Regarding research, he saw it also as an opportunity to close issues that have been sufficiently investigated. He concluded that international programmes enable to share costs and build consensus, and the OECD NEA should play a major role to support international co-operation. (author)

  3. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  4. Scheduling elective surgeries: the tradeoff among bed capacity, waiting patients and operating room utilization using goal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyong; Rafaliya, N; Baki, M Fazle; Chaouch, Ben A

    2017-03-01

    Scheduling of surgeries in the operating rooms under limited competing resources such as surgical and nursing staff, anesthesiologist, medical equipment, and recovery beds in surgical wards is a complicated process. A well-designed schedule should be concerned with the welfare of the entire system by allocating the available resources in an efficient and effective manner. In this paper, we develop an integer linear programming model in a manner useful for multiple goals for optimally scheduling elective surgeries based on the availability of surgeons and operating rooms over a time horizon. In particular, the model is concerned with the minimization of the following important goals: (1) the anticipated number of patients waiting for service; (2) the underutilization of operating room time; (3) the maximum expected number of patients in the recovery unit; and (4) the expected range (the difference between maximum and minimum expected number) of patients in the recovery unit. We develop two goal programming (GP) models: lexicographic GP model and weighted GP model. The lexicographic GP model schedules operating rooms when various preemptive priority levels are given to these four goals. A numerical study is conducted to illustrate the optimal master-surgery schedule obtained from the models. The numerical results demonstrate that when the available number of surgeons and operating rooms is known without error over the planning horizon, the proposed models can produce good schedules and priority levels and preference weights of four goals affect the resulting schedules. The results quantify the tradeoffs that must take place as the preemptive-weights of the four goals are changed.

  5. Operation, maintenance and utilization of the RA reactor, Annual report 1978; Pogon, odrzavanje i eksploatacija reaktora RA, Izvestaj o radu u 1978. godini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1978-12-15

    It has been planned for 1978 that the RA reactor would be operated for 158 dana at nominal power of 6.5 MW meaning production of 24 648 MWh. The plan was fulfilled since 24 652 MWh was produces. Reactor operation for 158 days is relevant to reactor operation for 200 days in the period before 1975. The reason is increased neutron flux achieved due to improved fuel management and the characteristics of the new 80% enriched fuel. At the end of 1978 the reactor core contained 45% of 80% enriched fuel elements. Increase of neutron flux has shortened the typical time needed for irradiation of the most important samples for isotope production. This significant success in reactor operation is at the same time an obligation for increasing its utilization. Some new trends proposed for increasing reactor utilization capacities were presented at the Conference on utilization of research nuclear reactors in Yugoslavia held in May 1978. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA imao je u planu za 1978. godinu 158 dana rada na nominalnoj snazi od 6.5 MW, sto odgovara radu od 24 648 MWh. Ostvareno je 24 652 MWh sto znaci da je plan ostvaren. Rad reaktora od 158 dana odgovara radu reaktora od 200 dana u periodu pre 1975. godine. Razlog je povecanje neutronskog fluksa zahvaljujuci usavrsenom rukovanju gorivom i karakteristikama novog 80% obogacenog goriva. Krajem 1978. godine 45% jezgra reaktora bilo je popunjeno novim 80% obogacenim gorivom. Povecani neutronski fluks omogucio je skracenje vremena ozracivanja vaznih uzoraka za proizvodnju radioaktivnih izotopa. Ovaj znacajan uspeh je istovremeno obaveza znatno veceg iskoriscenja reaktora RA. Rezultati napora da se postigne vece iskoriscenje reaktora RA prezentirani su na Konferenciji o koriscenju nuklearnih reaktora u Jugoslaviji koja je odrzana u maju 1978.

  6. Impact of Minimum Driveway Spacing Policies on Safety Performance: An Integrated Traffic Micro-Simulation and Automated Conflict Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu C. Minh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A key strategy for successful access management is the adoption of driveway spacing guidelines that consider both safety and operations. The goal is to provide sufficient distance from one driveway to the next so that drivers can perceive and react to the conditions at each potential conflict point in succession. State DOTs across the country have adopted different driveway spacing standards that vary according to the access class and characteristics of the adjacent roadway, such as type of roadway, posted speed limit, and traffic volume. Utilizing the VISSIM microscopic traffic simulation tool and FHWA's Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM, this research examined safety implications of four different driveway spacing policies representing 13 states. The analysis involved calibrating the VISSIM model for an arterial roadway corridor in West Columbia, SC, and then using the calibrated model to simulate various operational changes to the corridor, including speed limits, traffic volumes, and the associated minimum driveway spacing criteria for the four different policies. SSAM was used to analyze vehicle trajectories derived from VISSIM to determine the number of conflict points. Experimental results indicate that posted speed limit and traffic volume are the primary impact factors for driveway safety, and thus, these parameters should be considered in establishing minimum driveway spacing. Findings from this study indicate that there are significant differences in safety impacts between the different driveway spacing policies adopted by various state DOTs.

  7. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2011. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuro; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kawamata, Satoshi; Ishikuro, Yasuhiro; Kawashima, Kazuhito; Kabumoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takemi; Tamura, Itaru; Kawasaki, Sayuri; Sataka, Masao

    2013-03-01

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. This annual report describes a summary of activities of services and technical developments carried out in the period between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012. The activities were categorized into six service/development fields: (1) Recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake, (2) Operation and maintenance of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (3) Utilization of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (4) Upgrading of utilization techniques of research reactors and tandem accelerator, (5) Safety administration for research reactors and tandem accelerator, (6) International cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on lows and regulations concerning atomic energy, number of staff members dispatched to Fukushima for the technical assistance, commendation, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  8. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  9. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  10. Common Virtual Path and Its Expedience for VBR Video Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chromy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with utilization of common Virtual Path (VP for variable bit rate (VBR video service. Video service is one of the main services for broadband networks. Research is oriented to statistical properties of common and separate VPs. Separate VP means that for each VBR traffic source one VP will be allocated. Common VP means that for multiple VBR sources one common VP is allocated. VBR video traffic source is modeled by discrete Markov chain.

  11. Wireless Capacitive Pressure Sensor Operating up to 400 Celcius from 0 to 100 psi Utilizing Power Scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Harsh, Kevin; Mackey, Jonathan A.; Meredith, Roger D.; Zorman, Christian A.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Dynys, Frederick W.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a wireless capacitive pressure sensor developed for the health monitoring of aircraft engines has been demonstrated. The sensing system is composed of a Clapp-type oscillator that operates at 131 MHz. The Clapp oscillator is fabricated on a alumina substrate and consists of a Cree SiC (silicon carbide) MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors), this film inductor, Compex chip capacitors and Sporian Microsystem capacitive pressure sensor. The resonant tank circuit within the oscillator is made up of the pressure sensor and a spiral thin film inductor, which is used to magnetically couple the wireless pressure sensor signal to a coil antenna placed over 1 meter away. 75% of the power used to bias the sensing system is generated from thermoelectric power modules. The wireless pressure sensor is operational at room temperature through 400 C from 0 to 100 psi and exhibits a frequency shift of over 600 kHz.

  12. Operational, cost, and technical study of large windpower systems integrated with an existing electric utility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, C.; Kirby, G.; Jordan, D.; Lawrence, J.H.; Wiesner, W.; Kosovec, A.; Swanson, R.K.; Smith, R.T.; Johnson, C.C.; Hodson, H.O.

    1976-04-01

    Detailed wind energy assessment from the available wind records, and evaluation of the application of wind energy systems to an existing electric utility were performed in an area known as the Texas Panhandle, on the Great Plains. The study area includes parts of Texas, eastern New Mexico, the Oklahoma Panhandle and southern Kansas. The region is shown to have uniformly distributed winds of relatively high velocity, with average wind power density of 0.53 kW/m/sup 2/ at 30 m height at Amarillo, Texas, a representative location. The annual period of calm is extremely low. Three separate compressed air storage systems with good potential were analyzed in detail, and two potential pumped-hydro facilities were identified and given preliminary consideration. Aquifer storage of compressed air is a promising possibility in the region.

  13. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  14. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  15. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  16. Lack of utility of a decision support system to mitigate delays in admission from the operating room to the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Dexter, Franklin; Rothman, Brian S; Minton, Betty Sue; Johnson, Diane; Sandberg, Warren S; Epstein, Richard H

    2013-12-01

    When the phase I postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is at capacity, completed cases need to be held in the operating room (OR), causing a "PACU delay." Statistical methods based on historical data can optimize PACU staffing to achieve the least possible labor cost at a given service level. A decision support process to alert PACU charge nurses that the PACU is at or near maximum census might be effective in lessening the incidence of delays and reducing over-utilized OR time, but only if alerts are timely (i.e., neither too late nor too early to act upon) and the PACU slot can be cleared quickly. We evaluated the maximum potential benefit of such a system, using assumptions deliberately biased toward showing utility. We extracted 3 years of electronic PACU data from a tertiary care medical center. At this hospital, PACU admissions were limited by neither inadequate PACU staffing nor insufficient PACU beds. We developed a model decision support system that simulated alerts to the PACU charge nurse. PACU census levels were reconstructed from the data at a 1-minute level of resolution and used to evaluate if subsequent delays would have been prevented by such alerts. The model assumed there was always a patient ready for discharge and an available hospital bed. The time from each alert until the maximum census was exceeded ("alert lead time") was determined. Alerts were judged to have utility if the alert lead time fell between various intervals from 15 or 30 minutes to 60, 75, or 90 minutes after triggering. In addition, utility for reducing over-utilized OR time was assessed using the model by determining if 2 patients arrived from 5 to 15 minutes of each other when the PACU census was at 1 patient less than the maximum census. At most, 23% of alerts arrived 30 to 60 minutes prior to the admission that resulted in the PACU exceeding the specified maximum capacity. When the notification window was extended to 15 to 90 minutes, the maximum utility was system to mitigate

  17. Traffic Route Guidance using Feedback of Predicted Travel Times : Improving Travel Times in the Berlin Traffic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsten, Arvid; Zetterberg, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Traffic congestions constitute a problem in many large cities. Congestions can be handled by reducing the network demand, expanding the infrastructure, or by utilizing the road network more efficiently. This master thesis presents a methodology for route guidance, based on automatic feedback control from the current traffic situation. Through variable direction signs or individual in-car devices, all vehicles with a certain origin and destination (which are both normally intermediate) are gui...

  18. Design of Air Traffic Control Operation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation for a different aircraft, based on the specific aircraft data that can be incorporated in the model and the equations of motions which can be consequently solved. The aircraft flight design involves various technical steps and requires the use of sophisticated software having modeling and simulation capabilities. Within the flight simulation model, the aerodynamic model can be regarded as the most complex and most important. With appropriate aerodynamic modeling the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft's center of gravity can be numerically solved with accuracy. These forces and moments are further used to solve the equations of motion. The development of control and computing technology makes it possible for advanced flight control strategy. The advanced control techniques tend to make the control design and their implementation much more complicated with more control loops or channels; in this line, the autopilot of modern aircrafts includes a variety of automatic control systems that aid and support the flight navigation, flight management, and perform the enhancing and/or augmenting of the stability characteristics of the airplane. Therefore in this context it is very important to choose the dynamic that will satisfy the performance and robustness specifications.

  19. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  20. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  1. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  2. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  3. Utility of numerical and visual analog scales for evaluating the post-operative pain in rural patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgalkar, Nikhil; Bele, Samir D; Valsangkar, Sameer; Bodhare, Trupti N; Gorre, Mahipal

    2012-11-01

    Visual analog scales (VAS) and numeric analog scales (NAS) are used to assess post-operative pain, but few studies indicate their usefulness in rural illiterate population in India. This study was designed to 1) Compare the impact of literacy on the ability to indicate pain rating on VAS and NAS in post-operative rural patients. 2) Assess the level of agreement between the pain scales. Cross sectional, hospital based study. Informed consent was obtained from patients prior to undergoing surgical procedures in a teaching hospital. Post surgery, patients who were conscious and coherent, were asked to rate pain on both VAS and NAS. The pain ratings were obtained within 24 hours of surgery and within 5 minutes of each other. Percentages, chi square test, regression analysis. A total of 105 patients participated in the study. 43 (41%) of the sample was illiterate. 82 (78.1%) were able to rate pain on VAS while 81 (77.1%) were able to rate pain on NAS. There was no significant association between pain ratings and type of surgery, duration of surgery and nature of anaesthesia. In multivariate analysis, age, sex and literacy had no significant association with the ability to rate pain on VAS (P value 0.652, 0.967, 0.328 respectively). Similarly, no significant association was obtained between age, sex and literacy and ability to rate pain on NAS (P value 0.713, 0.405, 0.875 respectively). Correlation coefficient between the scales was 0.693. VAS and NAS can be used interchangeably in Indian rural population as post-operative pain assessment tools irrespective of literacy status.

  4. Utility of numerical and visual analog scales for evaluating the post-operative pain in rural patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Mudgalkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual analog scales (VAS and numeric analog scales (NAS are used to assess post-operative pain, but few studies indicate their usefulness in rural illiterate population in India. Aims: This study was designed to 1 Compare the impact of literacy on the ability to indicate pain rating on VAS and NAS in post-operative rural patients. 2 Assess the level of agreement between the pain scales. Setting and Design: Cross sectional, hospital based study. Methods: Informed consent was obtained from patients prior to undergoing surgical procedures in a teaching hospital. Post surgery, patients who were conscious and coherent, were asked to rate pain on both VAS and NAS. The pain ratings were obtained within 24 hours of surgery and within 5 minutes of each other. Statistical Methods: Percentages, chi square test, regression analysis. Results: A total of 105 patients participated in the study. 43 (41% of the sample was illiterate. 82 (78.1% were able to rate pain on VAS while 81 (77.1% were able to rate pain on NAS. There was no significant association between pain ratings and type of surgery, duration of surgery and nature of anaesthesia. In multivariate analysis, age, sex and literacy had no significant association with the ability to rate pain on VAS (P value 0.652, 0.967, 0.328 respectively. Similarly, no significant association was obtained between age, sex and literacy and ability to rate pain on NAS (P value 0.713, 0.405, 0.875 respectively. Correlation coefficient between the scales was 0.693. Conclusion: VAS and NAS can be used interchangeably in Indian rural population as post-operative pain assessment tools irrespective of literacy status.

  5. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  6. Annual report of Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2006. Operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR and Tandem Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Department of Research Reactors and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor-3), JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor-4) and NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) and Tandem Accelerator. The following services and technical developments were achieved in Japanese Fiscal Year 2006: 1) JRR-3 was operated for 181 days in 7 cycles and JRR-4 for 149 days in 37 cycles to provide neutrons for research and development of in-house and outside users. 2) JRR-3 and JRR-4 were utilized through deliberate coordination as follows, a) Neutron irradiations of 628 materials, for neutron transmutation doping of silicon etc. b) Capsule irradiations of 3,067 samples, for neutron activation analyses etc. c) Neutron beam experiments of 6,338 cases x days. 3) Concerning to the 10 times increasing plan of cold neutron beams from JRR-3, a pressure resistant test model of the high-performance neutron moderator vessel which had been designed to increase cold neutrons twice as much as the present one was fabricated. Various developments for upgrading cold neutron guide tubes with super mirrors were in progress. 4) Boron neutron capture therapy was carried out 34 times using JRR-4. Improved neutron collimators were built to fit well to any irregular outline for cancer around the neck. 5) NSRR carried out 4 times of pulse irradiations of high burn-up MOX fuels and 9 times of un-irradiated fuels to contribute to fuel safety researches. 6) The Tandem Accelerator was operated for 201 days to contribute to the researches of nuclear physics and solid state physics with high energy heavy ions. The new utilization program of sharing beam times with outside users was performed by carrying out 45 days. The beam intensity increasing program with a high performance ion source, in place of the compact one which has been working in the high voltage terminal, has made great progress. (author)

  7. Comparing the utility of image algebra operations for characterizing landscape changes: the case of the Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare various image algebra procedures for their efficiency in locating and identifying different types of landscape changes on the margin of a Mediterranean coastal plain, Cukurova, Turkey. Image differencing and ratioing were applied to the reflective bands of Landsat TM datasets acquired in 1984 and 2006. Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) differencing were also applied. The resulting images were tested for their capacity to detect nine change phenomena, which were a priori defined in a three-level classification scheme. These change phenomena included agricultural encroachment, sand dune afforestation, coastline changes and removal/expansion of reed beds. The percentage overall accuracies of different algebra products for each phenomenon were calculated and compared. The results showed that some of the changes such as sand dune afforestation and reed bed expansion were detected with accuracies varying between 85 and 97% by the majority of the algebra operations, while some other changes such as logging could only be detected by mid-infrared (MIR) ratioing. For optimizing change detection in similar coastal landscapes, underlying causes of these changes were discussed and the guidelines for selecting band and algebra operations were provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic utility of the 21-gene assay in hormone receptor-positive operable breast cancer compared with classical clinicopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lori J; Gray, Robert; Badve, Sunil; Childs, Barrett H; Yoshizawa, Carl; Rowley, Steve; Shak, Steven; Baehner, Frederick L; Ravdin, Peter M; Davidson, Nancy E; Sledge, George W; Perez, Edith A; Shulman, Lawrence N; Martino, Silvana; Sparano, Joseph A

    2008-09-01

    Adjuvant! is a standardized validated decision aid that projects outcomes in operable breast cancer based on classical clinicopathologic features and therapy. Genomic classifiers offer the potential to more accurately identify individuals who benefit from chemotherapy than clinicopathologic features. A sample of 465 patients with hormone receptor (HR) -positive breast cancer with zero to three positive axillary nodes who did (n = 99) or did not have recurrence after chemohormonal therapy had tumor tissue evaluated using a 21-gene assay. Histologic grade and HR expression were evaluated locally and in a central laboratory. Recurrence Score (RS) was a highly significant predictor of recurrence, including node-negative and node-positive disease (P < .001 for both) and when adjusted for other clinical variables. RS also predicted recurrence more accurately than clinical variables when integrated by an algorithm modeled after Adjuvant! that was adjusted to 5-year outcomes. The 5-year recurrence rate was only 5% or less for the estimated 46% of patients who have a low RS (< 18). The 21-gene assay was a more accurate predictor of relapse than standard clinical features for individual patients with HR-positive operable breast cancer treated with chemohormonal therapy and provides information that is complementary to features typically used in anatomic staging, such as tumor size and lymph node involvement. The 21-gene assay may be used to select low-risk patients for abbreviated chemotherapy regimens similar to those used in our study or high-risk patients for more aggressive regimens or clinical trials evaluating novel treatments.

  9. Gender differences in service utilization among Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn Veterans Affairs patients with severe mental illness and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Janelle M; Brignone, Emily; Gilmore, Amanda K; Lehavot, Keren; Fargo, Jamison; Suo, Ying; Simpson, Tracy; Carter, Marjorie E; Blais, Rebecca K; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2018-02-01

    Severe mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorders (SUD) are among the more chronic and costly mental health conditions treated in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Service use patterns of returning veterans with SMI and SUD have received little attention. We examined gender differences in the utilization of VA services among a national sample of Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) VA patients with SMI, SUD, and their comorbidity (SMI/SUD) in their first year of established VA care (N = 24,166). Outpatient services and acute-residential stays were modeled using negative binomial and logistic regression, respectively. Among all diagnostic categories, men used outpatient services less often than did women, including primary care (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = .71, 95% confidence interval CI [.68, .74]), mental health (ARR = .85, 95% CI [.80, .91]), and addiction (ARR = .91, 95% CI [.83, .99]) services. For emergency department (ED) and psychiatric inpatient services, gender interacted significantly with diagnosis. The combination of SMI/SUD compared to either SMI or SUD conferred greater risk of ED utilization among men than women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.09, 95% CI [1.24, 3.51], and 1.95, 95% CI [1.17, 3.26], respectively). SMI versus SUD conferred greater risk of psychiatric inpatient utilization among men than women (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI [1.43, 2.34]). Our findings point to gender differences in outpatient and acute service utilization among OEF/OIF/OND VA patients with some of the more chronic and costly mental health conditions. Further investigation of health care utilization patterns is needed to understand factors driving these gender differences to ensure that veterans have appropriate access to the services they need. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  11. Dynamic control of traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Wal, van der Jan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic lights are put in place to dynamically change priority between traffic participants. Commonly, the duration of green intervals and the grouping, and ordering in which traffic flows are served are pre-fixed. In this chapter, the problem of minimizing vehicle delay at isolated intersections is

  12. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  13. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  14. Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Lindsey, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes traffic bottleneck congestion when drivers randomly cause incidents that temporarily block the bottleneck. Drivers have general scheduling preferences for time spent at home and at work. They independently choose morning departure times from home to maximize expected utility...... without knowing whether an incident has occurred. The resulting departure time pattern may be compressed or dispersed according to whether or not the bottleneck is fully utilized throughout the departure period on days without incidents. For both the user equilibrium (UE) and the social optimum (SO...

  15. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  16. TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    growing in Eastern and Southern Africa in response to increased human populations and poverty. fuel-trees etc. Conversely, extreme poverty of others means they regard wildlife as a means to meet their short worldwide. You can also find us online in: mainland China, India, Japan, Taiwan TRAFFIC is a strategic

  17. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  18. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  19. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  20. Clinical utility of routine pre-operative axillary ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology in patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattay, T; Muttalib, M; Khalifa, E; Duncan, A; Parker, S J

    2012-04-01

    In patients with operable breast cancer, pre-operative evaluation of the axilla may be of use in the selection of appropriate axillary surgery. Pre-operative axillary ultrasound (US) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) assessments have become routine practice in many breast units, although the evidence base is still gathering. This study assessed the clinical utility of US+/-FNAC in patient selection for either axillary node clearance (ANC) or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients undergoing surgery for operable breast cancer. Over a two-year period, 348 patients with a clinically negative axilla underwent axillary US. 67 patients with suspicious nodes on US also underwent FNAC. The sensitivity and specificity of axillary investigations to determine nodal involvement were 56% (confidence interval: 47-64%) and 90% (84-93%) for US alone, and 76% (61-87%) and 100% (65-100%) for FNAC combined with US, respectively. With a positive US, the post-test probability was 78%. A negative US carried a post-test probability of 25%. When FNAC was positive, the post-test probability was greater than unity. A negative FNAC yielded a post-test probability of 52%. All patients with positive FNAC and most patients with suspicious US were listed for axillary node clearance (ANC) after consideration at the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meeting. With pre-operative axillary US+/-FNAC, 20% of patients were saved a potential second axillary procedure, facilitating a reduction in the overall re-operation rate to 12%. In this study, a positive pre-operative US+/-FNAC directs patients towards ANC. When the result is negative, other clinico-pathological factors need to be taken into account in the selection of the appropriate axillary procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  2. Spatial correlation analysis of urban traffic state under a perspective of community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Cao, Jiandong; Qin, Yong; Jia, Limin; Dong, Honghui; Zhang, Aomuhan

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the spatial correlation of urban traffic state is essential for identifying the evolution patterns of urban traffic state. However, the distribution of traffic state always has characteristics of large spatial span and heterogeneity. This paper adapts the concept of community detection to the correlation network of urban traffic state and proposes a new perspective to identify the spatial correlation patterns of traffic state. In the proposed urban traffic network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding correlation of traffic state. Further, the process of community detection in the urban traffic network (named GWPA-K-means) is applied to analyze the spatial dependency of traffic state. The proposed method extends the traditional K-means algorithm in two steps: (i) redefines the initial cluster centers by two properties of nodes (the GWPA value and the minimum shortest path length); (ii) utilizes the weight signal propagation process to transfer the topological information of the urban traffic network into a node similarity matrix. Finally, numerical experiments are conducted on a simple network and a real urban road network in Beijing. The results show that GWPA-K-means algorithm is valid in spatial correlation analysis of traffic state. The network science and community structure analysis perform well in describing the spatial heterogeneity of traffic state on a large spatial scale.

  3. Citizen Science for Traffic Planning: A Practical Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Matthes; Stasch, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; de Wall, Arne; Remke, Albert; Wulffius, Herwig; Jirka, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Measures affecting traffic flows in urban areas, e.g. changing the configuration of traffic lights, are often causing emotional debates by citizens who are affected by these measures. Up to now, citizens are usually not involved in traffic planning and the evaluation of the decisions that were taken. The enviroCar project provides an open platform for collecting and analyzing car sensor data with GPS position data. On the hardware side, enviroCar relies on using Android smartphones and OBD-II Bluetooth adapters. A Web server component collects and aggregates the readings from the cars, anonymizes them and publishes the data as open data which scientists, public administrations or other third parties can utilize for further analysis. In this work, we provide a general overview on the enviroCar project and present a project in a mid-size city in Germany. The city's administration utilized the enviroCar platform with the help of a traffic system consultancy for including citizens in the evaluation process of different traffic light configurations along major traffic axes. Therefore, a public campaign was started including local workshops to engage the citizens. More than 150 citizens were actively collecting more about 9.500 tracks including about 2.5 million measurements. Dedicated evaluation results for the different traffic axes were computed based on the collected data set. Because the data is publicly available as open data, others may prove and reproduce the evaluation results contributing to an objective discussion of traffic planning measures. In summary, the project illustrates how Citizen Science methods and technologies improve traffic planning and related discussions.

  4. Traffic signs recognition for driving assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Sangram Reddy, Yatham; Karthik, Devareddy; Rana, Nikunj; Jasmine Pemeena Priyadarsini, M.; Rajini, G. K.; Naseera, Shaik

    2017-11-01

    In the current circumstances with the innovative headway, we must be able to provide assistance to the driving in recognising the traffic signs on the roads. At present time, many reviews are being directed moving in the direction of the usage of a keen Traffic Systems. One field of this exploration is driving support systems, and many reviews are being directed to create frameworks which distinguish and perceive street signs in front of the vehicle, and afterward utilize the data to advise the driver or to even control the vehicle by implementing this system on self-driving vehicles. In this paper we propose a method to detect the traffic sign board in a frame using HAAR cascading and then identifying the sign on it. The output may be either given out in voice or can be displayed as per the driver’s convenience. Each of the Traffic Sign is recognised using a database of images of symbols used to train the KNN classifier using open CV libraries.

  5. Utility of intra-operative ultrasound in choosing the appropriate site for blood pressure monitoring in Takayasu′s arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Krishnamurthy Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Takayasu′s arteritis (TA is rare, chronic progressive, pan-endarteritis involving the aorta and its main branches, with a specific predilection for young Asian women. Anaesthesia for TA patients is complicated by their severe uncontrolled hypertension, extreme arterial blood pressure differentials, aortic regurgitation (AR, end-organ dysfunction, stenosis/aneurysms of major blood vessels and difficulties encountered in monitoring arterial blood pressure. We present the usefulness of ultrasound during anaesthetic management of a 35-year-old woman posted for emergency caesarean section due to intra-uterine growth retardation, foetal tachycardia in active labour, who was already diagnosed to have TA along with moderate AR and uncontrolled hypertension, using epidural technique. The use of intra-operative doppler helped resolve the initial dilemma about the diagnosis and treatment of the differential blood pressure between the affected and the normal upper limb in the absence of prior arteriogram.

  6. Prognostic Utility of the 21-Gene Assay in Hormone Receptor–Positive Operable Breast Cancer Compared With Classical Clinicopathologic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lori J.; Gray, Robert; Badve, Sunil; Childs, Barrett H.; Yoshizawa, Carl; Rowley, Steve; Shak, Steven; Baehner, Frederick L.; Ravdin, Peter M.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Sledge, George W.; Perez, Edith A.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Sparano, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Adjuvant! is a standardized validated decision aid that projects outcomes in operable breast cancer based on classical clinicopathologic features and therapy. Genomic classifiers offer the potential to more accurately identify individuals who benefit from chemotherapy than clinicopathologic features. Patients and Methods A sample of 465 patients with hormone receptor (HR) –positive breast cancer with zero to three positive axillary nodes who did (n = 99) or did not have recurrence after chemohormonal therapy had tumor tissue evaluated using a 21-gene assay. Histologic grade and HR expression were evaluated locally and in a central laboratory. Results Recurrence Score (RS) was a highly significant predictor of recurrence, including node-negative and node-positive disease (P < .001 for both) and when adjusted for other clinical variables. RS also predicted recurrence more accurately than clinical variables when integrated by an algorithm modeled after Adjuvant! that was adjusted to 5-year outcomes. The 5-year recurrence rate was only 5% or less for the estimated 46% of patients who have a low RS (< 18). Conclusion The 21-gene assay was a more accurate predictor of relapse than standard clinical features for individual patients with HR-positive operable breast cancer treated with chemohormonal therapy and provides information that is complementary to features typically used in anatomic staging, such as tumor size and lymph node involvement. The 21-gene assay may be used to select low-risk patients for abbreviated chemotherapy regimens similar to those used in our study or high-risk patients for more aggressive regimens or clinical trials evaluating novel treatments. PMID:18678838

  7. Rail-induced Traffic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s railway has exerted an enormous influence on the intercity passenger transport structure in recent years. However, it has not satisfied the passengers’ travel demand due to induced traffic. This paper is committed to solving such issue, with the aim of satisfying the current travel demand, and of anticipating the demand of the predicted traffic growth over the next 20 to 30 years. The paper has considered the increase in rail passenger kilometres caused by the growth of rail kilometres as rail-induced traffic. Based on the concept and former research of induced traffic, the panel data of 26 provinces and 3 municipalities of China between the year 2000 and 2014 were collected, and the elasticity models (including elasticity-based model, distributed lag model, high-speed rail (HSR elasticity model and rail efficiency model have been constructed. The results show the importance of model formation incorporation of rail-induced traffic. It is better to get the correct value in divided zones with different train frequencies or incorporation rail efficiency in cities or provinces. The lag time and rail types also need to be considered. In summary, the results analysis not only confirms the existence of rail-induced traffic, but also provides substantial recommendations to train operation planning.

  8. Optimization of operating parameters of ground source heat pump system for space heating and cooling by Taguchi method and utility concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasakthivel, T.; Murugesan, K.; Thomas, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technology is suitable for both heating and cooling. • Important parameters that affect the GSHP performance has been listed. • Parameters of GSHP system has been optimized for heating and cooling mode. • Taguchi technique and utility concept are developed for GSHP optimization. - Abstract: Use of ground source energy for space heating applications through Ground Source Heat pump (GSHP) has been established as an efficient thermodynamic process. The electricity input to the GSHP can be reduced by increasing the COP of the system. However, the COP of a GSHP system will be different for heating and cooling mode operations. Hence in order to reduce the electricity input to the GSHP, an optimum value of COP has to be determined when GSHP is operated in both heating and cooling modes. In the present research, a methodology is proposed to optimize the operating parameters of a GSHP system which will operate on both heating and cooling modes. Condenser inlet temperature, condenser outlet temperature, dryness fraction at evaporator inlet and evaporator outlet temperature are considered as the influencing parameters of the heat pump. Optimization of these parameters for only heating or only cooling mode operation is achieved by employing Taguchi method for three level variations of the above parameters using an L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array. Higher the better concept has been used to get a higher COP. A computer program in FORTAN has been developed to carry out the computations and the results have been analyzed for the optimum conditions using Signal-to-Noise (SN) ratio and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) method. Based on this analysis, the maximum COP for only heating and only cooling operation are obtained as 4.25 and 3.32 respectively. By making use of the utility concept both the higher values of COP obtained for heating and cooling modes are optimized to get a single optimum COP for heating and cooling modes. A single

  9. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  10. Ideal Point Design and Operation of CO2-Based Transcritical Rankine Cycle (CTRC System Based on High Utilization of Engine’s Waste Heats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted a study specially to systematically analyze combined recovery of exhaust gas and engine coolant and related influence mechanism, including a detailed theoretical study and an assistant experimental study. In this research, CO2-based transcritical Rankine cycle (CTRC was used for fully combining the wastes heats. The main objective of theoretical research was to search an ‘ideal point’ of the recovery system and related influence mechanism, which was defined as operating condition of complete recovery of two waste heats. The theoretical methodology of this study could also provide a design reference for effective combined recovery of two or multiple waste heats in other fields. Based on a kW-class preheated CTRC prototype that was designed by the ‘ideal point’ method, an experimental study was conducted to verify combined utilization degree of two engine waste heats by the CTRC system. The operating results showed that the prototype can gain 44.4–49.8 kW and 22.7–26.7 kW heat absorption from exhaust gas and engine coolant, respectively. To direct practical operation, an experimental optimization work on the operating process was conducted for complete recovery of engine coolant exactly, which avoided deficient or excessive recovery.

  11. Operation, safety and utilization of the RA reactor in 1978 - Report; Prilog I - Rad, sigurnost i iskoriscenost reaktora RA u 1978. godini - Izvestaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinc, R; Stanic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1978-12-15

    This report includes a review of work related to development of reactor operation capacities and increase of the RA reactor safety and economic operation. Statistical data about reactor operation and utilization are included as well. Introducing of the new 80% enriched fuel into the the reactor core enabled increase of the neutron flux, i.e. increase of its production capabilities. Safety and optimization analyses concerned with introduction of the new fuel have shown that the most safe and economic procedure was gradual introducing of the highly enriched fuel. This procedure was based on the concept of mixed core configuration with 2% and 80% enriched fuel elements. By applying this original concept the following significant savings were achieved: fuel elements savings, shortening of the annual period of reactor operation, savings in spent fuel casks, electric power savings, slowing down of heavy water degradation. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi pregled o radu na razvoju eksploatacionih mogucnosti i povecanju sigurnosti i ekonomicnosti reaktora RA. Prilozeni su i statisticki podaci o radu i iskoriscenosti reaktora u 1978. godini. Uvodjenje novog 80% obogacenog goriva u jezgro reaktora omogucilo je povecanje neutronskog fluksa tj. povecanje njegovoh proizvodnih mogucnosti. Sigurnosne i optimizacione analize uvodjenja novog goriva pokazale su da je nasigurniji i najekonomicniji postupak postupnog uvodjenja visokoobogacenog goriva koji se zasniva na konceptu mesane resetke sa 2% i 80% obogacenim gorivom. Ovaj originalni koncept omogucio je da se postignu znatne ustede u gorivu, skracivanje godisnjeg rada reaktora, usteda sudova za odlaganje isluzenog goriva, usteda elektricne energije, usporavanje degradacije teske vode.

  12. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    is abundant scientific knowledge on how to improve soldiers' sleep, activity, and nutrition and that a major challenge is for scientists and military leaders/policy makers to work together to operationalize what is known for soldier utility on the ground.

  13. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  14. Operational Performance Characterization of a Heat Pump System Utilizing Recycled Water as Heat Sink and Heat Source in a Cool and Dry Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljae Im

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater leaving from homes and businesses contains abundant low-grade energy, which can be utilized through heat pump technology to heat and cool buildings. Although the energy in the wastewater has been successfully utilized to condition buildings in other countries, it is barely utilized in the United States, until recently. In 2013, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science at Denver, the United States implemented a unique heat pump system that utilizes recycled wastewater from a municipal water system to cool and heat its 13,000 m2 new addition. This recycled water heat pump (RWHP system uses seven 105 kW (cooling capacity modular water-to-water heat pumps (WWHPs. Each WWHP uses R-410A refrigerant, has two compressors, and can independently provide either 52 °C hot water (HW or 7 °C chilled water (CHW to the building. This paper presents performance characterization results of this RWHP system based on the measured data from December 2014 through August 2015. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was also calculated and compared with that of a baseline Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system which meets the minimum energy efficiencies that are allowed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013. The performance analysis results indicate that recycled water temperatures were favorable for effective operation of heat pumps. As a result, on an annual basis, the RWHP system avoided 50% of source energy consumption (resulting from reduction in natural gas consumption although electricity consumption was increased slightly, reduced CO2 emissions by 41%, and saved 34% in energy costs as compared with the baseline system.

  15. Evaluation of overweight load routing on buried utility facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Overweight traffic movements can negatively affect pavement integrity and quality. However, it is less : known to what degree buried utility plant along and across the right of way is affected by these overweight : loads, especially if the utility fa...

  16. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaioannou, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Vyrsokinos, K.

    2012-01-01

    -enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power 3 response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted........ The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce...... active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4310 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM...

  17. USAF Enlisted Air Traffic Controller Selection: Examination of the Predictive Validity of the FAA Air Traffic Selection and Training Battery versus Training Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carretta, Thomas R; King, Raymond E

    2008-01-01

    .... The current study examined the utility of the FAA Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT) battery for incrementing the predictiveness of the ASVAB versus several enlisted ATC training criteria...

  18. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  19. Logistic Regression Analysis of Operational Errors and Routine Operations Using Sector Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfleiderer, Elaine M; Scroggins, Cheryl L; Manning, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    ...) and routine operation (RO) traffic samples. OE data were derived from SATORI re-creations of OEs occurring at the Indianapolis Air Route Traffic Control Center between 9/17/2001 and 12/10/2003...

  20. Early Model of Traffic Sign Reminder Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Rahmani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the traffic signs installed on the streets is one of the requirements of driving on the road. Laxity in driving may result in traffic accident. This paper describes a real-time reminder model, by utilizing a camera that can be installed in a car to capture image of traffic signs, and is processed and later to inform the driver. The extracting feature harnessing the morphological elements (strel is used in this paper. Artificial Neural Networks is used to train the system and to produce a final decision. The result shows that the accuracy in detecting and recognizing the ten types of traffic signs in real-time is 80%.

  1. An intelligent vehicular traffic signal control system with state flow chart design and fpga prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, U.S.; Memon, T.D.; Noonari, A.S.; Ansari, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language) code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III. (author)

  2. An Intelligent Vehicular Traffic Signal Control System with State Flow Chart Design and FPGA Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMAIR SAEEDSOLANGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III.

  3. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  4. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  5. Identifying the Onset of Congestion Rapidly with Existing Traffic Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    From an operations standpoint, the most important task of a traffic surveillance system is determining reliably whether the facility is free flowing or congested. The second most important task is responding rapidly when the facility becomes congested. Other tasks, such as quantifying the magnitude of congestion, are desirable, but tertiary. To address the first two tasks, this paper presents a new approach for traffic surveillance using existing detectors. Rather than expending a considerabl...

  6. Traffic Policing in Dynamic Military Networks Using Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Skappel, Hans Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    This thesis looks at how Software Defined Networking (SDN) can be used to provide traffic engineering and to police traffic in an Operational Military Network (OMN). SDN is a concept where the control plane is separated from the forwarding plane, and the control plane is capable of controlling forwarding plane elements located on multiple network nodes using the OpenFlow protocol. Specifically, we have discussed the problems in OMNs, and possible SDN approaches to mitigate the challenges. Bas...

  7. The utility of high-resolution intraoperative MRI in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas: early experience in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Hasan A.; De Los Reyes, Kenneth; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Litvack, Zachary N.; Bi, Wenya Linda; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Dunn, Ian F.; Laws, Edward R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endoscopic skull base surgery has become increasingly popular among the skull base surgery community, with improved illumination and angled visualization potentially improving tumor resection rates. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is used to detect residual disease during the course of the resection. This study is an investigation of the utility of 3-T iMRI in combination with transnasal endoscopy with regard to gross-total resection (GTR) of pituitary macroadenomas. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic transsphenoidal operations performed in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite from November 2011 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients harboring presumed pituitary macroadenomas with optic nerve or chiasmal compression and visual loss, operated on by a single surgeon. Results Of the 27 patients who underwent transsphenoidal resection in the AMIGO suite, 20 patients met the inclusion criteria. The endoscope alone, without the use of iMRI, would have correctly predicted 13 (65%) of 20 cases. Gross-total resection was achieved in 12 patients (60%) prior to MRI. Intraoperative MRI helped convert 1 STR and 4 NTRs to GTRs, increasing the number of GTRs from 12 (60%) to 16 (80%). Conclusions Despite advances in visualization provided by the endoscope, the incidence of residual disease can potentially place the patient at risk for additional surgery. The authors found that iMRI can be useful in detecting unexpected residual tumor. The cost-effectiveness of this tool is yet to be determined. PMID:26926058

  8. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  9. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM PENGENDALIAN TRAFFIC DAN WEB FILTERING PADA JARINGAN INTERNET BERBASIS HOTSPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riska Robianto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Internet services to the hotspot network raises particular problems in traffic control and web filtering. Linux as an operating system that is open (open source, offers a variety of internet firewall systems to assist in the management of traffic, bandwidth, web filtering and one using Smoothwall Express to Linux which can convert a personal computer (PC to the Internet firewall reliable and stable. Smoothwall allows to integrated with the add-ons extends like AdvProxy and URL Filter to improve the performance of Smoohtwall and simplify configuration of the traffic control and web filtering. The research was conducted by collecting data from various sources related, then experiment with implementing Smoohtwall by adding add-ons extends to help administrators manage and regulate the bandwidth allocation of each client, block websites (URLs that are not needed. Based on these results bandwidth management can be divided equally and can block websites (URLs that are not needed like porn sites, warez, bad word, and also the quality of the network connection updatesites more stable.

  10. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  11. Multicast traffic grooming in flexible optical WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankitkumar N.; Ji, Philip N.; Jue, Jason P.; Wang, Ting

    2012-12-01

    In Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), point-to-multipoint applications, such as IPTV, video-on-demand, distance learning, and content distribution, can be efficiently supported through light-tree-based multicastcommunications instead of lightpath-based unicast-communications. The application of multicasting for such traffic is justified by its inherent benefits of reduced control and management overhead and elimination of redundant resource provisioning. Supporting such multicast traffic in Flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks that can provision light-trees using optimum amount of spectrum within flexible channel spacing leads to higher wavelength and spectral efficiencies compared to the conventional ITU-T fixed grid networks. However, in spite of such flexibility, the residual channel capacity of stranded channels may not be utilized if the network does not offer channels with arbitrary line rates. Additionally, the spectrum allocated to guard bands used to isolate finer granularity channels remains unutilized. These limitations can be addressed by using traffic grooming in which low-rate multicast connections are aggregated and switched over high capacity light-trees. In this paper, we address the multicast traffic grooming problem in FWDM networks, and propose a novel auxiliary graph-based algorithm for the first time. The performance of multicast traffic grooming is evaluated in terms of spectral, cost, and energy efficiencies compared to lightpath-based transparent FWDM networks, lightpathbased traffic grooming-capable FWDM networks, multicast-enabled transparent FWDM networks, and multicast traffic grooming-capable fixed grid networks. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast traffic grooming in FWDM networks not only improves spectral efficiency, but also cost, and energy efficiencies compared to other multicast traffic provisioning approaches of FWDM and fixed grid networks.

  12. Effects of mental workload on physiological and subjective responses during traffic density monitoring: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated operators' mental workload while monitoring traffic density in a city traffic control center. To determine the mental workload, physiological signals (ECG, EMG) were recorded and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered for 16 operators. The results showed that the operators experienced a larger mental workload during high traffic density than during low traffic density. The traffic control center stressors caused changes in heart rate variability features and EMG amplitude, although the average workload score was significantly higher in HTD conditions than in LTD conditions. The findings indicated that increasing traffic congestion had a significant effect on HR, RMSSD, SDNN, LF/HF ratio, and EMG amplitude. The results suggested that when operators' workload increases, their mental fatigue and stress level increase and their mental health deteriorate. Therefore, it maybe necessary to implement an ergonomic program to manage mental health. Furthermore, by evaluating mental workload, the traffic control center director can organize the center's traffic congestion operators to sustain the appropriate mental workload and improve traffic control management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  14. Utilization of Plutonium and Higher Actinides in the HTGR as Possibility to Maintain Long-Term Operation on One Fuel Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, Galina V.; Peddicord, Kenneth L.

    2002-01-01

    Promising existing nuclear reactor concepts together with new ideas are being discussed worldwide. Many new studies are underway in order to identify prototypes that will be analyzed and developed further as systems for Generation IV. The focus is on designs demonstrating full inherent safety, competitive economics and proliferation resistance. The work discussed here is centered on a modularized small-size High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) concept. This paper discusses the possibility of maintaining long-term operation on one fuel loading through utilization of plutonium and higher actinides in the small-size pebble-bed reactor (PBR). Acknowledging the well-known flexibility of the PBR design with respect to fuel composition, the principal limitations of the long-term burning of plutonium and higher actinides are considered. The technological challenges and further research are outlined. The results allow the identification of physical features of the PBR that significantly influence flexibility of the design and its applications. (authors)

  15. Development of performance model and optimization strategy for standalone operation of CPV-hydrogen system utilizing multi-junction solar cell

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    Despite highest energy potential, solar energy is only available during diurnal period with varying intensity. Therefore, owing to solar intermittency, solar energy systems need to operate in standalone configuration for steady power supply which requires reliable and sustainable energy storage. Hydrogen production has proved to be the most reliable and sustainable energy storage option for medium and long term operation. However, at the first priority, solar energy must be captured with high efficiency, in order to reduce the overall size of the system and energy storage. Multi-junction solar cells (MJCs) provide highest energy efficiency among all of the photovoltaic technologies and the concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system concept makes their use cost effective. However, literature is lacking the performance model and optimization strategy for standalone operation of the CPV-hydrogen system. In addition, there is no commercial tool available that can analyze CPV performance, utilizing multi-junction solar cell. This paper proposes the performance model for the CPV-hydrogen systems and the multi-objective optimization strategy for its standalone operation and techno-economic analysis, using micro genetic algorithm (micro-GA). The electrolytic hydrogen production with compression storage and fuel cell, is used as energy storage system. The CPV model is verified for the experimental data of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cell. An optimal CPV system design is provided for uninterrupted power supply, even under seasonal weather variations. Such approach can be easily integrated with commercial tools and the presented performance data can be used for the design of individual components of the system.

  16. Development of performance model and optimization strategy for standalone operation of CPV-hydrogen system utilizing multi-junction solar cell

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-09-16

    Despite highest energy potential, solar energy is only available during diurnal period with varying intensity. Therefore, owing to solar intermittency, solar energy systems need to operate in standalone configuration for steady power supply which requires reliable and sustainable energy storage. Hydrogen production has proved to be the most reliable and sustainable energy storage option for medium and long term operation. However, at the first priority, solar energy must be captured with high efficiency, in order to reduce the overall size of the system and energy storage. Multi-junction solar cells (MJCs) provide highest energy efficiency among all of the photovoltaic technologies and the concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system concept makes their use cost effective. However, literature is lacking the performance model and optimization strategy for standalone operation of the CPV-hydrogen system. In addition, there is no commercial tool available that can analyze CPV performance, utilizing multi-junction solar cell. This paper proposes the performance model for the CPV-hydrogen systems and the multi-objective optimization strategy for its standalone operation and techno-economic analysis, using micro genetic algorithm (micro-GA). The electrolytic hydrogen production with compression storage and fuel cell, is used as energy storage system. The CPV model is verified for the experimental data of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cell. An optimal CPV system design is provided for uninterrupted power supply, even under seasonal weather variations. Such approach can be easily integrated with commercial tools and the presented performance data can be used for the design of individual components of the system.

  17. Current status of mergers and acquisitions (M and A) in the U.S. electric utilities operators; Beikoku koeki denki jigyosha wo meguru M and A no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, E. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M and A) are rapidly increasing among the U.S. electric utilities operators. This paper reports from among a large number of cases the mergers with district power distribution companies in England, and movements aiming at building a comprehensive energy corporation by using M and A with gas companies. The purpose of acquiring the British power distribution companies is to seek expanded earnings having become necessary due to little growth in power demand and intensified competition. This may be possible because the cap price is high in the cap price system in England, and can provide a large room for earning more profits. It is also an attempt of utilizing more effectively the experience of deregulation having been done ahead of America, such as introduction of unboundering and pooling systems. Four companies were under acquisition activities in even 1996 alone, and if prior acquisitions are added, actually half of British district power distribution companies have had been acquired. Merger of electric power companies with gas companies is the opening act of movements aimed at obtaining single-handed the oil business to become a comprehensive energy corporation. 4 refs., 14 tabs.

  18. Using Probe Vehicle Data for Automatic Extraction of Road Traffic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Popescu Maria Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper the author aims to study and find solutions for automatic detection of traffic light position and for automatic calculation of the waiting time at traffic light. The first objective serves mainly the road transportation field, mainly because it removes the need for collaboration with local authorities to establish a national network of traffic lights. The second objective is important not only for companies which are providing navigation solutions, but especially for authorities, institutions, companies operating in road traffic management systems. Real-time dynamic determination of traffic queue length and of waiting time at traffic lights allow the creation of dynamic systems, intelligent and flexible, adapted to actual traffic conditions, and not to generic, theoretical models. Thus, cities can approach the Smart City concept by boosting, efficienting and greening the road transport, promoted in Europe through the Horizon 2020, Smart Cities, Urban Mobility initiative.

  19. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... induced traffic is partly accounted for than when it is ignored. By exaggerating the economic benefits of road capacity increase and underestimating its negative effects, omission of induced traffic can result in over-allocation of public money on road construction and correspondingly less focus on other...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...

  20. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  1. Using Tensor Completion Method to Achieving Better Coverage of Traffic State Estimation from Sparse Floating Car Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bin; Song, Li; Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Yang; Tan, Huachun

    2016-01-01

    Traffic state estimation from the floating car system is a challenging problem. The low penetration rate and random distribution make available floating car samples usually cover part space and time points of the road networks. To obtain a wide range of traffic state from the floating car system, many methods have been proposed to estimate the traffic state for the uncovered links. However, these methods cannot provide traffic state of the entire road networks. In this paper, the traffic state estimation is transformed to solve a missing data imputation problem, and the tensor completion framework is proposed to estimate missing traffic state. A tensor is constructed to model traffic state in which observed entries are directly derived from floating car system and unobserved traffic states are modeled as missing entries of constructed tensor. The constructed traffic state tensor can represent spatial and temporal correlations of traffic data and encode the multi-way properties of traffic state. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it can fully mine and utilize the multi-dimensional inherent correlations of traffic state. We tested the proposed approach on a well calibrated simulation network. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach yield reliable traffic state estimation from very sparse floating car data, particularly when dealing with the floating car penetration rate is below 1%.

  2. Using Tensor Completion Method to Achieving Better Coverage of Traffic State Estimation from Sparse Floating Car Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    Full Text Available Traffic state estimation from the floating car system is a challenging problem. The low penetration rate and random distribution make available floating car samples usually cover part space and time points of the road networks. To obtain a wide range of traffic state from the floating car system, many methods have been proposed to estimate the traffic state for the uncovered links. However, these methods cannot provide traffic state of the entire road networks. In this paper, the traffic state estimation is transformed to solve a missing data imputation problem, and the tensor completion framework is proposed to estimate missing traffic state. A tensor is constructed to model traffic state in which observed entries are directly derived from floating car system and unobserved traffic states are modeled as missing entries of constructed tensor. The constructed traffic state tensor can represent spatial and temporal correlations of traffic data and encode the multi-way properties of traffic state. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it can fully mine and utilize the multi-dimensional inherent correlations of traffic state. We tested the proposed approach on a well calibrated simulation network. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach yield reliable traffic state estimation from very sparse floating car data, particularly when dealing with the floating car penetration rate is below 1%.

  3. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber- sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Bandwith, Traffic Shapping, MikroTik. 

  4. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  5. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2014. Operation, Utilization and Technical Development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR, Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osa, Akihiko; Imahashi, Masaki; Hirane, Nobuhiko; Motome, Yuiko; Tayama, Hidekazu; Tamura, Itaru; Harada, Yuko; Sakata, Mami; Kadokura, Masakazu; Takita, Chiharu

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility. This annual report describes the activities of our department in fiscal year of 2014. We carried out the operation and maintenance, utilization, upgrading of utilization techniques, safety administration, and international cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on laws and regulations concerning atomic energy, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  6. Annual report of Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, JFY2013. Operation, Utilization and Technical Development of JRR-3, JRR-4, NSRR, Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashima, Yoichi; Murayama, Yoji; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Uno, Yuki; Hirane, Nobuhiko; Ohuchi, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Nobuhiro; Matsumura, Taichi; Nagahori, Kazuhisa; Harada, Yuko; Kadokura, Masakazu; Machi, Sumire; Takita, Chiharu

    2015-02-01

    The Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator is in charge of the operation, utilization and technical development of JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3), JRR-4(Japan Research Reactor No.4), NSRR(Nuclear Safety Research Reactor), Tandem Accelerator and RI Production Facility. This annual report describes the activities of our department in fiscal year of 2013. We carried out the operation and maintenance, utilization, upgrading of utilization techniques, safety administration and international cooperation. Also contained are lists of publications, meetings, granted permissions on laws and regulations concerning atomic energy, outcomes in service and technical developments and so on. (author)

  7. Understanding the T2 traffic in CMS during Run-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Wildish

    2015-12-01

    In the run-up to Run-1 CMS was operating its facilities according to the MONARC model, where data-transfers were strictly hierarchical in nature. Direct transfers between Tier-2 nodes was excluded, being perceived as operationally intensive and risky in an era where the network was expected to be a major source of errors. By the end of Run-1 wide-area networks were more capable and stable than originally anticipated. The original data-placement model was relaxed, and traffic was allowed between Tier-2 nodes. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic in 2012 already exceeded the amount of Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic, so it clearly has the potential to become important in the future. Moreover, while Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic is mostly upload of Monte Carlo data, the Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic represents data moved in direct response to requests from the physics analysis community. As such, problems or delays there are more likely to have a direct impact on the user community. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic may also traverse parts of the WAN that are at the 'edge' of our network, with limited network capacity or reliability compared to, say, the Tier-0 to Tier-1 traffic which goes the over LHCOPN network. CMS is looking to exploit technologies that allow us to interact with the network fabric so that it can manage our traffic better for us, this we hope to achieve before the end of Run-2. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic would be the most interesting use-case for such traffic management, precisely because it is close to the users' analysis and far from the 'core' network infrastructure. As such, a better understanding of our Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic is important. Knowing the characteristics of our data-flows can help us place our data more intelligently. Knowing how widely the data moves can help us anticipate the requirements for network capacity, and inform the dynamic data placement algorithms we expect to have in place for Run-2. This paper presents an analysis of the CMS Tier-2 traffic during Run 1.

  8. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  9. Expanding the Use of Time-Based Metering: Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Steven J.; Farley, Todd; Hoang, Ty

    2005-01-01

    Time-based metering is an efficient air traffic management alternative to the more common practice of distance-based metering (or "miles-in-trail spacing"). Despite having demonstrated significant operational benefit to airspace users and service providers, time-based metering is used in the United States for arrivals to just nine airports and is not used at all for non-arrival traffic flows. The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor promises to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic management techniques. Not constrained to operate solely on arrival traffic, Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor is flexible enough to work in highly congested or heavily partitioned airspace for any and all traffic flows in a region. This broader and more general application of time-based metering is expected to bring the operational benefits of time-based metering to a much wider pool of beneficiaries than is possible with existing technology. It also promises to facilitate more collaborative traffic management on a regional basis. This paper focuses on the operational concept of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, touching also on its system architecture, field test results, and prospects for near-term deployment to the United States National Airspace System.

  10. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  11. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  12. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  13. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  14. Computing Programs for Determining Traffic Flows from Roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroiu, A. A.; Tabacu, I.; Ene, A.; Neagu, E.; Boroiu, A.

    2017-10-01

    For modelling road traffic at the level of a road network it is necessary to specify the flows of all traffic currents at each intersection. These data can be obtained by direct measurements at the traffic light intersections, but in the case of a roundabout this is not possible directly and the literature as well as the traffic modelling software doesn’t offer ways to solve this issue. Two sets of formulas are proposed by which all traffic flows from the roundabouts with 3 or 4 arms are calculated based on the streams that can be measured. The objective of this paper is to develop computational programs to operate with these formulas. For each of the two sets of analytical relations, a computational program was developed in the Java operating language. The obtained results fully confirm the applicability of the calculation programs. The final stage for capitalizing these programs will be to make them web pages in HTML format, so that they can be accessed and used on the Internet. The achievements presented in this paper are an important step to provide a necessary tool for traffic modelling because these computational programs can be easily integrated into specialized software.

  15. Understanding the T2 traffic in CMS during Run-1

    CERN Document Server

    T, Wildish

    2015-01-01

    In the run-up to Run-1 CMS was operating its facilities according to the MONARC model, where data-transfers were strictly hierarchical in nature. Direct transfers between Tier-2 nodes was excluded, being perceived as operationally intensive and risky in an era where the network was expected to be a major source of errors. By the end of Run-1 wide-area networks were more capable and stable than originally anticipated. The original data-placement model was relaxed, and traffic was allowed between Tier-2 nodes.Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic in 2012 already exceeded the amount of Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic, so it clearly has the potential to become important in the future. Moreover, while Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic is mostly upload of Monte Carlo data, the Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic represents data moved in direct response to requests from the physics analysis community. As such, problems or delays there are more likely to have a direct impact on the user community.Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic may also traverse parts of the WAN ...

  16. Expanding Regional Airport Usage to Accommodate Increased Air Traffic Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carl R.

    2009-01-01

    Small regional airports present an underutilized source of capacity in the national air transportation system. This study sought to determine whether a 50 percent increase in national operations could be achieved by limiting demand growth at large hub airports and instead growing traffic levels at the surrounding regional airports. This demand scenario for future air traffic in the United States was generated and used as input to a 24-hour simulation of the national airspace system. Results of the demand generation process and metrics predicting the simulation results are presented, in addition to the actual simulation results. The demand generation process showed that sufficient runway capacity exists at regional airports to offload a significant portion of traffic from hub airports. Predictive metrics forecast a large reduction of delays at most major airports when demand is shifted. The simulation results then show that offloading hub traffic can significantly reduce nationwide delays.

  17. Measuring the Complexity of Self-Organizing Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Zubillaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to an urban traffic model for comparing a traditional traffic-light coordination method with a self-organizing method in two scenarios: cyclic boundaries and non-orientable boundaries. We show that the measures are useful to identify and characterize different dynamical phases. It becomes clear that different operation regimes are required for different traffic demands. Thus, not only is traffic a non-stationary problem, requiring controllers to adapt constantly; controllers must also change drastically the complexity of their behavior depending on the demand. Based on our measures and extending Ashby’s law of requisite variety, we can say that the self-organizing method achieves an adaptability level comparable to that of a living system.

  18. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    required by the next generation transport network to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) guaranteed video services. Augmenting network capacity and upgrading network nodes indicate long deployment period, replacement of equipment and thus significant cost to the network service providers. This challenge may...... slacken the steps of some network operators towards providing IPTV services. In this dissertation, the topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed to tackle the problem addressed. The scheme simplifies the deployment process by placing an intelligent switch with centralized traffic...... management functions at the edge of the network, scheduling traffic on behalf of the other nodes. The topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is able to provide outstanding flow isolation due to its centralized scheduling ability, which is essential for providing IPTV services. In order to reduce...

  19. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  20. Development of a High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Shadow-Mode Assessments of Air Traffic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Lee, Alan; Lai, Chok Fung

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Shadow-Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) Test Bed. The SMART-NAS Test Bed is an air traffic simulation platform being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The SMART-NAS Test Bed's core purpose is to conduct high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop and automation-in-the-loop simulations of current and proposed future air traffic concepts for the United States' Next Generation Air Transportation System called NextGen. The setup, configuration, coordination, and execution of realtime, human-in-the-loop air traffic management simulations are complex, tedious, time intensive, and expensive. The SMART-NAS Test Bed framework is an alternative to the current approach and will provide services throughout the simulation workflow pipeline to help alleviate these shortcomings. The principle concepts to be simulated include advanced gate-to-gate, trajectory-based operations, widespread integration of novel aircraft such as unmanned vehicles, and real-time safety assurance technologies to enable autonomous operations. To make this possible, SNTB will utilize Web-based technologies, cloud resources, and real-time, scalable, communication middleware. This paper describes the SMART-NAS Test Bed's vision, purpose, its concept of use, and the potential benefits, key capabilities, high-level requirements, architecture, software design, and usage.

  1. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  2. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  3. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  4. Simulating and evaluating an adaptive and integrated traffic lights control system for smart city application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuana, E.; Rahardjo, K.; Gozali, F.; Tan, S.; Rambung, R.; Adrian, D.

    2018-01-01

    A city could be categorized as a smart city when the information technology has been developed to the point that the administration could sense, understand, and control every resource to serve its people and sustain the development of the city. One of the smart city aspects is transportation and traffic management. This paper presents a research project to design an adaptive traffic lights control system as a part of the smart system for optimizing road utilization and reducing congestion. Research problems presented include: (1) Congestion in one direction toward an intersection due to dynamic traffic condition from time to time during the day, while the timing cycles in traffic lights system are mostly static; (2) No timing synchronization among traffic lights in adjacent intersections that is causing unsteady flows; (3) Difficulties in traffic condition monitoring on the intersection and the lack of facility for remotely controlling traffic lights. In this research, a simulator has been built to model the adaptivity and integration among different traffic lights controllers in adjacent intersections, and a case study consisting of three sets of intersections along Jalan K. H. Hasyim Ashari has been simulated. It can be concluded that timing slots synchronization among traffic lights is crucial for maintaining a steady traffic flow.

  5. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  6. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  7. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  8. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  9. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  10. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  11. Synchronization between Different Networks with Time-Varying Delay and Its Application in Bilayer Coupled Public Traffic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic characteristics of urban public traffic network, this paper establishes the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network based on the space R modeling method. Then regarding these two networks as the subnetwork, the paper presents a new bilayer coupled public traffic network through the transfer relationship between subway and bus, and this model well reflects the connection between the passengers and bus operating vehicles. Based on the synchronization theory of coupling network with time-varying delay and taking “Lorenz system” as the network node, the paper studies the synchronization of bilayer coupled public traffic network. Finally, numerical results are given to show the impact of public traffic dispatching, delayed departure, the number of public bus stops between bus lines, and the number of transfer stations between two traffic modes on the bilayer coupled public traffic network balance through Matlab simulation.

  12. The NASA Air Traffic Management Ontology (atmonto)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA ATM (Air Traffic Management) Ontology describes classes, properties, and relationships relevant to the domain of air traffic management, and represents...

  13. Data about operation and utilization of the RA in 1976 - Report, Annex I; Prilog I - Podaci o radu i iskoriscenosti reaktora RA u 1976. godini - Izvestaj -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    During 1976 there were significant discrepancies in RA reactor operation in comparison with the operating plan made at the end of 1975. Some discrepancies were planned but not all could be foreseen due to the following reasons: no possibility to estimate the precise schedule of aluminium tubes for fuel channels delivery from the; USSR; no means to estimate precise time for repairs that were never performed or were not done during previous 6 years; inability to estimate the time needed for experiments within the program of transfer to highly enriched fuel (which was successfully finished) since some of these experiments were never done before. Some repairs were not planned since unpredicted failures occurred. Six fuel exchanges were planned, but they were somewhat delayed. Detailed data about the planned and achieved reactor operation are shown in this annex as well as interruptions. There were 12 shorter interruptions and safety shutdowns which was in total for 64 hours. Reactor was operated at nominal power of 6.5 MW. There have been no significant accidents, but two cases could be characterised as accidental according to their occurrence not according to the effects. The first was break of the tube next to the heavy water pump, and the second was contamination of the reactor hall and corridor during preparation of the fuel exchange machine (spill of heavy water). This annex covers the data concerned with utilization of experimental facilities and reactor utilization. [Serbo-Croat] Reaktor RA je u toku 1976. godine radio sa znatnijim odstupanjima od plana rada za 1976. godinu, donetom krajem 1975. godine. Medjutim, ni ova procena mogucih odstupanja nije mogla biti korektna iz sledecih, razloga: nemogucnost da se predvidi tacan rok isporuke cevi od specijalne aluminijumske legure iz SSSR za izradu tehnoloskih kanala, nemogucnost da se predvidi tacno vreme potrebno za remonte kakvi ili nisu radjeni ranije ili su radjeni pre vise od 6 godina pod povoljnijim uslovima

  14. Automated mixed traffic vehicle control and scheduling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.; Chon, K.

    1976-01-01

    The operation and the expected performance of a proposed automatic guideway transit system which uses low speed automated mixed traffic vehicles (AMTVs) were analyzed. Vehicle scheduling and headway control policies were evaluated with a transit system simulation model. The effect of mixed traffic interference on the average vehicle speed was examined with a vehicle pedestrian interface model. Control parameters regulating vehicle speed were evaluated for safe stopping and passenger comfort. Some preliminary data on the cost and operation of an experimental AMTV system are included. These data were the result of a separate task conducted at JPL, and were included as background information.

  15. Economic utilization of general aviation airport runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The urban general aviation airport economics is studied in detail. The demand for airport services is discussed, and the different types of users are identified. The direct cost characteristics of the airport are summarized; costs to the airport owner are largely fixed, and, except at certain large airports, weight is not a significant factor in airport costs. The efficient use of an existing airport facility is explored, with the focus on the social cost of runway congestion as traffic density at the airport build up and queues form. The tradeoff between aircraft operating costs and airport costs is analyzed in terms of runway length. The transition from theory to practice is treated, and the policy of charging prices only on aircraft storage and fuel is felt likely to continue. Implications of the study from the standpoint of public policy include pricing that spreads traffic peaks to improve runway utilization, and pricing that discriminates against aircraft requiring long runways and causes owners to adopt V/STOL equipment.

  16. An evolutionary outlook of air traffic flow management techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistan, Trevor; Gardi, Alessandro; Sabatini, Roberto; Ramasamy, Subramanian; Batuwangala, Eranga

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) has become pertinent even in regions without sustained overload conditions caused by dense traffic operations. Increasing traffic volumes in the face of constrained resources has created peak congestion at specific locations and times in many areas of the world. Increased environmental awareness and economic drivers have combined to create a resurgent interest in ATFM as evidenced by a spate of recent ATFM conferences and workshops mediated by official bodies such as ICAO, IATA, CANSO the FAA and Eurocontrol. Significant ATFM acquisitions in the last 5 years include South Africa, Australia and India. Singapore, Thailand and Korea are all expected to procure ATFM systems within a year while China is expected to develop a bespoke system. Asia-Pacific nations are particularly pro-active given the traffic growth projections for the region (by 2050 half of all air traffic will be to, from or within the Asia-Pacific region). National authorities now have access to recently published international standards to guide the development of national and regional operational concepts for ATFM, geared to Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management and Avionics (CNS+A) evolutions. This paper critically reviews the field to determine which ATFM research and development efforts hold the best promise for practical technological implementations, offering clear benefits both in terms of enhanced safety and efficiency in times of growing air traffic. An evolutionary approach is adopted starting from an ontology of current ATFM techniques and proceeding to identify the technological and regulatory evolutions required in the future CNS+A context, as the aviation industry moves forward with a clearer understanding of emerging operational needs, the geo-political realities of regional collaboration and the impending needs of global harmonisation.

  17. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  18. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  19. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  20. The Mynydd Y Cemmaes windfarm impact study - Volume IIB. Traffic impact: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.; Stevenson, R.

    1995-01-01

    This study, from the Energy Technology Support Unit of the Department of Trade and Industry, looks at the effect on traffic movements of the construction and operation of the Mynydd y Cemmaes windfarm in Powys. The study was conducted before, during and after the construction of the windfarm over a two year period from 1992 to 1994. A large increase in traffic was observed on the unclassified road leading to the windfarm site during its construction phase, and these levels fell during commissioning and fell again during normal operation. Public concern about the traffic impact of the windfarm was then set against the 25% increase in local traffic during the windfarms operational phase. This data will be used to make more accurate predictions of traffic movements likely to occur in future windfarm construction projects. (UK)