WorldWideScience

Sample records for traffic intent information

  1. Airborne Use of Traffic Intent Information in a Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management Concept: Experiment Design and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Adams, Richard J.; Duley, Jacqueline A.; Legan, Brian M.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Moses, Donald

    2001-01-01

    A predominant research focus in the free flight community has been on the type of information required on the flight deck to enable pilots to "autonomously" maintain separation from other aircraft. At issue are the relative utility and requirement for information exchange between aircraft regarding the current "state" and/or the "intent" of each aircraft. This paper presents the experimental design and some initial findings of an experimental research study designed to provide insight into the issue of intent information exchange in constrained en-route operations and its effect on pilot decision making and flight performance. Two operational modes for autonomous operations were compared in a piloted simulation. The tactical mode was characterized primarily by the use of state information for conflict detection and resolution and an open-loop means for the pilot to meet operational constraints. The strategic mode involved the combined use of state and intent information, provided the pilot an additional level of alerting, and allowed a closed-loop approach to meeting operational constraints. Potential operational benefits of both modes are illustrated through several scenario case studies. Subjective data results are presented that generally indicate pilot consensus in favor of the strategic mode.

  2. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  3. Decline traffic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  4. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  5. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  6. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  7. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  8. Problem of Information Security Traffic on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Šarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet information traffic becomes greater and moreimportant. With increasing growth of information importancerequirement for its security becomes indispensable. Theinformation security problem especially affect large and smallcompanies whose prosperity is depending on Internet presence.This affecting the three areas of Internet commerce: credit cardtransactions, virtual private networks and digital certification.To ensure information traffic it is necessary to find a solution,in a proper way, for three major problems: frontier problem,market problem and government problem. While the eventualemergence of security standards for Internet transactions isexpected, it will not automatically result in secure Internettransactions. In future, there is a wealth of security issues thatwill continue to require attention: internal security, continuedhacking, social engineering, malicious code, reliability andperformance, skills shortages and denial of se1vice attacks.

  9. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  10. Intelligent Traffic Information System a Real-Time Traffic Information System on the Shiraz Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodagaran Amir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic information system is an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS that allows commuters to make their traveling plan better. In this regard, an intelligent and real-time traffic information system was developed based on the video detection and an image processing algorithm was applied to measure traffic-flow according to the average speed of vehicles. Then, traffic status of each pass way is broadcasted to the electronic boards installed on all decision making entrance / exit. Different levels of congestion related to the routes ahead are shown on the boards with different colors in order to assist commuters. This system was implemented on the Shiraz Dry River’s bypasses which account as vital routes to moderate traffic of city center. Experimental results are promising due to the proximity of determined traffic status by the system compared to the detection done by traffic experts. Average speed improvement is another result of using this system. This intelligent system developed and implemented in Shiraz city for the first time in Iran.s.

  11. Trajectories for Novel and Detailed Traffic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    the central metric free-flow speed from trajectories, instead of using point-based measurements such as induction-loops. This free-flow speed is widely used to compute and monitor the congestion level. The paper argues that the actual travel-time is a more accurate metric. The paper suggests a novel approach...... are correctly coordinated, and navigational device manufacturers to advice drivers in real-time on expected behavior of signalized intersections. The main conclusion is that trajectories can provide novel insight into the actual traffic situation that is not possible using existing approaches. Further...... to analyzing individual intersections that enables traffic analysts to compute queue lengths and estimated time to pass an intersection. Finally, the paper uses associative rule mining for evaluating green waves on road stretches. Such information can be used to verify that signalized intersections...

  12. Surface Map Traffic Intent Displays and Net-Centric Data-link Communications for NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2009-01-01

    By 2025, U.S. air traffic is predicted to increase three fold and may strain the current air traffic management system, which may not be able to accommodate this growth. In response to this challenge, a revolutionary new concept has been proposed for U.S. aviation operations, termed the Next Generation Air Transportation System or "NextGen". Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the use of data-link communications. Because NextGen represents a radically different approach to air traffic management and requires a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck, there are numerous research issues and challenges that must be overcome to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system. Flight deck display and crew-vehicle interaction concepts are being developed that proactively investigate and overcome potential technology and safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen. The paper describes simulation research, conducted at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center, examining data-link communications and traffic intent data during envisioned four-dimensional trajectory (4DT)-based and equivalent visual (EV) surface operations. Overall, the results suggest that controller pilot data-link communications (CPDLC) with the use of mandatory pilot read-back of all clearances significantly enhanced situation awareness for 4DT and EV surface operations. The depiction of graphical traffic state and intent information on the surface map display further enhanced off-nominal detection and pilot qualitative reports of safety and awareness.

  13. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  14. Strategic Conflict Detection and Resolution Using Aircraft Intent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Marco; Schuster, Wolfgang; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington

    A number of automated decision support tools will be required in the future air traffic management system to enable continued provision of safe and efficient services in increasingly congested skies. In particular, Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) tools should allow for early detection of possible conflicts and propose safe and efficient resolution manoeuvres to avoid loss of separation. However, current approaches in the open literature not only use different levels of aircraft intent information but also make a number of assumptions on models of aircraft motion. Furthermore, information relevant to aircraft performance is often not considered with the consequence of the resulting resolution strategies being potentially unreliable. This paper presents an enhanced, strategic, pairwise, performance-based and distributed CDR algorithm. It accounts for the weaknesses of current approaches by using the maximum level of aircraft intent information together with a novel trajectory prediction model. Numerical results for representative conflict scenarios show that the proposed CDR method is able to generate conflict-free trajectories for participating aircraft while taking into account the actual aircraft capabilities to perform the recommended resolution manoeuvres.

  15. Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S.; Stock, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow and occupancy using long and short term information. Mechanistic interpolation using macroscopic traffic models and based on the traffic flow and occupancy forecasted (item-1), and the empirical relationships (item-2) for the specific highway configuration at the time of simulation (construction, lane closure, etc.). Statistical routine for detection and classification of anomalies and their impact on the highway capacity which are fed back to previous items.

  16. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  17. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  18. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  19. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  20. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  1. Implementation of Traffic Information Zone in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of airspace, defined as traffic information zone for small aerodromes in the Czech Republic. This airspace should be around uncontrolled aerodromes introducing IFR operation to replace aerodrome traffic zone and to ensure the safe operation of aircraft flying by instruments.

  2. Evaluating traffic informers: testing the behavioral and social-cognitive effects of an adolescent bicycle safety education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-12-01

    In The Netherlands, 12-24 years old are over-represented in the total number of traffic fatalities and injuries. In this study, the traffic informer program - designed to promote safe traffic behavior in the pre-driver population - was experimentally evaluated, with a specific focus on bicycle use. Students were subjected to graphic videos of traffic accidents and listened to a first-person narrative provided by a traffic accident victim. The influence of the program on concepts derived from the theory of planned behavior and protection motivation theory (attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, risk-perception, intention and behavior) was assessed. Students from various schools (N=1593;M age=15 years, SD=.84) participated in a quasi-experimental study, either in an experimental or a control group, completing self-report questionnaires one week prior to the program implementation and approximately one month after the program implementation. Mixed regression analyses showed significant positive and negative time × intervention interaction effects on attitude toward traffic violations, relative attitude toward traffic safety, and risk comparison, but not on intention and behavior. More research is needed to find effective behavioral change techniques (other than increasing risk awareness) for promoting safe traffic behavior in adolescents. Research is also needed to address how these can be translated into effective interventions and educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Traffic Information Zone and its implementation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Volena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility of introduction of a new type of airspace in the Czech Republic – Traffic Information Zone. It states status quo of uncontrolled aerodromes in the Czech Republic, defines Traffic Information Zone and subsequently copes with the implementation suitability of this airspace in the Czech Republic from the point of view of suitable aerodromes, necessary legislative changes and also appropriate approaches.

  4. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  5. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  6. Valuing attributes of enhanced traffic information: an experience in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Basu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traffic information considers a single item like travel time or delay. In the present work, enhanced traffic information displaying instantaneous travel time and its variation from the previous interval to the present, is considered. An initial investigation is made on the effectiveness of such traffic information on route choice behavior of trip makers by valuation of attributes of the traffic information. Taking a case study of two urban corridors in the Kolkata metro city, India, the valuation is done separately for private car and taxi trip makers. The stated preference (choice based data collected from trip makers are analyzed using both multinomial logit (MNL and mixed logit (ML modeling techniques. Assuming sparsely used constrained triangular distribution of random parameters, two different types of ML model are developed: one with independent choice sets and the other one by accounting heterogeneity around the mean of random parameter(s. Both family income and trip purpose are found to decompose heterogeneity around the mean estimate(s. The values of travel time and their variation presented in the paper encourage further investigation on such type of traffic information for management of congestion on alternative urban corridors both spatially and temporally.

  7. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  8. Effects of the amount of feedback information on urban traffic with advanced traveler information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2017-09-01

    In a real traffic system, information feedback has already been proven to be a good way to alleviate traffic jams. However, due to the massive traffic information of real system, the procedure is often difficult in practice. In this paper, we study the effects of the amount of feedback information based on a cellular automaton model of urban traffic. What we found most interesting is that when providing the traffic information of a part of a road to travelers, the performance of the system will be better than that providing the road's full traffic information. From this basis, we can provide more effective routing strategy with less information. We demonstrate that only providing the traffic information of about first half road from upstream to downstream can maximize the traffic capacity of the system. We also give an explanation for these phenomena by studying the distribution pattern of vehicles and the detailed turning environment at the intersections. The effects of the traffic light period are also provided.

  9. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  10. Vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J; Deng, H Z; Tan, Y J; Zhu, D Z

    2007-01-01

    We study the vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information, which means that one can only preferentially attack the most important nodes among a local region of a network. The known random failure and the intentional attack are two extreme cases of our study. Using the generating function method, we derive the exact value of the critical removal fraction f c of nodes for the disintegration of networks and the size of the giant component. To validate our model and method, we perform simulations of intentional attack with incomplete information in scale-free networks. We show that the attack information has an important effect on the vulnerability of scale-free networks. We also demonstrate that hiding a fraction of the nodes information is a cost-efficient strategy for enhancing the robustness of complex networks

  11. How Does Intentionality of Encoding Affect Memory for Episodic Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Butterworth, Karla; Nilsson, Jonna; Hamilton, Colin J.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory enables the detailed and vivid recall of past events, including target and wider contextual information. In this paper, we investigated whether/how encoding intentionality affects the retention of target and contextual episodic information from a novel experience. Healthy adults performed (1) a "What-Where-When"…

  12. A multi-sectoral approach to capture information on road traffic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Geetha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regularly available data is shown to be inadequate for developing, implementing, and evaluating injury prevention and control programs in India. The present study was undertaken in the hospitals of Bangalore and Pune, to examine the feasibility of gathering information on injuries using multiple sources. Materials and Methods: Stakeholders meeting and training programs were held for the hospital staff, police personnel, and traffic and transport staff, to identify their roles and responsibilities. Prospective data on morbidity and mortality due to injuries were collected by trained staff from Emergency Departments on a pre-tested questionnaire. The information gathered was cross-checked with the hospital and police records. Results: The stakeholders meeting and training programs were able to motivate the departments to provide the correct data. Data on 32188 patients could be extracted from hospital and police records during the study period. Injuries accounted for 16% of the emergency cases. Unintentional injuries were 64%, and 32% were intentional. Road traffic injuries accounted for 44% of all the injuries. One-third of the injured were children and young adults below 25 years. Among the injured, two wheeler riders were 29% and pedestrians were 23%. Conclusion: It was possible to improve the data on injuries by adequate training and a data linking mechanism between the Police, Hospital, and Transport Departments. The problem of road traffic injuries could be highlighted and addressed by a good data capture mechanism.

  13. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujing Ye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line. Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  14. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhoujing; Wang, Linbing; Xu, Wen; Gao, Zhifei; Yan, Guannan

    2017-12-05

    In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line). Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  15. Parametric Analysis of Surveillance Quality and Level and Quality of Intent Information and Their Impact on Conflict Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    A loss-of-separation (LOS) is said to occur when two aircraft are spatially too close to one another. A LOS is the fundamental unsafe event to be avoided in air traffic management and conflict detection (CD) is the function that attempts to predict these LOS events. In general, the effectiveness of conflict detection relates to the overall safety and performance of an air traffic management concept. An abstract, parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of surveillance quality, level of intent information, and quality of intent information on conflict detection performance. The data collected in this analysis can be used to estimate the conflict detection performance under alternative future scenarios or alternative allocations of the conflict detection function, based on the quality of the surveillance and intent information under those conditions.Alternatively, this data could also be used to estimate the surveillance and intent information quality required to achieve some desired CD performance as part of the design of a new separation assurance system.

  16. The impact of real-time and predictive traffic information on travelers' behavior on the I-4 corridor. Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Real time and predicted traffic information plays a key role in the successful implementation of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advance traffic management systems (ATMS). Traffic information is essentially valuable to both transport...

  17. Robust Vehicle and Traffic Information Extraction for Highway Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chia-Hung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust vision-based traffic monitoring system for vehicle and traffic information extraction is developed in this research. It is challenging to maintain detection robustness at all time for a highway surveillance system. There are three major problems in detecting and tracking a vehicle: (1 the moving cast shadow effect, (2 the occlusion effect, and (3 nighttime detection. For moving cast shadow elimination, a 2D joint vehicle-shadow model is employed. For occlusion detection, a multiple-camera system is used to detect occlusion so as to extract the exact location of each vehicle. For vehicle nighttime detection, a rear-view monitoring technique is proposed to maintain tracking and detection accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of background extraction, which usually serves as the first step in any vehicle detection processing. Experimental results are given to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient for vision-based highway surveillance.

  18. State Traffic Safety Information - 2010-2015 FARS Accident File data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  19. Medical Representatives' Intention to Use Information Technology in Pharmaceutical Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eun-Seon; Chang, Hyejung

    2016-10-01

    Electronic detailing (e-detailing), the use of electronic devices to facilitate sales presentations to physicians, has been adopted and expanded in the pharmaceutical industry. To maximize the potential outcome of e-detailing, it is important to understand medical representatives (MRs)' behavior and attitude to e-detailing. This study investigates how information technology devices such as laptop computers and tablet PCs are utilized in pharmaceutical marketing, and it analyzes the factors influencing MRs' intention to use devices. This study has adopted and modified the theory of Roger's diffusion of innovation model and the technology acceptance model. To test the model empirically, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 221 MRs who were working in three multinational or eleven domestic pharmaceutical companies in Korea. Overall, 28% and 35% of MRs experienced using laptop computers and tablet PCs in pharmaceutical marketing, respectively. However, the rates were different across different groups of MRs, categorized by age, education level, position, and career. The results showed that MRs' intention to use information technology devices was significantly influenced by perceived usefulness in general. Perceived ease of use, organizational and individual innovativeness, and several MR characteristics were also found to have significant impacts. This study provides timely information about e-detailing devices to marketing managers and policy makers in the pharmaceutical industry for successful marketing strategy development by understanding the needs of MRs' intention to use information technology. Further in-depth study should be conducted to understand obstacles and limitations and to improve the strategies for better marketing tools.

  20. The effects of redundancy and information manipulation on traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Berk; Ozel, Berk

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the most frequently encountered problems in real life. It is not only a scientific concern of scholars, but also an inevitable issue for most of the individuals living in urban areas. Since every driver in traffic networks tries to minimize own journey length, and volume of the traffic prevents coordination between individuals, a cooperative behavior will not be provided spontaneously in order to decrease the total cost of the network and the time spent on traffic...

  1. A Multi-Classification Method of Improved SVM-based Information Fusion for Traffic Parameters Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the enrichment of perception methods, modern transportation system has many physical objects whose states are influenced by many information factors so that it is a typical Cyber-Physical System (CPS. Thus, the traffic information is generally multi-sourced, heterogeneous and hierarchical. Existing research results show that the multisourced traffic information through accurate classification in the process of information fusion can achieve better parameters forecasting performance. For solving the problem of traffic information accurate classification, via analysing the characteristics of the multi-sourced traffic information and using redefined binary tree to overcome the shortcomings of the original Support Vector Machine (SVM classification in information fusion, a multi-classification method using improved SVM in information fusion for traffic parameters forecasting is proposed. The experiment was conducted to examine the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results reveal that the method can get more accurate and practical outcomes.

  2. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. Methods This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. Results GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Conclusion Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information. PMID:28848627

  3. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach's alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information.

  4. Data-Link and Surface Map Traffic Intent Displays for NextGen 4DT and Equivalent Visual Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Jones, Deise R.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2009-01-01

    By 2025, U.S. air traffic is predicted to increase 3-fold and may strain the current air traffic management system, which may not be able to accommodate this growth. In response to this challenge, a consortium of industry, academia and government agencies have proposed a revolutionary new concept for U.S. aviation operations, termed the Next Generation Air Transportation System or "NextGen". Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of "net-centric" operations whereby each aircraft and air services provider shares information to allow real-time adaptability to ever-changing factors such as weather, traffic, flight trajectories, and security. Data-link is likely to be the primary source of communication in NextGen. Because NextGen represents a radically different approach to air traffic management and requires a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck, there are numerous research issues and challenges that must be overcome to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system. Flight deck display and crew-vehicle interaction concepts are being developed that proactively investigate and overcome potential technology and safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen.

  5. Hierarchical Matching of Traffic Information Services Using Semantic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongtao Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Service matching aims to find the information similar to a given query, which has numerous applications in web search. Although existing methods yield promising results, they are not applicable for transportation. In this paper, we propose a multilevel matching method based on semantic technology, towards efficiently searching the traffic information requested. Our approach is divided into two stages: service clustering, which prunes candidate services that are not promising, and functional matching. The similarity at function level between services is computed by grouping the connections between the services into inheritance and noninheritance relationships. We also developed a three-layer framework with a semantic similarity measure that requires less time and space cost than existing method since the scale of candidate services is significantly smaller than the whole transportation network. The OWL_TC4 based service set was used to verify the proposed approach. The accuracy of offline service clustering reached 93.80%, and it reduced the response time to 651 ms when the total number of candidate services was 1000. Moreover, given the different thresholds for the semantic similarity measure, the proposed mixed matching model did better in terms of recall and precision (i.e., up to 72.7% and 80%, respectively, for more than 1000 services compared to the compared models based on information theory and taxonomic distance. These experimental results confirmed the effectiveness and validity of service matching for responding quickly and accurately to user queries.

  6. Information Technology Systems Vulnerabilities Detecting based on Network’s Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Anatolevich Melnikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes traffic analysis procedure that is very effective and sometimes single countermeasure on counteracting of network attacks and information leakage channels (hidden control channels. Traffic analysis envisages certain measures to control the security of the Russian Federation information technology infrastructure and, most importantly, to establish the reasons of the occurred and predictable computer incidents.

  7. 75 FR 64357 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Renew an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... refusal to provide the information or providing false information. The agency's contractor's reviewing... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Renew an Information Collection.... For Additional Information or Comments: Contact Suzanne H. Plimpton, Reports Clearance Officer...

  8. Application of travel time information for traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes findings and implementations of probe vehicle data collection based on Bluetooth MAC address matching : technology. Probe vehicle travel time data are studied in the following field deployment case studies: analysis of traffic ...

  9. Application of travel time information for traffic management : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using conventional methods, it is extremely costly to measure detailed traffic characteristics in high quality spatial or temporal resolution. For analyzing travel characteristics on roadways, the floating car method, developed in the 1920s, has hist...

  10. Dynamics in two-elevator traffic system with real-time information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Takashi, E-mail: wadokeioru@yahoo.co.jp

    2013-12-17

    We study the dynamics of traffic system with two elevators using a elevator choice scenario. The two-elevator traffic system with real-time information is similar to the two-route vehicular traffic system. The dynamics of two-elevator traffic system is described by the two-dimensional nonlinear map. An elevator runs a neck-and-neck race with another elevator. The motion of two elevators displays such a complex behavior as quasi-periodic one. The return map of two-dimensional map shows a piecewise map.

  11. 76 FR 39153 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Traffic and Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... responsibilities relating to airline competition and consolidation. Traffic Forecasting The FAA uses traffic... FAA develops ways of increasing airport capacity at congested airports. Airline Industry Status... Seguin, Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E34-418, RITA, BTS, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...

  12. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G; Simone, A.; Simone, A.; Traverso, M.; Nicolosi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  13. Research on the Application of Wireless Network in Collecting Road Traffic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Hui-jiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of variability and dispersion in traffic information, to get the reliable real-time traffic information has been a bottleneck in the development of intelligent transportation systems. However, with the development of wireless network technology and mobile Internet, the mobile phones are rapidly developed and more popular, so it is possible to get road traffic information by locating the mobile phones in vehicles. The system structure for the road traffic information collection is designed based on wireless network and mobile phones in vehicles, and the vehicle recognition and its information computation methods are given and discussed. Also the simulation is done for vehicle recognition and computation based on fuzzy cluster analysis method and the results are obtained and analyzed.

  14. South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) regional traveler information system for weather responsive traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    FHWAs Road Weather Management Program partnered : with the South Dakota DOT to develop and implement a : Weather Responsive Traffic Management (WRTM) : strategy that involves mobile data collection and traveler : information dissemination during w...

  15. The usefulness of the proximate status indication as represented by symbol fill on cockpit displays of traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) displays depict traffic advisories, resolution advisories, and information on other aircraft. Symbols for other aircraft include the proximate status indication where the symbols of proximate...

  16. [Hospital information system performance for road traffic accidents analysis in a hospital recruitment based area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, A-S; Fauconnier, J

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents in France are mainly analyzed through reports completed by the security forces (police and gendarmerie). But the hospital information systems can also identify road traffic accidents via specific documentary codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether hospital stays consecutive to road traffic accident were truly identified by these documentary codes in a facility that collects data routinely and to study the consistency of results from hospital information systems and from security forces during the 2002-2008 period. We retrieved all patients for whom a documentary code for road traffic accident was entered in 2002-2008. We manually checked the concordance of documentary code for road traffic accident and trauma origin in 350 patient files. The number of accidents in the Grenoble area was then inferred by combining with hospitalization regional data and compared to the number of persons injured by traffic accidents declared by the security force. These hospital information systems successfully report road traffic accidents with 96% sensitivity (95%CI: [92%, 100%]) and 97% specificity (95%CI: [95%, 99%]). The decrease in road traffic accidents observed was significantly less than that observed was significantly lower than that observed in the data from the security force (45% for security force data against 27% for hospital data). Overall, this study shows that hospital information systems are a powerful tool for studying road traffic accidents morbidity in hospital and are complementary to security force data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  18. A dynamic-epistemic hybrid logic for intentions and information changes in strategic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I present a dynamic-epistemic hybrid logic for reasoning about information and intention changes in situations of strategic interaction. I provide a complete axiomatization for this logic, and then use it to study intentions-based transformations of decision problems.

  19. Pengaruh Brand Credibility Terhadap Information Efficiency Dan Risk Reduction, Serta Dampaknya Atas Repurchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal, Aekram

    2015-01-01

    This research conducted to know the influence of Brand Credibility to Information efficiency and Risk reduction, also the influence of Information efficiency and Risk reduction to Repurchase intention. This research aimed to know the influence of Brand Credibility to Repurchase intention that mediated by Information efficiency and Risk reduction. The methodology of this research is testing hypothesis research. The sample collecting by questionnaire of 150 respondents from Starb...

  20. An Empirical Study of the Volkswagen Crisis in China: Customers' Information Processing and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    Product-harm crises usually lead to product recalls, which may cause consumers concern about the product quality and safety. This study systematically examines customers' immediate responses to the Volkswagen product recall crisis in China. Particular attention was given to customers' responses to the risk information influencing their behavioral intentions. By combining the protective action decision model and the heuristic-systematic model, we constructed a hypothetical model to explore this issue. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data involving 467 participants drawn from the customers of Volkswagen. We used structural equation modeling to explore the model. The results show that customers' product knowledge plays an important role in their responses to the crisis. Having more knowledge would make them perceive a lower risk, but they might need even more information, making them more likely to seek and process information, and subsequently increasing their positive behavioral intentions toward the firm (that is pro-firm behavioral intentions). Risk perception increased customers' information needs, information seeking, and information processing but decreased their pro-firm behavioral intentions. In addition to promoting information seeking, information needed to also facilitate customers' systematic processing and thus increase their behavioral intentions to take corrective action. Customers' behavioral intentions were also spurred by systematic processing, but failed to be predicted by information seeking. In summary, theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for further research are also discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. The Impact of Disclosure of Nutrition Information on Consumers' Behavioral Intention in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinkyung

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of nutritional information disclosure on consumers' nutritional perception, attitude, and behavioral intention to purchase the food item. Questionnaires were distributed measuring nutritional perception, attitude, and behavioral intention with different nutritional information about the food (no information, calories only, and six nutritional content information items: food weight(g), calories(kcal), protein(g), sugar(g), sodium(g), and saturated fat(g)). Food items shown to the respondents were hamburgers and bibimbap. Descriptive analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple regression were used in order to examine the effects of nutritional information levels and different food items on consumers' behavioral intentions. Nutritional perception, food attitude, and food choice intention were all affected by levels of nutritional information and different food items. Also, food attitude was a predictor of food choice behavioral intention and was affected by different food items as well. However, results of the study found that objective and subjective knowledge of individuals are not related to their nutritional perception, attitude, and behavioral intention. Results of this study would help restaurant managers to prepare for consumers' demand on disclosure of nutritional information and adjust their menu ingredients for consumers' healthy food inquiries in order to respond to consumers' interests in nutritional information and ensure consumers satisfaction with the perceived nutritional value of food.

  2. A Theoretical Framework for Turnover Intention of Air Force Enlisted Information Systems Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-25

    removal of poor performers, advancement opportunities for talented replacements, and decreases in pre-turnover withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism ...in Employee Turnover Intentions and Its Determinants Among Telecommuters and Non- Telecommuters ,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 16: 147

  3. 77 FR 55451 - Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ..., marketing, technical, and financial resources to carry out the submitted plan. Estimate of Burden: Public... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. [[Page...

  4. Day-to-day evolution of the traffic network with Advanced Traveler Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Wu Jianjun; Zhu Chengjuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We develop a dynamical system with Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS). → We use the dynamical system to study stability of the traffic network with ATIS. → It is found that some periodic attractors appear in some cases. → A road pricing is implemented to alleviate the instability of the traffic network with ATIS. - Abstract: Since the notion of user equilibrium (UE) was proposed by Wardrop , it has become a cornerstone for traffic assignment analysis. But, it is not sufficient to only ask whether equilibrium exists or not; it is equally important to ask whether and how the system can achieve equilibrium. Meanwhile, stability is an important performance in the sense that if equilibrium is unsustainable, both the equilibrium and the trajectory are sensitive to disturbances, even a small perturbation will result in the system evolution away from the equilibrium point. These incentive a growing interest in day-to-day dynamics. In this paper, we develop a dynamical system with Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and study the stability of the network with ATIS. A simple network is used to simulate the model, and the results show that there exist periodic attractors in the traffic network in some cases (for example, the market penetration level of ATIS is 0.25 and traffic demand is 2 unit). It is found that the logit parameter of the dynamical model and the traffic demand can also affect the stability of the traffic network. More periodic attractors appear in the system when the traffic demand is large and the low logit parameter can delay the appearance of periodic attractors. By simulation, it can be concluded that if the range of the periodic attractors' domain of the simple network is known, the road pricing based on the range of the attraction domain is effective to alleviate the instability of the system.

  5. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  6. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Zhang, Li [Mississippi State University (MSU); Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Wen, Yi [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  7. [Effects of calorie information and nutrition traffic light on alimentation behaviour in public catering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, A; Honekamp, W; Hackl, J M

    2013-08-01

    Due to the significant increase in overweight and obese people, action is needed to raise eating behaviour awareness. A significant main meal (lunch) is witnessing a growing trend in the catering (part of the out-of-home nutrition). The aim of this study is to determine whether the selection of lunch menus is affected through the display of nutritional information in the form of number of calories or a traffic light model. In this exploratory study, quantitative data were collected in a cross-sectional design. In addition to the established measurement instruments, socio-demographic and socio-economic information of the subjects based on the study were evaluated. The survey took place in 2008 in 2 passes (time t A/t B). The identical lunch menu of a catering company was applied twice respectively for 4 weeks. In the second run (t B) the lunch menu contained additional nutritional information (big 4 instructions) in the form of calories or a traffic light nutrition. The test of group differences was based on scientific statistical analysis in SPSS. The overall results for the illustration of kilocalories or traffic light do not have a unique significance in the direction of a low average number of calories at the time t B in comparison to the time t A. The food participants, on average, choose a lower calorie-containing menu, when a combination of traffic light and calories is given. The nutrition behaviour is accompanied by an oversupply of unhealthy foods. Lunch participants are sensitised for the selection of healthier lunch menus by a traffic light nutrition information or calories information. Nutrition labelling for lunch menus in the form of calories nutrition information or a coloured traffic light could trigger preventive effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Information-Aided Smart Schemes for Vehicle Flow Detection Enhancements of Traffic Microwave Radar Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Jan Ho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For satisfactory traffic management of an intelligent transport system, it is vital that traffic microwave radar detectors (TMRDs can provide real-time traffic information with high accuracy. In this study, we develop several information-aided smart schemes for traffic detection improvements of TMRDs in multiple-lane environments. Specifically, we select appropriate thresholds not only for removing noise from fast Fourier transforms (FFTs of regional lane contexts but also for reducing FFT side lobes within each lane. The resulting FFTs of reflected vehicle signals and those of clutter are distinguishable. We exploit FFT and lane-/or time stamp-related information for developing smart schemes, which mitigate adverse effects of lane-crossing FFT side lobes of a vehicle signal. As such, the proposed schemes can enhance the detection accuracy of both lane vehicle flow and directional traffic volume. On-site experimental results demonstrate the advantages and feasibility of the proposed methods, and suggest the best smart scheme.

  9. 10 CFR 2.907 - Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security information. 2.907 Section 2.907 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.907 Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information. (a) If, at the time of publication of a notice...

  10. Development and application of traffic flow information collecting and analysis system based on multi-type video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mujie; Shang, Wenjie; Ji, Xinkai; Hua, Mingzhuang; Cheng, Kuo

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, intelligent transportation system (ITS) has already become the new direction of transportation development. Traffic data, as a fundamental part of intelligent transportation system, is having a more and more crucial status. In recent years, video observation technology has been widely used in the field of traffic information collecting. Traffic flow information contained in video data has many advantages which is comprehensive and can be stored for a long time, but there are still many problems, such as low precision and high cost in the process of collecting information. This paper aiming at these problems, proposes a kind of traffic target detection method with broad applicability. Based on three different ways of getting video data, such as aerial photography, fixed camera and handheld camera, we develop a kind of intelligent analysis software which can be used to extract the macroscopic, microscopic traffic flow information in the video, and the information can be used for traffic analysis and transportation planning. For road intersections, the system uses frame difference method to extract traffic information, for freeway sections, the system uses optical flow method to track the vehicles. The system was applied in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, and the application shows that the system for extracting different types of traffic flow information has a high accuracy, it can meet the needs of traffic engineering observations and has a good application prospect.

  11. The Usage Behavior and Intention Stability of Nurses: An Empirical Study of a Nursing Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Chun; Lin, Chihung; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Roan, Jinsheng; Yeh, Jehn-Shan; Cheng, Yu-Han

    2016-03-01

    Many prior studies of technology adoption treat user intention as the single predictor of actual usage behavior. However, as many researchers of behavioral science have pointed out, multiple factors mediate the relationship between user intention and usage behavior. The present article explores the factors that mediate the relationship between intention and actual behavior. We develop a conceptual framework that is based on the Technology Acceptance Model III and behavior theory to further elicit system usage behavior and to confirm "intention stability" and "past experience" as two significant mediating factors in this relationship. The target system was a nursing information system that had been recently adopted by a medical center in central Taiwan. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey conducted in two rounds. Two hundred forty-five valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 49%). Mediated moderation was analyzed to explore the presence of mediators or moderators between intention and behavior. The results support that intention stability is a mediated moderator and that prior experience is a moderator of the relationship between intention and behavior. These two factors increased by over 13.6% the explanatory power of intention on actual behavior. Furthermore, this study expanded the scope of prior research by confirming intention stability as a moderating variable between intention and behavior. Finally, this study identified the moderating effect of past experience on the intention-behavior relationship, indicating that past experience enhances the predictive power of intention on behavior. The findings of this study may assist hospital managers to better understand the nursing information system usage behaviors of nursing staff and to develop ways to enhance the intention stability of these staff. Managers may improve the familiarity of nursing staff with the system by increasing their system-related practice time. More experience should

  12. Anti-nuclear behavioral intentions: The role of perceived knowledge, information processing, and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Weiwei; Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the key factors underlying people's anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. The protective action decision model and the heuristic–systematic model were integrated and adapted from a risk information perspective to construct a hypothetical model. A questionnaire study was conducted on a sample of residents near the Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, which is under construction in Shandong Province, China (N=487). Results show that, as expected, perceived knowledge is vital in predicting people's information insufficiency, information seeking, systematic processing, and risk perception. Moreover, the inverted U relationship between perceived knowledge and anti-nuclear behavioral intentions is indicated in the study. Information insufficiency and information seeking also significantly predict systematic processing. Furthermore, people's behavioral intentions are motivated by risk perception but fail to be stimulated by systematic processing. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. - Highlights: • The study explores anti-nuclear behavior from a risk information perspective. • Risk perception and knowledge matter to anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. • Inverted U relationship between knowledge and behavioral intentions is indicated. • More understanding of nuclear power could reduce public opposition.

  13. ROLE OF INFORMATION PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET IN PROVIDING TRAFFIC CONTROL DRUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Solovjov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial questions of the pharmaceutical market informatization are considered. The main principles and legal frameworks to manage population ensure with medicines based on use of information technology are proposed. The logic and conception framework of related information automatization for hospitals and population under the current legislation are discussed.

  14. A revealed-preference study of behavioural impacts of real-time traffic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.S.A.; Tseng, Y.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of real-time traffic information on traveller behaviour by using repeated day-to-day revealed-preference (RP) observations from a reward experiment. We estimate a trip scheduling model of morning peak behaviour that allows us to determine the impact of

  15. Knowledge base, information search and intention to adopt innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, van F.J.; Castaldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovation is a process that involves searching for new information. This paper builds upon theoretical insights on individual and organizational learning and proposes a knowledge based model of how actors search for information when confronted with innovation. The model takes into account different

  16. Analyzing traffic source impact on returning visitors ratio in information provider website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetio, A.; Sari, P. K.; Sharif, O. O.; Sofyan, E.

    2016-04-01

    Web site performance, especially returning visitor is an important metric for an information provider web site. Since high returning visitor is a good indication of a web site’s visitor loyalty, it is important to find a way to improve this metric. This research investigated if there is any difference on returning visitor metric among three web traffic sources namely direct, referral and search. Monthly returning visitor and total visitor from each source is retrieved from Google Analytics tools and then calculated to measure returning visitor ratio. The period of data observation is from July 2012 to June 2015 resulting in a total of 108 samples. These data then analysed using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to address our research question. The results showed that different traffic source has significantly different returning visitor ratio especially between referral traffic source and the other two traffic sources. On the other hand, this research did not find any significant difference between returning visitor ratio from direct and search traffic sources. The owner of the web site can focus to multiply referral links from other relevant sites.

  17. A framework for privacy and security analysis of probe-based traffic information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    Most large scale traffic information systems rely on fixed sensors (e.g. loop detectors, cameras) and user generated data, this latter in the form of GPS traces sent by smartphones or GPS devices onboard vehicles. While this type of data is relatively inexpensive to gather, it can pose multiple security and privacy risks, even if the location tracks are anonymous. In particular, creating bogus location tracks and sending them to the system is relatively easy. This bogus data could perturb traffic flow estimates, and disrupt the transportation system whenever these estimates are used for actuation. In this article, we propose a new framework for solving a variety of privacy and cybersecurity problems arising in transportation systems. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. The resulting framework is very flexible, and can in particular be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or carry out attacks on location tracks. Numerical implementations are performed on experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment to validate this framework. © 2013 ACM.

  18. Seeking Health Information Online: The Moderating Effects of Problematic Situations on User Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Xia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates how online user intention in searching health information is affected by problematic situations. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Technology Acceptance Model, and Sense-making theory, we propose two dimensions of problematic situations: urgency and severity of health issues being searched online. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey among 214 Wuhan University students and analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. Findings: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and subjective norm can influence user intention to seek health information online. The urgency of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between perceived ease of use and user intention and the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. The severity of problematic situations has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between subjective norm and user intention. Research limitations: The respondents of the survey are limited to students in one Chinese university, so whether this study’s results can be applied to another population or not remains to be verified. In addition, only two dimensions of problematic situations are considered in this study. Practical implications: The paper puts forward the moderating effect of problematic situations and verifies it, which is the compensation for online health information-seeking behavior research. Besides, our analyses have implications for professional design of health care systems and related consumer information searches, and improve their performance. Originality/value: Previous work has reported the effects of problematic situation on user intention to seek health information online, ignoring its influence on other factors. This empirical study extends that work to identify the influence of problematic situation when seeking intention-behavior data in two dimensions, urgency and

  19. Collective benefits in traffic during mega events via the use of information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanyan; González, Marta C

    2017-04-01

    Information technologies today can inform each of us about the route with the shortest time, but they do not contain incentives to manage travellers such that we all get collective benefits in travel times. To that end we need travel demand estimates and target strategies to reduce the traffic volume from the congested roads during peak hours in a feasible way. During large events, the traffic inconveniences in large cities are unusually high, yet temporary, and the entire population may be more willing to adopt collective recommendations for collective benefits in traffic. In this paper, we integrate, for the first time, big data resources to estimate the impact of events on traffic and propose target strategies for collective good at the urban scale. In the context of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, we first predict the expected increase in traffic. To that end, we integrate data from mobile phones, Airbnb, Waze and transit information, with game schedules and expected attendance in each venue. Next, we evaluate different route choice scenarios for drivers during the peak hours. Finally, we gather information on the trips that contribute the most to the global congestion which could be redirected from vehicles to transit. Interestingly, we show that (i) following new route alternatives during the event with individual shortest times can save more collective travel time than keeping the routine routes used before the event, uncovering the positive value of information technologies during events; (ii) with only a small proportion of people selected from specific areas switching from driving to public transport, the collective travel time can be reduced to a great extent. Results are presented online for evaluation by the public and policymakers (www.flows-rio2016.com (last accessed 3 September 2017)). © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. 77 FR 37706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... purchase price is attributable either directly or indirectly to such assets, the transaction may not be... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-BSD-CONC-10370; 2410-OYC] Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information...

  1. Low ranks make the difference : How achievement goals and ranking information affect cooperation intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P. Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    This investigation tested the joint effect of achievement goals and ranking information on information exchange intentions with a commensurate exchange partner. Results showed that individuals with performance goals were less inclined to cooperate with an exchange partner when they had low or high

  2. Fair and adaptive data dissemination for traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.; IEEE,

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  3. The performance of ethics course for increasing students intention to blow the whistle using information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munandar, Agus

    2017-10-01

    The profession of accounting believes that ethics is very important in the workplace. For that, profession recommends that ethics course should be taught for accounting student. Unfornutaly, the impact of ethics courses on accounting students intention to blow the whistle on organizational wrongdoing using information technology have not been determined. For that, this paper attempts to measure the impact of ethics courses on accounting student intention to blow the whistle on organizational wrongdoing. The research using experimental design for investigate the impact of ethic course on students intention to blow the whistle using IT. The respondents for this study are 40 accountig students. The respondent were given the ethical scenarios and were measured their intention to blow the whistle using information technology. This result of study reports that 70% of accounting student who completed ethic course indicated high intention to blow the whistle on organizational wrongdoing using information technology. Hence, ethics course is beneficial for increasing accounting professionalism especially their intentio to blow the whistle wrongdoing using information technology.

  4. Thai information technology professionals’ intention to leave determinants: A conceptual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinlapas Sagchaiwujtana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, voluntary intention to leave within the information technology sector is reaching epidemic proportions. In multiple ASEAN countries, HR professionals have stated that information technology professional ‘job hopping’ has become a culture with the cost to productivity and the corporate bottom line becoming enormous. The researchers have therefore undertaken a study to investigate the variables affecting Thai Information technology professionals’ intention to leave. Simple random sampling will be used to gather data through self-administrated questionnaires from an anticipated total of 340 respondents comprising IT managers, executives, and HR managers so as to study how work exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment affect intention to leave. The importance of the study is significant as Thailand’s ICT market accounts for 11 percent of GDP and is the largest in Southeast Asia, with Thai government plans to make the Kingdom the hub for ASEAN’s new $US2.5 trillion GDP digital economy.

  5. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  6. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic. Most prior work falls into two categories: (1 methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2 systems that require deployment of dedicated sensors. These approaches are difficult and costly to execute and maintain. In addition, most prior work uses dedicated sensors designed for a single purpose, resulting in deployment of multiple sensor systems. This further increases costs. Meanwhile, with the increasing demands of structural health monitoring, many vibration sensors are being deployed in commercial buildings. Traffic events create ground vibration that propagates to nearby building structures inducing noisy vibration responses. We present an information-theoretic method for train event monitoring using commonly existing vibration sensors deployed for building health monitoring. The key idea is to represent the wave propagation in a building induced by train traffic as information conveyed in noisy measurement signals. Our technique first uses wavelet analysis to detect train events. Then, by analyzing information exchange patterns of building vibration signals, we infer the category of the events (i.e., southbound or northbound train. Our algorithm is evaluated with an 11-story building where trains pass by frequently. The results show that the method can robustly achieve a train event detection accuracy of up to a 93% true positive rate and an 80% true negative rate. For direction categorization, compared with the traditional signal processing method, our information-theoretic approach reduces categorization error from 32.1 to 12.1%, which is a 2.5× improvement.

  7. Digestible information: The impact of Multiple Traffic Light nutritional labeling in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Defago, Daniel; Geng, José F.; Molina, Oswaldo; Santa María, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Bad dietary habits are among the main causes of increasing obesity and other health problems. According to the literature, information asymmetry and cognitive biases may lead to suboptimal decisions by individuals regarding food consumption. Many countries have implemented different forms of nutritional labelling in order to provide individuals with better information when making choices. We assess the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) system, an alternative and simplified labelling format impleme...

  8. Orange County Transit/traffic Management Integration And Traveler Information Project: Evaluation Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, R.; Hickman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This document focuses on a Field Operational Test (FOT) to develop an integrated information system for transit and traffic management and for traveler information that relies on Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buses as probe vehicles. The document provides the evaluation plan for the FOT. The plan covers three principal elements: 1) Institutional, TMC Operator and Bus Operator, 2) Public Knowledge and Perceptions, and 3) System performance. The document provides an overall evaluatio...

  9. Balancing Good Intentions: Protecting the Privacy of Electronic Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Electronic information is a vital but complex component in the modern health care system, fueling ongoing efforts to develop a universal electronic health record infrastructure. This innovation creates a substantial tension between two desirable values: the increased quality and utility of patient medical records and the protection of the privacy…

  10. Determinants of continuance intention in a post-adoption satisfaction evaluation of a clinical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, Brahim; Dupuis, Isabelle; Leneveut, Laurence; Heudes, Didier; Wagner, Jean-François; Degoulet, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of end-user satisfaction is an essential part of any clinical information system (CIS) project. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the determinants of CIS continuance intention in a late post-adoption phase at the Georges Pompidou University Hospital (HEGP) in Paris. We designed an electronic survey instrument based on an IT post-adoption model (ITPAM) developed from three previous models, i.e., the Delone and McLean Information Success Model, the Davis TAM model and the Bhattacherjee information system continuance intention model. 419 questionnaires were collected from CIS users directly involved in patient care. The perceived CIS quality, usefulness and user satisfaction are significantly lower for medical professions than other professional groups. Continuance intention is very high within all professional subgroups. In a multiple regression analysis, the global satisfaction (R(2) = .780) was positively and significantly correlated with CIS quality, confirmation of expectations and perceived CIS usefulness. The continuance intention (R(2) = .392) was positively and significantly correlated with perceived CIS usefulness, confirmation of expectations and global satisfaction. In a late post-adoption CIS deployment phase, continuance intention does not significantly depend on individual end user characteristics but is significantly associated with the perceived CIS usefulness, confirmation of expectations and global satisfaction.

  11. Value of Information for Optimal Adaptive Routing in Stochastic Time-Dependent Traffic Networks: Algorithms and Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Real-time information is important for travelers' routing decisions in uncertain networks by enabling online adaptation to revealed traffic conditions. Usually there are spatial and/or temporal limitations in traveler information. In this research, a...

  12. Home nurses' turnover intentions: the impact of informal supervisory feedback and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Waeyenberg, Thomas; Decramer, Adelien; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-12-01

    To examine how home nurses' turnover intentions are affected by the quality and frequency of supervisory feedback and by their own self-efficacy. Little is known about effective retention strategies for the growing home healthcare sector that struggles to retain an adequate workforce. While the work environment and supervisors have been found to play a key-role in nurses' turnover intentions, home nurses mostly work autonomously and apart from their supervisors. These circumstances require a customized approach and need to be understood to ensure high-quality home health care. We used a correlational, cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 312 home nurses was selected from a division of a large home health care organization in Flanders, Belgium. Data were collected in 2013 using structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics, structural equation modelling and relative weight analysis. The quality of feedback was related to lower levels of turnover intentions. This relationship was fully mediated by home nurses' self-efficacy. Frequent favourable feedback was directly related to lower turnover intentions while the relationship between frequent unfavourable feedback and turnover intentions was conditional on home nurses' level of self-efficacy. This study contributes to our understanding of home nurses' turnover intentions and the role of informal supervisory feedback and home nurses' self-efficacy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Information Presentation and Control in a Modern Air Traffic Control Tower Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.; Doubek, Sharon; Rabin, Boris; Harke, Stanton

    1996-01-01

    The proper presentation and management of information in America's largest and busiest (Level V) air traffic control towers calls for an in-depth understanding of many different human-computer considerations: user interface design for graphical, radar, and text; manual and automated data input hardware; information/display output technology; reconfigurable workstations; workload assessment; and many other related subjects. This paper discusses these subjects in the context of the Surface Development and Test Facility (SDTF) currently under construction at NASA's Ames Research Center, a full scale, multi-manned, air traffic control simulator which will provide the "look and feel" of an actual airport tower cab. Special emphasis will be given to the human-computer interfaces required for the different kinds of information displayed at the various controller and supervisory positions and to the computer-aided design (CAD) and other analytic, computer-based tools used to develop the facility.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REAL TIME INTEGRATED TRAFFIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (RITIS FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofyar Z. TAMIN

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important information is the best routes from each origin zone to each destination zone which have already considered the effect of congestion. This information will be the main data for the development of the Route Guidance System (RGS so that each driver can choose his best route through the road network. The best route information will be changed in a short-time-interval basis depending on the traffic condition. Moreover, this approach can also be extended to provide the short-time-interval environmental information. The system has been tested and validated in Bandung and it showed remarkably good results for Bandung condition.

  15. Development of a health information technology acceptance model using consumers' health behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2012-10-01

    For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers' intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers' behavioral intention of using HIT. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model's explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers' behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers' use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers' attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers' health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health consumers' behavioral intention. We categorized the concepts in

  16. Study on the Reduced Traffic Congestion Method Based on Dynamic Guidance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Wang, Guang-Min; Wang, Tao; Ren, Hua-Ling; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies how to generate the reasonable information of travelers’ decision in real network. This problem is very complex because the travelers’ decision is constrained by different human behavior. The network conditions can be predicted by using the advanced dynamic OD (Origin-Destination, OD) estimation techniques. Based on the improved mesoscopic traffic model, the predictable dynamic traffic guidance information can be obtained accurately. A consistency algorithm is designed to investigate the travelers’ decision by simulating the dynamic response to guidance information. The simulation results show that the proposed method can provide the best guidance information. Further, a case study is conducted to verify the theoretical results and to draw managerial insights into the potential of dynamic guidance strategy in improving traffic performance. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71471104, 71771019, 71571109, and 71471167; The University Science and Technology Program Funding Projects of Shandong Province under Grant No. J17KA211; The Project of Public Security Department of Shandong Province under Grant No. GATHT2015-236; The Major Social and Livelihood Special Project of Jinan under Grant No. 20150905

  17. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  18. Modelling Altitude Information in Two-Dimensional Traffic Networks for Electric Mobility Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevation data is important for electric vehicle simulation. However, traffic simulators are often two-dimensional and do not offer the capability of modelling urban networks taking elevation into account. Specifically, SUMO - Simulation of Urban Mobility, a popular microscopic traffic simulator, relies on networks previously modelled with elevation data as to provide this information during simulations. This work tackles the problem of adding elevation data to urban network models - particularly for the case of the Porto urban network, in Portugal. With this goal in mind, a comparison between different altitude information retrieval approaches is made and a simple tool to annotate network models with altitude data is proposed. The work starts by describing the methodological approach followed during research and development, then describing and analysing its main findings. This description includes an in-depth explanation of the proposed tool. Lastly, this work reviews some related work to the subject.

  19. Effects of numerical information on intention to participate in cervical screening among women offered HPV vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of different types of information about benefits and harms of cervical screening on intention to participate in screening among women in the first cohorts offered human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. Design: Randomised survey study. Setting: Denmark...

  20. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  1. Integration of Behavioral Frequency and Intention Information in Young Children's Trait Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseovski, Janet J.; Chiu, Korinne; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined three- to six-year-olds' use of frequency and intention information to make trait attributions and behavioral predictions. In experiment 1, participants were told a story about an actor who behaved positively once or four times on purpose or incidentally. Children were most likely to make trait-consistent behavioral…

  2. 78 FR 1266 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend a Current Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... the World Wide Web. The survey is a fully automated Web data collection effort and is handled... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend a Current Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The...

  3. 75 FR 77008 - Notice of Intent To Extend an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... electronically on the World Wide Web. The survey will be collected in conformance with the Privacy Act of 1974... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Extend an Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. [[Page 77009

  4. Making the connection: advancing traffic incident management in transportation planning : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    "The intent of this primer is to inform and guide traffic incident management (TIM) professionals and transportation planners to initiate and develop collaborative relationships and advance TIM programs through the metropolitan planning process. The ...

  5. The theory of reasoned action and intention to seek cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Levi; Kohler, Connie L; Grimley, Diane M; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of the theory of reasoned action to explain men's intentions to seek prostate cancer information. Three hundred randomly selected African American men participated in telephone interviews. Correlational and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships among measures. All relationships were significant in regression analyses. Attitudes and subjective norm were significantly related to intentions. Indirect measures of beliefs derived from elicitation research were associated with direct measures of attitude and subjective norms. The data are sufficiently clear to support the applicability of the theory for this behavioral domain with African American men and suggest several important areas for future research.

  6. An energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chunhua; Xu, Guoqing; Xu, Kun; Pan, Zhongming; Liang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information. • Vehicle velocity profile and fuel consumption are optimized at the same time. • It is proved that a further energy saving is achieved by the proposed approach. • The proposed approach is useful especially for autonomous hybrid vehicles. - Abstract: The traffic preview information is very helpful for hybrid vehicles when distributing the power requirement of the vehicle to power sources and when determining the next driving route of the vehicle. In this research, an energy management approach for hybrid vehicles is proposed, which optimizes the vehicle velocity profile while minimizing the fuel consumption with the help of the traffic preview information, so that a further energy saving for hybrid vehicles can be achieved. The Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is adopted on the proposed approach. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) is selected as an example, and the proposed energy management approach is applied to the FCHV in a computer simulation environment for the offline and online cases respectively. Simulation results show that the fuel economy of the FCHV is improved by the proposed energy management approach compared to a benchmark case where the driving cycle is fixed and only the hybrid power split (allocation) ratio is optimized. The proposed energy management approach is useful especially for the autonomous hybrid vehicles.

  7. Boosting healthy heart employer-sponsored health dissemination efforts: identification and information-sharing intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie; Crook, Brittani; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E; Shalev, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Health information dissemination options have expanded to include workplaces and employer-sponsored efforts. This study focuses on a core relational concept found in workplaces, organizational identification-the feeling of belongingness-and the impact of partnering with employers and health clinics in health information dissemination. We use social-identity theory and multiple identification to test our predictions from a sample of working adults representing more than 100 different employers. We found that when people strongly identify with their employer, they have increased health behavioral intentions and they intend to talk about the health information with coworkers. The significant models explain more than 50% and 30% of the variance in these two outcomes. The experimental results examining single and multiple organizational sources revealed no differences on any outcomes. These findings offer a contribution to health information dissemination research by articulating how identification with an employer functions to affect behavioral intentions.

  8. Prediction of Driver's Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-06-10

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver's intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver's intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver's intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver's intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  9. Installing and Executing Information Object Analysis, Intent, Dissemination, and Enhancement (IOAIDE) and Its Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Information Object Analysis, Intent, Dissemination, and Enhancement (IOAIDE) is a novel information framework developed...prototyping. It supports dynamic plugin of analysis modules, for either research or analysis tasks. The framework integrates multiple image processing...Requirements 2 3. Installing the Software for IOAIDE 2 3.1 Load ARL Software 2 3.2 Load ARL Applications 4 3.3 Load the DSPro Software 7 3.4 Update Java

  10. Determinants of the Intention to Protect Personal Information among Facebook Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Soo Chon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine predictors of the intention to protect personal information on Facebook. We conducted an online survey of 679 Facebook users in the Republic of Korea. The findings of this study showed that usefulness and ease of use had significant effects on attitudes toward protection behavior. The results also revealed that risk factors (privacy risk severity and vulnerability had significant effects on protective behaviors. Based on our findings, we discussed the information protection of privacy on Facebook.

  11. Analysis of the Effect of Information System Quality to Intention to Reuse of Employee Management Information System (Simpeg Based on Information Systems Success Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto Tri Lathif Mardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of Information Quality, Systems Quality and Service Quality on the user intention to reuse Employee Management Information System (SIMPEG in University in the city of Surabaya, based on the theoretical foundation of DeLone and McLane Information Systems Success (ISS Model. The distribution of questionnaire was conducted to 120 employees of different universities by means of stratified random sampling. The results showed that: (1 there is a significant positive effect of the System Quality on the Quality of Information, (2 there is a significant positive effect of the Information Quality on the Intention to Reuse, information related to the fulfillment of the user’s needs; (3 there is a significant positive effect of the Quality of the Intention on system re-use, the system related to the fulfillment of the needs of users; (4 there is no effect of the Quality of Service to the Intention to Reuse. In the end, the results of this study provide an analysis and advice to The University officials that can be used as a consideration for Information Technology/Information System investment and development in accordance with the Success of Information System and Intention to Reuse model.

  12. Local and nonlocal information in a traffic network: how important is the horizon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in distributed sensor network technology have changed the landscape of traffic optimization in which small, mobile devices are able to sense local information and communicate in real time with one another. Naive optimization algorithms that operate solely on the local or global level are inherently flawed, as global optimization requires every local sensor to communicate with a centralized base-station, creating prohibitive bandwidth, robustness, and security concerns, while local optimization methods are limited by a near information horizon as they are unable to propagate or react to information beyond their immediate vicinity. This paper investigates an intermediate approach where individual sensors are able to propagate congestion information over a variable distance that is determined in real-time. This strategy consistently out-performs a naive strategy where every car simply takes the shortest path to its destination, but does worse than a simpler optimization algorithm that only incorporates local information. This is most likely because the intermediate solution directs cars along the same alternate path when attempting to free a congested area, thus creating new congestion along the detour. The results suggest that local information might set an upper bound on performance in models of cascading in- formation. Further work is required to confirm this observation and develop an algorithm able to join both local and global information to effectively diffuse traffic around congestion. (author)

  13. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley K.H. Wesson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. Methods: In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Results: Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Discussion: Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings.

  14. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) for highway traffic noise analysis : case studies of select transportation agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Noise from highway traffic can be pervasive in areas near roadways. How and to what extent noise travels is strongly influenced by geospatial features such as terrain and elevation. Thus geographic information systems (GIS), which enable users to mor...

  15. The concept of 'intent' within Australian coronial data: factors affecting the National Coronial Information System's classification of mortality attributable to intentional self-harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Leonie; Robinson, Kerin M; Daking, Leanne; Paul, Lindsay

    Within Australia all unexpected deaths are investigated by the Coroners Court; specifically, the coroner investigates the identity of the deceased and the cause and circumstances of death. This 'unexpected death' category inevitably includes cases of self-harm and suicide. Concerns regarding the accurate reporting of national suicide statistics resulted in a review of the coding process undertaken by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), which produces the national statistics, and a formal Commonwealth Government Senate Inquiry in 2009. This article reflects data and opinions collected prior to the Senate Inquiry or the adjustment of the ABS coding processes, and explores the role of the Coroner in determining the intent of the deceased person and the role the National Coronial Information System (NCIS) 1 database plays in the provision of this information. At the Case Notification and Case Closure stages of the coronial process, administrative coders abstract from the coronial file the 'intent' of the deceased and enter the data into relevant administrative systems (which upload to the NCIS). The relevant intent code in the NCIS is 'Intentional Self-Harm', which incorporates deliberate actions of self-harm and suicide. A mixed-method study was employed to investigate anecdotal reports of a problematic coronial coding process surrounding this category of cases. A sample of Australian coroners (n=16), and of the national population of NCIS coders (n=36), were surveyed using separate instruments, and an unobtrusive case review of sampled NCIS cases (n=127) reflecting nine key mechanisms-of-death, was undertaken. Each Australian state and territory has its own Coroners Act, none of which provides legislative direction regarding the determination of intent by the coroner. Neither the coroner-respondents nor the coders favoured a standard proforma to record 'intent'. In order to inform their classificatory decision-making regarding the deceased's 'intent', the

  16. How change information influences attitudes toward change and turnover intention : The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Freese, Charissa; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  17. How change information influences attitude toward change and turnover intention : The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  18. How Change Information Influences Attitudes towards Change and Turnover Intention: The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd van den Heuvel; Charissa Freese; René Schalk; Marcel van Assen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  19. Web-Based Medical Service: Technology Attractiveness, Medical Creditability, Information Source, and Behavior Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan Huei

    2017-08-02

    Web-based medical service (WBMS), a cooperative relationship between medical service and Internet technology, has been called one of the most innovative services of the 21st century. However, its business promotion and implementation in the medical industry have neither been expected nor executed. Few studies have explored this phenomenon from the viewpoint of inexperienced patients. The primary goal of this study was to explore whether technology attractiveness, medical creditability, and diversified medical information sources could increase users' behavior intention. This study explored the effectiveness of web-based medical service by using three situations to manipulate sources of medical information. A total of 150 questionnaires were collected from people who had never used WBMS before. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the mediation and moderated-mediation effects. Perceived ease of use (P=.002) and perceived usefulness (P=.001) significantly enhance behavior intentions. Medical credibility is a mediator (P=.03), but the relationship does not significantly differ under diverse manipulative information channels (P=.39). Medical credibility could explain the extra variation between technology attractiveness and behavior intention, but not significant under different moderating effect of medical information sources. ©Shan Huei Wang. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.08.2017.

  20. [Dynamic road vehicle emission inventory simulation study based on real time traffic information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Juan; Chen, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Deng-Guo; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Huang, Wei-Ming; Chao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The vehicle activity survey, including traffic flow distribution, driving condition, and vehicle technologies, were conducted in Shanghai. The databases of vehicle flow, VSP distribution and vehicle categories were established according to the surveyed data. Based on this, a dynamic vehicle emission inventory simulation method was designed by using the real time traffic information data, such as traffic flow and average speed. Some roads in Shanghai city were selected to conduct the hourly vehicle emission simulation as a case study. The survey results show that light duty passenger car and taxi are major vehicles on the roads of Shanghai city, accounting for 48% - 72% and 15% - 43% of the total flow in each hour, respectively. VSP distribution has a good relationship with the average speed. The peak of VSP distribution tends to move to high load section and become lower with the increase of average speed. Vehicles achieved Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards are majorities of current vehicle population in Shanghai. Based on the calibration of vehicle travel mileage data, the proportions of Euro 2 and Euro 3 standard vehicles take up 11% - 70% and 17% - 51% in the real-world situation, respectively. The emission simulation results indicate that the ratios of emission peak and valley for the pollutants of CO, VOC, NO(x) and PM are 3.7, 4.6, 9.6 and 19.8, respectively. CO and VOC emissions mainly come from light-duty passenger car and taxi, which has a good relationship with the traffic flow. NO(x) and PM emissions are mainly from heavy-duty bus and public buses and mainly concentrate in the morning and evening peak hours. The established dynamic vehicle emission simulation method can reflect the change of actual road emission and output high emission road sectors and hours in real time. The method can provide an important technical means and decision-making basis for transportation environment management.

  1. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Intent to Turnover among Software Engineers in the Information Technology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agada, Chuks N.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and intent to turnover among software engineers in the information technology (IT) industry. The population that was analyzed in this study was software engineers in the IT industry to determine whether there is a relationship between job satisfaction and intent to…

  2. ONLINE VS OFFLINE: DOES CITY IMAGE MODERATING COMPARISON BETWEEN INFLUENCE PERCEIVED BLOG INFORMATION AND REFERENCE GROUP TOWARD TOURIST VISIT INTENTION?

    OpenAIRE

    Angga Pandu Wijaya

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to investigating the phenomenon of perceived blog information, reference group, image of a city, and tourists’ intention to visit particular places. Perceived blog information is the online source, while the offline one is reference group. This is the first study comparing on online and offline information influence tourists’ intention to visit particular places. Samples are obtained through an electronic questionnaire involving 177 respondents and analyzed by using PLS-SEM...

  3. Information channel effects on women intention to purchase irradiated food in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan; Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bok; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Since the first irradiated food was approved and commercialized in 1987, most of Koreans still do not accept the irradiated food until now. It is reasoned that there are the ambiguous fear of nuclear technology and the confusion between irradiated food and radioactive-contaminated food. This investigation was carried out to examine the acknowledgement of irradiated food in Korean housewives and to study how to enhance the intention of purchasing the irradiated food. About 600 Korean housewives participated in the survey on the irradiated food in 2007, more than two-thirds of them were not aware of irradiated food. One hundred and fifty-four women who had known of irradiated food were subjected to an experiment for the source of information about irradiated food (e.g., lecture by an expert, video-watching and book-reading) in order to explore which type of information channel is the most effective in eliciting purchase intention. The result showed that the women group who had heard the lecture by an expert indicated the highest intention to purchase irradiated food, followed by the video-watching and the book-reading groups. In addition, the acceptance of the irradiated food had shown to lead the support for nuclear industry.

  4. Information channel effects on women intention to purchase irradiated food in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan; Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bok; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Since the first irradiated food was approved and commercialized in 1987, most of Koreans still do not accept the irradiated food until now. It is reasoned that there are the ambiguous fear of nuclear technology and the confusion between irradiated food and radioactive-contaminated food. This investigation was carried out to examine the acknowledgement of irradiated food in Korean housewives and to study how to enhance the intention of purchasing the irradiated food. About 600 Korean housewives participated in the survey on the irradiated food in 2007, more than two-thirds of them were not aware of irradiated food. One hundred and fifty-four women who had known of irradiated food were subjected to an experiment for the source of information about irradiated food (e.g., lecture by an expert, video-watching and book-reading) in order to explore which type of information channel is the most effective in eliciting purchase intention. The result showed that the women group who had heard the lecture by an expert indicated the highest intention to purchase irradiated food, followed by the video-watching and the book-reading groups. In addition, the acceptance of the irradiated food had shown to lead the support for nuclear industry.

  5. Cognitive factors predicting intentions to search for health information: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Falk, Ragnhild S; Helseth, Sølvi

    2012-12-01

    Peoples' ability to obtain health information is a precondition for their effective participation in decision making about health. However, there is limited evidence describing which cognitive factors can predict the intention of people to search for health information. To test the utility of a questionnaire in predicting intentions to search for health information, and to identify important predictors associated with this intention such that these could be targeted in an Intervention. A questionnaire was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and tested on both a mixed population sample (n=30) and a sample of parents (n = 45). The questionnaire was explored by testing for internal consistency, calculating inter-correlations between theoretically-related constructs, and by using multiple regression analysis. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were found to be satisfactory and consistent across the two samples. The questionnaires' direct measures prediction of intention was high and accounted for 47% and 55% of the variance in behavioural intentions. Attitudes and perceived behavioural control were identified as important predictors to intention for search for health information. The questionnaire may be a useful tool for understanding and evaluating behavioural intentions and beliefs related to searches for health information. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  7. Putting the Focus Back on the Patient: How Privacy Concerns Affect Personal Health Information Sharing Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed; Gaia, Joana; Sanders, G Lawrence

    2017-09-13

    Health care providers are driven by greater participation and systemic cost savings irrespective of benefits to individual patients derived from sharing Personal Health Information (PHI). Protecting PHI is a critical issue in the sharing of health care information systems; yet, there is very little literature examining the topic of sharing PHI electronically. A good overview of the regulatory, privacy, and societal barriers to sharing PHI can be found in the 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. This study investigated the factors that influence individuals' intentions to share their PHI electronically with health care providers, creating an understanding of how we can represent a patient's interests more accurately in sharing settings, instead of treating patients like predetermined subjects. Unlike privacy concern and trust, patient activation is a stable trait that is not subject to change in the short term and, thus, is a useful factor in predicting sharing behavior. We apply the extended privacy model in the health information sharing context and adapt this model to include patient activation and issue involvement to predict individuals' intentions. This was a survey-based study with 1600+ participants using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) data to validate a model through various statistical techniques. The research method included an assessment of both the measurement and structural models with post hoc analysis. We find that privacy concern has the most influence on individuals' intentions to share. Patient activation, issue involvement, and patient-physician relationship are significant predictors of sharing intention. We contribute to theory by introducing patient activation and issue involvement as proxies for personal interest factors in the health care context. Overall, this study found that although patients are open to sharing their PHI, they still have concerns over the privacy of their PHI

  8. Horizontal Conflict Resolution Maneuvers with a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Jago, S.; Dubord, M.

    1981-01-01

    Pilot resolution of potential conflicts in the horizontal plane when the only information available on the other aircraft was presented on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is investigated. The pilot's task was to assess the situation and if necessary maneuver so as to avoid the other aircraft. No instructions were given on evasive strategy or on what was considered to be an acceptable minimum separation. The results indicate that pilots had a strong bias of turning toward the intruder aircraft in order to pass behind it. In more than 50% of the encounters with a 90 degree crossing angle in which the intruder aircraft was programmed to pass behind the aircraft, the pilots maneuvered so as to pass behind the intruder. This bias was not as strong with the display which showed a prediction of the intruder's relative velocity. The average miss distance for all encounters was about 4500 feet.

  9. AIS as key component in modern vessel traffic management and information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, W. [DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA), Ulm (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide information in respect to universal shipborne identification system (UAIS) as main sensor in various vessel traffic applications. The presented paper will give general information concerning AIS functionality and the standardisation process. Based on experience from recent projects and various IALA working group activities, a typical future VTMIS architectures is also presented being based on AIS as key sensor. The required key performance of AIS associated with the HW components will be described. The results from European technology study Indris are presented and discussed. Finally, a summary and conclusion from the presented material will complete the technical paper. The elaboration of this presentation has been carried out as a joint task between Mr. Andre van Berg, MDS Suedafrika und Mr. Walter Lamers, DASA Ulm. (orig.)

  10. The Data Reliability of Volunteered Geographic Information with Using Traffic Accident Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, H. K.; Karaş, I. R.

    2017-11-01

    The development of mobile technologies is important in the lives of humans. Mobile devices constitute a great part of the daily lives of people. It has come to such a point that when people first wake up, they check their smart phones for the first thing. Users may share their positions with the GNSS sensors in mobile devices or they can add information about their positions in mobile applications. Users contribute to Geographical Information System with this sharing. These users consist of native (citizens) living in that geographical position not of the CBS specialists. Creating, collecting, sharing and disseminating the geographical data provided by voluntary individuals constitute the Volunteered Geographic Information System. The data in the Volunteered Geographic Information System are received from amateur users. "How reliable will the data received from amateur users instead of specialists of the field be in scientific terms?" In this study, the reliability between the data received from the voluntary users through Volunteered Geographic Information System and real data is investigated. The real data consist of the traffic accident coordinates. The data that will be received from users will be received through the speed values in the relevant coordinates and the marking of the users for possible accident points on the map.

  11. ONLINE VS OFFLINE: DOES CITY IMAGE MODERATING COMPARISON BETWEEN INFLUENCE PERCEIVED BLOG INFORMATION AND REFERENCE GROUP TOWARD TOURIST VISIT INTENTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Pandu Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigating the phenomenon of perceived blog information, reference group, image of a city, and tourists’ intention to visit particular places. Perceived blog information is the online source, while the offline one is reference group. This is the first study comparing on online and offline information influence tourists’ intention to visit particular places. Samples are obtained through an electronic questionnaire involving 177 respondents and analyzed by using PLS-SEM. The results reveal that perceived blog information and reference group significantly influence image of the city and the intention to visit tourism destination. Image of the city moderate the relationship between independent and dependent variables partially. The influence of perceived blog information is greater than the reference group. It is indicates that online information is more influential. The stakeholders of tourism sector can utilize blog in increasing the number of visitors.

  12. Radio Data System-Platform for traffic and travel information services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan BARCA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current National and European context where the public information is simultaneously spread on multiple channels and especially through mass-media channels, the text messaging services from public radio channels proved to be very useful and efficient for this purpose. Over the years, the use of a warning system like Radio Data System (RDS, at a global level shown, through text message or sound alarms is useful for the drivers to know the traffic, as well as for being aware of any emergency situations (fires, floods, earth-quakes. In this paper we present the characteristics of an RDS system with the Alert feature, as well as the study of radio covering of four from the Romanian National Radio News network's broadcasting points.

  13. To Classify Spontaneous Motion Intention of Step Size by Using Cerebral Hemoglobin Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Kai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effect of walking-assistive devices, there is a need for it to develop devices controlled by spontaneous intention of patients. In recent study, we identified spontaneous motion intention of walking step based on cerebral hemoglobin information. Twenty healthy subjects performed walking tasks in three levels of step size (small, normal and large. According to distribution features of signals’ power spectral-density, six frequency bands (0-0.18Hz with an interval of 0.03Hz for each band width divided by applying wavelet packets decomposition were mainly analyzed. Feature vectors were extracted from the difference between oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb and deoxygenated hemoglobin (dexoyHb in different measuring channels in the six frequency bands. Support vector machine (SVM method was utilized to classify the three levels of step sizes. Mean recognition accuracy achieved up to 83.3%. The result indicated that it is possible to identify spontaneous walking by using cerebral hemoglobin information. This is helpful for enhancing the intelligence of walking-assistive devices and motivating the active control of patients, which further is profitable for enhancing self-confidence of patients.

  14. Analysis of behavioral intention on ABC system adoption: Model of information systems technology and success acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Nensi Veni Indipenrian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of individual behavioral change on the adoption of activity- based costing (ABC system and its usage, using Unified Theory of Accep-tance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and Information System Success Model. The sample involves 78 respondents who have positions as financial manager, controller manager, accounting manager, and production manager in mid-sized manufacturing companies in East java. The data were collected by survey method. This study used a Partial Least Square (PLS as the data analysis method. It was found that not all of the main UTAUT models were supported, because performance expectancy and effort expectancy have no effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. Whereas, social factors, information quality and facilitating conditions had a positive effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. The different results of this study with several previous studies are probably caused by the differences in the context of system, culture and characteristics of the sample. The implication of this study is not only to propose a theoretical framework for researches in future, but also useful for companies to optimize the use of ABC system that should be supported by top level and mid-level management and the readiness of the individu-als to accept the adoption of the ABC system.

  15. 10 CFR 2.908 - Contents of notice of intent to introduce restricted data or other national security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or other national security information. 2.908 Section 2.908 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Applicable to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.908 Contents of notice of intent to introduce restricted data or other national security information. (a) A...

  16. Traveller Information System for Heterogeneous Traffic Condition: A Case Study in Thiruvananthapuram City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyakumar, M.; Anil, R.; Sreeja, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10-11% every year, resulting severe congestion especially in urban areas. Because of the limitation of spaces it is not always possible to construct new roads. Road users rely on travel time information for journey planning and route choice decisions, while road system managers are increasingly viewing travel time as an important network performance indicator. More recently Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) are being developed to provide real-time information to roadway users. For ATIS various methodologies have been developed for dynamic travel time prediction. For this work the Kalman Filter Algorithm was selected for dynamic travel time prediction of different modes. The travel time data collected using handheld GPS device were used for prediction. Congestion Index were calculated and Range of CI values were determined according to the percentage speed drop. After prediction using Kalman Filter, the predicted values along with the GPS data was integrated to GIS and using Network Analysis of ArcGIS the offline route navigation guide was prepared. Using this database a program for route navigation based on travel time was developed. This system will help the travelers with pre-trip information.

  17. Intentional and automatic processing of numerical information in mathematical anxiety: testing the influence of emotional priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit

    2018-02-05

    Current theoretical approaches suggest that mathematical anxiety (MA) manifests itself as a weakness in quantity manipulations. This study is the first to examine automatic versus intentional processing of numerical information using the numerical Stroop paradigm in participants with high MA. To manipulate anxiety levels, we combined the numerical Stroop task with an affective priming paradigm. We took a group of college students with high MA and compared their performance to a group of participants with low MA. Under low anxiety conditions (neutral priming), participants with high MA showed relatively intact number processing abilities. However, under high anxiety conditions (mathematical priming), participants with high MA showed (1) higher processing of the non-numerical irrelevant information, which aligns with the theoretical view regarding deficits in selective attention in anxiety and (2) an abnormal numerical distance effect. These results demonstrate that abnormal, basic numerical processing in MA is context related.

  18. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Susu; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic). Most prior work falls into two categories: (1) methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2) systems that require deployment of dedicated ...

  19. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rGIS-based regression models offer a promising approach to assess individual levels of

  20. The Influence of Service Quality on Satisfaction and Information System Continuance Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semina Halilović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The expectation-confirmation model of IS continuance (ECM-IS explains determinants affecting the behavior of information system (IS users which can also have an impact on their decision whether to continue or discontinue the IS use. Service quality is considered a potential motivator which can influence users’ IS behavior. Likewise, one may expect service quality to be a motivator of users’ IS continuance intention influencing their future behavior after the initial IS use, and to be an important factor of IS success in general. In this study, an extension of the ECM-IS has been proposed in order to examine whether the perception of service quality by users plays an important role in shaping IS user behavior, as well as whether it affects the level of satisfaction with and the decision to either continue or discontinue the IS use. The Extended ECM-IS (EECM-IS has explained 66% of the variance dependent variable of IS continuance. Findings of this study confirm that perceived usefulness, satisfaction and perceived service quality are significant predictors of users’ IS continuance intention.

  1. Procedural Information and Behavioral Control: Longitudinal Analysis of the Intention-Behavior Gap in the Context of Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Rosenthal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of planned behavior states that individuals act on their intentions, especially when they have behavioral control. The current study examines how seeking recycling-related procedural information—i.e., information about how and where to recycle—is related to behavioral control. Hypothesis testing used hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis of longitudinal data from 553 survey respondents. Results supported seven hypotheses. Most notably, procedural information seeking both mediated and moderated the relationship between intention and behavior. Further, the moderation effect was itself mediated by behavioral control. The argument for this mediated moderation is that information seeking enhances behavioral control, and it is primarily behavioral control that moderates the relationship between intention and behavior. These results have implications for the theory of planned behavior and, more generally, for how individuals use information to support their behaviors.

  2. Driver’s Cognitive Workload and Driving Performance under Traffic Sign Information Exposure in Complex Environments: A Case Study of the Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers’ behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information. Forty-four drivers were recruited to conduct a traffic sign cognition experiment under static controlled environment conditions. Different complex traffic signs were used for applying the cognitive workload. The static experiment results reveal that workload is highly related to the amount of information on traffic signs and reaction time increases with the information grade, while driving experience and gender effect are not significant. This shows that the cognitive workload of subsequent driving experiments can be controlled by the amount of information on traffic signs. Second, driving characteristics and driving performance were analyzed under different secondary task driving workload levels using a driving simulator. Drivers were required to drive at the required speed on a designed highway off-ramp scene. The cognitive workload was controlled by reading traffic signs with different information, which were divided into four levels. Drivers had to make choices by pushing buttons after reading traffic signs. Meanwhile, the driving performance information was recorded. Questionnaires on objective workload were collected right after each driving task. The results show that speed maintenance and lane deviations are significantly different under different levels of cognitive workload, and the effects of driving experience and gender groups are significant. The research results can be used to analyze traffic safety in highway

  3. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  4. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  5. The influence of information processing goal pursuit on postdecision affect and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Two important forces in human behavior are action and inaction. Although action and inaction are commonly associated with the presence and the absence of behavioral activity, they can also be represented as information processing goals. Action (inaction) goals influence decision effort and increase satisfaction with environments that are structured to allow for more (less) processing (Studies 1 and 2). This increased satisfaction can transfer to the decision (Study 3) and can increase the intent to perform a decision-congruent behavior (Studies 4 and 6). Finally, the author shows escalation of action and inaction goals when they are not achieved (Study 5) and rebound of the alternative goal when the focal goal is achieved (Study 6).

  6. 78 FR 30319 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration [Docket No. TSA-2002-11602] Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Security Programs for..., Transportation Security Administration, 601 South 12th Street, Arlington, VA 20598-6011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.

  8. Traffic Perturbation

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM

  9. Seeking and using intention of health information from doctors in social media: The effect of doctor-consumer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tailai; Deng, Zhaohua; Zhang, Donglan; Buchanan, Paula R; Zha, Dongqing; Wang, Ruoxi

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how doctor-consumer interaction in social media influences consumers' health information seeking and usage intention. Based on professional-client interaction theory and expectation confirmation theory, we propose that doctor-consumer interaction can be divided into instrumental interaction and affective interaction. These two types of interaction influence consumers' health information seeking and usage intention through consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors. To validate our proposed research model, we employed the survey method. The measurement instruments for all constructs were developed based on previous literatures, and 352 valid answers were collected by using these instruments. Our results reveal that consumers' intention to seek health information significantly predicts their intention to use health information from social media. Meanwhile, both consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors influences consumers' health information seeking and usage intention significantly. With regards to the impact of the interaction between doctors and consumers, the results show that both types of doctor-consumer interaction significantly affect consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors. The mediation analysis confirms the mediation role of consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors. Compared with many intentional intervention programs, doctor-consumer interaction can be treated as an effective intervention with low cost to promote consumers' health information seeking and usage. Meanwhile, both instrumental and affective interaction should be highlighted for the best interaction results. At last, consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors could be considered as the important working mechanisms for the effect of doctor-consumer interaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Hsu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients’ biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient’s biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios.

  11. Communications System Architecture Development for Air Traffic Management and Aviation Weather Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Seana; Olson, Matt; Blythe, Doug; Heletz, Jacob; Hamilton, Griff; Kolb, Bill; Homans, Al; Zemrowski, Ken; Decker, Steve; Tegge, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    This document is the NASA AATT Task Order 24 Final Report. NASA Research Task Order 24 calls for the development of eleven distinct task reports. Each task was a necessary exercise in the development of comprehensive communications systems architecture (CSA) for air traffic management and aviation weather information dissemination for 2015, the definition of the interim architecture for 2007, and the transition plan to achieve the desired End State. The eleven tasks are summarized along with the associated Task Order reference. The output of each task was an individual task report. The task reports that make up the main body of this document include Task 5, Task 6, Task 7, Task 8, Task 10, and Task 11. The other tasks provide the supporting detail used in the development of the architecture. These reports are included in the appendices. The detailed user needs, functional communications requirements and engineering requirements associated with Tasks 1, 2, and 3 have been put into a relational database and are provided electronically.

  12. Cellular automata models for diffusion of information and highway traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Henryk

    In the first part of this work we study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents degree of 'anticipatory driving'. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: 'conservative' driving with high speed limit and 'anticipatory' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered. For rule 184, we present exact calculations of the order parameter in a transition from the moving phase to the jammed phase using the method of preimage counting, and use this result to construct a solution to the density classification problem. In the second part we propose a probabilistic cellular automaton model for the spread of innovations, rumors, news, etc., in a social system. We start from simple deterministic models, for which exact expressions for the density of adopters are derived. For a more realistic model, based on probabilistic cellular automata, we study the influence of a range of interaction R on the shape of the adoption curve. When the probability of adoption is proportional to the local density of adopters, and individuals can drop the innovation with some probability p, the system exhibits a second order phase transition. Critical line separating regions of parameter space in which asymptotic density of adopters is positive from the region where it is equal to zero converges toward the mean-field line when the range of the interaction increases. In a region between R=1 critical line and the mean-field line asymptotic density of adopters depends on R, becoming zero if R is too small (smaller than some critical value). This result demonstrates the importance of connectivity in

  13. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. LOTIR: A Routing Protocol for Multi-hop V-to-I Communication Using Local Traffic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-chan Lan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is an emerging technology that can be applied to safety, transport efficiency, or infotainment applications for roads and highways. However, due to its unique features, such as dynamic mobility patterns and uneven distributions of vehicles, VANET faces many challenging research issues for robust data dissemination in the network. Many routing protocols have been proposed for VANET in the past few years, and the idea of utilizing a navigation system to assist the routing protocol for selecting the next best forwarder has become increasingly popular. However, it might not be realistic to assume that every vehicle is equipped with a navigation system. In addition, due to privacy concerns, drivers might not want to reveal their planned routes to other cars. In this work, we propose a new routing protocol, called LOTIR (LOcal Traffic Information Routing, that relies on only local traffic information and does not require the assistance of a navigation system. LOTIR is a DTN-based routing protocol that utilizes the car-following theory and traffic light information to decide the next carrier to forward the data to. We implement LOTIR in NS-2, and our results show that it can achieve similar performance as prior work which depends on the availability of global network topology information.

  15. The effectiveness of narrative versus informational smoking education on beliefs, attitudes, and intentions of low educated adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, A.; van den Putte, B.; Nguyen, M.-H.; Zebregs, S.; Lammers, J.; Neijens, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the effectiveness of narrative versus informational smoking education on smoking beliefs, attitudes and intentions of low-educated adolescents. Design: A field experiment with three waves of data collection was conducted. Participants (N = 256) were students who attend

  16. College Students' Intentions to Use Calorie Information on a Restaurant Menu: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A.; Knol, Linda L.; Severt, Kimberly; Lawrence, Jeannine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in the United States and is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Greater numbers of people eat in restaurants and select high calorie foods. Labeling laws require calorie information on menus in some restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of intention to…

  17. 76 FR 52304 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Revise and Extend a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... organization; marketing information, and other economic data on input usage, production practices, and crop... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek... Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork...

  18. 77 FR 17404 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Revise and Extend a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... organization; marketing information; and other economic data on input usage, production practices, and crop... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Seek... Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork...

  19. 76 FR 27655 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; Imposition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ..., performed by an independent certified public accountant, of its security service fee activities and accounts...] Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; Imposition and..., DHS. ACTION: 60-day Notice. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) invites public...

  20. 75 FR 17152 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Information Collection; Opportunity for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Information Collection; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... of such projects; and, when necessary, agency review of a concessioner's books and records related to...

  1. 75 FR 14633 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend and Revise a Current Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Expenditures and are available electronically on the World Wide Web. The survey is a fully automated Web data... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend and Revise a Current Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY...

  2. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.

  3. Optimistic bias, advertising skepticism, and consumer intentions for seeking information about the health risks of prescription medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Haley, Eric John

    2017-01-01

    Based on a survey of prescription drug users (N = 408), this study revealed that: (a) the frequency of consumers' personal experience of prescription medicine adverse reactions negatively related to the extent of their optimistic bias about the chances of such events, (b) consumers' perceived personal control over adverse reactions positively related to optimistic bias, and (c) optimistic bias related more negatively to intentions to seek risk information when consumer skepticism toward direct-to-consumer advertising was high. When skepticism was low to average, optimistic bias did not inhibit such intentions. Implications and recommendations for the practice of direct-to-consumer advertising are provided.

  4. Measurement of traffic parameters in image sequence using spatio-temporal information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Daeho; Park, Youngtae

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measurement of traffic parameters, such as the number of passed vehicles, velocity and occupancy rate, by video image analysis. The method is based on a region classification followed by spatio-temporal image analysis. Local detection region images in traffic lanes are classified into one of four categories: the road, the vehicle, the reflection and the shadow, by using statistical and structural features. Misclassification at a frame is corrected by using temporally correlated features of vehicles in the spatio-temporal image. This capability of error correction results in the accurate estimation of traffic parameters even in high traffic congestion. Also headlight detection is employed for nighttime operation. Experimental results show that the accuracy is more than 94% in our test database of diverse operating conditions such as daytime, shadowy daytime, highway, urban way, rural way, rainy day, snowy day, dusk and nighttime. The average processing time is 30 ms per frame when four traffic lanes are processed, and real-time operation could be realized while ensuring robust detection performance even for high-speed vehicles up to 150 km h −1

  5. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Bong, Jae-Hwan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk

    2017-01-01

    Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics. PMID:28604582

  6. Prediction of Driver’s Intention of Lane Change by Augmenting Sensor Information Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hwan Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistance systems have become a major safety feature of modern passenger vehicles. The advanced driver assistance system (ADAS is one of the active safety systems to improve the vehicle control performance and, thus, the safety of the driver and the passengers. To use the ADAS for lane change control, rapid and correct detection of the driver’s intention is essential. This study proposes a novel preprocessing algorithm for the ADAS to improve the accuracy in classifying the driver’s intention for lane change by augmenting basic measurements from conventional on-board sensors. The information on the vehicle states and the road surface condition is augmented by using an artificial neural network (ANN models, and the augmented information is fed to a support vector machine (SVM to detect the driver’s intention with high accuracy. The feasibility of the developed algorithm was tested through driving simulator experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy for the driver’s intention can be improved by providing an SVM model with sufficient driving information augmented by using ANN models of vehicle dynamics.

  7. Urban traffic information system prototype: Use for Rome downtown area traffic control; 200 S.I.T.U. prototipo del sistema informativo per il traffico urbano: La sua applicazione allo studio della regolamentazione dell`accesso ai centri storici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, L; Mattucci, A; Frondaroli, A

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the characteristics, in terms of type of information and systems approaches utilized, of a prototype urban traffic simulator developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment). With reference to the development of the functional and architectural elements of this simulator, a preliminary review is made of problematics relevant to transportation system design, urban planning, and traffic control. The data base incorporated by the simulator is described and a comparison is made of different traffic modelling codes and man-machine interface methods. The paper concludes with an assessment of the results obtained with the first experimental application of the simulator in the control of the flow of traffic in Rome`s heavily congested downtown area.

  8. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  9. The Impact of Nursing Students' Cultural Diversity on the Intention and Attitudes Toward the Use of Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ayala; Sharon, Dganit; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Strauss, Ester; Segev, Ronen

    2016-05-01

    This research highlights the evidences that: The greater the threat, the lower the attitude toward information technology is, and the greater the sense of challenge, the greater self-efficacy is. Innovativeness was found to be a behavioral intention predictor in two groups, secular Jews and Arabs. This study provides nurses and nurse educators with some valuable insights about how culture, religion, and education may influence nursing students' attitudes toward information technology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Impact of information on intentions to vaccinate in a potential epidemic: Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Luchini, Stéphane; Massoni, Sébastien; Vergnaud, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination campaigns to prevent the spread of epidemics are successful only if the targeted populations subscribe to the recommendations of health authorities. However, because compulsory vaccination is hardly conceivable in modern democracies, governments need to convince their populations through efficient and persuasive information campaigns. In the context of the swine-origin A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we use an interactive study among the general public in the South of France, with 175 participants, to explore what type of information can induce change in vaccination intentions at both aggregate and individual levels. We find that individual attitudes to vaccination are based on rational appraisal of the situation, and that it is information of a purely scientific nature that has the only significant positive effect on intention to vaccinate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traffic incident and crisis management : challenges and obstacles in information sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbruggen, J.G.M.; Nijkamp, P.; Smits, J.M.; Mohabir, G.

    2012-01-01

    Disaster Management and Traffic Incident Management involves the coordinated interactions of many public and private actors. On many levels, there is clearly a strong relation be-tween the road infrastructure and the effective handling of large scale disasters. To support these tasks in an effective

  12. Simulation of intersection of complicated information signals in air traffic control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Коба

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered is the problem of complicated system simulation with customers incoming flows. Developed is an algorithm accelerated of finding probability of the superposition of complicated customers. Derived are the top and bottom estimates of damage-factor which are connected with complical customers superposition. Noticed is connection with simulation problem of air traffic control system

  13. Turnover Intentions of Employees With Informal Eldercare Responsibilities: The Role of Core Self-Evaluations and Supervisor Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Claire E; Parker, Stacey L; Zacher, Hannes; Jimmieson, Nerina L

    2015-12-01

    As longevity increases, so does the need for care of older relatives by working family members. This research examined the interactive effect of core self-evaluations and supervisor support on turnover intentions in two samples of employees with informal caregiving responsibilities. Data were obtained from 57 employees from Australia (Study 1) and 66 employees from the United States and India (Study 2). Results of Study 1 revealed a resource compensation effect, that is, an inverse relationship between core self-evaluations and turnover intentions when supervisor care support was low. Results of Study 2 extended these findings by demonstrating resource boosting effects. Specifically, there was an inverse relationship between core self-evaluations and subsequent turnover intentions for those with high supervisor work and care support. In addition, employees' satisfaction and emotional exhaustion from their work mediated the inverse relationship between core self-evaluations and subsequent turnover intentions when supervisor work support and care support were high. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of employee- and supervisor-focused intervention strategies in organizations to support informal caregivers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLICY TO PROVIDE THE TRAFFIC INFORMATION IN THE CASE OF EARTHQUAKES AN EXAMPLE ON THE NOTO PENINSULA EARTHQUAKE, ISHIKAWA PREFECTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masanori; Takayama, Jun-Ichi; Nakayama, Shoichiro

    Noto Peninsula earthquake occurred in Ishikawa Pref., in March, 2007, and the Noto Yuryo, and many arterial roads were damaged. This led to the conosiderable confusion of the road traffic in Noto Peninsula area and gave the influence on all kinds of social/economic activities. Therefore, an method of providing the traffic information for drivers is important in the case of disasters such as earthquakes. We carried out a questionnaire survey for local inhabitants and investigated the road use situation at the time of the Noto Peninsula earthquake and the information acquisition situation about it. We also analyzed whether or not the method of providing the traffic information was appropriate. In addition, we examined the best traffic information in the case of earthquakes.

  15. 77 FR 2267 - Notice of Intent To Extend a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) regulations at (5 CFR part 1320), this notice announces the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) intention to request approval for an extension of the... average of four reviews, accounting for an annual burden of 20 hours. NIFA estimates it receives 4,600...

  16. Intention of Continuing to use the Hospital Information System: Integrating the elaboration-likelihood, social influence and cognitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Mohamadian, Hashem; Sohrabi, Niloufar

    2016-12-01

    Anticipating effective factors in information system acceptance by using persuasive messages, is one of the main issues less focused on so far. This is one of the first attempts at using the elaboration-likelihood model combined with the perception of emotional, cognitive, self-efficacy, informational and normative influence constructs, in order to investigate the determinants of intention to continue use of the hospital information system in Iran. The present study is a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014. 600 nursing staff were chosen from clinical sectors of public hospitals using purposive sampling. The questionnaire survey was in two parts: Part one was comprised of demographic data, and part two included 52 questions pertaining to the constructs of the model in the study. To analyze the data, structural equation model using LISREL 8.5 software was applied. The findings suggest that self-efficacy (t= 6.01, β= 0.21), affective response (t= 5.84, β= 0.23), and cognitive response (t= 4.97, β= 0.21) explained 64% of the variance for the intention of continuing to use the hospital information system. Furthermore, the final model was able to explain 0.46 for self-efficacy, 0.44 for normative social influence, 0.52 for affective response, 0.55 for informational social influence, and 0.53 for cognitive response. Designing the necessary mechanisms and effective use of appropriate strategies to improve emotional and cognitive understanding and self-efficacy of the nursing staff is required, in order to increase the intention of continued use of the hospital information system in Iran.

  17. [The effect of perceived work and organizational chracteristics on psychological distress and intention to quit of information technology professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Maki; Asakura, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The information technology (IT) and service industry in Japan is known to have many work-related stressors, and requires more effective stress reduction to control an elevated turnover rate and adverse health effects. However, little research has been performed using either individual or organizational outcomes (e.g., psychological distress and intention to quit) to determine micro and macro-level stressors on information technology (IT) professionals. This study aimed to examine the effect of perceived work and organizational characteristics (PWOC) as micro and macro-level stressors on psychological distress and intention to quit, controlling for profitability of the organization and individual characteristics on IT professionals in Japan. We conducted a web-based questionnaire at fifty-three Japanese IT-related companies. From May to June of 2003, ten to thirty people from each company, who were chosen according to quota method indicators through the labor unions, voluntarily participated in this study. Participants accessed our webpage, which was designed with a self-administrated questionnaire and was accessible by password. The data they entered were sent to our database automatically. The questionnaire consisted of items concerning socio-demographic status; office size; employment characteristics; work hour characteristics; profitability of the organization; a novel 29-item scale (PWOC); as well as individual characteristics. The response rate was 66% (n = 1049). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed data on an IT engineers' group separately (n = 871). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that each model explained 23% and 26% of the variance in psychological distress and intention to quit, respectively. PWOC sub-scales, which are related to macro-level stressors (e.g., undeveloped management systems and career and future ambiguity), affect not only psychological distress but also intention to quit. Objective data of macro-level stressors such

  18. Intervening to promote statements of gratitude: Informative incongruity between intention and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekema-Agbaw, Michael L; McCutchen, Jenna A; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined interventions to increase the frequency of gratitude expression among college students in two large lecture classes of an Introduction to Psychology course at a large university in southwest Virginia. Both studies evaluated the impact of a writing exercise designed to increase intentions to express gratitude in a prescribed manner. In addition, participants in both studies were given one week to express gratitude to people who performed prosocial behavior. Gratitude expression was assessed by self-report on a survey administered during the psychology class. In both studies, intentions to thank another person for a kind act were significantly higher in the Intervention class than in the Control class, but self-reported expressions of gratitude were significantly higher in the Control class than in the Intervention class. This was an unexpected "countercontrol effect." Directions for future research are discussed, as well as theoretical/methodological explanations.

  19. 78 FR 44164 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    .... Abstract: Advancing Informal Science Learning (AISL), formerly titled Informal Science Education (ISE..., technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning outside formal school settings. Informal science... federal holidays). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Advancing Informal Science Learning...

  20. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of macroscopic traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  1. Infrastructure Systems Interdependencies and Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM: Impact Scenario Analysis of Infrastructure Risks Induced by Natural, Technological and Intentional Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Frederick Stapelberg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current research into infrastructure systems interdependencies with regard to safesty risks induced by natural, technological and intentional hazards. The paper further considers risk informed decision-making.

  2. Fatigue in Advanced Cancer Patients: Congruence Between Patients and Their Informal Caregivers About Patients' Fatigue Severity During Cancer Treatment With Palliative Intent and Predictors of Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, Hanneke; Peters, Marlies E. W. J.; Gielissen, Marieke F. M.; Verhagen, Constans A. H. H. V. M.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Wearden, Alison J.; Knoop, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Informal caregivers (ICs) are increasingly involved in the monitoring of symptoms during advanced cancer patients' treatment with palliative intent. A common but subjective symptom during this extended treatment phase is fatigue. This exploratory longitudinal study aimed to determine agreement

  3. Fatigue in Advanced Cancer Patients: Congruence Between Patients and Their Informal Caregivers About Patients' Fatigue Severity During Cancer Treatment With Palliative Intent and Predictors of Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, H.; Peters, M.E.W.J.; Gielissen, M.F.M.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Wearden, A.J.; Knoop, H.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Informal caregivers (ICs) are increasingly involved in the monitoring of symptoms during advanced cancer patients' treatment with palliative intent. A common but subjective symptom during this extended treatment phase is fatigue. OBJECTIVES: This exploratory longitudinal study aimed to

  4. Basic Investigations of Dynamic Travel Time Estimation Model for Traffic Signals Control Using Information from Optical Beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutani, Iwao; Mitsui, Tatsuro; Nakada, Yusuke

    In this paper put forward are neuron-type models, i.e., neural network model, wavelet neuron model and three layered wavelet neuron model(WV3), for estimating traveling time between signalized intersections in order to facilitate adaptive setting of traffic signal parameters such as green time and offset. Model validation tests using simulated data reveal that compared to other models, WV3 model works very fast in learning process and can produce more accurate estimates of travel time. Also, it is exhibited that up-link information obtainable from optical beacons, i.e., travel time observed during the former cycle time in this case, makes a crucial input variable to the models in that there isn't any substantial difference between the change of estimated and simulated travel time with the change of green time or offset when up-link information is employed as input while there appears big discrepancy between them when not employed.

  5. The effect advertisements on VMSs may have on the perception of relevant traffic information: an unexpected insight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Ilse M.; Dijksterhuis, Christiaan; Jelijs, Lambertus H.; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract - Authorities around the globe struggle with the question whether variable message signs (VMSs) should solely be used for traffic management or can also be used to display traffic-irrelevant messages, such as commercial advertisements. The main questions in this matter concern 1) traffic

  6. Role stress and turnover intentions among information technology personnel in South Africa: The role of supervisor support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie Naidoo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: High turnover of information technology (IT personnel is a major problem facing many global and local organisations. An increasingly important area of turnover research of IT personnel experiencing role stress involves examining their perceptions of supervisor support. Research purpose: This study aimed to examine the effects of role-related stress and supervisor support on job satisfaction, job performance and IT turnover intentions. Motivations for the study: It is important to assess from both a theoretical and a practical perspective the extent to which turnover can be explained by relational factors such as supervisor support. Research design, approach and method: An online voluntary survey yielded a sample of 163 respondents. Six constructs were measured: turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, supervisor support, role ambiguity and role conflict. A total of 158 usable responses were subjected to descriptive, correlation and regression analysis. Mediation and moderation effects were assessed using a multiple regression bootstrapping procedure. Main findings: Role ambiguity has a greater impact on job satisfaction than role conflict. Job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between role stress and turnover intention. Supervisor support mediated the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction and role stressors and job performance. There was no evidence in favour of a moderating role of supervisor support. Practical and managerial implications: Higher priority should be given to tackling role ambiguity. Supervisor support can increase job satisfaction, improve job performance and ultimately reduce turnover intentions, despite the presence of role stress. Contribution or value-add: Human resource managers and IT managers could use these results to improve job performance and staff retention.

  7. Qualifying information on deaths and serious injuries caused by road traffic in five Brazilian capitals using record linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandacaru, Polyana Maria Pimenta; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Rocha, Marli Souza; Aguiar, Fernanda Pinheiro; Nogueira, Maria Sueli M; Girodo, Anne Marielle; Pedrosa, Ana Amélia Galas; Oliveira, Vera Lídia Alves de; Alves, Marta Maria Malheiros; Paixão, Lúcia Maria Miana M; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de

    2017-09-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity. This study linked different data sources to measure the numbers of deaths and serious injuries and to estimate the percentage of corrections regarding the underlying cause of death, cause of injury, and the severity injury in victims in matched pairs from record linkage in five representative state capitals of the five macro-regions of Brazil. This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the Hospital Information System (HIS), Mortality Information System (MIS), and Police Road Traffic database of Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, Palmas, and Teresina, for the year 2013 for Teresina, and 2012 for the other capitals. RecLink III was used to perform probabilistic record linkage by identifying matched pairs to calculate the global correction percentage of the underlying cause of death, the circumstance that caused the road traffic injury, and the injury severity of the victims in the police database. There was a change in the cause of injury in the HIS, with an overall percentage of correction estimated at 24.4% for Belo Horizonte, 96.9% for Campo Grande, 100.0% for Palmas, and 33.2% for Teresina. The overall percentages of correction of the underlying cause of death in the MIS were 29.9%, 11.9%, 4.2%, and 33.5% for Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, and Teresina, respectively. The correction of the classification of injury severity in police database were 100.0% for Belo

  8. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  9. The effectiveness of narrative versus informational smoking education on smoking beliefs, attitudes and intentions of low-educated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Anneke; van den Putte, Bas; Nguyen, Minh-Hao; Zebregs, Simon; Lammers, Jeroen; Neijens, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This study tests the effectiveness of narrative versus informational smoking education on smoking beliefs, attitudes and intentions of low-educated adolescents. A field experiment with three waves of data collection was conducted. Participants (N = 256) were students who attend lower secondary education. At the first and third waves, they completed a questionnaire. At the second wave, 50.8% of the participants read a smoking education booklet in narrative form and 49.2% read a booklet in informational form. After reading, all participants also completed a questionnaire at wave 2. Beliefs about negative consequences of smoking, attitudes towards smoking and intentions to smoke were measured. Repeated measures analyses with time as a within-subjects factor and condition as a between-subjects factor showed that beliefs about smoking were more negative at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1, irrespective of condition. However, attitudes towards smoking were more positive at Wave 3 compared to Wave 1 when participants had read the narrative version. These results show that narrative smoking education is not more effective than informational smoking education for low-educated adolescents and can even have an unintended effect for this target group by making attitudes towards smoking more positive.

  10. 77 FR 30318 - Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... (email). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Deline, NPS Historian, National Register of Historic... information; Ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and Ways to...

  11. A Visual Analytics Approach for Extracting Spatio-Temporal Urban Mobility Information from Mobile Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a visual analytics approach for deriving spatio-temporal patterns of collective human mobility from a vast mobile network traffic data set. More than 88 million movements between pairs of radio cells—so-called handovers—served as a proxy for more than two months of mobility within four urban test areas in Northern Italy. In contrast to previous work, our approach relies entirely on visualization and mapping techniques, implemented in several software applications. We purposefully avoid statistical or probabilistic modeling and, nonetheless, reveal characteristic and exceptional mobility patterns. The results show, for example, surprising similarities and symmetries amongst the total mobility and people flows between the test areas. Moreover, the exceptional patterns detected can be associated to real-world events such as soccer matches. We conclude that the visual analytics approach presented can shed new light on large-scale collective urban mobility behavior and thus helps to better understand the “pulse” of dynamic urban systems.

  12. The Impact of Smokeless Tobacco Risk Information on Smokers' Risk Perceptions and Use Intentions: A News Media Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Manderski, Michelle T Bover; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-12-13

    Little research exists on the impact of risk information comparing smokeless tobacco (SLT) use, particularly snus, to cigarette smoking. This study explored this topic using a communication channel where smokers may be exposed to such information-the news media. We randomly assigned 1008 current smokers to read one of three constructed news stories or to a control group (no article). The "favorable" story framed snus as a "safer" smoking alternative while the "cautious" story described snus risks. The "mixed" version described potential risks and harm-reduction benefits. Participants completed a post-article survey with snus risk and harm perception and use intention measures. Article condition was significantly associated with perceived harm of daily snus use relative to smoking (1 = a lot less harmful - 5 = a lot more harmful; p news messages about SLT and snus relative to cigarettes may impact smokers' SLT harm perceptions and use intentions. Tobacco control professionals and FDA officials should consider the potential impact of the news media when communicating about tobacco risks.

  13. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  14. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Providing Advanced and Real-Time Travel/Traffic Information to Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) analyze and communicate information that can enhance travel efficiency, alleviate congestion, and increase safety. In Texas, tourists (i.e., tripmakers unacquainted with the state) constitute an important ...

  16. 10 CFR 110.123 - Notice of intent to introduce classified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (2) The highest level of classification of the information (confidential, secret or other); (3) When it is anticipated that the information would be introduced; and (4) The relevance and materiality of...

  17. Factors Affecting Physicians' Intentions to Communicate Personalized Prognostic Information to Cancer Patients at the End of Life: An Experimental Vignette Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul K J; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Holt, Christina; Gutheil, Caitlin; Peters, Ellen

    2016-08-01

    To explore the effects of personalized prognostic information on physicians' intentions to communicate prognosis to cancer patients at the end of life, and to identify factors that moderate these effects. A factorial experiment was conducted in which 93 family medicine physicians were presented with a hypothetical vignette depicting an end-stage gastric cancer patient seeking prognostic information. Physicians' intentions to communicate prognosis were assessed before and after provision of personalized prognostic information, while emotional distress of the patient and ambiguity (imprecision) of the prognostic estimate were varied between subjects. General linear models were used to test the effects of personalized prognostic information, patient distress, and ambiguity on prognostic communication intentions, and potential moderating effects of 1) perceived patient distress, 2) perceived credibility of prognostic models, 3) physician numeracy (objective and subjective), and 4) physician aversion to risk and ambiguity. Provision of personalized prognostic information increased prognostic communication intentions (P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.38), although experimentally manipulated patient distress and prognostic ambiguity had no effects. Greater change in communication intentions was positively associated with higher perceived credibility of prognostic models (P = 0.007, η(2) = 0.10), higher objective numeracy (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.09), female sex (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.08), and lower perceived patient distress (P = 0.02, η(2) = 0.07). Intentions to communicate available personalized prognostic information were positively associated with higher perceived credibility of prognostic models (P = 0.02, η(2) = 0.09), higher subjective numeracy (P = 0.02, η(2) = 0.08), and lower ambiguity aversion (P = 0.06, η(2) = 0.04). Provision of personalized prognostic information increases physicians' prognostic communication intentions to a hypothetical end-stage cancer patient, and

  18. Source of Sex Information and Condom Use Intention among Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Jillian S.; Berglas, Nancy F.; Deardorff, Julianna; Constantine, Norman A.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a common time for sexual initiation and information seeking about sexual health, yet little is known about how adolescents' sources of information about sex influence their sexual beliefs and behaviors. This is particularly true for Latino adolescents, whose sources of sex information and sexual behaviors are vastly understudied. A…

  19. Information and Women’s Intentions: Experimental Evidence About Child Care

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Vincenzo; Profeta, Paola; Pronzato, Chiara; Billari, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of providing information about the benefits to children of attending formal child care when women intend to use formal child care so they can work. We postulate that the reaction to the information differs across women according to their characteristics, specifically their level of education. We present a randomized experiment in which 700 Italian women of reproductive age with no children are exposed to positive information about formal child care through a text mes...

  20. 78 FR 49781 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... advance fundamental computing, communications, and information science and engineering; educate a globally... goals. Projects funded through these four programs represent some of the largest single investments made...

  1. 76 FR 28416 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Reinstate an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... conducted a census form content test (OMB 5035-0243) during the winter of 2010-2011 to evaluate new content..., ``Implementation Guidance for Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information Protection and Statistical... automated, electronic, mechanical, technological or other forms of information technology collection methods...

  2. 78 FR 21160 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS... abroad. A major component of this activity is its sponsorship of the Business Research and Development (R&D) Innovation Survey (BRDIS), which collects information annually on research and development and...

  3. 75 FR 37749 - Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... plan for the development and marketing of the invention and with information about the applicant's capability to fulfill the plan. 37 CFR 404.8 sets forth the information which must be provided by a license..., filing of petitions and applications and agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples...

  4. Use of color on airport moving maps and cockpit displays of traffic information (CDTIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Color can be an effective method for coding visual information, making it easier to find and identify symbols on a display (Christ, 1975). However, careful consideration should be given when applying color because excessive or inappropriate use of co...

  5. METHODS OF MANAGING TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenko, Viktor; Persiyanova, Elena; Belotskyy, Oleksiy; Malyeyeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of the article is information and communication networks (ICN) of critical infrastructure systems (CIS). The goal of the work is to create methods for managing the data flows and resources of the ICN of CIS to improve the efficiency of information processing. The following tasks were solved in the article: the data flow model of multi-level ICN structure was developed, the method of adaptive distribution of data flows was developed, the method of network resource assignment...

  6. The effect advertisements on VMSs may have on drivers’ reaction to relevant traffic information: an unexpected finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Ilse M.; Dijksterhuis, Christiaan; Jelijs, Lambertus; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Road authorities around the globe struggle with the question whether variable message signs (VMSs) should solely be used for traffic management or can also be used to display traffic-irrelevant messages, such as commercial advertisements. The main questions in this matter concern 1)

  7. [Glucocorticoid therapy: what is the information sought by patients? Traffic analysis of the website cortisone-info.fr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, J; Six, M; Morin, C; Fardet, L

    2013-05-01

    About 1% of the general population are receiving systemic glucocorticoids. The information about this treatment sought by patients is unknown. The website www.cortisone-info.fr aims to provide therapeutic information about glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid therapy. It was posted on January 16, 2012. The information available on the website is documented and based on the recent medical literature. The website is made of 43 pages divided into five main sections (generalities about glucocorticoids, adverse events, measures associated with glucocorticoid therapy, discontinuation of glucocorticoids and, situations requiring attention). The website traffic between February 1st, 2012 and January 4, 2013 was analyzed using Google Analytics. During the study period, the website was visited by 67,496 people (average number of visitors per day: 33 in February 2012, 326 in December 2012). The number of page views was 230,496 or an average of 3.5 pages per visitor. Of these 230,496 page views, 145,431 (63.1%) were related to adverse events and 37,722 (16.4%) were related to generalities about glucocorticoids (e.g., what is cortisone? For which disease? How does it work?). Information particularly sought by visitors was related to the diet to follow during glucocorticoid therapy (page accessed 11,946 times), data about what cortisone is (page accessed 11,829 times) and the effects of glucocorticoids on weight (page accessed 10,442 times). Knowledge of glucocorticoid-treated patients' expectations may help physicians to optimize information they give, thereby helping to reduce patients' concerns about glucocorticoids and to improve adherence to the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. HPV vaccination and the effect of information framing on intentions and behaviour: an application of the theory of planned behaviour and moral norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraskova, Ilona; O'Brien, Michaeley; Mullan, Barbara; Bari, Royena; Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2012-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) known to cause cervical cancer and genital warts. However, making the genital warts aspect explicit may reduce HPV vaccination intention and behaviour due to perceived stigma associated with STIs. This study investigated the effect of differential information framing on intention to receive the HPV vaccine using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and moral norm construct. Female university students were randomised to receive a fact sheet describing the HPV vaccine as: (1) preventing cervical cancer only (n = 81); or (2) preventing both cervical cancer and genital warts (n = 78). A 2-month follow-up investigated relationships between vaccination intention and actual behaviour. No effect of information framing was detected on intention to receive the HPV vaccine, or vaccine uptake behaviour at 2-month follow-up. The traditional TPB components predicted 54% of the variance in vaccination intention (F (3,155) = 61.580, p < 0.001), and moral norm explained an additional 6.2%. Intention predicted a significant but relatively small proportion of variation (9.6%) in behaviour. The HPV vaccine does not seem to be associated with perceptions of stigma related to genital warts, and has broad acceptance among a female university population. This study demonstrates that TPB is suited to investigate HPV vaccination, and has helped clarify the role of moral norm within the TPB.

  9. Examining the Role of Anxiety and Apathy in Health Consumers' Intentions to Use Patient Health Portals for Personal Health Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated college students' attitudes toward and intentions to use personal health portals (PHPs) for managing their personal health information using a survey method. The study also aimed to examine the roles electronic Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) anxiety and apathy play in influencing students' attitudes toward…

  10. 77 FR 13262 - Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... of delivery of the material to the party, may include either a fax number, email address, or Ariel IP..., telephone: 301-504-6503; fax: 301-504-7593; email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title...

  11. 78 FR 79408 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Notice of Intent To Renew Collection: Procedural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ..., email: [email protected] ; Riva Spear Adriance, Senior Special Counsel, Division of Market Oversight... associated with other collections of information. \\1\\ 17 CFR 140.99. An archive containing CFTC staff letters...

  12. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  13. Monitoring overloaded vehicles: Improving traffic control centre performance by using management information systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muronga, K

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is an important function of management and to facilitate decision making that is relevant to any organisation, it is imperative that managers have the correct information at the right time. Since the 1990’s, the Transport Systems...

  14. Travelers' need for information in traffic and transit: results from a web survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Molin, E.J.E.; Wee, van G.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates (determinants of) travelers' needs concerning travel information, based on a web survey filled out by 488 individuals. It aims at narrowing down three identified gaps in empirical literature available on this topic. Firstly, instead of focusing on the influence of manifest

  15. On the applicability of fair and adaptive data dissemination in traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  16. Does front-of-pack nutrition information improve consumer ability to make healthful choices? Performance of warnings and the traffic light system in a simulated shopping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2018-02-01

    The inclusion of more attention-grabbing and easily interpretable front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition information is one of the public policies that can be implemented to empower consumers to identify unhealthful food products and to make more informed food choices. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two FOP nutrition labelling schemes - the traffic light labelling and the warning scheme - on consumer food purchases when facing a health goal. The study was conducted with 1182 people from Montevideo (Uruguay), recruited using a Facebook advertisement. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three between-subjects experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no FOP nutrition information, (ii) FOP nutrition information using a modified version of the traffic light system including information about calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content per portion, and (iii) FOP nutrition information using the Chilean warning system including separate signs for high calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content. Respondents were asked to imagine that they had to purchase food in order to prepare a healthy dinner for themselves and their family, using the website of an online grocery store. Results showed that FOP nutrition information effectively improved the average healthfulness of participants' choices compared to the control condition, both in terms of the average nutritional composition of the purchased products and expenditure in specific product categories. No relevant differences between the effect of the traffic light and the warning system were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Air Traffic Management and Space Transportation - System Wide Information Management and the Integration in European Airspace

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens; Jakobi, Jörn; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2015-01-01

    Space Travel becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. The integration of space vehicles in airspace therefore is an increasingly important topic to be considered on an international scale. With the Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe, requirements have been defined for Shared and Reference Business Trajectories as well as System Wide Information Management (SWIM). The s...

  18. "Do I stay or do I go?"--job change and labor market exit intentions of employees providing informal care to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ulrike; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-10-01

    This article examines whether providing informal eldercare to an older dependent person predicts employees' intentions to change jobs or exit the labor market and, if so, which particular aspects of both caregiving (e.g. time demands, physical/cognitive care burden) and their current work environment shape these intentions. We used data from a sample of 471 caring and 431 noncaring employees in Austria and split the analyses by gender. We found different aspects of informal caregiving to be associated with the intention to change jobs and with the anticipated labor market withdrawal of male and female workers. A time-based conflict between informal eldercare and paid work was significantly and positively related to the intended job change of female workers but not of their male counterparts. Flexible work arrangements were found to facilitate the attachment of female workers to their jobs and the labor market. Intentions to exit the labor market of male workers appeared to be triggered by a physical care burden rather than time demands. We studied the effects of providing informal eldercare on the turnover intention of men and women in a group of workers who were also the main carers providing support to a dependent older person with substantial care needs. The intention of male and female workers to change jobs and exit the labor market is shaped by the different characteristics of informal caregiving. Time-based conflicts between informal care and paid work are associated with a higher relative risk of anticipating job changes for female workers. Flextime facilitates the job and labor market attachment of female workers with eldercare responsibilities. The intensity of personal care provided to an older relative is significantly positively related to male workers' relative risk of anticipated labor market exit. Care to an older person in need of supervision makes the labor market exit of female workers less likely, lending thus support to the idea of the respite

  19. 78 FR 38410 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... research and programs to strengthen scientific research potential and science education programs in the mathematical, physical, medical, biological, social, and other sciences.'' The America COMPETES [[Page 38411... American public and prepares information on this topic for dissemination in Science and Engineering...

  20. 76 FR 36518 - Notice of Intent To Request Approval To Revise and Extend an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Survey. Revision to burden hours may be needed due to changes in the size of the target population... industry with current and future information on market supplies. This data is also used in preparing production, disposition, and income statistics which facilitate more orderly production, marketing, and...

  1. 76 FR 74830 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... education in most fields of science and engineering. It does this through grants and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, K-12 school systems, businesses, informal science..., prosperity, and welfare by supporting research and education in all fields of science and engineering.'' NSF...

  2. 77 FR 48553 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... for progress towards creating a path of equity in engineering for women, and especially for racial... days a year (including federal holidays). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Engineering..., active NSF Engineering Research Centers. This survey will have a mix of rating and open-ended questions...

  3. 76 FR 14899 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Collect Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... voluntary form gives Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) providers the opportunity to share resources that they have developed or used. DATES: Comments on this notice must be received... INFORMATION: Title: SNAP-Ed Connection Resource Sharing Form. OMB Number: PRA 0518-0031. Expiration Date...

  4. 76 FR 45505 - Notice of Intent To Revise a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... comments, identified by docket number 0535- 0235, by any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] also complies with OMB Implementation Guidance, ``Implementation Guidance for Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2002 (CIPSEA...

  5. 76 FR 52931 - Notice of Intent To Request Comments on a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... economic, social, and environmental evaluation and the engineer's cost estimate. This information... Native American Tribe or Tribal organization as defined in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C.450b), with a legal interest in or responsibility for the values...

  6. 78 FR 3453 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... will be required to submit these indicators to NSF via a data collection Web site that will be embedded in NSF's IT infrastructure. These indicators are both quantitative and descriptive and may include... proposed collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the...

  7. Information Technology Security Professionals' Knowledge and Use Intention Based on UTAUT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Woldeloul

    2016-01-01

    Information technology (IT) security threats and vulnerabilities have become a major concern for organizations in the United States. However, there has been little research on assessing the effect of IT security professionals' knowledge on the use of IT security controls. This study examined the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology…

  8. 78 FR 57903 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Renew an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339, which is accessible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year (including federal holidays). You also may obtain a...: Title of Collection: Grantee Reporting Requirements for the Industry University Cooperative Research...

  9. 76 FR 56141 - Notice of Intent To Request New Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Wealth and Health Care Provision. DATES: Written comments on this notice must be received on or before... information technology. Title: Survey on Rural Community Wealth and Health Care Provision. OMB Number: 0536... influence on recruitment and retention of rural health care providers, and on the effects of rural health...

  10. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  11. 75 FR 81665 - Notice of Intent to Seek Approval to Reinstate an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... center [cir] Participating in continuous quality process improvement by providing information to the NSF...] Software [cir] Other support Human resources: [cir] Researchers (number of faculty scientists and engineers... disclosures [cir] Patent applications [cir] Software copyrights [cir] Patents granted and derived or both [cir...

  12. 78 FR 1884 - Notice of Intent To Extend an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Federal agencies in order to avoid duplication. It is an accurate, timely source of information on one of... school, debt level, postgraduation plans for employment, and demographic characteristics. The Federal... ``critical items'' (year of Master's, year of Bachelor's, postgraduation location (state or country), birth...

  13. 76 FR 70108 - Notice of Intent To Request Approval To Revise and Extend an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Milk Products Surveys. Revision to burden hours will be needed due to changes in the size of the target... collection of Dairy Product Prices. This data will be collected by the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS... Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. Authority: Voluntary dairy information reporting is conducted under...

  14. 77 FR 5580 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... society. STCs enable and foster excellent education, integrate research and education, and create bonds... activities; descriptions of significant advances and other outcomes of the STC effort. Part of this reporting..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  15. Intention and Usage of Computer Based Information Systems in Primary Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosizah; Kuntoro; Basuki N., Hari

    2016-01-01

    The computer-based information system (CBIS) is adopted by almost all of in health care setting, including the primary health center in East Java Province Indonesia. Some of softwares available were SIMPUS, SIMPUSTRONIK, SIKDA Generik, e-puskesmas. Unfortunately they were most of the primary health center did not successfully implemented. This…

  16. 77 FR 33394 - Notice of Intent To Request an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... information collection in support of authorizations to use the 4-H Club Name and/or Emblem. DATES: Written... Emblem. OMB Number: 0524-0034. Expiration Date of Current Approval: August 31, 2012. Type of Request.... Abstract: Use of the 4-H Club Name and/or Emblem is authorized by an Act of Congress (18 U.S.C. 707). Use...

  17. Innovators Intent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Maria Luisa; Rai, Sudhanshu

    With this paper we want to explore further the innovators intent, where social enterprises use imaginative ways to take advantage of information technology to create, share and manage the knowledge pool of their small enterprise. We draw on several perspectives on how information processing needs...... are addressed, as well as the manner in which IT enables and facilitates sense-making. Studies exploring the role of IT in organisations abound, however our focus is not large organisations but small social enterprises (SEs) and how they use IT to further their business objectives. Hence there is still a lack......, and less the collaborative work and communication among enterprise members. However, it was established that SEs were using different technologies, such as, cloud solutions and web 2.0 tools to manage informally their knowledge. The possible impediments for SEs to support themselves more on IT solutions...

  18. Learning-based traffic signal control algorithms with neighborhood information sharing: An application for sustainable mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhu, Feng [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering; Ukkusuri, Satish V. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lyles School of Civil Engineering

    2017-10-04

    Here, this research applies R-Markov Average Reward Technique based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm, namely RMART, for vehicular signal control problem leveraging information sharing among signal controllers in connected vehicle environment. We implemented the algorithm in a network of 18 signalized intersections and compare the performance of RMART with fixed, adaptive, and variants of the RL schemes. Results show significant improvement in system performance for RMART algorithm with information sharing over both traditional fixed signal timing plans and real time adaptive control schemes. Additionally, the comparison with reinforcement learning algorithms including Q learning and SARSA indicate that RMART performs better at higher congestion levels. Further, a multi-reward structure is proposed that dynamically adjusts the reward function with varying congestion states at the intersection. Finally, the results from test networks show significant reduction in emissions (CO, CO2, NOx, VOC, PM10) when RL algorithms are implemented compared to fixed signal timings and adaptive schemes.

  19. Effects of Symbol Brightness Cueing on Attention During a Visual Search of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Liao, Min-Ju; Granada, Stacie

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated visual search performance for target aircraft symbols on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). Of primary interest was the influence of target brightness (intensity) and highlighting validity (search directions) on the ability to detect a target aircraft among distractor aircraft. Target aircraft were distinguished by an airspace course that conflicted with Ownship (that is, the participant's aircraft). The display could present all (homogeneous) bright aircraft, all (homogeneous) dim aircraft, or mixed bright and dim aircraft, with the target aircraft being either bright or dim. In the mixed intensity condition, participants may or may not have been instructed whether the target was bright or dim. Results indicated that highlighting validity facilitated better detection times. However, instead of bright targets being detected faster, dim targets were found to be detected more slowly in the mixed intensity display than in the homogeneous display. This relative slowness may be due to a delay in confirming the dim aircraft to be a target when it it was among brighter distractor aircraft. This hypothesis will be tested in future research. Funding for this work was provided by the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project of NASA's Airspace Operation Systems Program.

  20. Unravelling intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mikkel Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one’s own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing...... results and discussion are therefore missing crucial aspects of intentions, namely intention as the conscious sensation of wanting to move in advance of the movement. In the present experiment we used an intentional binding paradigm, in which we distinguished between immediate (proximal) intention......, as usually investigated, and longer standing (distal) intention. The results showed that the binding effect was significantly enhanced for distal intentions compared to proximal intentions, indicating that the former leads to stronger sense of agency. Our finding provides empirical support for a crucial...

  1. INFORMATION USE ABOUT THE LEVEL OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS GROUND PROVISION TO PLAN AIR TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The given article considers the task of building up the best aircraft route on the basis of information about the level of flight ground provision. Disadvantages of traditional radar surveillance facilities are given. Four types of Russian Feder- ation aerospace depending on the level of ground radio flight provision are considered. Relevance of selecting an aircraft route from the view of necessity to plan aerospace is substantiated. The formula to calculate probabilities of obtaining not correct aircraft navigation data is given. The analysis of errors arising while building up the aircraft route linked with both operational navigation and communication equipment faults as well as with a human factor is carried out. Formulas of wrong route selecting probability when an aircraft track changes or is maintained are suggested. A generalized weighted index of losses on the basis of various factors affecting an aircraft track change is introduced. Importance of these factors are considered. A rule of aircraft transition to the next route point is formulated. The conclusion is made which route is the most rational in case of following the rule of route selecting at every flight stage. Practical recommendations which can be used to solve conflict between aircraft cruising under the given rule are suggested.

  2. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  3. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were

  4. The effect of time perspectives on mental health information processing and help-seeking attitudes and intentions in younger versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Julie; Mackenzie, Corey S; Menec, Verena H; Bailis, Daniel S

    2017-03-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory posits that changes in time perspective over the lifespan are associated with distinct goals and motivations. Time perspectives and their associated socioemotional motivations have been shown to influence information processing and memory, such that motivation-consistent information is more likely to be remembered and evaluated more positively. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of motivation-consistent mental health information on memory for and evaluations of this information, as well as help-seeking attitudes and intentions to seek mental health services. We randomly assigned an Internet-based sample of 160 younger (18-25) and 175 older (60-89) adults to read a mental health information pamphlet that emphasized time perspectives and motivations relevant to either young adulthood (future-focused) or late adulthood (present-focused). Participants completed measures assessing their time perspective, memory for and subjective evaluation of the pamphlet, and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. The time perspective manipulation had no effect on memory for pamphlet information or help-seeking attitudes and intentions. There was, however, a significant interaction between time perspective and pamphlet version on the rated liking of the pamphlet. Although motivation-consistent information only affected perceptions of that information for present-focused (mostly older) individuals, this finding has important implications for enhancing older adults' mental health literacy.

  5. Assessing the effects of pharmacists' perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and turnover intention on provision of medication information at community pharmacies in Lithuania: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta; Kubilius, Raimondas; Urbonienė, Aušra

    2015-03-01

    As a member of a pharmacy organization, a pharmacist is not only bound to fulfill his/her professional obligations but is also affected by different personal and organizational factors that may influence his/her behavior and, consequently, the quality of the services he/she provides to patients. The main purpose of the research was to test a hypothesized model of the relationships among several organizational variables, and to investigate whether any of these variables affects the service of provision of medication information at community pharmacies. During the survey, pharmacists working at community pharmacies in Lithuania were asked to express their opinions on the community pharmacies at which they worked and to reflect on their actions when providing information on medicines to their patients. The statistical data were analyzed by applying a structural equation modeling technique to test the hypothesized model of the relationships among the variables of Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Provision of Medication Information. The final model revealed that Organizational Commitment had a positive direct effect on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.27) and a negative direct effect (standardized estimate = -0.66) on Turnover Intention. Organizational Commitment mediated the indirect effects of Perceived Organizational Support on Turnover Intention (standardized estimate = -0.48) and on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.20). Pharmacists' Turnover Intention had no significant effect on Provision of Medication Information. Community pharmacies may be viewed as encouraging, to some extent, the service of provision of medication information. Pharmacists who felt higher levels of support from their organizations also expressed, to a certain extent, higher commitment to their organizations by providing more consistent medication information to patients. However, the

  6. Personality traits as predictors of intentions to seek online information about STDs and HIV/AIDS among junior and senior college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hung-Yi; Palmgreen, Philip C; Zimmerman, Rick S; Lane, Derek R; Alexander, Linda J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine how personality traits such as sensation- seeking and impulsive decision-making affect Taiwanese college students' intentions to seek online information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Five hundred thirty-five (n = 535) junior and senior college students in Taiwan were recruited and completed self-report questionnaires. This study found high sensation-seekers were more likely to seek information about STDs and HIV/AIDS on the Internet than low sensation-seekers. Impulsive decision-makers were less likely than rational decision-makers to seek information about STDs and HIV/AIDS on the Internet. These findings suggest that personality needs to be considered as an exploratory factor which potentially influences intentions to seek STD and HIV/AIDS information on the Internet among Taiwanese college students.

  7. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  8. The relation between the perception of safe traffic and the comprehension of road signs in conditions of ambiguous and redundant information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bortei-Doku, Shaun; Prato, Carlo G.

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes the investigation of the relations between the perception of safety improvement, the provision of information with road signs, the amount of provided information, and observable and unobservable traits of road users. A web-based survey collected information about the estimation...... of conflicts and the perception of safety improvement in 12 traffic locations grouped according to (i) low amount of information that generated ambiguity and (ii) high amount of information that generated redundancy. Moreover, the web-based survey gathered information about socioeconomic characteristics......) and experience with redundant information (for the purpose of having a sample familiar with one of the issues). A Structural Equation Modelling approach allowed estimating a system of relations that suggested the following: (i) the perception of safety improvement is not related only to road sign comprehension...

  9. 76 FR 9356 - Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: Baseline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... (BASE) Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 60-day notice. SUMMARY: The... of Data Collection TSA's Surface Transportation Security Inspectors (STSIs) conduct BASE reviews... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Approval...

  10. 76 FR 44944 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: TSA Airspace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... apply for a waiver online and must submit the request electronically within five business days prior to... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal...: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 60-day Notice. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security...

  11. Predictors of intention to smoke among junior high school students in Shanghai, China: an empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chendi; Cai, Yong; Ma, Jin; Li, Na; Zhu, Jingfen; He, Yaping; Redmon, Pamela; Qiao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent smoking is a worldwide problem that is particularly severe in low- and middle-income countries. Many endogenous and environmental factors affect the intention to smoke, so a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. The study aimed to test the associations among information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model constructs as predictors of intention to smoke in junior high school students in Shanghai, China. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 16,500 junior high school students in Shanghai, China. Data on tobacco-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors were collected from students. Structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. The mean age of participants was 13.8 years old (standard deviation = 1.02; range 11-17). The experimental smoking rate among junior high school students was 6.6% and 8.7% of the participants expected that they would be smokers in 5 years. The IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.984, root mean square error of approximation = 0.04). Intention to smoke was predicted by behavioral skills (β = 0.670, P motivation (β = 0.095, Pschool students. The IMB model provides a good understanding of the predictors of intention to smoke and it suggests future interventions among junior high school students should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills.

  12. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  13. Can We Retrieve the Information Which Was Intentionally Forgotten? Electrophysiological Correlates of Strategic Retrieval in Directed Forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrui Mao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrieval inhibition hypothesis of directed forgetting effects assumed TBF (to-be-forgotten items were not retrieved intentionally, while selective rehearsal hypothesis assumed the memory representation of retrieved TBF (to-be-forgotten items was weaker than TBR (to-be-remembered items. Previous studies indicated that directed forgetting effects of item-cueing method resulted from selective rehearsal at encoding, but the mechanism of retrieval inhibition that affected directed forgetting of TBF (to-be-forgotten items was not clear. Strategic retrieval is a control process allowing the selective retrieval of target information, which includes retrieval orientation and strategic recollection. Retrieval orientation via the comparison of tasks refers to the specific form of processing resulted by retrieval efforts. Strategic recollection is the type of strategies to recollect studied items for the retrieval success of targets. Using a “directed forgetting” paradigm combined with a memory exclusion task, our investigation of strategic retrieval in directed forgetting assisted to explore how retrieval inhibition played a role on directed forgetting effects. When TBF items were targeted, retrieval orientation showed more positive ERPs to new items, indicating that TBF items demanded more retrieval efforts. The results of strategic recollection indicated that: (a when TBR items were retrieval targets, late parietal old/new effects were only evoked by TBR items but not TBF items, indicating the retrieval inhibition of TBF items; (b when TBF items were retrieval targets, the late parietal old/new effect were evoked by both TBR items and TBF items, indicating that strategic retrieval could overcome retrieval inhibition of TBF items. These findings suggested the modulation of strategic retrieval on retrieval inhibition of directed forgetting, supporting that directed forgetting effects were not only caused by selective rehearsal, but also retrieval

  14. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The intention interference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Kantner, Justin; Dixon, Roger A; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Intentions have been shown to be more accessible (e.g., more quickly and accurately recalled) compared to other sorts of to-be-remembered information; a result termed an intention superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993). In the current study, we demonstrate an intention interference effect (IIE) in which color-naming performance in a Stroop task was slower for words belonging to an intention that participants had to remember to carry out (Do-the-Task condition) versus an intention that did not have to be executed (Ignore-the-Task condition). In previous work (e.g., Cohen et al., 2005), having a prospective intention in mind was confounded with carrying a memory load. In Experiment 1, we added a digit-retention task to control for effects of cognitive load. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the memory confound in a new way, by comparing intention-related and control words within each trial. Results from both Experiments 1 and 2 revealed an IIE suggesting that interference is very specific to the intention, not just to a memory load.

  16. Traffic Flow Prediction Using MI Algorithm and Considering Noisy and Data Loss Conditions: An Application to Minnesota Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow forecasting is useful for controlling traffic flow, traffic lights, and travel times. This study uses a multi-layer perceptron neural network and the mutual information (MI technique to forecast traffic flow and compares the prediction results with conventional traffic flow forecasting methods. The MI method is used to calculate the interdependency of historical traffic data and future traffic flow. In numerical case studies, the proposed traffic flow forecasting method was tested against data loss, changes in weather conditions, traffic congestion, and accidents. The outcomes were highly acceptable for all cases and showed the robustness of the proposed flow forecasting method.

  17. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest

  18. The Impact of Nursing Students' Cultural Diversity on the Intention and Attitudes Towards the Use of Information Technology (IT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ayala; Sharon, Dganit; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Straus, Ester; Segev, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    This research highlights the challenge for nursing educators in understanding, developing awareness, and preparing strategies to manage the impact of nursing students' cultural diversity on the relationship between the intention to use computer and attitudes, self-efficacy, innovativeness, and threat and challenge.

  19. 77 FR 47029 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... production, disposition, and prices. The Agricultural Labor Survey provides quarterly statistics on the... to estimate agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Request...

  20. The hidden cost of coaching: intentional training of shot adequacy discrimination in basketball hampers utilization of informative incidental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Cadenas, Ernesto; Cárdenas, David; Sánchez Delgado, Guillermo; Perales, José C

    2015-02-01

    The goal was to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using intentional guidance to teach to discriminate between good and bad circumstances to shoot in basketball. A simulated shot-adequacy learning task was developed, in which participants were asked to decide, in each trial, whether the player in possession of the ball should shoot or not. After each decision, they received feedback on their response (determined by five cues: Opposition, Rebound, Balance, Alternative, and Distance). 65 naïve participants (M age = 18.6 yr., SD = 1.3) were divided into two groups. The Incidental group received no guiding instructions. The Intentional group was instructed to utilize four of the five cues. The Distance cue was kept incidental for both groups. Participants effectively incorporated the cues into their decisions. Guidance had a markedly different effect across cues. The Intentional group utilized Distance less efficiently than the Incidental group, i.e., intentional instructions on the other four cues nearly blocked the utilization of Distance.

  1. Joint Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koreň Ladislav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the shared intentionality hypothesis proposed by Michael Tomasello, two cognitive upgrades – joint and collective intentionality, respectively – make human thinking unique. Joint intentionality, in particular, is a mindset supposed to account for our early, species-specific capacity to participate in collaborative activities involving two (or a few agents. In order to elucidate such activities and their proximate cognitive-motivational mechanism, Tomasello draws on philosophical accounts of shared intentionality. I argue that his deference to such cognitively demanding accounts of shared intentional activities is problematic if his theoretical ambition is in part to show that and how early (prelinguistic and precultural capacities for joint action contribute to the development of higher cognitive capacities.

  2. Guaranteed safety information for rising traffic safety at roads main junctions using infrastructure-aided driver-assistance systems; Sichere Information durch infrastrukturgestuetzte Fahrerassistenzsysteme zur Steigerung der Verkehrssicherheit an Strassenknotenpunkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltschko, T.

    2004-07-01

    Progress of development of driver assistance systems have more and more lead to systems assisting the driver on guidance level. These systems allow direct or indirect driving process contact thus being safety relevant vehicle systems, and their operation requires high safety and reliability standards. To realize the necessary driver assistance, complete collection and interpretation of traffic actions are required and a number of information and information sources has to be integrated, especially in case of traffic situations at junctions in urban areas. The requirements, however, cannot only be reduced to technical reliability of the system and system components but have also to be extended to the information in- and output thus guaranteeing safe operation. This information has to reach the required quality thus avoiding any hazards during the complete time of information use. It is evident that none of the existing models and methods allow a uniform description of information quality of driver assistance systems. The thesis shows a quality concept for description and evaluation of information quality within information processing systems. The quality concept consists of a quality model and an analysing procedure. The quality model is the basis of the quality concept. All types of information are described by a fixed set of quality characteristic, and suitable parameters are used for concretion and quantification. (orig.)

  3. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  4. Urban traffic pollution and citizens information; Misure anti inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino. Uno studio di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P; Borrelli, G; Brini, S [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The following report is strictly connected to studies for introducing certain actions useful to effort the problem of urban traffic pollution. Technologies are today available to reduce traffic pollution and it is possible to verify effectiveness during the implementation. On the other hand it is not always possible to verify effectiveness of these measures on the citizen customs and quality of life. Frequently policies aiming to limit environmental risk are viewed by citizens as an insupportable coercion. In the case of urban traffic it is particularly true because the measures in this field are limited to a certain numbers of prohibitions limiting the moving freedom of citizens inside urban areas. This research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome. [Italian] Il lavoro presentato di seguito si inserisce in un filone di studi che tendono a individuare quelle azioni capaci di sciogliere il nodo ormai cruciale dell'inquinamento da traffico nelle aree urbane. Azioni efficaci ne sono state individuate numerose ma, mentre per quanto riguarda le misure tecnologiche l'efficacia intrinseca della misura viene verificata nell'applicazione, non sempre si puo' dire la stessa cosa per quanto riguarda le misure che incidono sulle abitudini di vita dei cittadini. Sempre piu' spesso le politiche tese a limitare i danni ambientali sono vissute dal cittadino come una insopportabile coercizione. Nel caso del traffico urbano cio' e' particolarmente vero proprio perche' le misure di questo settore si limitano spesso a una serie di divieti che oggettivamente limitano la liberta' di movimento del cittadino. I blocchi del traffico, le zone blu, sono gli esempi piu' lampanti di questo tipo di limitazione. Questa ricerca sul campo, svolta tramite questionario e su un campione di cittadini di due quartieri di

  5. Urban traffic pollution and citizens information; Misure anti inquinamento da traffico urbano e partecipazione del cittadino. Uno studio di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntarelli, P.; Borrelli, G.; Brini, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The following report is strictly connected to studies for introducing certain actions useful to effort the problem of urban traffic pollution. Technologies are today available to reduce traffic pollution and it is possible to verify effectiveness during the implementation. On the other hand it is not always possible to verify effectiveness of these measures on the citizen customs and quality of life. Frequently policies aiming to limit environmental risk are viewed by citizens as an insupportable coercion. In the case of urban traffic it is particularly true because the measures in this field are limited to a certain numbers of prohibitions limiting the moving freedom of citizens inside urban areas. This research, realised via a questionnaire on citizens representative of two roman districts, analyses the social acceptability degree of actions for reducing atmospheric pollution produced by automobile traffic in the city of Rome. [Italian] Il lavoro presentato di seguito si inserisce in un filone di studi che tendono a individuare quelle azioni capaci di sciogliere il nodo ormai cruciale dell'inquinamento da traffico nelle aree urbane. Azioni efficaci ne sono state individuate numerose ma, mentre per quanto riguarda le misure tecnologiche l'efficacia intrinseca della misura viene verificata nell'applicazione, non sempre si puo' dire la stessa cosa per quanto riguarda le misure che incidono sulle abitudini di vita dei cittadini. Sempre piu' spesso le politiche tese a limitare i danni ambientali sono vissute dal cittadino come una insopportabile coercizione. Nel caso del traffico urbano cio' e' particolarmente vero proprio perche' le misure di questo settore si limitano spesso a una serie di divieti che oggettivamente limitano la liberta' di movimento del cittadino. I blocchi del traffico, le zone blu, sono gli esempi piu' lampanti di questo tipo di limitazione. Questa ricerca sul campo, svolta tramite questionario e

  6. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  7. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control: Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm with Experience Replay and Target Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Juntao; Shen, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Ito, Minoru; Shiratori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive traffic signal control, which adjusts traffic signal timing according to real-time traffic, has been shown to be an effective method to reduce traffic congestion. Available works on adaptive traffic signal control make responsive traffic signal control decisions based on human-crafted features (e.g. vehicle queue length). However, human-crafted features are abstractions of raw traffic data (e.g., position and speed of vehicles), which ignore some useful traffic information and lead t...

  8. 78 FR 44140 - Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: TSA PreTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... burden. The collection involves the submission of biographic and biometric information by individuals... of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security Administration, 601 South 12th... techniques or other forms of information technology. Information Collection Requirement Purpose and...

  9. Users’ Perception And Reported Effects Of Long-term Access To In-Vehicle Traffic Information Services Mediated Through Nomadic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoglund Tor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ICT-mediated traffic information has been argued to contribute to a more sustainable transport system through affecting drivers. Nevertheless, long-term effects of travellers having access to nomadic in-vehicle systems for traveller information are not well known. This study presents the results from a multi-national large-scale field operational test (FOT. The results show that the users in general were positive to the tested systems and that there were several effects on their driving behaviour but in many cases the effects were limited. Moreover the effects varied between system types. Positive effects were related to comfort, as well as individual and system efficiency. One could also notice that perceived effects were not as high as the participants had expected, leading to some disappointment. Most of the times this was due to the tested systems functioning in a less than optimal way.

  10. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics from the Abilene network on a weekly basis. At that time, the network connected 230 research institutes with a 10Gb/s link. Although these reports were limited to the behavior of the Albeline's users,...

  11. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  12. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was about the design and development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS) that would ease storage and retrieval of traffic offence cases in the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) and the Traffic department of Nigeria Police force. The method used to manage traffic cases is manual; information ...

  13. Women's intentions of informal and formal help-seeking for mental health problems during the perinatal period: The role of perceived encouragement from the partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2017-07-01

    this study aimed to examine the relationship between women's intentions to seek informal help and to seek professional help and to explore the indirect effects of women's perceived encouragement to seek professional help from their male partner. Moreover, this study aimed to examine if these relationships vary as function of the presence of higher levels of perinatal distress. cross-sectional internet survey. participants were recruited through advertisements published in pamphlets and posted on social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and websites and forums that focused on pregnancy and childbirth. 231 women (pregnant/ had a baby during the last 12 months) completed the survey. participants were questioned about sociodemographic and clinical data and were assessed concerning perinatal distress (Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), intentions to seek informal and formal help (General Help-Seeking Questionnaire) and perceived encouragement from the partner to seek professional help. the women reported a significantly higher intention to seek help from their partner than to seek professional help (p help from the male partner (p = .001) and perceived less encouragement from the male partner to seek professional help (p help occurred through the women's perceived encouragement from the male partner to seek professional help. the results of this study highlight the important role of the male partner's encouragement in women's professional help-seeking for mental health problems. awareness campaigns about perinatal distress and about professional treatment benefits may be directed universally to all women in the perinatal period and should include women's significant others, such as their partners. Health professionals should recognize and support the prominent role of the women's partners in the help-seeking process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 54266 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... delivered to the TSA PRA Officer, Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Information Collection Requirement... Protection, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Office of Biometric Information Management, Office of...

  15. Reserving Charging Decision-Making Model and Route Plan for Electric Vehicles Considering Information of Traffic and Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of battery energy technology, electric vehicles (EV are catching more and more attention. One of the influencing factors of electric vehicles large-scale application is the availability of charging stations and convenience of charging. It is important to investigate how to make reserving charging strategies and ensure electric vehicles are charged with shorter time and lower charging expense whenever charging request is proposed. This paper proposes a reserving charging decision-making model for electric vehicles that move to certain destinations and need charging services in consideration of traffic conditions and available charging resources at the charging stations. Besides, the interactive mechanism is described to show how the reserving charging system works, as well as the rolling records-based credit mechanism where extra charges from EV is considered to hedge default behavior. With the objectives of minimizing driving time and minimizing charging expenses, an optimization model with two objective functions is formulated. Then the optimizations are solved by a K shortest paths algorithm based on a weighted directed graph, where the time and distance factors are respectively treated as weights of corresponding edges of transportation networks. Case studies show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed route plan and reserving charging decision-making model.

  16. Presenting information on regulation values improves the public’s sense of safety: Perceived mercury risk in fish and shellfish and its effects on consumption intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mai; Yamaguchi, Tomiko

    2017-01-01

    Risk communication aims to promote health and understanding through information exchange; however, explanations regarding the basis of regulation values for the public are insufficient. Moreover, it is unclear how information presentation affects the public’s sense of safety and their consumption intentions. We first investigated the relationship between perception of mercury-risk in fish and shellfish and individual attributes and knowledge. We then examined how presenting information on regulation values and primary factors regarding perception affected sense of safety toward regulations and food-consumption intentions. An online survey was conducted with Japanese individuals (N = 1148). Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three groups based on the presentation level of regulation values. People who frequently consumed tuna had a high perception of dread risk of mercury. This suggests that the dread risk perception of mercury does not determine tuna-type consumption behavior; rather, individuals’ consumption behavior determines dread risk perception of mercury. Among those with high tuna-type consumption, those receiving information that a safety factor of 10 times had been considered showed a significantly greater sense of safety than did the group that was not presented with information on regulation values (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.04 (1.18–3.53), p values showed a weak but significantly positive correlation with excessive intake of tuna-type fish (odds ratio: 2.95 (0.93–9.32), p values increases sense of safety; however, it may also lead to excessive intake. PMID:29267301

  17. The Influence of Framing Effects on Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, and Behavioral Intention in Information Technology Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autrey, Jon

    2001-01-01

    .... There is some question as to the necessity of the amount of this spending. This thesis looks at the use of information framing to influence users' perceptions of information technology using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM...

  18. 77 FR 44669 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Process'' in the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Patricia Henry, Historian, National... because they possess exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the... this collection of information; Ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to...

  19. A Machine Learning Approach to Air Traffic Route Choice Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Rodrigo; García-Cantú, Oliva; Herranz, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management (ATFCM) is one of the constituent parts of Air Traffic Management (ATM). The goal of ATFCM is to make airport and airspace capacity meet traffic demand and, when capacity opportunities are exhausted, optimise traffic flows to meet the available capacity. One of the key enablers of ATFCM is the accurate estimation of future traffic demand. The available information (schedules, flight plans, etc.) and its associated level of uncertainty differ across the...

  20. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  1. Reds are more important than greens: how UK supermarket shoppers use the different information on a traffic light nutrition label in a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Eyles, Helen; Kaur, Asha; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Rayner, Mike

    2015-12-12

    Colour coded front-of-pack nutrition labelling ('traffic light labelling') has been recommended for use in the UK since 2006. The voluntary scheme is used by all the major retailers and some manufacturers. It is not clear how consumers use these labels to make a single decision about the relative healthiness of foods. Our research questions were: Which of the four nutrients on UK traffic light labels (total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt) has the most influence on decisions? Do green lights or red lights have a greater influence? Are there age and gender differences in how people use the colour and nutrient information? We recruited participants from a UK supermarket chain membership list to conduct an online choice experiment in May 2014. We analysed data using multilevel logisitic models with food choices (n = 3321) nested in individuals (n = 187) as the unit of analysis. A food with more reds was 11.4 (95% confidence intervals: 10.3, 12.5) times less likely to be chosen as healthy, whereas a food with more greens was 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) times more likely to be chosen as healthy. Foods with better colours on saturated fat and salt were 7.3 (6.7, 8.0) and 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) times more likely to be chosen as healthy - significantly greater than for total fat (odds ratio 4.8 (4.4, 5.3)) and sugar (5.2 (4.7, 5.6)). Results were broadly similar for different genders and age groups. We found that participants were more concerned with avoiding reds than choosing greens, and that saturated fat and salt had a greater influence on decisions regarding healthiness than total fat and sugar. This could influence decisions about food reformulation and guidance on using nutrition labelling.

  2. 77 FR 68731 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...). NASS also complies with OMB Implementation Guidance, ``Implementation Guidance for Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2002 (CIPSEA...

  3. "Sistema de Información Sanitaria sobre Lesionados de Tráfico" (SISLET: Fuentes de información Information Sources of a Health Information System on Traffic Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ricart i de Mesones

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un sistema de información sanitaria sobre lesionados de tráfico. Los objetivos de este sistema de información son: conocer las características del grupo susceptible de lesionarse por accidente de trafico; saber la dimensión del problema; conocer las necesidades de recursos sanitarios; difundir los resultados en vistas a desarrollar campañas preventivas. Descripción de las medidas utilizadas y de los indicadores más importantes. Descripción y limitaciones de las fuentes de información adecuadas para un SISLET y de las fases de ejecución del sistema.Description of a system of sanitary information on injured persons of traffic. The aims(lenses are: to know the characteristics of the group capable of getting hurt for traffic accident; to know the dimension of the problem; to know the needs of sanitary resources; to spread the results in conference to developing preventive campaigns. Description of the used measurements and of the most important indicators. Description and limitations of the sources(fountains of information suitable(adapted for a SISLET and of the phases of execution of the system.

  4. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  5. 78 FR 4856 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: TSA Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... procedures and policies. TSA Customer Comment Cards collect feedback, and the passenger may voluntarily... From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: TSA Customer Comment Card AGENCY... the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. This collection allows customers to...

  6. 76 FR 792 - Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: Exercise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ..., evaluation metrics, and other data sets. Conduct robust analyses--sort evaluation data by exercise objectives... formal After-Action Reports. This includes reports on the exercise overview, goals and objectives... From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: Exercise Information System AGENCY...

  7. 77 FR 50159 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The purpose of this information collection is to assist the National Park... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-PCE-COR-10909; 2230-STC] 60-Day Notice...: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service...

  8. 76 FR 58532 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; TSA Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; TSA Customer Comment Card AGENCY... Administration (TSA) invites public comment on one currently approved Information Collection Request (ICR... feedback to TSA about their experiences with TSA's airport security process and procedures while traveling...

  9. 75 FR 12559 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... the following information: (1) A master crew list of all flight and cabin crew members flying to and... compliance with security provisions outlined in 49 CFR part 1544. DATES: Send your comments by May 17, 2010.... Information Collection Requirement 1652-0003; Security Programs for Aircraft Operators, 49 CFR part 1544. The...

  10. Understanding Turnover Intentions and Behavior of Indian Information Systems Professionals: A Study of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Vidya V.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth projected for the Indian information technology (IT) industry, one of the biggest challenges it faces is the high rate of turnover in offshore supplier firms based in India (Everest Research Group 2011). According to recent estimates, turnover rates among Indian information systems (IS) professionals have been…

  11. 76 FR 64299 - Notice of Intent to Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ..., cotton, potatoes, soybeans, and wheat. Sample fields are randomly selected for these crops, plots are... (NASS) to request revision and extension of a currently approved information collection, the Field Crops... Agriculture, (202) 720-4333. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Field Crops Objective Yield. OMB Control Number...

  12. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  13. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2011, Series Information File for the 2010 Census Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) State-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  14. Information, communication and control systems for vehicle, road and traffic management. Contribution OECD Seminar on Micro-electronics for Road and Traffic Management. Tokyo, October 29 - November 2, 1984, Session V, p. 236-241.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1984-01-01

    The application of micro-electronics for vehicle, road and traffic management has increased rapidly in the past 10 to 15 years. The approach, however, is very often rather isolated, resulting in problems regarding consistency, continuity, uniformity and compatibility. The whole field of possible

  15. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  16. 77 FR 12069 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... enforcement officers to defend the flight deck of their aircraft against acts of criminal violence or air..., including name, address, prior address information, personal references, criminal history, limited medical...

  17. 78 FR 10596 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Implementation Guidance, ``Implementation Guidance for Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information... provides data needed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other government agencies to administer...

  18. 78 FR 63960 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of..., commodity exchanges, State and national farm policy makers, and government agencies are important users of...

  19. 76 FR 16799 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: TSA Claims...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... damage, a personal injury, or other damages due to the negligence or wrongful act or omission of a TSA.... In some cases, TSA may use the information to identify victims of theft or to aid any criminal...

  20. 75 FR 1800 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Reduction Act of 1995 and 5 CFR part 1320, Reporting and Record Keeping Requirements, the National Park... critical information for determining trends in the timing of biological events for many species. In...

  1. The effect of the proximity of patients' nearest alternative hospital on their intention to search for information on hospital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoor, Aafke; Rademakers, Jany; Reitsma-van Rooijen, Margreet; de Jong, Judith; Delnoij, Diana; Friele, Roland

    2014-01-01

    In several countries, patients are encouraged to choose health care providers. Simultaneously, there is a tendency towards the concentration of health care, which might lessen the choice. Our aim was to assess the impact of patients' distances from their providers on their information-seeking, which is one element of choice. Two thousand members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel were sent a questionnaire that included a question on whether they would search for information about hospitals to inform their choice. Distances from providers were obtained from a database that includes the distances between all postcodes in the Netherlands. To assess the influence of distance on information-seeking, logistic regression analyses were conducted. There was a good response (75%). Older, less educated respondents were less inclined to seek information when their nearest alternative was located further away (OR 0.85; 95% CI: 0.79-0.92), and younger, more educated respondents were more inclined to search in this situation (OR 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). As fewer older, less educated patients would search for information to guide their choice, they might not opt for the best hospital. Additionally, the need for providers to compete for the patronage of these patients might be lessened.

  2. The Australian REEFREP System: A Coastal Vessel Traffic Information Service and Ship Reporting System for the Torres Strait Region and the Inner Route of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John C.

    The new Australian ship reporting system, identifier , will be the core component of a Vessel Traffic Information Service (VTIS) covering the Torres Strait region and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). It is the first such system to be considered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) under the terms of the new SOLAS 74 regulation v/8-1, which entered into force on 1 January 1996 and allows for ship reporting systems adopted by the Organization to be made mandatory for all, or certain categories of vessels.The REEFREP system, planned for implementation on 1 January 1997, extends for some 900 n.m. or about 1500 km along the Queensland coastline. It will be a VHF radio-based system with radars covering three selected focal points in the Torres Strait, off Cairns and in the southern approaches to the inner route. The system will provide a capability for a single Ship Reporting Centre to interact with shipping, enabling the provision of improved information on the presence, movements and patterns of shipping in the area and the ability to respond more quickly to an incident or pollution should this occur.An interesting feature and a major factor in the system design is the remoteness of most equipment sites and the limited infrastructure available to support communications and data transmission requiring the application of advanced technology and video transmission, solar power generation and software engineering skills of a high order.

  3. Website Detection Using Remote Traffic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xun; Kiyavash, Negar; Schear, Nabíl; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in traffic analysis has shown that traffic patterns leaked through side channels can be used to recover important semantic information. For instance, attackers can find out which website, or which page on a website, a user is accessing simply by monitoring the packet size distribution. We show that traffic analysis is even a greater threat to privacy than previously thought by introducing a new attack that can be carried out remotely. In particular, we show that, to perform traffi...

  4. 77 FR 68817 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... reference OMB Control Number ``1024- 0232, National Park Service National Underground Railroad Network to... Manager, National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Program, National Park Service, Midwest [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Public Law 105-23, National Underground Railroad...

  5. 77 FR 58802 - Notice of Intent To Seek OMB Approval To Collect Information: Forms Pertaining to the Peer Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Collect Information: Forms Pertaining to the Peer Review of ARS Research Projects AGENCY: Agricultural... S. Strauss, Peer Review Program Coordinator, Office of Scientific Quality Review; Agricultural... allow the ARS to efficiently manage data associated with the peer review of agricultural research. All...

  6. 77 FR 40323 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... are used by the federal government to calculate total value of sales and total cash receipts, by State... out publicity materials with the questionnaires to inform producers of the importance of this survey. NASS will also use multiple mailings, followed up with phone and personal enumeration to increase...

  7. 75 FR 34148 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    .../ Federal Air Marshal are required to complete regarding their mental health history. DATES: Send your..., Communications Branch, Business Management Office, Office of Information Technology, TSA-11, Transportation... evaluation determining that they do not have an established medical history or clinical diagnosis of...

  8. 75 FR 50744 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... for Title V of the E-Government Act, Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency... number 0535- 0213, by any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include docket..., agribusinesses, commodity exchanges, State and national farm policy makers, and government agencies are important...

  9. 75 FR 39577 - 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... 1995 and 5 CFR Part 1320, Reporting and Record Keeping Requirements, the National Park Service (NPS... Register notice to solicit public comments on these information collection requirements on January 29, 2010... obligations assumed. It also requires that franchise fees be determined with consideration to the opportunity...

  10. Personal Decision Factors Considered by Information Technology Executives: Their Impacts on Business Intentions and Consequent Cloud Computing Services Adoption Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marcus L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    During its infancy, the cloud computing industry was the province largely of small and medium-sized business customers. Despite their size, these companies required a professionally run, yet economical information technology (IT) operation. These customers used a total value strategy whereby they avoided paying for essential, yet underutilized,…

  11. 77 FR 4055 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... master crew list of all flight and cabin crew members flying to and from the United States; (2) the... ensure compliance with security provisions outlined in 49 CFR part 1544. DATES: Send your comments by... Collection Requirement 1652-0003; Security Programs for Aircraft Operators, 49 CFR part 1544. The information...

  12. 75 FR 18824 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent To Renew Collection 3038-0019, Stocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Renew Collection 3038-0019, Stocks of Grain in Licensed Warehouses AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading... relating to information collected to assist the Commission in the prevention of market manipulation. DATES...., permitting electronic submission of responses. Stocks of Grain in Licensed Warehouses, OMB Control No. 3038...

  13. 76 FR 35229 - Intent to Request Renewal and Amendment From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... one currently approved Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB... from TSA's Corporate Security Review (CSR) in that a CSR looks at corporate or company-wide security management plans and practices while the CFSR will look at individual pipeline facility security measures and...

  14. 76 FR 46830 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Secure Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number 1652-0046, abstracted below... estimate of the burden; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected..., for example, to patronize a restaurant. The collection will also cover a survey of certain general...

  15. 77 FR 31866 - Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: Baseline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: Baseline Assessment for Security Enhancement... across public transportation systems. TSA developed the Baseline Assessment for Security Enhancement... be used as follows: 1. To develop a baseline understanding of a public transportation agency's...

  16. 75 FR 43915 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision and Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...'s total economic sector. The expenditure information provides data regarding the multiplier effect of money from the equine industry, effects of wage rates paid to both permanent and part-time... estimated to average 30 minutes per response. Respondents: Horse owners, breeders, trainers, boarders...

  17. 76 FR 20007 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... activity in a manner that protects the natural and cultural resources and the park visitor. Management...) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the information collection (IC) described... the notice will be summarized and included in the request for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  18. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. The collections of information that make up this ICR are security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air Cargo Data Management System (ACDMS), Cargo Reporting Tool for cargo screening...

  19. 77 FR 2077 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... carriers, including each carrier operating light rail or heavy rail transit service on track that is part of the general railroad system of transportation and rail transit systems. Also, these persons are... any threat information. In addition, freight railroad carriers and the affected shippers and receivers...

  20. 75 FR 32810 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ..., the permittee and 3 adults to enter with him/her where entry to the area is by any means other than... information and Statement of Disability have been collected and used since the creation of the Golden Access... for the issuance of the Golden Access Passport under OMB control number 0596-0173, under the authority...

  1. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  2. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  3. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  4. Remark on the Causes of Traffic Accidents and Traffic Awareness: Examples of Usak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan ÖZEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents cause important losses on the social and economics structure of countries. While economic losses are able to be compensated in a short time, it isn’t possible to compensate social and communal losses. This study tackles with not the economic aspect of traffic accidents but the social dimension, evaluates the causes of the traffic accidents with respect to views of individuals on traffic and aims to measure the levels of awareness of individuals about traffic. To achieve these goals, a group of 506 people were surveyed in Uşak province and the acquired data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA test in SPSS 16 program. According to the analysis results, drivers and pedestrians are considered to have significant flaws in traffic accidents. But alongside this thought, the idea that traffic accidents are caused by the road having technical and physical problems has come to the fore. This results present a valid motive for the established approach “Vision Zero” , being practised in Sweden, to be adopted in Turkey. When the level of awareness about traffic is examined, it is seen that individuals generally have got inadequate information related traffic rules and traffic authorities. Besides, the fact that individuals are inadequate in terms of courtesy and respect in traffic and that more serious efforts on traffic education is needed to be spent come out as the important findings of this study. The findings of this study can be thought as a directive tool to the policy makers.

  5. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  6. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  7. When online reviews conflict: The effect of information cues and eWom adoption on behavioral intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Bigné-Alcañiz, Enrique; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Currás Pérez, Rafael; Martí Parreño, José

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasing competition in the hospitality industry, a key question is to investigate how consumer-generated reviews affect the consumption decision of tourism services. Online reviews are regarded as one form of electronic word of mouth communication (Banerjee & Chua, 2016). While researchers have demonstrated the benefits of the presence of customer reviews on company sales, an issue scarcely investigated is how to assess the impact of informational cues on eWOM a...

  8. Irradiated ready-to-eat spinach leaves: How information influences awareness towards irradiation treatment and consumer's purchase intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finten, G.; Garrido, J. I.; Agüero, M. V.; Jagus, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to clarify and supply further information on food irradiation acceptance, with particular focus on Argentina and irradiated ready-to-eat (RTE) spinach leaves through an open web-online survey. Results showed that half of respondents did not know food irradiation, but the other half demonstrated uncertainty despite they declared they had knowledge about it; thus, confirming little awareness towards this technology. Respondents who believed in the misleading myth about food irradiation represented 39%, while roughly the same number was doubtful. On the other hand, after supplying informative material, respondents were positively influenced and an increase in acceptance by 90% was found. Finally, 42% of respondents were willing to consume/purchase irradiated RTE spinach leaves, and 35% remained doubtful. Respondents who did not exclude to accept irradiated spinach could be considered potential consumers if intensive campaigns about the benefits of food irradiation were carried out by reliable actors. If the Argentinean RTE market grew, following the world consumption trend towards these products, irradiated spinach leaves could be successfully introduced by making better efforts to inform consumers about food irradiation.

  9. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  10. Development of a Traffic Management Decision Support Tool for Freeway Incident Traffic Management (FITM) Plan Deployment : Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In designing an effective traffic management plan for non-recurrent congestion, it is critical for responsible highway agencies to have some vital information, such as estimated incident duration, resulting traffic queues, and the expected delays. Ov...

  11. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  12. With good intentions: complexity in unsolicited informal support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding people's social lived experiences of chronic illness is fundamental to improving health service delivery and health outcomes, particularly in relation to self-management activity. In explorations of social lived experiences this paper uncovers the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness experience informal unsolicited support from peers and family members. Methods Nineteen Aboriginal and Torres Islander participants were interviewed in the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS. Participants were people with Type 2 diabetes (N = 17, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 3 and/or chronic heart failure (N = 11 and family carers (N = 3. Participants were asked to describe their experience of having or caring for someone with chronic illness. Content and thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews was undertaken, assisted by QSR Nvivo8 software. Results Participants reported receiving several forms of unsolicited support, including encouragement, practical suggestions for managing, nagging, growling, and surveillance. Additionally, participants had engaged in 'yarning', creating a 'yarn' space, the function of which was distinguished as another important form of unsolicited support. The implications of recognising these various support forms are discussed in relation to responses to unsolicited support as well as the needs of family carers in providing effective informal support. Conclusions Certain locations of responsibility are anxiety producing. Family carers must be supported in appropriate education so that they can provide both solicited and unsolicited support in effective ways. Such educational support would have the added benefit of helping to reduce carer anxieties about caring roles and responsibilities. Mainstream health services would benefit from fostering environments that encourage informal interactions that

  13. Libraries, The locations and contact information for academic, private and public libraries in Rhode Island. The intention of this dataset was to provide an overview of data. Additional information pertinent to the state is also available from the RI Department of, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Libraries dataset current as of 2007. The locations and contact information for academic, private and public libraries in Rhode Island. The intention of this dataset...

  14. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  15. Comparing five front-of-pack nutrition labels' influence on consumers' perceptions and purchase intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski Findling, Mary T; Werth, Paul M; Musicus, Aviva A; Bragg, Marie A; Graham, Dan J; Elbel, Brian; Roberto, Christina A

    2018-01-01

    In 2011, a National Academy of Medicine report recommended that packaged food in the U.S. display a uniform front-of-package nutrition label, using a system such as a 0-3 star ranking. Few studies have directly compared this to other labels to determine which best informs consumers and encourages healthier purchases. In 2013, we randomized adult participants (N=1247) in an Internet-based survey to one of six conditions: no label control; single traffic light; multiple traffic light; Facts Up Front; NuVal; or 0-3 star ranking. We compared groups on purchase intentions and accuracy of participants' interpretation of food labels. There were no differences in the nutritional quality of hypothetical shopping baskets across conditions (p=0.845). All labels improved consumers' abilities to judge the nutritional quality of foods relative to no label, but the best designs varied by outcomes. NuVal and multiple traffic light labels led to the greatest accuracy identifying the healthier of two products (ppurchase intentions. Results did not point to a clearly superior label design, but they suggest that a 3-star label might not be best for educating consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  17. Intention Understanding in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Sonia; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi; Sparaci, Laura; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Santelli, Erica; Cossu, Giuseppe; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping) and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking). Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD) children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the “why” trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object (“why-use” trials), in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object (“why-place” trials). The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the “why-place” trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues. PMID:19440332

  18. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  19. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality.

  20. Bayesian Data Assimilation for Improved Modeling of Road Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the optimal use of existing models that predict certain phenomena of the road traffic system. Such models are extensively used in Advanced Traffic Information Systems (ATIS), Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) or Model Predictive Control (MPC) approaches in order to improve the

  1. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  2. Traffic days '95 at AUC. Conference report. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann-Hansen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Volume one of Traffic days '95 at AUC (Aalborg University, Denmark) contains 28 papers presented at the conference held on August 21 - 22, 1995, at Aalborg University in Jutland, Denmark. The papers in this volume are ranged under the general headings of: The road to sustainable transport, the evaluation of traffic and infrastructure planning - decision-making procedures, traffic and the environment in towns, railways, traffic information + signals, and environmental conditions relative to shipping

  3. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  4. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicles based on similar traffic operating characteristics are grouped into ... of distances to the video monitor involved using a measuring wheel to mark ... Secondly, the observers reviewed the videotape to sample traffic entity ...... makes a strong case for including service lanes for slow moving vehicles for improving the.

  5. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  6. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  7. MaTech - the BMFT ''new materials'' materials research program - 1994 annual report about new materials for innovative information technology, energy technology, traffic engineering, medical engineering and production engineering applications, and about general materials research and new fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillack, D.; Gilbert, I.; Runte, S.

    1995-01-01

    This annual report gives a survey of projects supported within the framework of the Matfo and Ma-Tech programs. These projects focus on research into materials for innovative: 1. information technology, 2. energy technology, 3. traffic engineering, 4. medical engineering, and 5. production engineering applications and on 6. general materials research and new fields. The descriptions of individual projects indicate project goals and work schedules, names of important sub-contractors, and total costs and the funds contributed by BMFT. Information added in an annex includes inter alia a list of publications, lectures, contracts, or patents resulting from project activities in the year 1994. (MM) [de

  8. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  9. Fatigue in Advanced Cancer Patients: Congruence Between Patients and Their Informal Caregivers About Patients' Fatigue Severity During Cancer Treatment With Palliative Intent and Predictors of Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Peters, Marlies E W J; Gielissen, Marieke F M; Verhagen, Constans A H H V M; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Wearden, Alison J; Knoop, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Informal caregivers (ICs) are increasingly involved in the monitoring of symptoms during advanced cancer patients' treatment with palliative intent. A common but subjective symptom during this extended treatment phase is fatigue. This exploratory longitudinal study aimed to determine agreement between patients and ICs about patients' fatigue severity. In addition, predictors of agreement over time were studied. A sample of 107 patients with advanced cancer (life expectancy ≥ six months) and their ICs completed the subscale fatigue severity of the Checklist Individual Strength based on the patient's status at baseline and six months later. This eight-item subscale has a validated cutoff to determine the presence of clinically relevant levels of fatigue. ICs' own fatigue severity, strain, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction were examined as predictors of agreement. A total of 107 dyads completed measures at baseline and 69 dyads six months later. At baseline, ICs' significantly overestimated patients' fatigue severity (P congruence about the presence or absence of severe fatigue. On a group level, congruence did not significantly change over time. On a dyad level, there was a tendency to either remain congruent or reach congruence. Next to baseline congruence, ICs' fatigue severity and strain predicted ICs' fatigue ratings (R(2) = 0.22). Most ICs accurately predict presence or absence of clinically relevant levels of patients' fatigue. ICs' own fatigue severity and strain should be taken into account as they influence agreement. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An empirical assessment of the short-term impacts of a reading of Deborah Zoe Laufer's drama Informed Consent on attitudes and intentions to participate in genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Cheek-O'Donnell, Sydney; Wong, Bob; Case, Gretchen A; Johnson, Erin; Matheson, Trent; Wilson, Alena; Robinson, Nicole R; Rawlings, Jared; Horejsi, Brooke; Lopez, Ana Maria; Byington, Carrie L

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the short-term impact of the play "Informed Consent" by Deborah Zoe Laufer (a fictionalized look at the controversy over specimens collected from the Havasupai Tribe for diabetes research in 1989) on perceptions of trust, willingness to donate biospecimens, and attitudes toward harm and privacy among the medical and undergraduate students, faculty, and the public in the Intermountain West. Surveys were administered before and after a staged reading of the play by professional actors. Survey items included the short form Trust in Medical Researchers, and single-item questions about group identity, ethics of genetic testing in children, and willingness to donate biospecimens. In addition, respondents were given the option to answer open-ended questions through e-mail. Out of the 481 who attended the play, 421 completed both the pre and post surveys, and 166 participants completed open-ended questions online approximately 1 week after the play. Across all participants, there were significant declines for trust in medical researchers and for the survey item "is it ethical for investigators to test children for adult onset diseases" (p < .001 for both) following the play. There was a significant increase in agreement to improve group identity protections (p < .001) and there were no differences on willingness to donate biospecimens to research (p = .777). Qualitative data provided extensive contextual data supporting these perspectives. This is one of the first studies to document short-term impacts of a theatrical performance on both attitudes and behavioral intentions toward research ethics and clinical research participation. Future research should continue to explore the impact of theatrical performances among public and investigators on the ethical issues and complexities in clinical research.

  11. An Energy-Efficient Cluster-Based Vehicle Detection on Road Network Using Intention Numeration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Devasenapathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic in the road network is progressively increasing at a greater extent. Good knowledge of network traffic can minimize congestions using information pertaining to road network obtained with the aid of communal callers, pavement detectors, and so on. Using these methods, low featured information is generated with respect to the user in the road network. Although the existing schemes obtain urban traffic information, they fail to calculate the energy drain rate of nodes and to locate equilibrium between the overhead and quality of the routing protocol that renders a great challenge. Thus, an energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection in road network using the intention numeration method (CVDRN-IN is developed. Initially, sensor nodes that detect a vehicle are grouped into separate clusters. Further, we approximate the strength of the node drain rate for a cluster using polynomial regression function. In addition, the total node energy is estimated by taking the integral over the area. Finally, enhanced data aggregation is performed to reduce the amount of data transmission using digital signature tree. The experimental performance is evaluated with Dodgers loop sensor data set from UCI repository and the performance evaluation outperforms existing work on energy consumption, clustering efficiency, and node drain rate.

  12. An energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection on road network using intention numeration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Deepa; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    The traffic in the road network is progressively increasing at a greater extent. Good knowledge of network traffic can minimize congestions using information pertaining to road network obtained with the aid of communal callers, pavement detectors, and so on. Using these methods, low featured information is generated with respect to the user in the road network. Although the existing schemes obtain urban traffic information, they fail to calculate the energy drain rate of nodes and to locate equilibrium between the overhead and quality of the routing protocol that renders a great challenge. Thus, an energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection in road network using the intention numeration method (CVDRN-IN) is developed. Initially, sensor nodes that detect a vehicle are grouped into separate clusters. Further, we approximate the strength of the node drain rate for a cluster using polynomial regression function. In addition, the total node energy is estimated by taking the integral over the area. Finally, enhanced data aggregation is performed to reduce the amount of data transmission using digital signature tree. The experimental performance is evaluated with Dodgers loop sensor data set from UCI repository and the performance evaluation outperforms existing work on energy consumption, clustering efficiency, and node drain rate.

  13. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  14. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  15. Uppaal Stratego for Intelligent Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Andreas Berre; Huang, Chao; Kildebogaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    not profit from this additional information. Using this information could minimize waiting times and energy waste. Uppaal Stratego is a tool that combines machine learning and model checking techniques to synthesize near optimal control strategies. The tool has been applied successfully to several case......Modern traffic lights use information from induction loops and to some extend radar information. Recent developments in radar technology has made it possible to obtain more detailed information relevant to the control mechanism of the traffic light. Unfortunately much of the current controllers do...

  16. Is it traffic type, volume, or distance? Wheezing in infants living near truck and bus traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick H; LeMasters, Grace; Biagini, Jocelyn; Bernstein, David; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Shukla, Rakesh; Wilson, Kimberly; Villareal, Manuel; Burkle, Jeff; Lockey, James

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies of air pollution have not examined the association between exposure to varying types, distance, and amounts of traffic and wheezing in very young infants. We sought to determine the relationship between types of traffic, traffic volume, and distance and wheezing among infants less than 1 year of age. A geographic information system and a classification scheme were developed to categorize infants enrolled in the study as living near moving truck and bus traffic (highway >50 miles per hour, >1000 trucks daily, bus traffic (bus and truck traffic had a significantly increased prevalence of wheezing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.15-5.42) when compared with unexposed infants. The prevalence of wheezing among nonwhite infants was at least twice that of white infants, regardless of exposure. Infants living less than 400 m from a high volume of moving traffic, however, did not have an increased prevalence of wheezing. These results suggest that the distance from and type of traffic exposures are more significant risk factors than traffic volume for wheezing in early infancy.

  17. Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, A

    2011-01-01

    Although web standards-based websites can scale effectively - and basic CSS will give you basic results - there are considerations and obstacles that high traffic websites must face to keep your development and hosting costs to a minimum. There are many tips and tricks, as well as down-to-earth best practice information, to make sure that everything runs quickly and efficiently with the minimum amount of fuss or developer intervention. Targeted at "high traffic" websites - those receiving over 10,000 unique visitors a day - Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites gives you inside informati

  18. The Impacts of Workplace Advantage, Learning Intentions, and Technology Skills on the Use of Information Technology-Assisted Instruction by Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Si

    2015-01-01

    The practical value and usefulness of IT-assisted instruction for Taiwanese preschool children are popular topics in academic and practical settings. The purpose of this study was to survey early childhood pre-service teachers' attitudes regarding the workplace advantage of IT-related pedagogy and their learning intentions regarding IT-based…

  19. Formative Research regarding Kidney Disease Health Information in a Latino American Sample: Associations among Message Frame, Threat, Efficacy, Message Effectiveness, and Behavioral Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Katheryn C.; Gardner, Jay; Sopory, Pradeep; Jian, Guowei; Roach, Marcia; Amschlinger, Joe; Moreno, Marcia; Pettey, Gary; Piccone, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Using prospect theory and the extended parallel process model, this study examined the effect of gain/loss message framing on perceptions of severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self efficacy (derived from the extended parallel process model), as well as perception of message effectiveness and behavioral intention in a community based…

  20. Congestion and communication in confined ant traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Gold, Gregory; Zangwill, Andrew; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-03-01

    Many social animals move and communicate within confined spaces. In subterranean fire ants Solenopsis invicta, mobility within crowded nest tunnels is important for resource and information transport. Within confined tunnels, communication and traffic flow are at odds: trafficking ants communicate through tactile interactions while stopped, yet ants that stop to communicate impose physical obstacles on the traffic. We monitor the bi-directional flow of fire ant workers in laboratory tunnels of varied diameter D. The persistence time of communicating ant aggregations, τ, increases approximately linearly with the number of participating ants, n. The sensitivity of traffic flow increases as D decreases and diverges at a minimum diameter, Dc. A cellular automata model incorporating minimal traffic features--excluded volume and communication duration--reproduces features of the experiment. From the model we identify a competition between information transfer and the need to maintain jam-free traffic flow. We show that by balancing information transfer and traffic flow demands, an optimum group strategy exists which maximizes information throughput. We acknowledge funding from NSF PoLS #0957659 and #PHY-1205878.

  1. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  2. Reasons for Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS data security breaches: Intentional versus non-intentional breaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo Brenda Mahlaola

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study supports previous findings that, in the absence of guidelines, most security breaches were non-intentional acts committed due to ignorance. Of concern are incidents in which sensitive information was intentionally shared via social media.

  3. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  4. Pilot visual acquisition of traffic : operational communications from air traffic control operational communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Avionics devices designed to provide pilots with graphically displayed traffic information will enable pilots to acquire and verify the identity of any intruder aircraft within the general area, either before or in accordance with a controller-issued...

  5. SignalGuru: Leveraging mobile phones for collaborative traffic signal schedule advisory

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoumidis, Emmanouil; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Martonosi, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    While traffic signals are necessary to safely control competing flows of traffic, they inevitably enforce a stop-and-go movement pattern that increases fuel consumption, reduces traffic flow and causes traffic jams. These side effects can be alleviated by providing drivers and their onboard computational devices (e.g., vehicle computer, smartphone) with information about the schedule of the traffic signals ahead. Based on when the signal ahead will turn green, drivers can then adjust speed so...

  6. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  7. Text Line Detection from Rectangle Traffic Panels of Natural Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan; Huang, Linlin; Hu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Traffic sign detection and recognition is very important for Intelligent Transportation. Among traffic signs, traffic panel contains rich information. However, due to low resolution and blur in the rectangular traffic panel, it is difficult to extract the character and symbols. In this paper, we propose a coarse-to-fine method to detect the Chinese character on traffic panels from natural scenes. Given a traffic panel Color Quantization is applied to extract candidate regions of Chinese characters. Second, a multi-stage filter based on learning is applied to discard the non-character regions. Third, we aggregate the characters for text lines by Distance Metric Learning method. Experimental results on real traffic images from Baidu Street View demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. The impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeibe, Christian; Ilo, Chukwudi; Oguonu, Chika; Ali, Alphonsus; Abada, Ifeanyi; Ezeibe, Ezinwanne; Oguonu, Chukwunonso; Abada, Felicia; Izueke, Edwin; Agbo, Humphrey

    2018-04-04

    This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria. The study argues that provision and maintenance of traffic signs present opportunity to promoting safety on the highways and achieving the sustainable development goals.

  9. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  10. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  11. Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen F. Grumert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.

  12. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  13. ROAD TRAFFIC ESTIMATION USING BLUETOOTH SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika N. BUGDOL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bluetooth standard is a low-cost, very popular communication protocol offering a wide range of applications in many fields. In this paper, a novel system for road traffic estimation using Bluetooth sensors has been presented. The system consists of three main modules: filtration, statistical analysis of historical, and traffic estimation and prediction. The filtration module is responsible for the classification of road users and detecting measurements that should be removed. Traffic estimation has been performed on the basis of the data collected by Bluetooth measuring devices and information on external conditions (e.g., temperature, all of which have been gathered in the city of Bielsko-Biala (Poland. The obtained results are very promising. The smallest average relative error between the number of cars estimated by the model and the actual traffic was less than 10%.

  14. FAST DRAWING OF TRAFFIC SIGN USING MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare

  15. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  16. Construction and simulation of a novel continuous traffic flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yao-Hsin; Yu, Jui-Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to propose a novel mathematical model for traffic flow and apply a newly developed characteristic particle method to solve the associate governing equations. As compared with the existing non-equilibrium higher-order traffic flow models, the present one is put forward to satisfy the following three conditions: 1.Preserve the equilibrium state in the smooth region. 2.Yield an anisotropic propagation of traffic flow information. 3.Expressed with a conservation law form for traffic momentum. These conditions will ensure a more practical simulation in traffic flow physics: The current traffic will not be influenced by the condition in the behind and result in unambiguous condition across a traffic shock. Through analyses of characteristics, stability condition and steady-state solution adherent to the equation system, it is shown that the proposed model actually conform to these conditions. Furthermore, this model can be cast into its characteristic form which, incorporated with the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, is appropriate to be simulated by the characteristic particle method to obtain accurate computational results. - Highlights: • The traffic model expressed with the momentum conservation law. • Traffic flow information propagate anisotropically and preserve the equilibrium state in the smooth region. • Computational particles of two families are invented to mimic forward-running and backward-running characteristics. • Formation of shocks will be naturally detected by the intersection of computational particles of same family. • A newly developed characteristic particle method is used to simulate traffic flow model equations.

  17. Spatial-temporal cluster analysis of mortality from road traffic injuries using geographic information systems in West of Iran during 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, Alireza; Najafi, Farid; Karimi, Saeed; Saeidi, Shahram; Izadi, Neda

    2018-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are considered as one of the most important health problems endangering people's life. The examination of the geographical distribution of RTIs could help policymakers in better planning to reduce RTIs. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the spatial-temporal clustering of mortality from RTIs in West of Iran. Deaths from RTIs, registered in Forensic Medicine Organization of Kermanshah province over a period of six years (2009-2014), were used. Using negative binomial regression, the mortality trend was investigated. In order to investigate the spatial distribution of RTIs, we used ArcGIS. (Version 10.3). The median age of the 3231 people died in RTIs was 37 (IQR = 31) year, 78.4% were male. The 6-year average mortality rate from RTIs was 27.8/100,000 deaths, and the average rate had a declining trend. The dispersion of RTIs showed that most deaths occurred in Kermanshah, Islamabad, Bisotun, and Harsin road axes, respectively. The mean center of all deaths from RTIs occurred in Kermanshah province, the central area of Kermanshah district. The spatial trend of such deaths has moved to the northeast-southwest, and such deaths were geographically centralized. Results of Moran's I with respect to cluster analysis also indicated positive spatial autocorrelations. The results showed that the mortality rate from RTIs, despite the decline in recent years, is still high when compared with other countries. The clustering of accidents raises the concern that road infrastructure in certain locations may also be a factor. Regarding the results related to the temporal analysis, it is suggested that the enforcement of traffic rules be stricter at rush hours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Traffic modifications on Routes Rutherford, Democrite and Fermi

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The GS Department would like to inform you that until the end of December, the construction of Building 245 will result in the following traffic modifications: Traffic on Route Rutherford will be partially restricted in front of the construction site, Traffic on Route Democrite will be one-way towards Route Rutherford. Also, please note that due to construction work in front of Building 377, Route Fermi will be closed from Wednesday, 10 June until Friday, 7 August. Thank you for your understanding.

  19. Navier-Stokes-like equations for traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, R M; Marques, W

    2005-10-01

    The macroscopic traffic flow equations derived from the reduced Paveri-Fontana equation are closed starting with the maximization of the informational entropy. The homogeneous steady state taken as a reference is obtained for a specific model of the desired velocity and a kind of Chapman-Enskog method is developed to calculate the traffic pressure at the Navier-Stokes level. Numerical solution of the macroscopic traffic equations is obtained and its characteristics are analyzed.

  20. Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170

    CERN Multimedia

    A Lopez - TS/CE

    2005-01-01

    The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE

  1. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  2. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  3. Seat belt, DWI, and other traffic violations among recent immigrants in Florida and Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Phase I of this project identified two States, Florida and Tennessee, that maintain information on drivers traffic violations and residency status. : Phase II analyzed State databases to examine seat belt nonuse, DWI, and other traffic safety viol...

  4. From the Weakest Link to the Best Defense: Exploring the Factors That Affect Employee Intention to Comply with Information Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurigemma, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Information and information systems have become embedded in the fabric of contemporary organizations throughout the world. As the reliance on information technology has increased, so too have the threats and costs associated with protecting organizational information resources. To combat potential information security threats, organizations rely…

  5. 3. Depiction and Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Blumson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the analysis of meaning in terms of intention is orthodoxy in the philosophy of language, it is highly controversial in the philosophy of art. So even if it is agreed that inserting resemblance into the analysis of speaker meaning in terms of intention escapes counterexamples to the sufficiency of resemblance for depiction, it’s likely to be argued that defining depiction as a kind of intentional representation draws too close an analogy between depiction and description. Counterexamp...

  6. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  7. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  8. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  9. Penalties in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect

  10. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  11. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  12. Enterprise Potential, Entrepreneurial Intentions and Envy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Terek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the impact of envy on enterprise potential and entrepreneurial intentions. The research was conducted in Serbia and the respondents were students from 5 faculties, from the first to the fifth year of study. The results were gained by statistical analysis of the gathered information (380 completed questionnaires. Descriptive, correlation and regression analysis are the methods of statistical analysis that were used. From the dimensions of enterprise potential, the highest average value has the dimension Creativity, while from the dimensions of entrepreneurial intentions, the highest average value has the dimension Subjective norm. Of all the observed dimensions, the lowest value has the Envy dimension. Between envy and dimensions of enterprise potential and dimensions of entrepreneurial intentions, there are a number of statistically significant negative correlations. This is more prevalent at the dimension of entrepreneurial intentions. Feelings of inferiority in relation to other people and the perception of having a boring or a bad life have an especially negative impact on entrepreneurial potential and intentions. Envy, which occurs due to the desire for more entertainment, travel, and due to the perception of the lack of fortune, also has a negative impact on entrepreneurial potential and intentions, but the influence is considerably weaker. There is a statistically significant predictive effect of certain items of envy on enterprise potential dimensions and entrepreneurial intentions dimensions. But this fact is not so strongly expressed. Some results suggest the possibility (however small that envy, in some circumstances, can mildly encourage entrepreneurial intention.

  13. System And Method For Monitoring Traffic While Preserving Personal Privacy

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2015-08-06

    A traffic monitoring system and method for mapping traffic speed and density while preserving privacy. The system can include fixed stations that make up a network and mobile probes that are associated with vehicles. The system and method do not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a complementary flood monitoring system and method.

  14. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS; however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS. In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC, an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  15. Traffic speed data imputation method based on tensor completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bin; Tan, Huachun; Feng, Jianshuai; Liu, Ying; Wang, Wuhong

    2015-01-01

    Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC), an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS) database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  16. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  17. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  18. Intentionality and Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierna, Carlo; Jacquette, Dale

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter I concentrate on the notion of intentionality and its relation to consciousness. Ever since its re-introduction into contemporary philosophy in the works of Franz Brentano, intentionality has been associated in various ways with consciousness. In the continental and analytic

  19. Validation of a multi-objective, predictive urban traffic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, I.R.; Haak, P. van den; Woldeab, Z.; Vreeswijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the verification and validation of the ecoStrategic Model, which was developed, implemented and tested in the eCoMove project. The model uses real-time and historical traffic information to determine the current, predicted and desired state of traffic in a

  20. System And Method For Monitoring Traffic While Preserving Personal Privacy

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward; Claudel, Christian G.; Shamim, Atif; Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Mousa, Mustafa; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a

  1. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... periods are not significantly long. Finally, better alignment between the RRC Connected and Idle mobility procedures is observed, guarantying significant decrease of handovers/reselections and potential battery life savings by minimizing the Inter-Frequency (IF) measurement rate in the RRC Idle....

  2. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  3. Evilness as intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine on which psychological foundation we might be able to identify evil as an independent psychological phenomenon which requires its own. non-clinical concept and diagnostics. An evil act, it is proposed, is something which a person does intentionally and can...... be held responsible for. A basic model of human activity is presented based on human connectedness to the world in general and on co-existence as a core of the human condition in particular. Genuine evilness is defined as intentional detachment from and destruction of human co-existence. This definition...... presupposes a level of selforganization where co-existence can be an intentional project in itself. Only beings that can have co-existence as an intentional project in itself can intentionally detach from it and act destructively towards it in a genuinely evil manner....

  4. Revisiting Phenomenal Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Masrour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two goals. The goal of the first section is to raise a few clarificatory questions about the exact contour of Crane’s account of intentionality, its relation to phenomenology, and his motivation for it. The second section aims to describe a general worry about programs that combine a broadly anti-externalist outlook on intentionality with the idea that there is an intimate connection between phenomenology and intentionality. I argue that programs like this either suffer from a problem that I call intentional luck or, in the attempt to avoid this problem, have to weaken the connection between intentionality and phenomenology. Since Crane’s general outlook falls under this program, it is subject to this worry.

  5. Evilness as intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2005-01-01

    be held responsible for. A basic model of human activity is presented based on human connectedness to the world in general and on co-existence as a core of the human condition in particular. Genuine evilness is defined as intentional detachment from and destruction of human co-existence. This definition...... presupposes a level of selforganization where co-existence can be an intentional project in itself. Only beings that can have co-existence as an intentional project in itself can intentionally detach from it and act destructively towards it in a genuinely evil manner.......The purpose of this article is to examine on which psychological foundation we might be able to identify evil as an independent psychological phenomenon which requires its own. non-clinical concept and diagnostics. An evil act, it is proposed, is something which a person does intentionally and can...

  6. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20130014930'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20130014930_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20130014930_hide'); "> style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20130014930_show"> style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20130014930_hide">

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  7. Transparency of intentions decreases privacy concerns in ubiquitous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulasvirta, Antti; Suomalainen, Tiia; Hamari, Juho; Lampinen, Airi; Karvonen, Kristiina

    2014-10-01

    An online experiment (n=1,897) was carried out to understand how data disclosure practices in ubiquitous surveillance affect users' privacy concerns. Information about the identity and intentions of a data collector was manipulated in hypothetical surveillance scenarios. Privacy concerns were found to differ across the scenarios and moderated by knowledge about the collector's identity and intentions. Knowledge about intentions exhibited a stronger effect. When no information about intentions was disclosed, the respondents postulated negative intentions. A positive effect was found for disclosing neutral intentions of an organization or unknown data collector, but not for a private data collector. The findings underline the importance of disclosing intentions of data use to users in an easily understandable manner.

  8. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  9. A Performance Assessment of an Airborne Separation Assistance System Using Realistic Complex Traffic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of a tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) in en route airspace, under varying demand levels, with realistic traffic flows. The ASAS concept studied here allows flight crews of equipped aircraft to perform separation from other air traffic autonomously. This study addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (i.e. position and velocity) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. In addition, use of a conflict prevention system helps ASAS-equipped aircraft avoid maneuvers that may cause new conflicts. ASAS-capable aircraft are equipped with satellite-based navigation and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) for transmission and receipt of aircraft state data. In addition to tactical conflict detection and resolution (CD&R), a complete, integrated ASAS is likely to incorporate a strategic CD&R component with a longer look-ahead time, using trajectory intent information. A system-wide traffic flow management (TFM) component, located at the FAA command center helps aircraft to avoid regions of excessive traffic density and complexity. A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), as used today is the system of last resort. This integrated approach avoids sole reliance on the use of the tactical CD&R studied here, but the tactical component remains a critical element of the complete ASAS. The focus of this paper is to determine to what extent the proposed tactical component of ASAS alone can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times that of current traffic. The study also investigates the effect of mixing ASAS-equipped aircraft with unequipped aircraft (i.e. current day) that do not have the capability to self-separate. Position and velocity data for unequipped aircraft needs to be available to ASASequipped. Most likely, for this future concept, state data would be available from instrument flight rules (IFR

  10. Avaliação da qualidade das informações de mortalidade por acidentes não especificados e eventos com intenção indeterminada Evaluation of the quality of mortality information by unspecified accidents and events of undetermined intent in a metropolis of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Drumond Jr

    1999-06-01

    ções de mortalidade por causas externas pode contribuir para o monitoramento da violência, como base à tomada de decisões para sua redução.INTRODUCTION: Mortality data are important for monitoring violence, making it possible to assess the trends and the impact of interventions towards its reduction. The objective of the study is to assess the quality of the filling out and codification of the death certificates for unspecified accidents and events of undetermined intent in the city of S. Paulo in 1996. METHODS: Death certificates on which the underlying cause of death (UCD given was an unspecified accident (ICD-10 X59 or an event of undetermined intent (ICD-10 Y10-Y34 were selected for investigation at the Legal Medicine Institute (IML. After consulting the police reports which accompany the corpses to the IML, the autopsy reports and other legal forms, these were analysed and the UCD was recoded. RESULTS: For unspecified accidents, 53.2% were changed to a specified cause: 15.1% due to pedestrians injured in traffic accidents, 17.5% due to other traffic accidents and 14.5% due to falls. Homicides and suicides constituted 9.8%. In 20.9% no additional information was found. For events of undetermined intent, 2/3 had no clarification; in 1/3 of the cases, the underlying cause changed to falls (10.6%, homicides (7.5% and pedestrians injured in transport accidents (6.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of mortality information by external causes in the City of S. Paulo is not satisfactory. The IML has not used all the available information to fill out the death certificates. The findings reveal that the instruction of the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Center for the Classification of Diseases to codify as accidents those events for which there is no information on the death certificate about the external cause, does not seem to be appropriate. In that category 66.0% of the deaths were found to have been inferred incorrectly as accidental. The improvement of the

  11. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  12. Unravelling intention: distal intentions increase the subjective sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Pedersen, Michael N; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-09-01

    Experimental studies investigating the contribution of conscious intention to the generation of a sense of agency for one's own actions tend to rely upon a narrow definition of intention. Often it is operationalized as the conscious sensation of wanting to move right before movement. Existing results and discussion are therefore missing crucial aspects of intentions, namely intention as the conscious sensation of wanting to move in advance of the movement. In the present experiment we used an intentional binding paradigm, in which we distinguished between immediate (proximal) intention, as usually investigated, and longer standing (distal) intention. The results showed that the binding effect was significantly enhanced for distal intentions compared to proximal intentions, indicating that the former leads to stronger sense of agency. Our finding provides empirical support for a crucial distinction between at least two types of intention when addressing the efficacy of conscious intentions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  14. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  15. Expressive intent, ambiguity, and aesthetic experiences of music and poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth; Levine, William H; Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Kroger, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies are investigating the way that aesthetic experiences are generated across different media. Empathy with a perceived human artist has been suggested as a common mechanism [1]. In this study, people heard 30 s excerpts of ambiguous music and poetry preceded by neutral, positively valenced, or negatively valenced information about the composer's or author's intent. The information influenced their perception of the excerpts-excerpts paired with positive intent information were perceived as happier and excerpts paired with negative intent information were perceived as sadder (although across intent conditions, musical excerpts were perceived as happier than poetry excerpts). Moreover, the information modulated the aesthetic experience of the excerpts in different ways for the different excerpt types: positive intent information increased enjoyment and the degree to which people found the musical excerpts to be moving, but negative intent information increased these qualities for poetry. Additionally, positive intent information was judged to better match musical excerpts and negative intent information to better match poetic excerpts. These results suggest that empathy with a perceived human artist is indeed an important shared factor across experiences of music and poetry, but that other mechanisms distinguish the generation of aesthetic appreciation between these two media.

  16. Expressive intent, ambiguity, and aesthetic experiences of music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth; Levine, William H.; Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Kroger, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies are investigating the way that aesthetic experiences are generated across different media. Empathy with a perceived human artist has been suggested as a common mechanism [1]. In this study, people heard 30 s excerpts of ambiguous music and poetry preceded by neutral, positively valenced, or negatively valenced information about the composer's or author’s intent. The information influenced their perception of the excerpts—excerpts paired with positive intent information were perceived as happier and excerpts paired with negative intent information were perceived as sadder (although across intent conditions, musical excerpts were perceived as happier than poetry excerpts). Moreover, the information modulated the aesthetic experience of the excerpts in different ways for the different excerpt types: positive intent information increased enjoyment and the degree to which people found the musical excerpts to be moving, but negative intent information increased these qualities for poetry. Additionally, positive intent information was judged to better match musical excerpts and negative intent information to better match poetic excerpts. These results suggest that empathy with a perceived human artist is indeed an important shared factor across experiences of music and poetry, but that other mechanisms distinguish the generation of aesthetic appreciation between these two media. PMID:28746376

  17. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  18. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  19. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  20. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  1. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  2. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  3. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  4. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...

  5. Using the Alaska Ocean Observing System to Inform Decision Making for Coastal Resiliency Relating to Inundation, Ocean Acidification, Harmful Algal Blooms, Navigation Safety and Impacts of Vessel Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M.

    2017-12-01

    State and federal agencies, coastal communities and Alaska Native residents, and non-governmental organizations are increasingly turning to the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) as a major source of ocean and coastal data and information products to inform decision making relating to a changing Arctic. AOOS implements its mission to provide ocean observing data and information to meet stakeholder needs by ensuring that all programs are "science based, stakeholder driven and policy neutral." Priority goals are to increase access to existing coastal and ocean data; package information and data in useful ways to meet stakeholder needs; and increase observing and forecasting capacity in all regions of the state. Recently certified by NOAA, the AOOS Data Assembly Center houses the largest collection of real-time ocean and coastal data, environmental models, and biological data in Alaska, and develops tools and applications to make it more publicly accessible and useful. Given the paucity of observations in the Alaska Arctic, the challenge is how to make decisions with little data compared to other areas of the U.S. coastline. AOOS addresses this issue by: integrating and visualizing existing data; developing data and information products and tools to make data more useful; serving as a convener role in areas such as coastal inundation and flooding, impacts of warming temperatures on food security, ocean acidification, observing technologies and capacity; and facilitating planning efforts to increase observations. In this presentation, I will give examples of each of these efforts, lessons learned, and suggestions for future actions.

  6. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  7. Dynamic control of traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Wal, van der Jan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic lights are put in place to dynamically change priority between traffic participants. Commonly, the duration of green intervals and the grouping, and ordering in which traffic flows are served are pre-fixed. In this chapter, the problem of minimizing vehicle delay at isolated intersections is

  8. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  9. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  10. Understanding user intents in online health forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Thomas; Cho, Jason H D; Zhai, Chengxiang

    2015-07-01

    Online health forums provide a convenient way for patients to obtain medical information and connect with physicians and peers outside of clinical settings. However, large quantities of unstructured and diversified content generated on these forums make it difficult for users to digest and extract useful information. Understanding user intents would enable forums to find and recommend relevant information to users by filtering out threads that do not match particular intents. In this paper, we derive a taxonomy of intents to capture user information needs in online health forums and propose novel pattern-based features for use with a multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier to classify original thread posts according to their underlying intents. Since no dataset existed for this task, we employ three annotators to manually label a dataset of 1192 HealthBoards posts spanning four forum topics. Experimental results show that a SVM using pattern-based features is highly capable of identifying user intents in forum posts, reaching a maximum precision of 75%, and that a SVM-based hierarchical classifier using both pattern and word features outperforms its SVM counterpart that uses only word features. Furthermore, comparable classification performance can be achieved by training and testing on posts from different forum topics.

  11. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  12. TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    growing in Eastern and Southern Africa in response to increased human populations and poverty. fuel-trees etc. Conversely, extreme poverty of others means they regard wildlife as a means to meet their short worldwide. You can also find us online in: mainland China, India, Japan, Taiwan TRAFFIC is a strategic

  13. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  14. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  15. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  16. The economic cost of traffic congestion in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Traffic congestion in the U.S. is bad and getting worse, and it is expensive. Appropriate solutions to this problem require appropriate information. A comprehensive and accurate analysis of congestion costs is a critical tool for planning and impleme...

  17. GIS Tools to Estimate Average Annual Daily Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project presents five tools that were created for a geographical information system to estimate Annual Average Daily : Traffic using linear regression. Three of the tools can be used to prepare spatial data for linear regression. One tool can be...

  18. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... manage traffic cases is manual; information collected daily is written on paper and stored in ... The system is thus user friendly in the way it inserts, retrieves and updates user .... importance of discipline on the highway.

  19. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  20. ALGORITHMS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams interfere with the drivers and cost billions of dollars per year and lead to a substantial increase in fuel consumption. In order to avoid such problems the paper describes the algorithms for traffic management in intelligent transportation system, which collects traffic information in real time and is able to detect and manage congestion on the basis of this information. The results show that the proposed algorithms reduce the average travel time, emissions and fuel consumption. In particular, travel time has decreased by about 23%, the average fuel consumption of 9%, and the average emission of 10%.

  1. Associations between self-perception of weight, food choice intentions, and consumer response to calorie information: a retrospective investigation of public health center clients in Los Angeles County before the implementation of menu-labeling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianogo, Roch A; Kuo, Tony; Smith, Lisa V; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-22

    Although obesity continues to rise and remains a great public health concern in the U.S., a number of important levers such as self-perception of weight and calorie postings at point-of-purchase in restaurants are still not well-characterized in the literature, especially for low-income and minority groups in Los Angeles County (LAC). To study this gap, we examined the associations of self-perception of weight (as measured by body weight discrepancy) with food choice intentions and consumer response to calorie information among low-income adults residing in LAC during the pre-menu labeling regulation era. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the aforementioned associations utilizing data from the 2007-2008 Calorie and Nutrition Information Survey (CNIS). The CNIS was a local health department study of 639 low-income adults recruited from five large, multi-purpose public health centers in LAC. Survey participants who reported that their desired weight was less than their current weight (versus desired weight the same as current weight) had (i) higher odds of intending to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase (aOR = 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.0-3.9); and (ii) had higher odds of reporting that it is "very important" to have these calorie postings on food items in grocery stores (aOR = 3.1; 95 % CI: 0.90-10.7) and in fast-food restaurants (aOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.0-11.4). Self-perception of weight was found to be associated with the intention to select lower-calorie foods under the scenario that calorie information was available at point-of-purchase. Future public health efforts to support menu labeling implementation should consider these and other findings to inform consumer education and communications strategies that can be tailored to assist restaurant patrons with this forthcoming federal law.

  2. Effects of traffic generation patterns on the robustness of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiajing; Zeng, Junwen; Chen, Zhenhao; Tse, Chi K.; Chen, Bokui

    2018-02-01

    Cascading failures in communication networks with heterogeneous node functions are studied in this paper. In such networks, the traffic dynamics are highly dependent on the traffic generation patterns which are in turn determined by the locations of the hosts. The data-packet traffic model is applied to Barabási-Albert scale-free networks to study the cascading failures in such networks and to explore the effects of traffic generation patterns on network robustness. It is found that placing the hosts at high-degree nodes in a network can make the network more robust against both intentional attacks and random failures. It is also shown that the traffic generation pattern plays an important role in network design.

  3. Application of GIS in Urban Traffic Noise Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Omidvari; Ali Asghar Alesheikh

    2010-01-01

    Large urban areas are facing growing problems of noise pollutions. Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can conveniently be adapted to gather, analyze and present noise information. GIS can also be extended to answer to user specific problems through deterministic and statistics models. The objectives of this research were to measure urban traffic noise levels, analyze temporal and spatial dynamics of urban traffic-induced noise pollution in the first districted of Tehran estimate the noise f...

  4. Calculation of vehicle delay at signal-controlled intersections with adaptive traffic control algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By widely introducing information technology tools in the field of traffic control, it is possible to increase the capacity of hubs and reduce vehicle delays. Adaptive traffic light control is one of such tools. Its effectiveness can be assessed through traffic flow simulation. The aim of this study is to create a simulation model of a signal-controlled intersection that can be used to assess the effectiveness of adaptive control in various traffic situations, including the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic through an intersection. The model is based on a numerical experiment conducted using the Monte Carlo method. As a result of the study, vehicle delays, queue length and duration of traffic light cycles are calculated subject to different intensities of incoming traffic flows, and the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic.

  5. MODELS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS ERRORS PREVENTION IN TERMINAL CONTROL AREAS UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this study is to research applied models of air traffic controllers’ errors prevention in terminal control areas (TMA under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework descripting safety events and errors of air traffic controllers connected with the operations in TMA is proposed. Methods: optimisation of terminal control area formal description based on the Threat and Error management model and the TMA network model of air traffic flows. Results: the human factors variables associated with safety events in work of air traffic controllers under uncertainty conditions were obtained. The Threat and Error management model application principles to air traffic controller operations and the TMA network model of air traffic flows were proposed. Discussion: Information processing context for preventing air traffic controller errors, examples of threats in work of air traffic controllers, which are relevant for TMA operations under uncertainty conditions.

  6. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  7. Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Setälä, Heikki; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Kotze, D Johan

    2014-12-01

    Traffic is a major source of pollutants in cities. In this well-replicated study we analysed a broad array of contaminants in snowpacks along roads of different traffic intensities. The majority of pollutants showed a similar pattern with respect to traffic intensity: pH and conductivity as well as concentrations of PAHs, total suspended solids, phosphorus and most heavy metals were higher next to high intensity roads compared to low intensity roads. These pollutant levels also decreased considerably up to 5 m distance from the roads. Furthermore, apart from nitrogen, these variables increased in concentration from control sites in urban forest patches to road bank sites next to roads of low, intermediate and high traffic intensities. The deposition pattern of various traffic-derived pollutants--whether gaseous or particle-bound--was the same. Such information can be useful for the purposes of managing pollutants in urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  9. Traffic calming for the prevention of road traffic injuries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-09-01

    To assess whether area-wide traffic calming schemes can reduce road crash related deaths and injuries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts Science (and social science) citation index, National Technical Information service, Psychlit, Transport Research Information Service, International Road Research Documentation, and Transdoc, and web sites of road safety organisation were searched; experts were contacted, conference proceedings were handsearched, and relevant reference lists were checked. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before/after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes designed to discourage and slow down through traffic on residential roads. Data were collected on road user deaths, injuries, and traffic crashes. For each study rate ratios were calculated, the ratio of event rates before and after intervention in the traffic calmed area divided by the corresponding ratio of event rates in the control area, which were pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. Sixteen controlled before/after studies met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the number of road user deaths: pooled rate ratio 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 2.59). Sixteen studies reported the number of injuries (fatal and non-fatal): pooled rate ratio 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00). All studies were in high income countries. Area-wide traffic calming in towns and cities has the potential to reduce road traffic injuries. However, further rigorous evaluations of this intervention are needed, especially in low and middle income countries.

  10. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  11. Automated Traffic and the Finite Size Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J. J. P.; Stošić, B. D.; Tangerman, F. M.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate in detail what one might call the canonical (automated) traffic problem: A long string of N+1 cars (numbered from 0 to N) moves along a one-lane road "in formation" at a constant velocity and with a unit distance between successive cars. Each car monitors the relative velocity and position of only its neighboring cars. This information is then fed back to its own engine which decelerates (brakes) or accelerates according to the information it receives. The question is: What happens when due to an external influence—a traffic light turning green—the `zero'th' car (the "leader") accelerates? As a first approximation, we analyze linear(ized) equations and show that in this scenario the traffic flow has a tendency to be stop-and-go. We give approximate solutions for the global traffic as function of all the relevant parameters (the feed back parameters as well as cruise velocity and so on). We discuss general design principles for these algorithms, that is: how does the choice of parameters influence the performance.

  12. Concept definition of traffic flow wide-area surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.

    1994-07-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret large spatial projections of data originating from multiple sensor suites. The intent of the Wide-Area Surveillance (WAS) Project is to build upon this concept and define the operational specifications and characteristics of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functional capabilities of a TFWAS will be mapped onto an operational profile that is consistent with the Federal Highway Administration`s Intelligent Vehicle Highway System. This document provides the underlying foundation of this work by offering a concept definition for the TFWAS system. It concentrates on answering the question: ``What is the system?`` In doing so, the report develops a hierarchy of specialized definitions.

  13. Rates of intentionally caused and road crash deaths of US citizens abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Melissa K; Mossallam, Mahmoud; Mulligan, Matthew; Hyder, Adnan A; Bishai, David

    2015-04-01

    Currently, little is known about rates of death by cause and country among US travellers. Understanding the risk by cause and country is imperative to risk communication and the development of risk reduction strategies. Publicly available data on non-natural deaths of US citizens abroad were gathered from January 2003 to December 2009 from the US Department of State's Department Bureau of Consular Affairs. Traveller information was gathered from the US Department of Commerce Office of Travel and Tourism for the same time period. Rates of death were calculated by dividing the number of non-natural deaths of US citizens abroad by the number of US outbound visits for each country. A total of 5417 non-natural death events were retrieved between 2003 and 2009 from the US State Department. Intentionally caused death rates ranged from 21.44 per 1 000 000 visits in the Philippines to 0 per 1 000 000 visits in several countries; the majority of countries had fewer than five intentionally caused deaths per 1 000 000 visits. Rates of road traffic crashes were higher than rates of intentionally caused deaths in almost every instance. Thailand had the highest rate of deaths due to road traffic crashes (16.49 per 1 000 000), followed by Vietnam, Morocco and South Africa (15.12 per 1 000 000, 11.96 per 1 000 000 and 10.90 per 1 000 000, respectively). Motorcycle deaths account for most of the heightened risk observed in Thailand and Vietnam. The leading cause of non-natural deaths in US travellers abroad was road crashes, which exceeds intentional injury as the leading cause of non-natural deaths in almost every country where US citizens travel. Southeast Asia had the highest unintentional injury death rates for US citizens abroad due to the high rates of deaths from motorcycle crashes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  15. Study Streams and Student Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukuakadibia Eresia-Eke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the levels of entrepreneurial intention among university students is particularly critical in Africa where the scourge of unemployment is profound. Alive to this, governments and well-meaning institutions are investing in entrepreneurship development, the gains of which remain to be seen leading to an ebbing of hope in the youth population. To this end the study investigates the entrepreneurial intention of university students in South Africa with an aim to reveal differences arising from study streams. The study consequently extends knowledge by examining entrepreneurial intention within the context of an unemployment-ridden society while leveraging on the theories of planned behaviour. The study executed from a positivist standpoint surveyed 238 students and quantitatively analysed the data principally to test deductively derived hypothesised relationships. The empirical study concludes that there is indeed a difference in entrepreneurial intention levels between the two groups. Empirical in nature, this quantitative study and concludes that there is indeed a difference in entrepreneurial intention levels between the two groups. Interventions aimed at enhancing entrepreneurship can only generate desirable results if the entrepreneurial intentions of the target population are known. This would ensure that the right type of interventions are created and delivered to specific groups as the ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach continues to fail. Serving a clearly heterogeneous population with seemingly homogenous interventions appears faulty and this reality needs to inform pro-entrepreneurship initiatives in future.

  16. Negative symbolic aspects in destination branding: exploring the role of the 'undesired self' on web-based vacation information search intentions among potential first-time visitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bosnjak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tourist destination choices depend, among other factors, on the match between the destination’s personality image and consumers’ self-concept, in line with self-image congruence theory. Motives also mediate this relationship, yet tourism research largely neglects the influence of avoidance motives. This study applies the product-based construct of undesired congruity, or consumers’ tendency to avoid undesired stereotypical images, to the context of web-based vacation destination information s...

  17. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  18. Husserl on Collective Intentionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , respectively. On this background, I will concentrate on Husserl’s alternative construal and demonstrate how it entails a robust anti-individualism regarding both the form and the subject of we-intentions. I will suggest that, contrary to appearances, Husserl does not fall prey to committing a content/vehicle...... type of fallacy, by inferring from the jointness of the contents of collective intentionality that there is one joint vehicle or, worse, some collectively conscious bearer of such. Rather, the Husserlian alternative yields a robust formal-cum-subject anti-individualism and undercuts the need...

  19. Disease awareness advertising - women's intentions following exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika; Jones, Sandra; Iverson, Don

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, where direct to consumer advertising of prescription medicines is prohibited, pharmaceutical companies can sponsor disease awareness advertising targeting consumers. This study examined the impact of disease awareness advertising exposure on older women's reported behavioural intentions. Women were approached in a shopping centre and randomly assigned mock advertisements for two health conditions. Disease information and sponsors were manipulated. Two hundred and forty-one women responded to 466 advertisements. Almost half reported an intention to ask their doctor for a prescription or referral as a result of seeing the advertisement, but more reported they would talk to their doctor and ask about treatments and tests. Participants were more likely to report an intention to ask for prescriptions if they perceived the health condition to be severe and themselves susceptible or if they had viewed advertisements containing limited information on the disease. Disease awareness advertising may stimulate demand for prescription medicine products. This has serious implications for general practitioners and regulators.

  20. Development of a Gridded Maritime Traffic DB for e-Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Il Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the era of e-Navigation, it is important to deliver maritime traffic information from a shore based station to all navigating vessels. However, in a vessel boarding system, there is a limit to the amount of raw traffic data that can be processed. In this paper, we used the Automatic Identification System (AIS data as metadata to build up the maritime traffic gridded database by projecting traffic data on a geographic coordinate system. In order to apply this database to the image layer for transferring to the ship efficiently, we have developed a maritime traffic display layer and route traffic information layer. All simulated data was collected and analyzed with the AIS in a Vessel Traffic Service(VTS center.

  1. Three-Year-Olds Hide Their Communicative Intentions in Appropriate Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Gerlind; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human cooperative communication involves both an informative intention that the recipient understands the content of the signal and also a (Gricean) communicative intention that the recipient recognizes that the speaker has an informative intention. The degree to which children understand this 2-layered nature of communication is the subject of…

  2. The Intention in Speeding Behavior between Low and High Intended Young Driver in Urban University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ghazali Masuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of road traffic accidents among young adult aged under 25 years old is an alarming issue in Malaysia. A five pages self-reported questionnaire was distributed to 384 young drivers' to investigate their intention in speeding while driving. Results have shown, the intention to speed among low and high intended based line group revealed a significant difference when it was compared with four types of scenario. Correct stimulation while driving could help drivers to change their intention to speed. This stimulation may be able to reduce the drivers' potential to involve with an accident and will save peoples' life.

  3. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  4. Traffic modifications on Routes Rutherford, Democrite and Fermi

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The GS Department would like to inform you that, until the end of December, the construction of Building 245 will result in the following traffic modifications: Traffic on Route Rutherford will be partially restricted in front of the construction site, Traffic on Route Democrite will be one-way towards Route Rutherford. Also, please note that due to construction work in front of Building 377, Route Fermi will be closed from Wednesday, 10 June until Friday, 7 August. Thank you for your understanding.

  5. Spatial correlation analysis of urban traffic state under a perspective of community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Cao, Jiandong; Qin, Yong; Jia, Limin; Dong, Honghui; Zhang, Aomuhan

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the spatial correlation of urban traffic state is essential for identifying the evolution patterns of urban traffic state. However, the distribution of traffic state always has characteristics of large spatial span and heterogeneity. This paper adapts the concept of community detection to the correlation network of urban traffic state and proposes a new perspective to identify the spatial correlation patterns of traffic state. In the proposed urban traffic network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding correlation of traffic state. Further, the process of community detection in the urban traffic network (named GWPA-K-means) is applied to analyze the spatial dependency of traffic state. The proposed method extends the traditional K-means algorithm in two steps: (i) redefines the initial cluster centers by two properties of nodes (the GWPA value and the minimum shortest path length); (ii) utilizes the weight signal propagation process to transfer the topological information of the urban traffic network into a node similarity matrix. Finally, numerical experiments are conducted on a simple network and a real urban road network in Beijing. The results show that GWPA-K-means algorithm is valid in spatial correlation analysis of traffic state. The network science and community structure analysis perform well in describing the spatial heterogeneity of traffic state on a large spatial scale.

  6. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  7. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... induced traffic is partly accounted for than when it is ignored. By exaggerating the economic benefits of road capacity increase and underestimating its negative effects, omission of induced traffic can result in over-allocation of public money on road construction and correspondingly less focus on other...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...

  8. 49 CFR 520.21 - Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations, and notices of intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations, and notices of intent. 520.21 Section 520.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. Ergodicity of Traffic Flow with Constant Penetration Rate for Traffic Monitoring via Floating Vehicle Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Abbas, Bahtiar S.; Atmadja, Wiedjaja; Yoseph Chandra, Fajar; Agung, Alexander AS; Kusnandar, Erwin

    2014-03-01

    Traffic congestion in Asian megacities has become extremely worse, and any means to lessen the congestion level is urgently needed. Building an efficient mass transportation system is clearly necessary. However, implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have also been demonstrated effective in various advanced countries. Recently, the floating vehicle technique (FVT), an ITS implementation, has become cost effective to provide real-time traffic information with proliferation of the smartphones. Although many publications have discussed various issues related to the technique, none of them elaborates the discrepancy of a single floating car data (FCD) and the associated fleet data. This work addresses the issue based on an analysis of Sugiyama et al's experimental data. The results indicate that there is an optimum averaging time interval such that the estimated velocity by the FVT reasonably representing the traffic velocity.

  10. Nonlinear stability of traffic models and the use of Lyapunov vectors for estimating the traffic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna; Rambaldi, Sandro

    2013-08-01

    Valuable information for estimating the traffic flow is obtained with current GPS technology by monitoring position and velocity of vehicles. In this paper, we present a proof of concept study that shows how the traffic state can be estimated using only partial and noisy data by assimilating them in a dynamical model. Our approach is based on a data assimilation algorithm, developed by the authors for chaotic geophysical models, designed to be equivalent but computationally much less demanding than the traditional extended Kalman filter. Here we show that the algorithm is even more efficient if the system is not chaotic and demonstrate by numerical experiments that an accurate reconstruction of the complete traffic state can be obtained at a very low computational cost by monitoring only a small percentage of vehicles.

  11. Understanding women's mammography intentions: a theory-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mikako; O'Callaghan, Frances V; Morrissey, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The present study compared the utility of two models (the Theory of Planned Behavior and Protection Motivation Theory) in identifying factors associated with intentions to undertake screening mammography, before and after an intervention. The comparison was made between the unique components of the two models. The effect of including implementation intentions was also investigated. Two hundred and fifty-one women aged 37 to 69 years completed questionnaires at baseline and following the delivery of a standard (control) or a protection motivation theory-based informational intervention. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that theory of planned behavior variables were associated with mammography intentions. Results also showed that inclusion of implementation intention in the model significantly increased the association with mammography intentions. The findings suggest that future interventions aiming to increase screening mammography participation should focus on the theory of planned behavior variables and that implementation intention should also be targeted.

  12. Simulation Analysis on Driving Behavior during Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The traffic signs transfer trip information to drivers through vectors like words, graphs and numbers. Traffic sign with excessive information often makes the drivers have no time to read and understand, leading to risky driving. It is still a problem of how to clarify the relationship between traffic sign recognition and risky driving behavior. This paper presents a study that is reflective of such an effort. Twenty volunteers participated in the dynamic visual recognition experiment in driving simulator, and the data of several key indicators are obtained, including visual cognition time, vehicle acceleration and the offset distance from middle lane, etc. Correlations between each indicator above are discussed in terms of risky driving. Research findings directly show that drivers' behavior changes a lot during their traffic sign recognition.

  13. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  14. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T; Malone, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand's perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications.

  15. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T.; Malone, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand’s perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications. PMID:24403815

  16. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber- sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Bandwith, Traffic Shapping, MikroTik. 

  17. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald D.

    2018-01-01

    UTM is an 'air traffic management' ecosystem for uncontrolled operations. UTM utilizes industry's ability to supply services under FAA's regulatory authority where these services do not exist. UTM development will ultimately enable the management of large scale, low-altitude UAS operations. Operational concept will address beyond visual line of sight UAS operations under 400 ft. AGL. Information architecture, data exchange protocols, software functions. Roles/responsibilities of FAA and operators. Performance requirements.

  19. Physicists and Astronomers Use Google as a Starting Point for Specific Queries, but Do Not Intentionally Use It to Search for Articles. A Review of: Jamali, H. R., & Asadi, S. (2010. Google and the scholar: The role of Google in scientists’ information seeking behaviour. Online Information Review, 34(2, 282-294.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2011-03-01

    popular method for finding research was by tracking references at the end of an article (61%. This was followed by Google (58% and ToC email alerts (35%. Responses showed that 46% never used Google Scholar to discover research articles. When asked if they intentionally searched Google to find articles, all except two participants answered that they do not, instead using specific databases to find research. The researchers noted that finding articles in Google was not the original intention of participants’ searches, but more of a by-product of Google searching. In the information-event card study, two categories emerged based on the kinds of information required. This included participants looking for general information on a specific topic (64%, with 22 cases finding this information successfully, and participants knowing exactly what piece of information they were seeking (36%, with 28 cases finding information successfully. There was no occurrence of using Google specifically to conduct a literature search or to search for a paper during this information-event card study, although the researchers say that Google is progressively showing more scholarly information within its search results. (This cannot be ascertained from these specific results except for one response from an interviewee. The researchers found that 29.4% of respondents used Google to find specific pieces of information, although it was not necessarily scholarly.Conclusion – Physics and astronomy researchers do not intentionally use Google’s general search engine to search for articles, but, Google seems to be a good starting point for problem-specific information queries.

  20. A novel concept for integrating and delivering health information using a comprehensive digital dashboard: An analysis of healthcare professionals' intention to adopt a new system and the trend of its real usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keehyuck; Jung, Se Young; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung; Baek, Hyun Young; Baek, Rong-Min; Kim, Seok

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a new concept of medical dashboard system called BESTBoard. Such a system was implemented in all wards in a tertiary academic hospital to explore the development process, core designs, functions, usability and feasibility. The task-force team made user interface designs for 6 months based on a need analysis. Hardware configuration and software development was carried out for 3 months. We conducted a survey of 383 physicians and nurses to determine the usability and feasibility of the system. In March 2012, the system was installed in all wards, including the intensive care units, emergency rooms, operation rooms, and even delivery rooms. Healthcare professionals had access to all information of EHRs optimized for a large 55-inch touchscreen. The satisfaction rate of BESTBoard users was high, with a mean of 3.3 points. Voluntary users tended to consider BESTBoard as a good system that is useful for team round visits, interdisciplinary team approach, and collecting the status of the hospital rooms. Elderly users didn't tend to think of BESTBoard as a useful tool for interdisciplinary team approach and collecting the status of the hospital rooms. Greater expectations regarding work performance affected the users' attitudes positively. A positive attitude toward using the system resulted in consistent real usage and health care professionals' satisfaction with the new dashboard system. A new concept of hospital dashboard system proved to be feasible and useful in delivering health information to healthcare professionals. A positive attitude and an expectation regarding work performance were important factors for intention to use the system. This finding can serve for developing new systems to present health information effectively. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the extent to which BESTBoard can have a positive impact on clinical care outcomes and work performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Daniel Dennett: intentionality system. An interpretation of intentional strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ROTILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show some of the meanings in which Daniel Dennett uses the term intentionality, in an attempt to establish to it the quality of key concept for understanding the mind, namely consciousness. By analyzing the American thinker’s ideas, we consider that in all of them an intentionality system can be identified, which includes the approaches and different names that he dedicates to this concept. Qualitative differences in the discourse about intentionality can open the way of the approach of intentionality from an evolutionary perspective, indicating the changes over time. The intentionality system is a proposal for understanding Dennett’s thinking in a coherent paradigm.

  2. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  3. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  4. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  5. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  6. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  7. [Definition of hospital discharge, serious injury and death from traffic injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Katherine; Seguí-Gómez, María; Arrufat, Vita; Barberia, Eneko; Cabeza, Elena; Cirera, Eva; Gil, Mercedes; Martín, Carlos; Novoa, Ana M; Olabarría, Marta; Lardelli, Pablo; Suelves, Josep Maria; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic injury surveillance involves methodological difficulties due, among other reasons, to the lack of consensus criteria for case definition. Police records have usually been the main source of information for monitoring traffic injuries, while health system data has hardly been used. Police records usually include comprehensive information on the characteristics of the crash, but often underreport injury cases and do not collect reliable information on the severity of injuries. However, statistics on severe traffic injuries have been based almost exclusively on police data. The aim of this paper is to propose criteria based on medical records to define: a) "Hospital discharge for traffic injuries", b) "Person with severe traffic injury", and c) "Death from traffic injuries" in order to homogenize the use of these sources. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  8. A Framework for Assessment of Intentional Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammadfam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : It is not possible to live without using fire. However, fire could destruct human properties in a short time. One of the most important types of fire is intentional fire. This type of fire has become a great problem for insurance companies, fire departments, industries, government and business in the recent years. This study aimed to provide a framework for risk assessment of intentional fires . Methods: In the present study, risk assessment and management model for protecting critical properties and security vulnerability assessment model were used to develop a comprehensive framework for risk assessment of intentional fires. The framework was examined in an automotive industry . Results : The designed framework contained five steps as 1 asset inventory and prioritizing them according to their importance, 2 invasion assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment, 4 risk assessment and design and 5 implementation and evaluating the effectiveness of corrective/preventive actions. Thirty different scenarios for intentional fires were identified by implementing the designed framework in an automotive company, and then the associated risk of each scenario was quantitatively determined. Conclusion : Compared to seven models, the proposed framework represents its comprehension. Development of safety and security standards and a central security information bank to reduce security risks, including the risk of intentional fires is recommended .

  9. Methodological Approach Into Researching Traffic Under Extraordinary Security Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Anthony Ercegovac

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of researching traffic under extraordinaryconditions in order to implement a more efficient and functionaltraffic management strategy under both normal and irregularconditions- as well as the grey zone of when the changefrom normal into extraordinary traffic conditions actually occur-provides the researcher with numerous methodologicalproblems.Starting from the viewpoint that the field of traffic scienceneeds an increase into the capacity of research into traffic underextraordinary conditions we have chosen to define withinthis article a specific methodological approach that undertakesa study into the exposure, menace, threat and risk faced by trafficsystems under extraordinary conditions through utilisingmethods utilised by the military that allow for the possible resolutionof such problems through compatible testing of both simulatedand real life conditions that such systems may face.In searching for possible applicable solutions to such demandingparametres we believe that the use of concrete informationin real time and real space in order to bring about amore efficient functioning of traffic under extraordinary conditionscan be achieved through the use of the analytical capacityof traffic systems information gathering attained through theusage of Uninhabited Flying Vehicles (UFVs in monitoringroad, rail and maritime traffic and transport.

  10. The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-11

    The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

  11. Simulation of three lanes one-way freeway in low visibility weather by possible traffic accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-bao; Zheng, Sha-sha; Cai, Zhang-hui

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the traffic impact of low visibility weather on a freeway including the fraction of real vehicle rear-end accidents and road traffic capacity. Based on symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a cellular automaton model of three-lane freeway mainline with the real occurrence of rear-end accidents in low visibility weather, which considers delayed reaction time and deceleration restriction, was established with access to real-time traffic information of intelligent transportation system (ITS). The characteristics of traffic flow in different visibility weather were discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that incoming flow control (decreasing upstream traffic volume) and inputting variable speed limits (VSL) signal are effective in accident reducing and road actual traffic volume's enhancing. According to different visibility and traffic demand the appropriate control strategies should be adopted in order to not only decrease the probability of vehicle accidents but also avoid congestion.

  12. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols—HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic, furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components. (general)

  13. Mobile Traffic Alert and Tourist Route Guidance System Design Using Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Painho, M.; Mishra, S.; Gupta, A.

    2017-09-01

    The present study describes an integrated system for traffic data collection and alert warning. Geographical information based decision making related to traffic destinations and routes is proposed through the design. The system includes a geospatial database having profile relating to a user of a mobile device. The processing and understanding of scanned maps, other digital data input leads to route guidance. The system includes a server configured to receive traffic information relating to a route and location information relating to the mobile device. Server is configured to send a traffic alert to the mobile device when the traffic information and the location information indicate that the mobile device is traveling toward traffic congestion. Proposed system has geospatial and mobile data sets pertaining to Bangalore city in India. It is envisaged to be helpful for touristic purposes as a route guidance and alert relaying information system to tourists for proximity to sites worth seeing in a city they have entered into. The system is modular in architecture and the novelty lies in integration of different modules carrying different technologies for a complete traffic information system. Generic information processing and delivery system has been tested to be functional and speedy under test geospatial domains. In a restricted prototype model with geo-referenced route data required information has been delivered correctly over sustained trials to designated cell numbers, with average time frame of 27.5 seconds, maximum 50 and minimum 5 seconds. Traffic geo-data set trials testing is underway.

  14. MOBILE TRAFFIC ALERT AND TOURIST ROUTE GUIDANCE SYSTEM DESIGN USING GEOSPATIAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bhattacharya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes an integrated system for traffic data collection and alert warning. Geographical information based decision making related to traffic destinations and routes is proposed through the design. The system includes a geospatial database having profile relating to a user of a mobile device. The processing and understanding of scanned maps, other digital data input leads to route guidance. The system includes a server configured to receive traffic information relating to a route and location information relating to the mobile device. Server is configured to send a traffic alert to the mobile device when the traffic information and the location information indicate that the mobile device is traveling toward traffic congestion. Proposed system has geospatial and mobile data sets pertaining to Bangalore city in India. It is envisaged to be helpful for touristic purposes as a route guidance and alert relaying information system to tourists for proximity to sites worth seeing in a city they have entered into. The system is modular in architecture and the novelty lies in integration of different modules carrying different technologies for a complete traffic information system. Generic information processing and delivery system has been tested to be functional and speedy under test geospatial domains. In a restricted prototype model with geo-referenced route data required information has been delivered correctly over sustained trials to designated cell numbers, with average time frame of 27.5 seconds, maximum 50 and minimum 5 seconds. Traffic geo-data set trials testing is underway.

  15. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  16. Intention-to-treat

    OpenAIRE

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2005-01-01

    The randomized clinical trial paradigm is sketched, as well as the foundations on which its validity is based. Issues that jeopardize this validity, such as patient noncompliance and early withdrawal, are discussed. Intention to treat, being an important historical answer to this problem, is introduced, together with a set of criticisms and an indication of alternative approaches. as-treated analysis;clinical trial;incomplete data;last observation carried forward;randomization

  17. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  18. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  19. The validation of the turnover intention scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F.C. Bothma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Turnover intention as a construct has attracted increased research attention in the recent past, but there are seemingly not many valid and reliable scales around to measure turnover intention. Research purpose: This study focused on the validation of a shortened, six-item version of the turnover intention scale (TIS-6. Motivation for the study: The research question of whether the TIS-6 is a reliable and a valid scale for measuring turnover intention and for predicting actual turnover was addressed in this study. Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a census-based sample (n= 2429 of employees in an information, communication and technology (ICT sector company (N= 23 134 where the TIS-6 was used as one of the criterion variables. The leavers (those who left the company in this sample were compared with the stayers (those who remained in the employ of the company in this sample in respect of different variables used in the study. Main findings: It was established that the TIS-6 could measure turnover intentions reliably (α= 0.80. The TIS-6 could significantly distinguish between leavers and stayers (actual turnover, thereby confirming its criterion-predictive validity. The scale also established statistically significant differences between leavers and stayers in respect of a number of the remaining theoretical variables used in the study, thereby also confirming its differential validity. These comparisons were conducted for both the 4-month and the 4-year period after the survey was conducted. Practical/managerial implications: Turnover intention is related to a number of variables in the study which necessitates a reappraisal and a reconceptualisation of existing turnover intention models. Contribution/value-add: The TIS-6 can be used as a reliable and valid scale to assess turnover intentions and can therefore be used in research to validly and reliably assess turnover intentions or to

  20. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.