WorldWideScience

Sample records for traffic congestion management

  1. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  2. Management of Traffic Congestion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilibald Premzl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of road vehicles is increasing, the benefits they affordhave been progressively diminished by external costs.Whereas traffic increases as we approach the centre, the roadand open space decreases. The greater specialisation allows thecity growth in size and in traffic attraction. In this way urbangrowth feeds itself !mer-urban transp011 facilities also becomemore extensive. Growth in size of the city generates greateramounts of traffic and can eventually give rise to agglomerationdiseconomies. Higher transport costs, offices and shops, attractedby the accessibility of central locations, gradually replaceresidential uses, people being forced to seek housing inthe suburbs. As the urban area expands and offices in the citycentre are built denser and highe1; traffic congestion increases.This may result in the fall in centra/land values, since accessibilitydiminishes with the saturation of transport network. Increasedpollution takes various forms as noise, smoke andovercrowded housing in the centre, urban decay in the transitionalzone as commercial development is anticipated.

  3. Road Traffic Congestion Management Based on a Search-Allocation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiyn Jamal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new scheme for road traffic management in smart cities, aimed at reducing road traffic congestion. The scheme is based on a combination of searching, updating, and allocation techniques (SUA. An SUA approach is proposed to reduce the processing time for forecasting the conditions of all road sections in real-time, which is typically considerable and complex. It searches for the shortest route based on historical observations, then computes travel time forecasts based on vehicular location in real-time. Using updated information, which includes travel time forecasts and accident forecasts, the vehicle is allocated the appropriate section. The novelty of the SUA scheme lies in its updating of vehicles in every time to reduce traffic congestion. Furthermore, the SUA approach supports autonomy and management by self-regulation, which recommends its use in smart cities that support internet of things (IoT technologies.

  4. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  5. Busy hour traffic congestion analysis in mobile macrocells | Ozovehe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, real live traffic data from integrated GSM/GPRS network was used for traffic congestion analysis. The analysis was carried out on 10 congesting cells using network management system (NMS) statistics data span for three years period. Correlation test showed that traffic channel (TCH) congestion depend only ...

  6. Road traffic congestion a concise guide

    CERN Document Server

    Falcocchio, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.  

  7. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    delay, based on hours spent in traffic in a year, grew by 22% as the national average of hours spent in delay grew from 36 hours to 44 hours. Peak delay per traveler grew one-third in medium-size urban areas over the 10 year period. The traffic engineering community has developed an arsenal of integrated tools to mitigate the impacts of congestion on freeway throughput and performance, including pricing of capacity to manage demand for travel. Congestion pricing is a strategy which dynamically matches demand with available capacity. A congestion price is a user fee equal to the added cost imposed on other travelers as a result of the last traveler's entry into the highway network. The concept is based on the idea that motorists should pay for the additional congestion they create when entering a congested road. The concept calls for fees to vary according to the level of congestion with the price mechanism applied to make travelers more fully aware of the congestion externality they impose on other travelers and the system itself. The operational rationales for the institution of pricing strategies are to improve the efficiency of operations in a corridor and/or to better manage congestion. To this end, the objectives of this project were to: (1) Better understand and quantify the impacts of congestion pricing strategies on traffic operations through the study of actual projects, and (2) Better understand and quantify the impacts of congestion pricing strategies on traffic operations through the use of modeling and other analytical methods. Specifically, the project was to identify credible analytical procedures that FHWA can use to quantify the impacts of various congestion pricing strategies on traffic flow (throughput) and congestion.

  8. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  9. Research on Congestion Pricing in Multimode Traffic considering Delay and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongna Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of urbanization and automation has resulted in serious urban traffic congestion and air pollution problems in many Chinese cities recently. As a traffic demand management strategy, congestion pricing is acknowledged to be effective in alleviating the traffic congestion and improving the efficiency of traffic system. This paper proposes an urban traffic congestion pricing model based on the consideration of transportation network efficiency and environment effects. First, the congestion pricing problem under multimode (i.e., car mode and bus mode urban traffic network condition is investigated. Second, a traffic congestion pricing model based on bilevel programming is formulated for a dual-mode urban transportation network, in which the delay and emission of vehicles are considered. Third, an improved mathematical algorithm combining successive average method with the genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the bilevel programming problem. Finally, a numerical experiment based on a hypothetical network is performed to validate the proposed congestion pricing model and algorithm.

  10. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Monechi

    Full Text Available Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  11. Congestion transition in air traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Servedio, Vito D P; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.

  12. Coordinated Traffic Incident and Congestion Management (TIM-CM) : Mitigating Regional Impacts of Major Traffic Incidents in the Seattle I-5 Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Within the Seattle metropolitan area, traffic incident management (TIM) operations provide a multi-jurisdictional and coordinated strategy to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents so that traffic flow can be restored quickly and safely. The...

  13. The economic cost of traffic congestion in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Traffic congestion in the U.S. is bad and getting worse, and it is expensive. Appropriate solutions to this problem require appropriate information. A comprehensive and accurate analysis of congestion costs is a critical tool for planning and impleme...

  14. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  15. The impact of a congestion assistant on traffic flow efficiency and safety in congested traffic caused by a lane drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie; van Arem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study conducted to investigate the impact of a Congestion Assistant on traffic efficiency and traffic safety. The Congestion Assistant is an in-vehicle system in which an active pedal supports the driver when approaching

  16. Alleviating Traffic Congestion in Manila, Appraisal of the Pasig Expressway

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; BAHER EL-HIFNAWI

    2002-01-01

    Travel in Metro Manila at present is characterized by high levels of congestion, slow travel speeds, long journey times and limited road capacity. The situation will be further exacerbated due to the expected growth in population and income and the subsequent increase in car ownership. Localized traffic management schemes are no longer sufficient to solve the problem. Solutions on the demand side curbing the demand for car ownership and use should be considered together with solutions on the ...

  17. An Efficient Traffic Congestion Monitoring System on Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Binh Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing intelligent transport systems (ITS do not fully consider and resolve accuracy, instantaneity, and compatibility challenges while resolving traffic congestion in Internet of Vehicles (IoV environments. This paper proposes a traffic congestion monitoring system, which includes data collection, segmented structure establishment, traffic-flow modelling, local segment traffic congestion prediction, and origin-destination traffic congestion service for drivers. Macroscopic model-based traffic-flow factors were formalized on the basis of the analysis results. Fuzzy rules-based local segment traffic congestion prediction was performed to determine the traffic congestion state. To enhance prediction efficiency, this paper presents a verification process for minimizing false predictions which is based on the Rankine-Hugoniot condition and an origin-destination traffic congestion service is also provided. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, a prototype was implemented. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively monitor traffic congestion in terms of accuracy and system response time.

  18. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  19. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Messai, Nadhir

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  20. Congestion management in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing Alberta regarding electricity market design and congestion management were described. The electricity market in the province consists of a central power pool, an open access transmission network, and a single pool price, unlike many other jurisdictions in North America which have adopted a location margin price (LMP) design with significant price differences between various locations within the power network. Alberta's transmission network is regulated and provides carrier functions. Power moves freely throughout Alberta's power pool network with no congestion, therefore the common pool price signals market participants throughout the entire network with no segregation into zones. Alberta is currently at a cross road in choosing between a single pool price model or a nodal price model. In the first instance, the province would have to strengthen the transmission network to maintain the market at a reasonable size. The alternative would permit Alberta to use market-based techniques to deal with the evolution of many smaller markets in the province, but these would be very small by North American standards and their ability to compete would be questionable

  1. Identifying the Onset of Congestion Rapidly with Existing Traffic Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    From an operations standpoint, the most important task of a traffic surveillance system is determining reliably whether the facility is free flowing or congested. The second most important task is responding rapidly when the facility becomes congested. Other tasks, such as quantifying the magnitude of congestion, are desirable, but tertiary. To address the first two tasks, this paper presents a new approach for traffic surveillance using existing detectors. Rather than expending a considerabl...

  2. A theory of traffic congestion at moving bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S [Daimler AG, GR/PTF, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany); Klenov, Sergey L, E-mail: boris.kerner@daimler.co [Department of Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-22

    The physics of traffic congestion occurring at a moving bottleneck on a multi-lane road is revealed based on the numerical analyses of vehicular traffic with a discrete stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. We find that there is a critical speed of a moving bottleneck at which traffic breakdown, i.e. a first-order phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow, occurs spontaneously at the moving bottleneck, if the flow rate upstream of the bottleneck is great enough. The greater the flow rate, the higher the critical speed of the moving bottleneck. A diagram of congested traffic patterns at the moving bottleneck is found, which shows regions in the flow-rate-moving-bottleneck-speed plane in which congested patterns emerge spontaneously or can be induced through large enough disturbances in an initial free flow. A comparison of features of traffic breakdown and resulting congested patterns at the moving bottleneck with known ones at an on-ramp (and other motionless) bottleneck is made. Nonlinear features of complex interactions and transformations of congested traffic patterns occurring at on- and off-ramp bottlenecks due to the existence of the moving bottleneck are found. The physics of the phenomenon of traffic congestion due to 'elephant racing' on a multi-lane road is revealed.

  3. A theory of traffic congestion at moving bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L

    2010-01-01

    The physics of traffic congestion occurring at a moving bottleneck on a multi-lane road is revealed based on the numerical analyses of vehicular traffic with a discrete stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. We find that there is a critical speed of a moving bottleneck at which traffic breakdown, i.e. a first-order phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow, occurs spontaneously at the moving bottleneck, if the flow rate upstream of the bottleneck is great enough. The greater the flow rate, the higher the critical speed of the moving bottleneck. A diagram of congested traffic patterns at the moving bottleneck is found, which shows regions in the flow-rate-moving-bottleneck-speed plane in which congested patterns emerge spontaneously or can be induced through large enough disturbances in an initial free flow. A comparison of features of traffic breakdown and resulting congested patterns at the moving bottleneck with known ones at an on-ramp (and other motionless) bottleneck is made. Nonlinear features of complex interactions and transformations of congested traffic patterns occurring at on- and off-ramp bottlenecks due to the existence of the moving bottleneck are found. The physics of the phenomenon of traffic congestion due to 'elephant racing' on a multi-lane road is revealed.

  4. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Benítez, Néstor; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Magaña-Espinoza, Pedro; Aguilar-Velazco, José; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Medina Cass, Aldo

    2016-04-28

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO₂ and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  5. Congestion Management System Process Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In January 1995, the Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization with the help of an interagency Study Review Committee began the process of developing a Congestion Management System (CMS) Plan resulting in this report. This report documents the ...

  6. How Congested Jakarta is? Perception of Jakarta’s Citizen on Traffic Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Halley Yudhistira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the behavior and perception of Jakarta’s citizens on traffic congestion in Jakarta. Although this approach is somewhat well-developed in behavioral science, its utilization in urban economics study, is still limited. Detecting the traffic congestion and its cause mainly relies on physical (engineering methods, i.e V/C ratio. Here, we define the traffic congestion through two variables; ordinal traffic congestion perception and proportion of expected travel time to perceived travel time. Using a non-probabilistic sampling survey held in one of densest business district in Jakarta called Sudirman-Thamrin Golden Triangle Area; the estimation results show that travel behavior plays a major role in affecting travel time perceptions.

  7. Grid Mapping for Spatial Pattern Analyses of Recurrent Urban Traffic Congestion Based on Taxi GPS Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most serious problems that impact urban transportation efficiency, especially in big cities. Identifying traffic congestion locations and occurring patterns is a prerequisite for urban transportation managers in order to take proper countermeasures for mitigating traffic congestion. In this study, the historical GPS sensing data of about 12,000 taxi floating cars in Beijing were used for pattern analyses of recurrent traffic congestion based on the grid mapping method. Through the use of ArcGIS software, 2D and 3D maps of the road network congestion were generated for traffic congestion pattern visualization. The study results showed that three types of traffic congestion patterns were identified, namely: point type, stemming from insufficient capacities at the nodes of the road network; line type, caused by high traffic demand or bottleneck issues in the road segments; and region type, resulting from multiple high-demand expressways merging and connecting to each other. The study illustrated that the proposed method would be effective for discovering traffic congestion locations and patterns and helpful for decision makers to take corresponding traffic engineering countermeasures in order to relieve the urban traffic congestion issues.

  8. 434 Urban Traffic Congestion and Its Attendant Health Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Keywords: Congestion, Effects, Health, Road Traffic, and Road Users. ..... of transport problems that can be identified are: bad roads, fuel problem (high fuel price .... Cities.www.ghanaweb.com/ghanahomepage/news archive.

  9. Exploring spatio-temporal patterns in traffic congestion data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels; Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    2017-01-01

    An efficient infrastructure is essential for economic development. However, economic growth has been closely connected to the increasing road transport. This increases traffic congestions significantly, and road network gets near or at its capacity limits. Hence, congestion has become a central...

  10. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez; Raúl Aquino-Santos; Pedro Magaña-Espinoza; José Aguilar-Velazco; Arthur Edwards-Block; Aldo Medina Cass

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which ...

  11. Statewide planning scenario synthesis : transportation congestion measurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This study is a review of current practices in 13 states to: (1) measure traffic congestion and its costs; and (2) manage congestion with programs and techniques that do not involve the building of new highway capacity. In regard to the measures of c...

  12. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S [Daimler AG, GR/ETI, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2008-05-30

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents.

  13. A theory of traffic congestion at heavy bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal features and physics of vehicular traffic congestion occurring due to heavy highway bottlenecks caused for example by bad weather conditions or accidents are found based on simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory. A model of a heavy bottleneck is presented. Under a continuous non-limited increase in bottleneck strength, i.e., when the average flow rate within a congested pattern allowed by the heavy bottleneck decreases continuously up to zero, the evolution of the traffic phases in congested traffic, synchronized flow and wide moving jams, is studied. It is found that at a small enough flow rate within the congested pattern, the pattern exhibits a non-regular structure: a pinch region of synchronized flow within the pattern disappears and appears randomly over time; wide moving jams upstream of the pinch region exhibit a complex non-regular dynamics in which the jams appear and disappear randomly. At greater bottleneck strengths, wide moving jams merge onto a mega-wide moving jam (mega-jam) within which low-speed patterns with a complex non-regular spatiotemporal dynamics occur. We show that when the bottleneck strength is great enough, only the mega-jam survives and synchronized flow remains only within its downstream front separating free flow and congested traffic. Theoretical results presented can explain why no sequence of wide moving jams can often be distinguished in non-homogeneous traffic congestion measured at very heavy bottlenecks caused by bad weather conditions or accidents

  14. Towards Scalable Distributed Framework for Urban Congestion Traffic Patterns Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boulmakoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We put forward architecture of a framework for integration of data from moving objects related to urban transportation network. Most of this research refers to the GPS outdoor geolocation technology and uses distributed cloud infrastructure with big data NoSQL database. A network of intelligent mobile sensors, distributed on urban network, produces congestion traffic patterns. Congestion predictions are based on extended simulation model. This model provides traffic indicators calculations, which fuse with the GPS data for allowing estimation of traffic states across the whole network. The discovery process of congestion patterns uses semantic trajectories metamodel given in our previous works. The challenge of the proposed solution is to store patterns of traffic, which aims to ensure the surveillance and intelligent real-time control network to reduce congestion and avoid its consequences. The fusion of real-time data from GPS-enabled smartphones integrated with those provided by existing traffic systems improves traffic congestion knowledge, as well as generating new information for a soft operational control and providing intelligent added value for transportation systems deployment.

  15. Traffic Congestion Detection and Avoidance using Vehicular Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendrabhai Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a serious problem in big cities. With the number of vehicles increasing rapidly, especially in cities whose economy is booming, the situation is getting even worse. Drivers, unaware of congestion ahead eventually join it and increase the severity of it. The ability of a driver to know the traffic conditions on the roads ahead enables him/her to seek alternate routes through which time and fuel can be saved. Due to recent advancements in vehicular technologies, vehicular communication has emerged. The objective of this work is to check feasibility of using infrastructure based vehicular communication for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a Signal Agent (SA and Car Agent(CAbased approach for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. We analyze performance of the proposed approach for two different road network scenarios using simulations: structured grid network (like Gandhinagar City of Gujarat, India and apart of typical city road network ( Tiwan city. With the proposed approach we get reduction of 10.05% in trip duration of vehicles, reduction of 10.08% in number of vehicles in entire traffic road network and 9.82% in heavy traffic area. In an accident scenario, about 72.63% vehicles changed their route due to awareness of congestion. Error in trip time estimation and vehicle count estimation is observed to be less than 1%.

  16. Modeling truck traffic volume growth congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Modeling of the statewide transportation system is an important element in understanding issues and programming of funds to thwart potential congestion. As Alabama grows its manufacturing economy, the number of heavy vehicles traversing its highways ...

  17. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on real-time traffic. Then, the cluster analysis using the attributes of congestion time was conducted to identify the main traffic congestion areas. The result of a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the land use showed that the influence of the high proportion of commercial land use on the traffic congestion was significant. Also, we considered five types of land use through performing a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the ratio of four types of land use. The results showed that the reasonable ratio of land use types could efficiently reduce congestion time. This study makes contributions to the policy-making of urban land use.

  18. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  19. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianqi; Sun, Lishan; Yao, Liya; Rong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI) and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on ...

  20. Congestion and communication in confined ant traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Gold, Gregory; Zangwill, Andrew; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-03-01

    Many social animals move and communicate within confined spaces. In subterranean fire ants Solenopsis invicta, mobility within crowded nest tunnels is important for resource and information transport. Within confined tunnels, communication and traffic flow are at odds: trafficking ants communicate through tactile interactions while stopped, yet ants that stop to communicate impose physical obstacles on the traffic. We monitor the bi-directional flow of fire ant workers in laboratory tunnels of varied diameter D. The persistence time of communicating ant aggregations, τ, increases approximately linearly with the number of participating ants, n. The sensitivity of traffic flow increases as D decreases and diverges at a minimum diameter, Dc. A cellular automata model incorporating minimal traffic features--excluded volume and communication duration--reproduces features of the experiment. From the model we identify a competition between information transfer and the need to maintain jam-free traffic flow. We show that by balancing information transfer and traffic flow demands, an optimum group strategy exists which maximizes information throughput. We acknowledge funding from NSF PoLS #0957659 and #PHY-1205878.

  1. Determinants of Traffic Congestion in the Metropolis of Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, urban agglomeration used as a proxy for traffic congestion has a negative effect on urban growth and economic growth. Based on the above results, it is recommended that a remedial infrastructural development plan and a sustainable polycentric land use pattern with alternative efficient mode of public ...

  2. Impact of Incidents on Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mfinanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.

  3. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  4. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow-density curves; uninterrupted traffic; Jackson networks. ... ness - also suffer from a big handicap vis-a-vis the Indian scenario: most of these models do .... more well-known queuing network models and onsite data, a more exact Road Cell ...

  5. Research on Urban Road Traffic Congestion Charging Based on Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sun

    Traffic congestion is a major problem which bothers our urban traffic sustainable development at present. Congestion charging is an effective measure to alleviate urban traffic congestion. The paper first probes into several key issues such as the goal, the pricing, the scope, the method and the redistribution of congestion charging from theoretical angle. Then it introduces congestion charging practice in Singapore and London and draws conclusion and suggestion that traffic congestion charging should take scientific plan, support of public, public transportation development as the premise.

  6. Real time driver information for congestion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Traffic demand in the U.S. has grown substantially over the past few years because of the increase in population and : urbanization in large cities. This causes traffic congestion to spread out over U.S. highways and arterials, and subsequently : lea...

  7. Congestion Quantification Using the National Performance Management Research Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia P. Sisiopiku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of transportation system performance is a key element of any transportation operation and planning strategy. Estimation of dependable performance measures relies on analysis of large amounts of traffic data, which are often expensive and difficult to gather. National databases can assist in this regard, but challenges still remain with respect to data management, accuracy, storage, and use for performance monitoring. In an effort to address such challenges, this paper showcases a process that utilizes the National Performance Management Research Data Set (NPMRDS for generating performance measures for congestion monitoring applications in the Birmingham region. The capabilities of the relational database management system (RDBMS are employed to manage the large amounts of NPMRDS data. Powerful visual maps are developed using GIS software and used to illustrate congestion location, extent and severity. Travel time reliability indices are calculated and utilized to quantify congestion, and congestion intensity measures are developed and employed to rank and prioritize congested segments in the study area. The process for managing and using big traffic data described in the Birmingham case study is a great example that can be replicated by small and mid-size Metropolitan Planning Organizations to generate performance-based measures and monitor congestion in their jurisdictions.

  8. Indirect Damage of Urban Flooding: Investigation of Flood-Induced Traffic Congestion Using Dynamic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxuan Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, industrialization has led to rapid urbanization. Increased frequency of urban flooding is one consequence of the expansion of urban areas which can seriously affect the productivity and livelihoods of urban residents. Therefore, it is of vital importance to study the effects of rainfall and urban flooding on traffic congestion and driver behavior. In this study, a comprehensive method to analyze the influence of urban flooding on traffic congestion was developed. First, a flood simulation was conducted to predict the spatiotemporal distribution of flooding based on Storm Water Management Model (SWMM and TELAMAC-2D. Second, an agent-based model (ABM was used to simulate driver behavior during a period of urban flooding, and a car-following model was established. Finally, in order to study the mechanisms behind how urban flooding affects traffic congestion, the impact of flooding on urban traffic was investigated based on a case study of the urban area of Lishui, China, covering an area of 4.4 km2. It was found that for most events, two-hour rainfall has a certain impact on traffic congestion over a five-hour period, with the greatest impact during the hour following the cessation of the rain. Furthermore, the effects of rainfall with 10- and 20-year return periods were found to be similar and small, whereas the effects with a 50-year return period were obvious. Based on a combined analysis of hydrology and transportation, the proposed methods and conclusions could help to reduce traffic congestion during flood seasons, to facilitate early warning and risk management of urban flooding, and to assist users in making informed decisions regarding travel.

  9. Congestion management in liberalized market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on the survey conducted by WG C5.4 on congestion management. It describes market conditions and institutional arrangements in the 18 countries participating in the survey, and internal and cross-border congestion management. The interaction with the electricity market is discussed, considering allocation of transmission capacity, market schedule, congestion management tools and payment for the costs incurred. The survey shows that there is a tendency towards the use of market-based methods. (author)

  10. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  11. A NEW CONGESTION MANAGEMENT MECHANISM FOR NEXT GENERATION ROUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED M. KADHUM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available While computer networks go towards dealing with varied traffic types with different service requirements, there is a necessity for modern network control mechanisms that can control the network traffic to meet the users' service requirements. Optimizing the network utilization by improving the network performance can help to accommodate more users and thus increase operators’ profits. Controlling the congestion at the gateway leads to better performance of the network. Sending congestion signal sooner can be of great benefit to the TCP connection. In this paper, we propose Fast Congestion Notification (FCN mechanism which is a new method for managing the gateway queues and fast sending of congestion signal to the sender. We tested our mechanism on Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN packets which have higher priority; we achieved good results in terms of faster congestion signal propagation and better network utilization. Our analysis and simulations results show that the use of FCN over TCP connections sharing one bottleneck can improve the throughput, having less loss, less delay time, and better network utilization.

  12. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of traffic congestion are simulated by using the improved medium traffic model, and the control strategy of congestion dissipation is studied. From the point of view of quantitative traffic congestion, the paper provides the fact that the simulation platform of urban traffic integration is constructed, and a feasible data analysis, learning, and parameter calibration method based on RBF neural network is proposed, which is used to determine the corresponding decision support system. The simulation results prove that the control strategy proposed in this paper is effective and feasible. According to the temporal and spatial evolution of the paper, we can see that the network has been improved on the whole.

  13. Research on Analysis Method of Traffic Congestion Mechanism Based on Improved Cell Transmission Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhao Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the spreading regularity of the initial traffic congestion, the improved cell transmission model (CTM is proposed to describe the evolution mechanism of traffic congestion in regional road grid. Ordinary cells and oriented cells are applied to render the crowd roads and their adjacent roads. Therefore the traffic flow could be simulated by these cells. Resorting to the proposed model, the duration of the initial traffic congestion could be predicted and the subsequent secondary congestion could be located. Accordingly, the spatial diffusion of traffic congestion could be estimated. At last, taking a road network region of Hangzhou city as an example, the simulation experiment is implemented to verify the proposed method by PARAMICS software. The result shows that the method could predict the duration of the initial congestion and estimate its spatial diffusion accurately.

  14. Development of a Traffic Management Decision Support Tool for Freeway Incident Traffic Management (FITM) Plan Deployment : Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In designing an effective traffic management plan for non-recurrent congestion, it is critical for responsible highway agencies to have some vital information, such as estimated incident duration, resulting traffic queues, and the expected delays. Ov...

  15. Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S.; Stock, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow and occupancy using long and short term information. Mechanistic interpolation using macroscopic traffic models and based on the traffic flow and occupancy forecasted (item-1), and the empirical relationships (item-2) for the specific highway configuration at the time of simulation (construction, lane closure, etc.). Statistical routine for detection and classification of anomalies and their impact on the highway capacity which are fed back to previous items.

  16. (GIS-T) application for traffic congestion analyses in the De

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generation known as the 'traditional stopwatch and traffic congestion registration ... transportation safety analysis, travel demand analysis, traffic monitoring and .... many transportation agencies use distance measuring instruments (DMIs) in their probe vehicles. ..... Spatial Implications of the Tuberculosis DOTS Strategy in.

  17. An efficient statistical-based approach for road traffic congestion monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhafid, Zeroual

    2017-12-14

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach which has to detect traffic congestion. The detection strategy is based on the combinational use of piecewise switched linear traffic (PWSL) model with exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. PWSL model describes traffic flow dynamics. Then, PWSL residuals are used as the input of EWMA chart to detect traffic congestions. The evaluation results of the developed approach using data from a portion of the I210-W highway in Califorina showed the efficiency of the PWSL-EWMA approach in in detecting traffic congestions.

  18. An efficient statistical-based approach for road traffic congestion monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhafid, Zeroual; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach which has to detect traffic congestion. The detection strategy is based on the combinational use of piecewise switched linear traffic (PWSL) model with exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. PWSL model describes traffic flow dynamics. Then, PWSL residuals are used as the input of EWMA chart to detect traffic congestions. The evaluation results of the developed approach using data from a portion of the I210-W highway in Califorina showed the efficiency of the PWSL-EWMA approach in in detecting traffic congestions.

  19. Vehicle Routing with Traffic Congestion and Drivers' Driving and Working Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2010-01-01

    For the intensively studied vehicle routing problem (VRP), two real-life restrictions have received only minor attention in the VRP-literature: traffic congestion and driving hours regulations. Traffic congestion causes late arrivals at customers and long travel times resulting in large transport

  20. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  1. Emergency medical service providers' experiences with traffic congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-02-01

    The population's migration from urban to suburban areas has resulted in a more dispersed population and has increased traffic flow, possibly resulting in longer emergency response times. Although studies have examined the effect of response times on time to definitive care and survival, no study has addressed the possible causes of slowed response time from the point of view of emergency medical services (EMS) first responders. To assess the variables most commonly associated with increased emergency response time as described by the opinions and views of EMS first responders. A total of 500 surveys were sent to randomly selected individuals registered as first responders with the Alabama Department of Public Health, and 112 surveys were returned completed. The survey included questions regarding roadway design, response to emergency calls, in-vehicle technology aimed at decreasing travel time, and public education regarding emergency response. Respondents reported traveling on city streets most often during emergency calls, and encountering traffic more often on interstates and national highways. Traffic congestion, on average, resulted in nearly 10min extra response time. Most agreed that the most effective in-vehicle technology for reducing response time was a pre-emptive green light device; however, very few reported availability of this device in their emergency vehicles. Public education regarding how to react to approaching emergency vehicles was stated as having the greatest potential impact on reducing emergency response time. The results of the survey suggest that the best methods for reducing emergency response times are those that are easy to implement (e.g., public education). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  3. Network Congestion and Performance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmaker, Andrew Glenn

    2016-01-01

    We increasingly depend on well-behaved networks in the course of every-day activities for business, community, government, science, and recreation. And with more people demanding a greater variety of services comes sharp disagreement about which needs are most important. Unfortunately, today’s technology is inadequate to guarantee the performance of dynamic and diverse workloads in such a way that we are prevented from hurting each other’s goals.No one likes waiting in traffic, whether on a r...

  4. Traffic congestion and blood pressure elevation: A comparative cross-sectional study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Samra, Patrick; El Tomb, Paul; Hosni, Mohammad; Kassem, Ahmad; Rizk, Robin; Shayya, Sami; Assaad, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    This comparative cross-sectional study examines the association between traffic congestion and elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure levels among a convenience sample of 310 drivers. Data collection took place during a gas station pause at a fixed time of day. Higher average systolic (142 vs 123 mm Hg) and diastolic (87 vs 78 mm Hg) blood pressures were detected among drivers exposed to traffic congestion compared with those who were not exposed (P<.001), while controlling for body mass index, age, sex, pack-year smoking, driving hours per week, and occupational driving. Moreover, among persons exposed to traffic congestion, longer exposure time was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the significant association between elevated blood pressure and traffic congestion. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Short paper: Distributed vehicular traffic congestion detection algorithm for urban environments

    OpenAIRE

    Milojevic, M.; Rakocevic, V.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion is a well-known economic and social problem generating significant costs and safety challenges, and increasing pollution in the cities. Current intelligent transport systems and vehicular networking technologies rely heavily on the supporting network infrastructure which is still not widely available. This paper contributes towards the development of distributed and cooperative vehicular traffic congestion detection by proposing a new vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cong...

  6. A model of jam formation in congested traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzarova, N. Zh; Pesheva, N. C.; Priezzhev, V. B.; Brankov, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study a model of irreversible jam formation in congested vehicular traffic on an open segment of a single-lane road. The vehicles obey a stochastic discrete-time dynamics which is a limiting case of the generalized Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process. Its characteristic features are: (a) the existing clusters of jammed cars cannot break into parts; (b) when the leading vehicle of a cluster hops to the right, the whole cluster follows it deterministically, and (c) any two clusters of vehicles, occupying consecutive positions on the chain, may become nearest-neighbors and merge irreversibly into a single cluster. The above dynamics was used in a one-dimensional model of irreversible aggregation by Bunzarova and Pesheva [Phys. Rev. E 95, 052105 (2017)]. The model has three stationary non-equilibrium phases, depending on the probabilities of injection (α), ejection (β), and hopping (p) of particles: a many-particle one, MP, a completely jammed phase CF, and a mixed MP+CF phase. An exact expression for the stationary probability P(1) of a completely jammed configuration in the mixed MP+CF phase is obtained. The gap distribution between neighboring clusters of jammed cars at large lengths L of the road is studied. Three regimes of evolution of the width of a single gap are found: (i) growing gaps with length of the order O(L) when β > p; (ii) shrinking gaps with length of the order O(1) when β < p; and (iii) critical gaps at β = p, of the order O(L 1/2). These results are supported by extensive Monte Carlo calculations.

  7. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  8. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most

  9. Temporal-Spatial Analysis of Traffic Congestion Based on Modified CTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified cell transmission model (CTM is proposed to depict the temporal-spatial evolution of traffic congestion on urban freeways. Specifically, drivers’ adaptive behaviors and the corresponding influence on traffic flows are emphasized. Two piecewise linear regression models are proposed to describe the relationship of flow and density (occupancy. Several types of cellular connections are designed to depict urban rapid roads with on/off-ramps and junctions. Based on the data collected on freeway of Queen Elizabeth, Ontario, Canada, we show that the new model provides a relatively higher accuracy of temporal-spatial evolution of traffic congestions.

  10. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  11. Transport growth in Bangkok: Energy, environment, and traffic congestion. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, J. [Asia Regional Office, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-07-01

    Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is a physically and economically complexcity with a complicated transport system. With daily traffic congestion averaging 16 hours, the air quality is such that to breathe street level pollution for 8 eight hours is roughly equivalent to smoking nine cigarettes per day. Estimates suggest idling traffic costs up to $1.6 billion annually. Energy use within the transport sector is on a steady rise with an estimated increase in 11 years of two and one half times. Severe health impacts have begun to effect many residents - young children and the elderly being particularly vulnerable. Bangkok`s air quality and congestion problems are far from hopeless. Great potential exists for Bangkok to remedy its transport-related problems. The city has many necessary characteristics that allow an efficient, economical system of transport. For example, its high density level makes the city a prime candidate for an efficient system of mass transit and the multitude and close proximity of shops, street vendors, restaurants, and residential areas is highly conducive to walking and cycling. Technical knowledge and capacity to devise and implement innovative policies and projects to address air quality and congestion problems is plentiful. There is also consensus among Bangkokians that something needs to be done immediately to clear the air and the roads. However, little has been done. This report proposes a new approach to transport planning for Bangkok that integrates consideration of ecological, social, and financial viability in the process of making decisions regarding managing existing infrastructure and investments in new infrastructure. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center vehicular and pedestrian traffic congestion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center of Tongass National Forest in Juneau, Alaska is experiencing vehicular and pedestrian congestion. This study was initiated by the United States Forest Service, Alaska Region, in cooperation with Western Federal L...

  13. Intelligent Traffic Control System Implementation for Traffic Violation Control, Congestion Control and Stolen Vehicle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Suresh Kulkarni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is significant issue in our nation, particularly in urban ranges. Aftereffect of this, activity clog issue happens. Crisis vehicle like rescue vehicle, fire unit, squad cars confront bunches of issue to achieve their goal on account of congested driving conditions, coming about loss of human lives. To minimize this issue we approach new idea name as ”Traffic control framework for blockage control and stolen Vehicle location”. In this framework activity freedom done by transforming Red flag into Green flag. We demonstrate idea of what is called ”Green wave”. Alongside this, we distinguish stolen vehicle by utilizing extremely advantageous RFID innovation. In the event that stolen vehicle is been distinguished, the framework gives ready sign through ringer. Framework sends Message with the assistance of GSM to Police station. In this framework we Use diverse RFID labels for recognizing rescue vehicle, stolen Vehicles. On the off chance that Red flag is on and IR sensor is initiated, then framework gives ringer alarm to movement police. This is novel framework which encourage great answer for comprehend traffic clog.

  14. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  15. HOW TRAVEL DEMAND AFFECTS DETECTION OF NON-RECURRENT TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON URBAN ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anbaroglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London’s urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  16. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  17. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  18. Transmission congestion management in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we mainly discuss how to optimize the arrangement to decrease the loss of each line when the power generation side of the system transmission congestion occurs in a safe and economical manner. We respectively set the adjust model if the transmission can be eliminated which can calculate the best scheme and safety margin model when transmission cannot be eliminated which is a multi-objective planning problem. We solve the two models on the condition of the load power demands are 982.4MW and 1052.8 MW by Lingo and get the optimal management scheme.

  19. Increasing Intelligence in Inter-Vehicle Communications to Reduce Traffic Congestions: Experiments in Urban and Highway Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo I Meneguette

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS rely on Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC to streamline the operation of vehicles by managing vehicle traffic, assisting drivers with safety and sharing information, as well as providing appropriate services for passengers. Traffic congestion is an urban mobility problem, which causes stress to drivers and economic losses. In this context, this work proposes a solution for the detection, dissemination and control of congested roads based on inter-vehicle communication, called INCIDEnT. The main goal of the proposed solution is to reduce the average trip time, CO emissions and fuel consumption by allowing motorists to avoid congested roads. The simulation results show that our proposed solution leads to short delays and a low overhead. Moreover, it is efficient with regard to the coverage of the event and the distance to which the information can be propagated. The findings of the investigation show that the proposed solution leads to (i high hit rate in the classification of the level of congestion, (ii a reduction in average trip time, (iii a reduction in fuel consumption, and (iv reduced CO emissions.

  20. Reasoning the causality of city sprawl, traffic congestion, and green land disappearance in Taiwan using the CLD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Chang, Kaowen

    2014-11-06

    Many city governments choose to supply more developable land and transportation infrastructure with the hope of attracting people and businesses to their cities. However, like those in Taiwan, major cities worldwide suffer from traffic congestion. This study applies the system thinking logic of the causal loops diagram (CLD) model in the System Dynamics (SD) approach to analyze the issue of traffic congestion and other issues related to roads and land development in Taiwan's cities. Comparing the characteristics of development trends with yearbook data for 2002 to 2013 for all of Taiwan's cities, this study explores the developing phenomenon of unlimited city sprawl and identifies the cause and effect relationships in the characteristics of development trends in traffic congestion, high-density population aggregation in cities, land development, and green land disappearance resulting from city sprawl. This study provides conclusions for Taiwan's cities' sustainability and development (S&D). When developing S&D policies, during decision making processes concerning city planning and land use management, governments should think with a holistic view of carrying capacity with the assistance of system thinking to clarify the prejudices in favor of the unlimited developing phenomena resulting from city sprawl.

  1. Dynamic methods of air traffic flow management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek SKORUPSKI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic management is a complex hierarchical system. Hierarchy levels can be defined according to decision making time horizon or to analyze area volume. For medium time horizon and wide analysis area, the air traffic flow management services were established. Their main task is to properly co-ordinate air traffic in European airspace, so as to minimize delays arising in congested sectors. Those services have to assure high safety level at the same time. Thus it is a very complex task, with many goals, many decision variables and many constraints.In the paper review of the methods developed for aiding air traffic flow management services is presented. More detailed description of a dynamic method is given. This method is based on stochastic capacity and scenario analysis. Some problems in utilization of presented methods are also pointed out, so are the next research possibilities.

  2. Launching automated rotary parking system: Towards traffic congestion free Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohummad Shariful; Tithi, Afshana Morshed; Hossain, Farzad; Shetu, Rifat Sultana; Amin, S. M. Abdullah Al; Chowdhury, Shakia Zannatul Ferdous

    2017-12-01

    Bangladesh is the most densely populated city in the whole world, which is visible more in the capital city Dhaka. People have to suffer and valuable times are being wasted for this chronic quandary. Lack of proper planning of the city, different speed vehicles on the same road, over population, inadequate road space, unplanned stoppage or parking etc. are responsible for causing the traffic congestion in Dhaka City. Among those insufficient/unplanned parking system is one of the main reasons for causing traffic congestion. The automated rotary car parking system is the best and suitable because of its less utilization of space compared to other systems. It is a friendly parking system due to the non-utilization of noise/pollution related mechanism. The aim of this paper is to develop an automated car parking system with a minimum cost for reducing congestion in Dhaka city.

  3. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security traffic and transportation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding and safety and security elements in traffic and transportation theory, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between different research approaches and through laying the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both ways – this book puts forward new congestion models, breaking new ground by introducing game theory and safety/security. Addressing the multiple actors who may hold different concerns regarding system reliability; e.g. one or several terrorists, a government, various local or regional government agencies, or others with stakes for or against system reliability, this book describes how ...

  4. Congestion Control and Traffic Scheduling for Collaborative Crowdsourcing in SDN Enabled Mobile Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a number of crowdsourcing-based mobile applications have been implemented in mobile networks and Internet of Things (IoT, targeted at real-time services and recommendation. The frequent information exchanges and data transmissions in collaborative crowdsourcing are heavily injected into the current communication networks, which poses great challenges for Mobile Wireless Networks (MWN. This paper focuses on the traffic scheduling and load balancing problem in software-defined MWN and designs a hybrid routing forwarding scheme as well as a congestion control algorithm to achieve the feasible solution. The traffic scheduling algorithm first sorts the tasks in an ascending order depending on the amount of tasks and then solves it using a greedy scheme. In the proposed congestion control scheme, the traffic assignment is first transformed into a multiknapsack problem, and then the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA is utilized to solve this problem. Numerical results on practical network topology reveal that, compared with the traditional schemes, the proposed congestion control and traffic scheduling schemes can achieve load balancing, reduce the probability of network congestion, and improve the network throughput.

  5. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex A. N. M. Pappoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and urbanization poses myriad challenges to transportation systems in relation to negative externalities such as traffic congestion and environmental health risks. Accra, the capital of Ghana, faces mounting urban planning problems, for example traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and land use planning, among others. The paper aims to provide a system dynamics perspective of the problems. Most of the drivers and cause-effect relationships of traffic congestion and its attendant air pollution are investigated and analyzed using causal loop diagrams. The paper further suggests mechanisms by which the negative externalities associated with road transport in the city of Accra can be addressed.

  6. Managing congestion and intermittent renewable generation in liberalized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Friedrich

    2013-02-27

    This dissertation focuses on selected aspects of network congestion arising in liberalized electricity markets and their management methods with a special weight placed on the integration of increased renewable generation in Europe and Germany. In a first step, the theoretical concepts of congestion management are introduced complemented by a review of current management regimes in selected countries. In the second step, the European approach of managing congestion on international as well as national transmission links is analyzed and the benefits of an integrated congestion management regime are quantified. It is concluded that benefits can be achieved by a closer cooperation of national transmission system operators (TSOs). Thirdly, the German congestion management regime is investigated and the impact of higher renewable generation up to 2020 on congestion management cost is determined. It is shown that a homogeneous and jointly development of generation and transmission infrastructure is a prerequisite for the application of congestion alleviation methods and once they diverge congestion management cost tend to increase substantially. Lastly, the impact of intermittent and uncertain wind generation on electricity markets is analyzed. A stochastic electricity market model is described, which replicates the daily subsequent clearing of reserve, day ahead, and intraday market typical for European countries, and numerical results are presented.

  7. Real Driving Emissions in Congested Traffic: A Comparison of Cold and Hot Start

    OpenAIRE

    Khalfan, A; Andrews, GE; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    Air quality NO₂ and PM exceedances in cities are common, where congested traffic occurs and the monitoring station is at the roadside. This work investigated real world emissions for a Euro 4 SI vehicle on a congested road by a roadside air quality monitoring station that exceeds European air quality standards for NOx and PM. The PEMS used was the Temet FTIR with Horiba OBS pitot tube exhaust mass flow sensor and gas sampler. Twenty nine hot start repeat journeys were made at different times ...

  8. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Desai

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN, wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction, across variations in: (a environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  9. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prajakta; Loke, Seng W; Desai, Aniruddha

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN), wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction), across variations in: (a) environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b) algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c) agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  10. Hopf bifurcation and uncontrolled stochastic traffic-induced chaos in an RED-AQM congestion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Rui-Xi; Gao Zhi-Wei; Wang De-Jin

    2011-01-01

    We study the Hopf bifurcation and the chaos phenomena in a random early detection-based active queue management (RED-AQM) congestion control system with a communication delay. We prove that there is a critical value of the communication delay for the stability of the RED-AQM control system. Furthermore, we show that the system will lose its stability and Hopf bifurcations will occur when the delay exceeds the critical value. When the delay is close to its critical value, we demonstrate that typical chaos patterns may be induced by the uncontrolled stochastic traffic in the RED-AQM control system even if the system is still stable, which reveals a new route to the chaos besides the bifurcation in the network congestion control system. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)

  11. Management of congestive heart failure (CHF): a case report on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report on the management of Congestive Heart Failure is presented with emphasis on the use of DIGOXIN. Keywords: Congestive heart failure, Failing heart syndrome, Digoxin, Digoxin Toxicity. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Development of a Traffic Management Decision Support Tool for Freeway Incident Traffic Management (FITM) Plan Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Traffic incidents have long been recognized as the main contributor to congestion in highway networks. Thus, contending with non-recurrent congestion has been a priority task for most highway agencies over the past decades. Under most incident scenar...

  13. The conscious city II: traffic congestion and the tipping point in greater Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The Conscious City II explores how broad, long-term change toward sustainability in cities can be fostered, nurtured and facilitated. Using a qualitative, mixed-method approach, this research adapts a model from Malcolm Gladwell’s Tipping Point framework to explore how social consciousness can be mobilized to achieve change toward sustainability through an analysis of traffic congestion in Greater Vancouver. The results demonstrate the important influence of leadership, context and message on...

  14. Evaluating Environmental Impact of Traffic Congestion in Real Time Based on Sparse Mobile Crowd-sourced Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Traffic congestion at arterial intersections and freeway bottlenecks degrades the air quality and threatens the public health. Conventionally, air pollutants are monitored by sparsely-distributed Quality Assurance Air Monitoring Sites. Sparse mobile ...

  15. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  16. Modelling CO concentrations under free-flowing and congested traffic conditions in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, B; Budd, U; Misstear, B [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity Coll. Dublin (Ireland); Ceburnis, D; Jennings, S G [Dept. of Experimental Physics, National Univ. of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    The assessment and management of air quality is required under the EU Air Quality Framework Directive and its Daughter Directives (CEC, 1996, 1999, 2000) which specify the limits for certain pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO). Air quality modelling is used to predict the future impact of road improvements, often as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment. The U.S. National Commission on Air Quality found in 1981 that such models may typically overpredict or underpredict actual concentrations by a factor of two. Even twenty years later the U.K. Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions (UK DETR, 2001) concurred that ''If the prediction of an annual mean concentration lies within {+-}50% of the measurement, a user would not consider that the model has behaved badly.'' The Daughter Directive (CEC, 2000) concerned with CO allows 50% uncertainty in modelling of the eight-hour average concentration. An assessment of CALINE4 was performed for two contrasting sites: a free-flowing motorway and a periodically-congested roundabout. Air quality was continuously monitored over a one-year period at both sites. The data collected was compared with model predictions based on local and regional meteorological data, site geometry and traffic volumes. The modelled and monitored results were compared through both graphical and statistical analysis (Broderick B.M. et al., 2003). (orig.)

  17. Evaluating congestion management in the Dutch electricity transmission grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blijswijk, Martti J. van; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in electricity generation capacity in the Netherlands and a new connection policy, transmission system operator (TSO) TenneT expects a significant increase in congestion in the Dutch transmission grid. To manage this, the Dutch government implemented redispatching, a method which is argued in the literature to potentially impose large congestion costs upon the TSO. A quantitative model of the Dutch electricity system was developed in order to evaluate this method. The outcomes were compared to the performance of three alternative congestion management methods. Regardless of the method, congestion costs were found to be substantially lower than in previous studies. Because combined-cycle gas turbines are the marginal generation technology in almost all cases, the costs of up and down regulation do not differ much. Consequently, the redispatching costs for the TSO are expected to be relatively low, and the opportunities for abuse of market power appear to be limited. While all the evaluated methods are effective and economically efficient, they have significantly different welfare effects. Market splitting creates significantly larger welfare effects than the different varieties of redispatching. - Highlights: ► Congestion management was recently introduced in the Netherlands. ► We quantitatively evaluate the effects of its application. ► We compare this to other congestion management methods. ► Given the specific situation that the marginal cost curve of production is flat, congestion costs are expected to be low.

  18. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  19. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  20. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2009-01-01

    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  1. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  2. Stochastic congestion management in power markets using efficient scenario approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Amjady, Nima; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    Congestion management in electricity markets is traditionally performed using deterministic values of system parameters assuming a fixed network configuration. In this paper, a stochastic programming framework is proposed for congestion management considering the power system uncertainties comprising outage of generating units and transmission branches. The Forced Outage Rate of equipment is employed in the stochastic programming. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, possible scenarios of power system operating states are generated and a probability is assigned to each scenario. The performance of the ordinary as well as Lattice rank-1 and rank-2 Monte Carlo simulations is evaluated in the proposed congestion management framework. As a tradeoff between computation time and accuracy, scenario reduction based on the standard deviation of accepted scenarios is adopted. The stochastic congestion management solution is obtained by aggregating individual solutions of accepted scenarios. Congestion management using the proposed stochastic framework provides a more realistic solution compared with traditional deterministic solutions. Results of testing the proposed stochastic congestion management on the 24-bus reliability test system indicate the efficiency of the proposed framework.

  3. Auctions for Congestion Management in Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, R.M.; de Weerdt, M.M.; de Vries, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Large controllable loads, such as electric vehicles, are increasingly penetrating electricity distribution feeders. To avoid local congestion, their consumption behaviour must be steered, for which a real-time price propagated down from the transmission system does not suffice, as it does not

  4. Congestion Management Strategies of Real-Time Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation and control due to their stochastic, intermittent, and fluctuation characteristics. This enhances the difficulty of congestion management of power systems in cross-border electricity...... are introduced with the congestion constraints complied. Pre-Contingency strategy is proposed as the advance preparation for the future congestion, and In-Day re-dispatch is used for regulation. Accordingly, the requirements on facilities considering telemetry and remote control in a fast manner are discussed...

  5. Design and Implementation of Real-Time Vehicular Camera for Driver Assistance and Traffic Congestion Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sanghyun; Baek, Yunju

    2015-08-18

    As society has developed, the number of vehicles has increased and road conditions have become complicated, increasing the risk of crashes. Therefore, a service that provides safe vehicle control and various types of information to the driver is urgently needed. In this study, we designed and implemented a real-time traffic information system and a smart camera device for smart driver assistance systems. We selected a commercial device for the smart driver assistance systems, and applied a computer vision algorithm to perform image recognition. For application to the dynamic region of interest, dynamic frame skip methods were implemented to perform parallel processing in order to enable real-time operation. In addition, we designed and implemented a model to estimate congestion by analyzing traffic information. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using images of a real road environment. We found that the processing time improved by 15.4 times when all the proposed methods were applied in the application. Further, we found experimentally that there was little or no change in the recognition accuracy when the proposed method was applied. Using the traffic congestion estimation model, we also found that the average error rate of the proposed model was 5.3%.

  6. Design and Implementation of Real-Time Vehicular Camera for Driver Assistance and Traffic Congestion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Son

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As society has developed, the number of vehicles has increased and road conditions have become complicated, increasing the risk of crashes. Therefore, a service that provides safe vehicle control and various types of information to the driver is urgently needed. In this study, we designed and implemented a real-time traffic information system and a smart camera device for smart driver assistance systems. We selected a commercial device for the smart driver assistance systems, and applied a computer vision algorithm to perform image recognition. For application to the dynamic region of interest, dynamic frame skip methods were implemented to perform parallel processing in order to enable real-time operation. In addition, we designed and implemented a model to estimate congestion by analyzing traffic information. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using images of a real road environment. We found that the processing time improved by 15.4 times when all the proposed methods were applied in the application. Further, we found experimentally that there was little or no change in the recognition accuracy when the proposed method was applied. Using the traffic congestion estimation model, we also found that the average error rate of the proposed model was 5.3%.

  7. Congestion management considering voltage security of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2009-01-01

    Congestion in a power network is turned up due to system operating limits. To relieve congestion in a deregulated power market, the system operator pays to market participants, GENCOs and DISCOs, to alter their active powers considering their bids. After performing congestion management, the network may be operated with a low security level because of hitting some flows their upper limit and some voltages their lower limit. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on the voltage stability margin sensitivities is introduced. Using the proposed method, the system operator so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its security. The proposed method not only makes the system more secure after congestion management than other methods already presented for this purpose but also its cost of providing security is lower than the earlier methods. Test results of the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better voltage stability margin and voltage profile as well as a lower security cost. (author)

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Control System for Regional Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McLin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system using traffic microsimulation demonstrates that it has the potential to improve system conditions during traffic incidents. In addition, several enhancements were identified which will make the system more robust in a real traffic control setting. An assessment of the control system elements indicates that there are no substantial technical barriers in implementing this system in a large traffic network.

  9. Dynamic Subsidy Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic subsidy (DS) is a locational price paid by the distribution system operator (DSO) to its customers in order to shift energy consumption to designated hours and nodes. It is promising for demand side management and congestion management. This paper proposes a new DS method for congestion...... management in distribution networks, including the market mechanism, the mathematical formulation through a two-level optimization, and the method solving the optimization by tightening the constraints and linearization. Case studies were conducted with a one node system and the Bus 4 distribution network...... of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DS method for congestion management in distribution networks. Studies in this paper show that the DS method offers the customers a fair opportunity...

  10. Vehicular Traffic Optimization in VANETs: a Proposal for Nodes Re-routing and Congestion Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tropea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vehicular networking has grown up in terms of interest and transmission capability, due to the possibility of exploiting the distributed communication paradigm in a mobile scenario, where moving nodes are represented by vehicles. In this paper, we focus our attention on the optimization of traffic flowing in a vehicular environment with vehicle-roadside capability. As shown in the next sections, the proposed idea exploits the information that is gathered by road-side units with the main aim of redirecting traffic flows (in terms of vehicles to less congested roads, with an overall system optimization, also in terms of Carbon Dioxide emissions reduction. A deep campaign of simulations has been carried out to give more effectiveness to our proposal.

  11. ALGORITHMS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams interfere with the drivers and cost billions of dollars per year and lead to a substantial increase in fuel consumption. In order to avoid such problems the paper describes the algorithms for traffic management in intelligent transportation system, which collects traffic information in real time and is able to detect and manage congestion on the basis of this information. The results show that the proposed algorithms reduce the average travel time, emissions and fuel consumption. In particular, travel time has decreased by about 23%, the average fuel consumption of 9%, and the average emission of 10%.

  12. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  13. Dynamic Power Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes dynamic power tariff (DPT), a new concept for congestion management in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), and heat pumps (HPs). The DPT concept is proposed to overcome a drawback of the dynamic tariff (DT) method, i.e., DPT can replace...... the price sensitivity parameter in the DT method, which is relatively unrealistic in practice. Based on the control theory, a control model with two control loops, i.e., the power flow control and voltage control, is established to analyze the congestion management process by the DPT method. Furthermore...

  14. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT) of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research. PMID:26828489

  15. Towards reducing traffic congestion using cooperative adaptive cruise control on a freeway with a ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Arnaout

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, the impact of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems on traffic performance is examined using microscopic agent-based simulation. Using a developed traffic simulation model of a freeway with an on-ramp - created to induce perturbations and to trigger stop-and-go traffic, the CACC system’s effect on the traffic performance is studied. The previously proposed traffic simulation model is extended and validated. By embedding CACC vehicles in different penetration levels, the results show significance and indicate the potential of CACC systems to improve traffic characteristics and therefore can be used to reduce traffic congestion. The study shows that the impact of CACC is positive but is highly dependent on the CACC market penetration. The flow rate of the traffic using CACC is proportional to the market penetration rate of CACC equipped vehicles and the density of the traffic.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses microscopic simulation experiments followed by a quantitative statistical analysis. Simulation enables researchers manipulating the system variables to straightforwardly predict the outcome on the overall system, giving researchers the unique opportunity to interfere and make improvements to performance. Thus with simulation, changes to variables that might require excessive time, or be unfeasible to carry on real systems, are often completed within seconds.Findings: The findings of this paper are summarized as follow:•\tProvide and validate a platform (agent-based microscopic traffic simulator in which any CACC algorithm (current or future may be evaluated.•\tProvide detailed analysis associated with implementation of CACC vehicles on freeways.•\tInvestigate whether embedding CACC vehicles on freeways has a significant positive impact or not.Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this research is that it has been conducted solely in a computer laboratory. Laboratory

  16. Study and Analysis of Congestion Management in Hybrid Electric Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayed Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The congestion management system is a systematic approach, collaboratively developed and implemented throughout a metropolitan region that provides for the safe and effective management and operation of new and existing transportation facilities through the use of demand reduction and operational management strat­e­gies. In this paper we try to present some points which should be investigated in congestion management problems. We calculate different kinds of congestion problems which may be occurred in our network. Here, the hybrid model is used to solve problems in the electricity market to solve the congestion problem in the network and Benders techniques is used together with an optimal power flow (OPF. In fact, by using of Benders algorithm the problem is divided into two major and minor problems. Therefore, the major problem related to the economy sector and no network is included and the minor problem is to solve the network and examine the accuracy of the network. Benders algorithm has been tested on a standard network IEEE 24 bus and Matlab software is used to implement the algorithm.

  17. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  18. Risk management in electricity markets emphasizing transmission congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyzes transmission pricing, transmission congestion risks and their associated hedging instruments as well as mechanisms for stimulating investments in transmission expansion. An example of risk management in the case of a hydropower producer is included. After liberalization and restructuring of electricity markets, risk management has become important. In particular the thesis analyzes risks due to transmission congestion both in the short- and long-term (investments) for market players such as generators, loads, traders, independent system operators and merchant investors. The work is focused on the northeastern United States electricity markets and the Nordic electricity markets. The first part of the thesis reviews the literature related to the eight research papers in the thesis. This describes the risks that are relevant for an electricity market player and how these can be managed. Next, the basic ingredients of a competitive electricity market are described including the design of the system operator. The transmission pricing method is decisive for hedging against transmission congestion risks and there is an overview of transmission pricing models considering their similarities and differences. Depending on the transmission pricing method used, locational or area (zonal) pricing, the electricity market players can use financial transmission rights or Contracts for Differences, respectively. In the long-term it is important to create mechanisms for investments in transmission expansion and the thesis describes one possible approach and its potential problems. The second part comprises eight research papers. It presents empirical analyses of existing markets for transmission congestion derivatives, theoretical analyses of transmission congestion derivatives, modeling of merchant long-term financial transmission rights, theoretical analysis of the risks of the independent system operator in providing financial transmission rights, an analysis

  19. Hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Dynamic Supply Chain Network Design under Traffic Congestion and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Jouzdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constantly increasing pressure of the competitive environment, supply chain (SC decision makers are forced to consider several aspects of business climate. More specifically, they should take into account the endogenous features (e.g., available means of transportation, and the variety of products and exogenous criteria (e.g., the environmental uncertainty, and transportation system conditions. In this paper, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for dynamic design of a supply chain network is proposed. In this model, multiple products and multiple transportation modes, the time value of money, traffic congestion, and both supply-side and demand-side uncertainties are considered. Due to the complexity of such models, conventional solution methods are not applicable; therefore, two hybrid Electromagnetism-Like Algorithms (EMA are designed and discussed for tackling the problem. The numerical results show the applicability of the proposed model and the capabilities of the solution approaches to the MINLP problem.

  20. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    into balancing power might challenge the operation of electric distribution systems and cause congestions. This paper presents a distribution congestion price (DCP) based market mechanism to alleviate possible distribution system congestions. By employing the loca- tional marginal pricing (LMP) model...... is proposed. Finally, a practical Danish 60kV/10.5kV distribution system is employed as the test case to verify the proposed method for mitigating congestion....

  1. Long Island Transportation Plan to Manage Congestion: Framework for Developing and Evaluating Improvement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-20

    The Long Island Transportation Plan to Manage Congestion (LITP 2000) will establish an integrated, multi-modal transportation program of cost-effective strategies to manage congestion and improve the movement of people and goods in Nassau and Suffolk...

  2. The NASA Air Traffic Management Ontology (atmonto)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA ATM (Air Traffic Management) Ontology describes classes, properties, and relationships relevant to the domain of air traffic management, and represents...

  3. Congestion management enhancing transient stability of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, where market parties try to maximize their profits, it is necessary to keep an acceptable level of power system security to retain the continuity of electricity services to customers at a reasonable cost. Congestion in a power system is turned up due to network limits. After relieving congestion, the network may be operated with a reduced transient stability margin because of increasing the contribution of risky participants. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on a new transient stability criterion is introduced. Using the sensitivity of corrected transient stability margin with respect to generations and demands, the proposed method so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its transient security compared with earlier methods. The proposed transient stability index is constructed considering the likelihood of credible faults. Indeed, market parties participate by their security-effective bids rather than raw bids. Results of testing the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better transient stability margin with a lower security cost. (author)

  4. Congestion management in a market environment. 2. CIGRE/PES Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With the opening of electricity markets and changes in the power flows, the issue of available transmission capacity is of more and more importance. Market orientated answers and real-time solutions are implemented or under consideration; diligent management of existing assets and timely investment decisions to increase capacity and to improve the management systems are fundamental. This Symposium discusses the congestion management issue for internal and cross border exchanges, covering six subject areas: international Practices for Congestion Management, tariffs and Pricing, operations for Congestion, information Technology Issues, experiences with Congestion Management, tools for Congestion Management. (author)

  5. Benefits from coordinating congestion management-The Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    We consider the possibility of improving the utilization of the capacity of the Nordic transmission grid, by improving on the methods for congestion management. We use a simplified model of the Nordic power market, and different load-scenarios are developed in order to illustrate the effects. By improving the coordination of the system operator function, we may achieve that the actual bottlenecks, both as regards to the location and capacity, form the basis for the definition of price areas. This may result in a better partition of the grid, not necessarily following the borders between the control areas of today's system operators. We also consider solving intra zonal bottlenecks 'directly', through the area prices and 'indirectly' by 'moving' internal capacity constraints to the borders between price areas. The examples illustrate that this 'indirect' congestion management may be costly, and result in larger price differences than necessary

  6. Reducing a congestion with introduce the greedy algorithm on traffic light control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catur Siswipraptini, Puji; Hendro Martono, Wisnu; Hartanti, Dian

    2018-03-01

    The density of vehicles causes congestion seen at every junction in the city of jakarta due to the static or manual traffic timing lamp system consequently the length of the queue at the junction is uncertain. The research has been aimed at designing a sensor based traffic system based on the queue length detection of the vehicle to optimize the duration of the green light. In detecting the length of the queue of vehicles using infrared sensor assistance placed in each intersection path, then apply Greedy algorithm to help accelerate the movement of green light duration for the path that requires, while to apply the traffic lights regulation program based on greedy algorithm which is then stored on microcontroller with Arduino Mega 2560 type. Where a developed system implements the greedy algorithm with the help of the infrared sensor it will extend the duration of the green light on the long vehicle queue and accelerate the duration of the green light at the intersection that has the queue not too dense. Furthermore, the design is made to form an artificial form of the actual situation of the scale model or simple simulator (next we just called as scale model of simulator) of the intersection then tested. Sensors used are infrared sensors, where the placement of sensors in each intersection on the scale model is placed within 10 cm of each sensor and serves as a queue detector. From the results of the test process on the scale model with a longer queue obtained longer green light time so it will fix the problem of long queue of vehicles. Using greedy algorithms can add long green lights for 2 seconds on tracks that have long queues at least three sensor levels and accelerate time at other intersections that have longer queue sensor levels less than level three.

  7. Congestion management of electric distribution networks through market based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun

     EVs and HPs. Market-based congestion management methods are the focus of the thesis. They handle the potential congestion at the energy planning stage; therefore, the aggregators can optimally plan the energy consumption and have the least impact on the customers. After reviewing and identifying...... the shortcomings of the existing methods, the thesis fully studies and improves the dynamic tariff (DT) method, and proposes two  new market-based  congestion management methods,  namely the  dynamic subsidy (DS) method and the flexible demand swap method. The thesis improves the DT method from four aspects......Rapidly increasing share of intermittent renewable energy production poses a great challenge of the management and operation of the modern power systems. Deployment of a large number of flexible demands, such as electrical vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs), is believed to be a promising solution...

  8. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and (2...

  9. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS coverage...

  10. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and non...

  11. Evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) for an urban traffic corridor with heterogeneous traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korlapati, D.R.

    2007-07-01

    Due to urbanization and accelerated growth in vehicular traffic, most big cities in India face problems related to traffic management resulting in severe congestion, pollution, and a high rate of accidents during peak hours. Lane blocking incidents on arterials or urban traffic corridors cause major disruption to traffic flow. Peak hour congestion with low average speeds and high accident rates are commonly associated with traffic in major cities in India. The situation is deteriorating further as creation of new facilities are almost impossible, with resource and space constraints. In such scenarios, application of advanced technologies seems to offer hope. One such application area is Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), a component of intelligent transportation system (ITS). Due to the unique traffic characteristics prevailing in India, the application of such systems needs to first be evaluated before implementation. This paper proposed a research methodology for the evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of ATMS for an urban corridor in India. The evaluation framework combined several relevant modules related to various aspects of traffic control, surveillance and advisory. As part of this study, a simulation model and a simulation optimization model were developed. The simulation model was microscopic in nature and captured the driver behaviour and traffic characteristics realistically by modeling the complex interactions among vehicles traversing a corridor. It was concluded that the results and observations were useful indicators to gauge the potential success of diversion plans. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : Congestion management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The restructuring of the New Brunswick wholesale power market comprises a number of issues that need to be resolved concerning transmission system related policy decisions and detailed design issues. The wholesale market structure, ownership structure, and means of preventing market power abuses all have an impact on the resolution of many of those issues. Some transmission related decisions regarding congestion management must be made, and they are examined in this document. The report includes a discussion of the issues related to congestion on the transmission system, a review of the decisions that remain to be made while proposing a number of alternatives, reviews decisions that other jurisdictions have made in somewhat similar circumstances. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative are identified. Several high level transmission tariff design issues requiring to be addressed later in greater detail are listed in this document. 1 tab

  13. Dynamic voltage stability constrained congestion management framework for deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Hakimi, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new congestion management method for electricity markets is proposed. ► The proposed method includes dynamic models of generators and loads. ► Dynamic voltage stability limits are properly modeled in the proposed method. ► The proposed method is compared with several other congestion management methods. ► It leads to a more robust power system with a lower congestion management cost. - Abstract: Congestion management is an important part of power system operation in today deregulated electricity markets. However, congestion management is traditionally performed based on static analysis tools, while these tools may not correctly capture dynamic voltage stability limits of a power system. In this paper, a new congestion management framework considering dynamic voltage stability boundary of power system is proposed. For this purpose, precise dynamic modeling of power system equipment, including generators and loads, is incorporated into the proposed congestion management framework. The proposed method alleviates congestion with a lower congestion management cost and more dynamic voltage stability margin, resulting in a more robust power system, compared with the previous congestion management methods. The validity of proposed congestion management framework is studied based on the New England 39-bus power system. The obtained results confirm the validity of the developed approach.

  14. Heterogeneity Index for the Assessment of Relationship Between Land Use Pattern and Road Traffic Congestion in Apapa-Oworoshoki Express way, Lagos Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaigba, D. B.; Soumah, M.; Banjo, M. O.

    2017-05-01

    The problem of urban mobility is complicated by traffic delay, resulting from poor planning, high population density and poor condition of roads within urban spaces. This study assessed traffic congestion resulting from differential contribution made by various land-uses along Apapa-Oworoshoki expressway in Lagos metropolis. The data for this study was from both primary and secondary sources; GPS point data was collected at selected points for traffic volume count; observation of the nature of vehicular traffic congestion, and land use types along the corridor. Existing data on traffic count along the corridor, connectivity map and land use map sourced from relevant authorities were acquired. Traffic congestion within the area was estimated using volume capacity ratio (V/C). Heterogeneity Index was developed and used to quantify the percentage contribution to traffic volume from various land-use categories. Analytical Hierarchical Processing (AHP) and knowledge-based weighting were used to rank the importance of different heterogeneity indices. Results showed significant relationship between the degree of heterogeneity of the land use pattern and road traffic congestion. Volume Capacity Ratio computed revealed that the route corridor exceeds its designed capacity in the southward direction between the hours of 8am and 12pm on working days. Five major nodes were analyzed along the corridor, and were all above the expected Passenger Car Unit (PCU), these are "Oshodi" 15 %, "Airport junction" 10 %, "Cele bus stop" 21 %, "Mile 2" 14 %, "Berger" 15 % and "Tincan bus stop" 33 % indicating heavy traffic congestion.

  15. Decentralized Traffic Management: A Synchronization-Based Intersection Control --- Extended Version

    OpenAIRE

    Tlig , Mohamed; Buffet , Olivier; Simonin , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the vehicle traffic in large networks remains an important challenge in urban environments and transportation systems. Autonomous vehicles are today considered as a promising approach to deal with traffic control. In this paper, we propose a synchronization-based intersection control mechanism to allow the autonomous vehicle-agents to cross without stopping, i.e., in order to avoid congestions (delays) and energy loss. We decentralize the problem by managing the traffic of each in...

  16. Defending and attacking a network of two arcs subject to traffic congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, Vicki M.; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of intentional attacks on transportation systems, we consider drivers who choose the more time-efficient of two arcs (possibly of different lengths). Both arcs are subjected to traffic congestion, and also to interdiction or blockage (e.g., by a terrorist attack). The model has three types of strategic actors: the government; the terrorist; and potential drivers. The government protects travel, while the terrorist interdicts travel, along the two arcs. Drivers choose the arc that gives the shortest travel time, and cannot choose an interdicted arc. The drivers have reservation travel times, such that if the actual travel time will exceed an individual driver's reservation travel time, that driver would prefer not to travel; the reservation travel times are allowed to vary among drivers. The objective function of the master problem, which the government minimizes and the terrorist maximizes, is the sum of the total travel time plus the reservation travel times of the non-travelers. Each potential driver decides endogenously whether to travel, according to whether the actual travel time is greater or lesser than that driver's reservation travel time

  17. Analisis Penerapan Metode Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU Upgrading Untuk Mengatasi Traffic Congestion Jaringan GSM Pada BTS Area Purwokerto Kota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Hikmaturokhman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Semakin banyaknya pengguna selular maka akan semakin banyak trafik yang akan tertampung. Trafik yang melebihi kapasitas kanal yang disediakan dapat menyebabkan kondisi Traffic Congestion. Untuk menanganinya diperlukan metode penambahan kapasitas kanal agar semua trafik dapat tertampung dengan baik. Metode ini disebut dengan TRU Upgrading. Transmitter Receiver Unit (TRU adalah hardware yang terletak pada Radio Base Station dalam BTS yang berisi slot-slot kanal sedangkan metode TRU Upgrading adalah metode dengan menambahkan/upgrade kapasitas kanal yang tersedia dari konfigurasi TRU yang telah ada sebelumnya, misalkan pada BTS Pabuaran memiliki konfigurasi 3x2x3 karena terjadi kejenuhan pelanggan maka konfigurasi TRU diupgrade menjadi 3x4x3. Perubahan konfigurasi TRU maka merubah konfigurasi BTS-nya serta menambah kapasitas kanalnya. Key Performance Indicator (KPI yang baik pada Indosat adalah menggunakan batas GoS 2%. Nilai GoS ini dikaitkan dengan tabel Erlang untuk mendapatkan sebuah nilai intensitas trafik. Jika nilai intensitas trafik konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan kurang dari nilai intensitas trafik pelanggan maka disebut traffic congestion. Sebagai akibat dari traffic congestion adalah kondisi blocking. TRU Upgrading ini dilakukan dengan harapan nilai blocking panggilan menjadi 0 %. Pada Purwokerto kota, diterapkan  TRU Upgrading untuk cell Grendeng 3, Pabuaran 2, dan Unsoed 1 karena trafik pelanggan yang terjadi melebihi nilai intensitas trafik dari konfigurasi TRU yang digunakan.   Untuk cell Unsoed 1 dan Grendeng 3 meski telah dilakukan TRU Upgrading menjadi 4 buah TRU tetap terjadi traffic congestion sebesar 8 sampai dengan 15 Erlang dikarenakan pada cell-cell ini mengcover area yang padat penduduk. Sedang untuk Pabuaran 2 penerapan TRU upgrading mencapai keefektifan sebesar 100%.

  18. Transmission dispatch and congestion management in open market systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Risheng

    This thesis is located in the domain of electricity supply industry restructuring. It deals with emerging issues, whose understanding is essential to advancing knowledge of open access transmission theory and proceeds to develop approaches for solving the transmission dispatch and congestion management problem. An overview of current trends and experiences in utility restructuring and the main models for restructuring, as well as the classifications of system operators, is first presented. A fully unbundled competitive electricity market model, called the bilateral/multilateral trades model, is then developed. A survey of current research in transmission dispatch and congestion management is included with discussion of transmission capacity and ancillary services. A methodology for the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission contracts is presented. Group structures are mathematically formulated and explored and three basic types of curtailment strategies proposed for use by market participants. A more complex model is then developed, which takes into account the co-existence of bilateral and multilateral contracts with pool type dynamic supplies and demands based on bids and market clearing prices. An integrated dispatch strategy to reconcile all three types of transactions (bilateral, multilateral and pool) is then developed. Prioritization of electricity transactions and related curtailment strategies are explored and a mechanism for coordination between market participants to achieve additional economic advantages is described. A theory of security based rescheduling is presented in order to investigate the security-related aspects of operation in an unbundled and deregulated system. The impact of post-contingency corrective capability on optimal rescheduling results has been identified and the advantage of incorporating post-contingency corrective rescheduling into the objective function demonstrated. Finally

  19. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management system...

  20. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-10-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM1, UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM10 and PM2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smart Traffic Management Protocol Based on VANET architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcare Francesco Santamaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the hottest theme in wireless environments research is the application of the newest technologies to road safety problems and traffic management exploiting the (VANET architecture. In this work, a novel protocol that aims to achieve a better traffic management is proposed. The overal system is able to reduce traffic level inside the city exploiting inter-communication among vehicles and support infrastructures also known as (V2V and (V2I communications. We design a network protocol called (STMP that takes advantages of IEEE 802.11p standard. On each road several sensors system are placed and they are responsible of monitoring. Gathered data are spread in the network exploiting ad-hoc protocol messages. The increasing knowledge about environment conditions make possible to take preventive actions. Moreover, having a realtime monitoring of the lanes it is possible to reveal roads and city blocks congestions in a shorter time. An external entity to the (VANET is responsible to manage traffic and rearrange traffic along the lanes of the city avoiding huge traffic levels.

  2. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  3. Transmission Congestion Management using a Wind Integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gope

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission congestion is a vital problem in the power system security and reliability sector. To ensure the stable operation of the system, a congestion free power network is desirable. In this paper, a new Congestion Management (CM technique, the Wind integrated Compressed Air Energy Storage (WCAES system is used to alleviate transmission congestion and to minimize congestion mitigation cost. The CM problem has been solved by using the Generator Sensitivity Factor (GSF and the Bus Sensitivity Factor (BSF. BSF is used for finding the optimal location of WCAES in the system. GSF with a Moth Flame Optimization (MFO algorithm is used for rescheduling the generators to alleviate congestion and to minimize congestion cost by improving security margin. The impact of the WCAES system is tested with a 39 bus system. To validate this approach, the same problem has been solved with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and the obtained results are compared with the ones from the MFO algorithm.

  4. Analysis of the algorithms for congestion management in computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szilágyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the features of DS (Differentiated Services architecture, namely the queuing or congestion management. Packets can be placed into separate buffer queues, on the basis of the DS value. Several forwarding policies can be used to favor high priority packets in different ways. The major reason for queuing is that the router must hold the packet in its memory while the outgoing interface is busy with sending another packet. Our main goal is to compare the performance of the following queuing mechanisms: FIFO (First- In First-Out, CQ (Custom Queuing, PQ (Priority Queuing, WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing, CBWFQ (Class Based Weighted Fair Queuing and LLQ (Low Latency Queuing.

  5. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM 1 , UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied. -- Highlights: •This paper compared commuter exposure by car, bus, and on- and off-road cyclists. •The sampling was carried out in a low density, less congested city. •As in larger cities, car occupants were exposed to the highest levels of pollution. •On-road cyclists are exposed to higher levels of pollutants than off-road cyclists. •PM 10 and PM 2.5 are inappropriate indicators of exposure to vehicle emissions. -- This study carried out in a low density, less congested city, found that like studies in large or densely populated urban areas car drivers are still exposed to the worst quality air

  6. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  7. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Congested Marine Traffic Environment – An Application Using Marine Traffic Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hasegawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of sailing is quite subjective matter. It depends on various factors. Using Marine Traffic Simulation System (MTSS developed by Osaka University this challenging subject is discussed. In this system realistic traffic flow including collision avoidance manoeuvres can be reproduced in a given area. Simulation is done for southward of Tokyo Bay, Strait of Singapore and off-Shanghai area changing traffic volume from 5 or 50 to 150 or 200% of the present volume. As a result, strong proportional relation between near-miss ratio and traffic density per hour per sailed area is found, independent on traffic volume, area size and configuration. The quantitative evaluation index of the difficulty of sailing, here called risk rate of the area is defined using thus defined traffic density and near-miss ratio.

  9. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  10. An Experimental Study of the Noise Due to Traffic in a Congested Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Sankar, P.

    2016-03-01

    Noise pollution in an urban environment is an issue of serious concern in the major cities of India. There are various factors that contribute to the increase of noise levels in urban areas. The intensity of traffic is one of the factors which contributes to a drastic increase in environmental noise. The management of noise pollution has to be considered in the decision making process. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the existing noise level due to the traffic in Velachery which is declared as a sensitive area by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF). The noise level data is collected using the MS6710 digital sound meter. The Custic simulation software version 3.2 is used for finding the propagation of noise. The spatial patterns of measurement were also calculated, in the sub-urban area of Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. A means of transmitting this data to vehicles moving in the area, through a wireless medium is simulated using NCTUns 6.0 (network simulator), to enable drivers to understand the environmental conditions. A hardware was also designed which can be used to transmit and receive the noise data using the Zigbee module. A noise transmitting station is placed at a junction, so that it can transmit this noise data to the receivers which are fitted inside the vehicles.

  11. HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND ROAD TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN APAPA-OWOROSHOKI EXPRESS WAY, LAGOS METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Alaigba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urban mobility is complicated by traffic delay, resulting from poor planning, high population density and poor condition of roads within urban spaces. This study assessed traffic congestion resulting from differential contribution made by various land-uses along Apapa-Oworoshoki expressway in Lagos metropolis. The data for this study was from both primary and secondary sources; GPS point data was collected at selected points for traffic volume count; observation of the nature of vehicular traffic congestion, and land use types along the corridor. Existing data on traffic count along the corridor, connectivity map and land use map sourced from relevant authorities were acquired. Traffic congestion within the area was estimated using volume capacity ratio (V/C. Heterogeneity Index was developed and used to quantify the percentage contribution to traffic volume from various land-use categories. Analytical Hierarchical Processing (AHP and knowledge-based weighting were used to rank the importance of different heterogeneity indices. Results showed significant relationship between the degree of heterogeneity of the land use pattern and road traffic congestion. Volume Capacity Ratio computed revealed that the route corridor exceeds its designed capacity in the southward direction between the hours of 8am and 12pm on working days. Five major nodes were analyzed along the corridor, and were all above the expected Passenger Car Unit (PCU, these are “Oshodi” 15 %, “Airport junction” 10 %, “Cele bus stop” 21 %, “Mile 2” 14 %, “Berger” 15 % and “Tincan bus stop” 33 % indicating heavy traffic congestion.

  12. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  13. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. A first system receives parameters for flight plan configurations (e.g., initial fuel carried, flight route, flight route segments followed, flight altitude for a given flight route segment, aircraft velocity for each flight route segment, flight route ascent rate, flight route descent route, flight departure site, flight departure time, flight arrival time, flight destination site and/or alternate flight destination site), flight plan schedule, expected weather along each flight route segment, aircraft specifics, airspace (altitude) bounds for each flight route segment, navigational aids available. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. Several classes of potential incidents are analyzed and averted, by appropriate change en route of one or more parameters in the flight plan configuration, as provided by a conflict detection and resolution module and/or traffic flow management modules. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements. The invention combines these features to provide an aircraft monitoring system and an aircraft user system that interact and negotiate changes with each other.

  14. Simplified management of ATM traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Marko; Ilvesmaeki, Mika

    1997-10-01

    ATM has been under a thorough standardization process for more than ten years. Looking at it now, what have we achieved during this time period? Originally ATM was meant to be an easy and efficient protocol enabling varying services over a single network. What it is turning to be it `yet another ISDN'--network full of hopes and promises but too difficult to implement and expensive to market. The fact is that more and more `nice features' are implemented on the cost of overloading network with hard management procedures. Therefore we need to adopt a new approach. This approach keeps a strong reminder on `what is necessary.' This paper presents starting points for an alternative approach to the traffic management. We refer to this approach as `the minimum management principle.' Choosing of the suitable service classes for the ATM network is made difficult by the fact that the more services one implements the more management he needs. This is especially true for the variable bit rate connections that are usually treated based on the stochastic models. Stochastic model, at its best, can only reveal momentary characteristics in the traffic stream not the long range behavior of it. Our assumption is that ATM will move towards Internet in the sense that strict values for quality make little or no sense in the future. Therefore stochastic modeling of variable bit rate connections seems to be useless. Nevertheless we see that some traffic needs to have strict guarantees and that the only economic way of doing so is to use PCR allocation.

  15. Uncertainty Management of Dynamic Tariff Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic tariff (DT) method is designed for the distribution system operator (DSO) to alleviate congestions that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). Uncertainty management is required for the decentralized DT method because the DT...... is de- termined based on optimal day-ahead energy planning with forecasted parameters such as day-ahead energy prices and en- ergy needs which might be different from the parameters used by aggregators. The uncertainty management is to quantify and mitigate the risk of the congestion when employing...

  16. Tracing based congestion management and impact of TCPS in competitive power market using MINLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Chanana, S.

    2006-01-01

    Efficient, fair and secure operation of the competitive power markets are key factors in managing the challenges associated with congestion management. For the system operator, the selection of generators to reschedule their output for effective management of congestion is an important task. This study used a real power flow tracing based approach for selecting the most appropriate generators to reschedule the real power output based on real power flow contribution on a congested line. These generators can be effectively used to reschedule their generation for managing congestion. Using a mixed integer non-linear programming approach for reducing the transmission congestion cost in the system, the impact of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) was also investigated and their optimal placement was obtained. The study was carried out on a 39-bus New England system for pool and mix of pool with bilateral and multilateral transactions and their impact on congestion cost. The paper presented the detailed mathematical formulation and modeling process used. It was concluded that for some transactions, the reduction in congestion cost is not very significant. Therefore, system operators should avoid such transactions during congestion to increase market efficiency. 26 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  17. The dynamics of urban traffic congestion and the price of parking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; de Palma, André

    2013-01-01

    We consider commuting in a congested urban area. While an efficient time-varying toll may eliminate queuing, a toll may not be politically feasible. We study the benefit of a substitute: a parking fee at the workplace. An optimal time-varying parking fee is charged at zero rate when there is queu...

  18. Driver support in congestion. An assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  19. Parking fees as a substitute for roadpricing in a dynamic model of traffic congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Palma, André de

    2011-01-01

    We consider the morning commute under bottleneck congestion. The maximally e¢ cient time varying toll can eliminate queueing, but may not be available. We consider a situation where travellers can be charged a parking fee at a time varying rate that applies from the time of passage of the facilit...

  20. Data rate based congestion control in V2V communication for traffic safety applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belagal Math, C.; Özgür, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Li, H.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication systems intend to increase safety and efficiency of the transportation networks. At high vehicle density, the communication channel may become congested, impairing the reliability of the safety applications. As a counter measure, the European Telecommunications

  1. Decision support program for congestion management using demand side flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmat, Ayman; Pinson, Pierre; Usaola, Julio

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have been mitigating distribution networks (DNs) contingencies by opting to grid reinforcements. However, this approach is not always cost and time efficient. Demand Side Flexibility (DSF) is one of the recent alternatives used in DNs cong...... effect is taken into consideration as well as the uncertain behavior of customers. Finally, the distribution grid of the Danish Bornholm Island is used to illustrate the merits of the DSP. The total cost incurred by the DSO is calculated and presented.......In the past decades, Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have been mitigating distribution networks (DNs) contingencies by opting to grid reinforcements. However, this approach is not always cost and time efficient. Demand Side Flexibility (DSF) is one of the recent alternatives used in DNs...... congestion management. Consequently, new market players such as aggregators are needed to handle DSF transaction between customers and DSOs. This paper proposes and models a decision support program (DSP) to optimize the total cost charged by the DSO for using DSF services. Moreover, the energy rebound...

  2. A Brief Introduction of Air Traffic Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Air Traffic Management (ATM) started publication in 1995 by Air Traffic Management Bureau of CAAC. It is the first magazine about ATM field in CAAC. The chairman of Editorial Board of ATM is Mr. Bao Peide, Vice Minister of CAAC. Mr. Chen Ziye, Vice President of the 1st Research Institute of CAAC and Chen Xuhua, General Director of Air Traffic Management Bureau are vice chairmen of the editorial board, and six general directors of local air traffic management bureau and some professors and experts are members of the editorial board.

  3. Multi-objective congestion management by modified augmented ε-constraint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2011-01-01

    Congestion management is a vital part of power system operations in recent deregulated electricity markets. However, after relieving congestion, power systems may be operated with a reduced voltage or transient stability margin because of hitting security limits or increasing the contribution of risky participants. Therefore, power system stability margins should be considered within the congestion management framework. The multi-objective congestion management provides not only more security but also more flexibility than single-objective methods. In this paper, a multi-objective congestion management framework is presented while simultaneously optimizing the competing objective functions of congestion management cost, voltage security, and dynamic security. The proposed multi-objective framework, called modified augmented ε-constraint method, is based on the augmented ε-constraint technique hybridized by the weighting method. The proposed framework generates candidate solutions for the multi-objective problem including only efficient Pareto surface enhancing the competitiveness and economic effectiveness of the power market. Besides, the relative importance of the objective functions is explicitly modeled in the proposed framework. Results of testing the proposed multi-objective congestion management method on the New-England test system are presented and compared with those of the previous single objective and multi-objective techniques in detail. These comparisons confirm the efficiency of the developed method. (author)

  4. Congestion management of distribution networks with day-ahead dynamic grid tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    vehicles (EV) and heat pumps (HP), will be largely deployed in electrical distribution networks. Congestion management will be important in the future active distribution networks. In the IDE4L project, work package 5 is dedicated to develop different kinds of congestion management methods. Demand response...... (DR) is one of the important methods. In this report, as one task of work package 5, the day-ahead dynamic tariff (DADT) method for congestion management in distribution networks is presented. The dynamic tariff (DT) can motivate the flexible demands (EV and HP) to shift their energy consumption...

  5. The Physics of Traffic Congestion and Road Pricing in Transportation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, David

    2010-03-01

    This presentation develops congestion theory and congestion pricing theory from its micro- foundations, the interaction of two or more vehicles. Using game theory, with a two- player game it is shown that the emergence of congestion depends on the players' relative valuations of early arrival, late arrival, and journey delay. Congestion pricing can be used as a cooperation mechanism to minimize total costs (if returned to the players). The analysis is then extended to the case of the three- player game, which illustrates congestion as a negative externality imposed on players who do not themselves contribute to it. A multi-agent model of travelers competing to utilize a roadway in time and space is presented. To realize the spillover effect among travelers, N-player games are constructed in which the strategy set includes N+1 strategies. We solve the N-player game (for N = 7) and find Nash equilibria if they exist. This model is compared to the bottleneck model. The results of numerical simulation show that the two models yield identical results in terms of lowest total costs and marginal costs when a social optimum exists. Moving from temporal dynamics to spatial complexity, using consistent agent- based techniques, we model the decision-making processes of users and infrastructure owner/operators to explore the welfare consequence of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested transportation networks. Component models include: (1) An agent-based travel demand model wherein each traveler has learning capabilities and unique characteristics (e.g. value of time); (2) Econometric facility provision cost models; and (3) Representations of road authorities making pricing and capacity decisions. Different from small-network equilibrium models in prior literature, this agent- based model is applicable to pricing and investment analyses on large complex networks. The subsequent economic analysis focuses on the source, evolution

  6. Implementing active traffic management strategies in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Limited public funding for roadway expansion and improvement projects, coupled with continued growth in travel along congested urban freeway corridors, creates a pressing need for innovative congestion management approaches. Strategies to address con...

  7. An evolutionary outlook of air traffic flow management techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistan, Trevor; Gardi, Alessandro; Sabatini, Roberto; Ramasamy, Subramanian; Batuwangala, Eranga

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) has become pertinent even in regions without sustained overload conditions caused by dense traffic operations. Increasing traffic volumes in the face of constrained resources has created peak congestion at specific locations and times in many areas of the world. Increased environmental awareness and economic drivers have combined to create a resurgent interest in ATFM as evidenced by a spate of recent ATFM conferences and workshops mediated by official bodies such as ICAO, IATA, CANSO the FAA and Eurocontrol. Significant ATFM acquisitions in the last 5 years include South Africa, Australia and India. Singapore, Thailand and Korea are all expected to procure ATFM systems within a year while China is expected to develop a bespoke system. Asia-Pacific nations are particularly pro-active given the traffic growth projections for the region (by 2050 half of all air traffic will be to, from or within the Asia-Pacific region). National authorities now have access to recently published international standards to guide the development of national and regional operational concepts for ATFM, geared to Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management and Avionics (CNS+A) evolutions. This paper critically reviews the field to determine which ATFM research and development efforts hold the best promise for practical technological implementations, offering clear benefits both in terms of enhanced safety and efficiency in times of growing air traffic. An evolutionary approach is adopted starting from an ontology of current ATFM techniques and proceeding to identify the technological and regulatory evolutions required in the future CNS+A context, as the aviation industry moves forward with a clearer understanding of emerging operational needs, the geo-political realities of regional collaboration and the impending needs of global harmonisation.

  8. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  9. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S, E-mail: boris.kerner@daimler.com [Daimler AG, GR/PTF, HPC: G021, 71059 Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2011-03-04

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  10. Optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network: minimum probability of congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an optimum principle for a vehicular traffic network with road bottlenecks. This network breakdown minimization (BM) principle states that the network optimum is reached when link flow rates are assigned in the network in such a way that the probability for spontaneous occurrence of traffic breakdown in at least one of the network bottlenecks during a given observation time reaches the minimum possible value. Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we show that in comparison to the well-known Wardrop's principles, the application of the BM principle permits considerably greater network inflow rates at which no traffic breakdown occurs and, therefore, free flow remains in the whole network. (fast track communication)

  11. Impact of multilateral congestion management on the reliability of power transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.B.; Da Silva, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the electricity industry has caused an increase in the number of transactions in the energy market. These transactions are defined by market forces without considering operational constraints of the transmission system. Consequently, there are transactions that cause congestion in the transmission network. This paper has as objective to assess the impact of multilateral congestion management on the reliability of power transactions. This assessment is based on reliability indices such as expected power curtailments, curtailment probability, expected cost of congestion management and probability distributions of the total power curtailment. Tests results with IEEE RTS-1996 demonstrate that the multilateral management results in smaller curtailments and congestion costs than traditional bilateral management. (author)

  12. Incorporating travel-time reliability into the congestion management process : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This primer explains the value of incorporating travel-time reliability into the Congestion Management Process (CMP) : and identifies the most current tools available to assist with this effort. It draws from applied research and best practices : fro...

  13. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  14. Expanding the Use of Time-Based Metering: Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Steven J.; Farley, Todd; Hoang, Ty

    2005-01-01

    Time-based metering is an efficient air traffic management alternative to the more common practice of distance-based metering (or "miles-in-trail spacing"). Despite having demonstrated significant operational benefit to airspace users and service providers, time-based metering is used in the United States for arrivals to just nine airports and is not used at all for non-arrival traffic flows. The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor promises to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic management techniques. Not constrained to operate solely on arrival traffic, Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor is flexible enough to work in highly congested or heavily partitioned airspace for any and all traffic flows in a region. This broader and more general application of time-based metering is expected to bring the operational benefits of time-based metering to a much wider pool of beneficiaries than is possible with existing technology. It also promises to facilitate more collaborative traffic management on a regional basis. This paper focuses on the operational concept of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, touching also on its system architecture, field test results, and prospects for near-term deployment to the United States National Airspace System.

  15. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  16. Smart curtailment for congestion management in LV distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A. N.M.M.; Rahman, M. T.; Nguyen, P. H.; Bliek, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) leads to capacity challenges, i.e. network congestions, in the low-voltage (LV) distribution networks. A number of strategies are being widely studied to tackle the challenges with direct switching actions such as load shedding or power

  17. Real-Time Congestion Management in Distribution Networks by Flexible Demand Swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the day-ahead congestion management in distribution networks, the real-time congestion management is very important because many unforeseen events can occur at the real operation time, e.g. loss of generation of distributed energy resources (DERs) or inaccurate forecast of energy...... pumps (HPs) for real time congestion management. The swap method can maintain the power balance of the system and avoid the imbalance cost of activating the flexibility service. An algorithm for forming swaps through optimal power flow (OPF) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is proposed...... consumption or production. Flexibility service from demand will be a good option to solve the real-time congestions if the cost of activating the flexibility service is fully addressed. This paper proposes a new method, namely “swap”, to employ the flexibility service from electric vehicles (EVs) and heat...

  18. Traffic Management Systems Performance Measurement: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Kelly, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study of performance measurement for Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Performance measurement requirements were analyzed, data collection and management techniques were investigated, and case study traffic data system improvement plans were prepared for two Caltrans districts.

  19. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  20. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Qingru Zou; Xiangming Yao; Peng Zhao; Fei Dou; Taoyuan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Station inflow control (SIC) is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows a...

  1. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coveney PeterV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence vehicular flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments we present show how a car-following model and lane-change algorithm can be adapted to "react" to the reception of information. This model also illustrates the advantages of coupling together with vehicular flow modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  2. Diagnosis and management of nasal congestion: the role of intranasal corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nasal congestion is considered the most bothersome of allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms and can significantly impair ability to function at work, home, and school. Effective management of AR-related nasal congestion depends on accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Many individuals with AR and AR-related congestion remain undiagnosed and do not receive prescription medication. However, new tools intended to improve the diagnosis of nasal congestion have been developed and validated. Intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) are recommended as first-line therapy for patients with moderate-to-severe AR and also when nasal congestion is a prominent symptom. Double blind, randomized clinical trials have demonstrated greater efficacy of INSs versus placebo, antihistamines, or montelukast for relief of all nasal symptoms, especially congestion. Patient adherence to treatment also affects outcomes, and this may be influenced by patient preferences for the sensory attributes of an individual drug. Increased awareness of the effects of AR-related nasal congestion, the efficacy and safety of available pharmacotherapies, and barriers to adherence may improve clinical outcomes.

  3. Urban traffic simulated from the dual representation: Flow, crisis and congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Maobin; Jiang Rui; Wang Ruili; Wu Qingsong

    2009-01-01

    We propose a traffic simulation model for urban system based on the dual graph representation of a urban road network and with a random entering vehicle rate. To avoid the shortcoming of 'Space Syntax' of ignoring the road's metric distance, we consider both the motion of the vehicles along roads and the navigation of the vehicles in the network. Simulations have shown some basic properties of urban traffic system, such as flux fluctuation, crisis and dissipation, phase transition from a free flow to jams, overall capacity, the distribution of traveling time, and the fundamental diagram. The system's behavior greatly depends on the topology of the transportation network. A well-planned lattice grid can keep more vehicles travelling. The critical entering vehicle rate is much greater in lattice grid than in a self-organized network. The vehicles have to travel longer time in a self-organized urban system due to the navigation cost.

  4. Joint QoS and Congestion Control Based on Traffic Prediction in SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Tajiki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the various network requirements of applications, quality of service (QoS-aware routing plays an important role in the networks. Recently proposed resource allocation algorithms focus on the current traffic matrix, which is not applicable for dynamic networks. In this paper, we exploit an estimation of flow matrix that gives our scheme the ability to sufficiently reduce the total packet loss and simultaneously raise the network throughput. In this way, we mathematically formulate the QoS-aware resource reallocation in software-defined networking (SDN networks based on the traffic prediction. To solve this optimization problem, two schemes are proposed: (i exact solution; and (ii fast suboptimal one. The proposed schemes are compared with the accuracy perspective. Moreover, the impact of prediction on resource reallocation is discussed. In this regard, it is shown that, compared with the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme decreases the packet loss and increases the throughput significantly.

  5. Study on the Reduced Traffic Congestion Method Based on Dynamic Guidance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Wang, Guang-Min; Wang, Tao; Ren, Hua-Ling; Zhang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies how to generate the reasonable information of travelers’ decision in real network. This problem is very complex because the travelers’ decision is constrained by different human behavior. The network conditions can be predicted by using the advanced dynamic OD (Origin-Destination, OD) estimation techniques. Based on the improved mesoscopic traffic model, the predictable dynamic traffic guidance information can be obtained accurately. A consistency algorithm is designed to investigate the travelers’ decision by simulating the dynamic response to guidance information. The simulation results show that the proposed method can provide the best guidance information. Further, a case study is conducted to verify the theoretical results and to draw managerial insights into the potential of dynamic guidance strategy in improving traffic performance. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 71471104, 71771019, 71571109, and 71471167; The University Science and Technology Program Funding Projects of Shandong Province under Grant No. J17KA211; The Project of Public Security Department of Shandong Province under Grant No. GATHT2015-236; The Major Social and Livelihood Special Project of Jinan under Grant No. 20150905

  6. Congestion management through topological corrections: A case study of Central Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinil; Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The integration of an increasing amount of renewable generation within Europe is posing operational challenges that require various balancing actions. System operators therefore need to rely increasingly on the active control of the transmission network. Transmission topology control is a fast and economical option to add flexibility to the transmission system. We model the current methodology for controlling congestion in the Central Western European (CWE) market and quantify the benefits of topology control. We also compare the results with a nodal pricing model. Our computational results suggest that topology control can significantly reduce congestion management costs under the current market coupling regime whereas the benefits of topology control are limited under nodal pricing. Topology control emerges as an attractive and implementable means of managing congestion as it provides a significant percentage of the cost savings that would be achieved by overhauling the existing European market design and shifting to a nodal pricing regime. - Highlights: • We present the congestion management model in the CWE region. • The benefits of topology control in the CWE region are quantified. • Topology control significantly reduce congestion under the current market coupling. • The benefits of topology control are limited under the nodal pricing regime. • Network topology control is a promising option for mitigating congestion in Europe.

  7. A Brief Introduction of Air Traffic Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Air Traffic Management(ATM)started publication in 1995 by Air Traffic Management Bureauof CAAC.It is the first magazine about ATM field in CAAC.The chairman of Editorial Board ofATM is Mr.Bao Peide,Vice Minister of CAAC.Mr.Chen Ziye,Vice President of the 1st ResearchInstitute of CAAC and Chen Xuhua,General Director of Air Traffic Management Bureau are vicechairmen of the editorial board,and six general directors of local air traffic management bureau andsome professors and experts are members of the editorial board.ATM includes more than 20 columns,which are communication,navigation,surveillance,air trafficmanagement,special articles(policy,planning and management of implementation of CNS/ATM

  8. Distributed and Centralized Conflict Management Under Traffic Flow Management Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Eric; Bilimoria, Karl (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The past year's activity has concentrated on the following two activities: (1) Refining and completing our study on the stability of interacting flows of aircraft when they have to resolve conflicts in a decentralized and sequential manner. More specifically, it was felt that some of the modeling assumptions made during previous research (such offset maneuvering models) could be improved to include more realistic models such as heading changes when analyzing interacting flow stability problems. We extended our analysis to achieve this goal. The results of this study have been submitted for presentation at the 2002 American Control Conference; (2) Examining the issues associated with delay propagation across multiple enroute sectors. This study was initiated at NASA in cooperation with Dr. Karl Bilimoria. Considering a set of adjacent sectors, this ongoing study concentrates on the effect of various traffic flow management strategies on the propagation of delays and congestion across sectors. The problem description and findings so far are reported in the attached working paper "Enroute sector buffering capacity."

  9. Integrated Quality Management System in Public Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Pašagić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Public urban traffic (PUT requirements are based on thespecific characteristics that dictate the requirements themselves.The problems faced by all the big cities regarding public urbantransport are very similar, and they range from unacceptabilityof the very organisational structure of the system facing the populationgrowth, limitations and congestions of the traffic routesloaded by an increasing number of automobiles, to the chroniclack of economic funds for the investments that would createthe necessary conditions for positive shifts. In PUT there aremany random parameters whose statistical laws are not easy todetermine and it is often the topic of research of various profilesof scientists. There is always the satisfaction, that is, the lack ofsatisfaction by the final user of the public urban transport andall the other involved groups. The result is that the potential usersof public urban transport give up and try to find other solutionsfor their transport needs, turning in principle to individualtraffic. Consequently, the number of passenger cars on the trafficroutes increases along with all the resulting negative effects.The complex systems of public urban transport facing the increasingrequirements to improve efficiency have to be subjectedto certain changes in order to achieve physical sustainability oftraffic at all, and to satisfy the environmental requirements thatoccur as counterbalance to the pollution of the urban area.With the aim of achieving optimal conditions for the qualityof service, and by introducing acceptable traffic solutionscombined with the integrated quality management systembased on the standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 high-qualityshifts are made possible. The integration of these standards resultsin the rational combining of the quality management systeminto a single efficient system, reflected in achieving high-quality traffic and transport service, improved informationflow, unique documentation, positive

  10. Review on Driverless Traffic from Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The move towards automated driving is gaining ground. This paper reviews the development process of self-driving technology and discusses the safety and efficiency advantages of autonomous vehicles. The discussion shows that the existing traffic management system, including transport infrastructures and regulations, should be changed accordingly to maximize the advantages of autonomous driving. Thus, this paper subsequently gives an insight of the traffic management from three aspects: fully self-driving traffic infrastructures, mixed traffic infrastructures and regulations. First, it is summarized in detail what should be adjusted in intersections, parking lots, pedestrian crossings, ramps, signs and markings. With the transformation of traffic infrastructures, the advantages of driverless car will be more pronounced on account of increased capacity, reduced delay and land use. Also, this paper indicates that the implementations of strict product liability for self-driving car manufacturers and no-fault tort liability for users are applicable to automated vehicle accidents.

  11. The congestion control algorithm based on queue management of each node in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifei; Chang, Lin; Wang, Yali; Wang, Gaoping

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. As the network load increases, local congestion of mobile ad hoc network may lead to network performance degradation, hot node's energy consumption increase even failure. If small energy nodes congested because of forwarding data packets, then when it is used as the source node will cause a lot of packet loss. This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. Controlling nodes buffer queue in different levels of congestion area probability by adjusting the upper limits and lower limits, thus nodes can adjust responsibility of forwarding data packets according to their own situation. The proposed algorithm will slow down the send rate hop by hop along the data package transmission direction from congestion node to source node so that to prevent further congestion from the source node. The simulation results show that, the algorithm can better play the data forwarding ability of strong nodes, protect the weak nodes, can effectively alleviate the network congestion situation.

  12. Developments in weather responsive traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of weather-responsive traffic management practices. It focuses on what WRTM strategies exist, where they have been used, the benefits realized, what improvements are needed, and how to implement and evalu...

  13. An LTE implementation based on a road traffic density model

    OpenAIRE

    Attaullah, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The increase in vehicular traffic has created new challenges in determining the behavior of performance of data and safety measures in traffic. Hence, traffic signals on intersection used as cost effective and time saving tools for traffic management in urban areas. But on the other hand the signalized intersections in congested urban areas are the key source of high traffic density and slow traffic. High traffic density causes the slow network traffic data rate between vehicle to vehicle and...

  14. Internet Congestion Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Rusmin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet congestion occurs when resource demands exceeds the network capacity. But, it is not the only reason. Congestion can happen on some users because some others user has higher sending rate. Then some users with lower sending rate will experience congestion. This partial congestion is caused by inexactly feedback. At this moment congestion are solved by the involvement of two controlling mechanisms. These mechanisms are flow/congestion control in the TCP source and Active Queue Management (AQM in the router. AQM will provide feedback to the source a kind of indication for the occurrence of the congestion in the router, whereas the source will adapt the sending rate appropriate with the feedback. These mechanisms are not enough to solve internet congestion problem completely. Therefore, this paper will explain internet congestion causes, weakness, and congestion control technique that researchers have been developed. To describe congestion system mechanisms and responses, the system will be simulated by Matlab.

  15. Mechanisms and management of diuretic resistance in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, L K M

    2003-05-01

    Diuretic drugs are used almost universally in patients with congestive heart failure, most frequently the potent loop diuretics. Despite their unproven effect on survival, their indisputable efficacy in relieving congestive symptoms makes them first line therapy for most patients. In the treatment of more advanced stages of heart failure diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention despite the use of appropriate doses. Diuretic resistance may be caused by decreased renal function and reduced and delayed peak concentrations of loop diuretics in the tubular fluid, but it can also be observed in the absence of these pharmacokinetic abnormalities. When the effect of a short acting diuretic has worn off, postdiuretic salt retention will occur during the rest of the day. Chronic treatment with a loop diuretic results in compensatory hypertrophy of epithelial cells downstream from the thick ascending limb and consequently its diuretic effect will be blunted. Strategies to overcome diuretic resistance include restriction of sodium intake, changes in dose, changes in timing, and combination diuretic therapy.

  16. Locating of Series FACTS Devices for Multi-Objective Congestion Management Using Components of Nodal Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Moradi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Congestion and overloading for lines are the main problems in the exploitation of power grids. The consequences of these problems in deregulated systems can be mentioned as sudden jumps in prices in some parts of the power system, lead to an increase in market power and reduction of competition in it. FACTS devices are efficient, powerful and economical tools in controlling power flows through transmission lines that play a fundamental role in congestion management. However, after removing congestion, power systems due to targeting security restrictions may be managed with a lower voltage or transient stability rather than before removing. Thus, power system stability should be considered within the construction of congestion management. In this paper, a multi-objective structure is presented for congestion management that simultaneously optimizes goals such as total operating cost, voltage and transient security. In order to achieve the desired goals, locating and sizing of series FACTS devices are done with using components of nodal prices and the newly developed grey wolf optimizer (GWO algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate reliability of mentioned approaches, a simulation is done on the 39-bus New England network.

  17. Traffic Management System on Airport Manoeuvring Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Borković

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years the number of flights at the busiestairports in the world has doubled, which, in the meantime hasled to a situation in which runways and taxi ways (manoeuvringareas cannot follow such substantial increase. As the result,many airports could not use their capacities in the full range interms of handling passengers and cargo. As a consequence,there were delays and traffic congestion, fuel was unnecessarilywasted, all of which caused negative impact on the environment.Traffic capacity increase on the ground cannot be consideredwithout the development and implementation of thesystem infrastructure that would optimize traffic flows and itsdistribution on the airport itself In these terms, and for positivesolution of these problems, a new system for surveillance andcontrol of aircraft on the airport manoeuvring areas is necessary,one which could be implemented fairly quickly, would becomplementary with the existing international standards andwould be upgraded to the existing and available technology andinfrastructure. With the implementation of the Advanced SurfaceMonitoring and Control System (A-SMGCS the aircrafttaxiing time could be significantly shortened and could be determinedmore accurately, which would have positive impacton the flight schedule. The unnecessary aircraft braking actionscould be also avoided, and this would reduce the fuel consumption,as well as noise and environmental pollution.

  18. Congestion management in the European electricity market; Engpassmanagement im Europaeischen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, Birgit

    2008-11-24

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an assessment of methods of congestion management employed in Europe with respect to their effectiveness and identify possible reasons for the misallocation of cross-border transmission capacity. For this, generation structures of European countries and the resulting prices and load flows are analysed. Different power plants and bottlenecks in the transmission network currently cause structural price differences due to a low degree of integration of European electricity markets. By means of congestion management, the formation of a uniform electricity market will be created.

  19. Staff Recall Travel Time for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Impacted by Traffic Congestion and Distance: A Digitally Integrated Map Software Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Justin; Beare, Richard; Phan, Thanh G; Srikanth, Velandai; MacIsaac, Andrew; Tan, Christianne; Tong, David; Yee, Susan; Ho, Jesslyn; Layland, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests hospitals fail to meet guideline specified time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for a proportion of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presentations. Implicit in achieving this time is the rapid assembly of crucial catheter laboratory staff. As a proof-of-concept, we set out to create regional maps that graphically show the impact of traffic congestion and distance to destination on staff recall travel times for STEMI, thereby producing a resource that could be used by staff to improve reperfusion time for STEMI. Travel times for staff recalled to one inner and one outer metropolitan hospital at midnight, 6 p.m., and 7 a.m. were estimated using Google Maps Application Programming Interface. Computer modeling predictions were overlaid on metropolitan maps showing color coded staff recall travel times for STEMI, occurring within non-peak and peak hour traffic congestion times. Inner metropolitan hospital staff recall travel times were more affected by traffic congestion compared with outer metropolitan times, and the latter was more affected by distance. The estimated mean travel times to hospital during peak hour were greater than midnight travel times by 13.4 min to the inner and 6.0 min to the outer metropolitan hospital at 6 p.m. ( p  travel time can predict optimal residence of staff when on-call for PCI.

  20. Distributed Optimization based Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed optimization based dynamic tariff (DDT) method for congestion management in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The DDT method employs a decomposition based optimization method to have aggregators explicitly...... is able to minimize the overall energy consumption cost and line loss cost, which is different from previous decomposition-based methods such as multiagent system methods. In addition, a reconditioning method and an integral controller are introduced to improve convergence of the distributed optimization...... where challenges arise due to multiple congestion points, multiple types of flexible demands and network constraints. The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DDT method for congestion management in distribution networks....

  1. Probabilistic Predictions of Traffic Demand for En Route Sectors Based on Individual Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) predicts the demand for each sector, and traffic managers use these predictions to spot possible congestion and to take measures to prevent it. These predictions of sector demand, however, are currently made ...

  2. Traffic Management as a Service: The Traffic Flow Pattern Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos T. Calafate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation System (ITS technologies can be implemented to reduce both fuel consumption and the associated emission of greenhouse gases. However, such systems require intelligent and effective route planning solutions to reduce travel time and promote stable traveling speeds. To achieve such goal these systems should account for both estimated and real-time traffic congestion states, but obtaining reliable traffic congestion estimations for all the streets/avenues in a city for the different times of the day, for every day in a year, is a complex task. Modeling such a tremendous amount of data can be time-consuming and, additionally, centralized computation of optimal routes based on such time-dependencies has very high data processing requirements. In this paper we approach this problem through a heuristic to considerably reduce the modeling effort while maintaining the benefits of time-dependent traffic congestion modeling. In particular, we propose grouping streets by taking into account real traces describing the daily traffic pattern. The effectiveness of this heuristic is assessed for the city of Valencia, Spain, and the results obtained show that it is possible to reduce the required number of daily traffic flow patterns by a factor of 4210 while maintaining the essence of time-dependent modeling requirements.

  3. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of available of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in

  4. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of availability of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in

  5. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of availability of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in the

  6. Connected Vehicle-Enabled Weather Responsive Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Weather Responsive Traffic Management (WRTM) is an initiative under the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program that supports traffic management agencies and professionals in implementing effective advisory, control, a...

  7. Sustainable energy management in urban transport: The public's response of road congestion pricing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchornrat, Janthana; Pairintra, Rattanachai; Namprakai, Pichai

    2008-01-01

    Fuel consumption of vehicles is one of the most vigorously debated issues in Thailand. Concerns about the effect of emissions from the vehicles and a significant reliance on imported oil provide legitimate reasons for government action to manage fuel consumption. There are several different policy measures available to affect the fuel-efficient vehicles as well as reduce the amount of driving. This paper presents the major policy measure studies namely congestion pricing, etc. In congestion pricing measure, we conducted a survey of 400 samples in Bangkok area. The purpose of the survey was to inform respondents about a policy designed to reduce freeway congestion and to estimate respondent support for this policy. After receiving extensive information about the policy, respondents were polled on whether they would support, i.e., vote for any or all of these options. The results of the congestion fee survey suggest that 22% of commuting motorists in Bangkok will support congestion fees on the freeways of the region. Public acceptance is substantially enhanced by promising to return at least some of the revenues in the form of reductions in other taxes. (author)

  8. An Auto Tuning Substation Peak Shaving Controller for Congestion Management Using Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop substation peak shaving/congestion management controller for radial distribution networks is presented. The controller it uses an individual control signal in order to shift the consumption of a population of demand side resources, DSRs. The controller auto tunes its parameters on...

  9. Optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programm...

  10. Congestion management in power systems. Long-term modeling framework and large-scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Joachim; Hagspiel, Simeon; Just, Lisa

    2015-06-15

    In liberalized power systems, generation and transmission services are unbundled, but remain tightly interlinked. Congestion management in the transmission network is of crucial importance for the efficiency of these inter-linkages. Different regulatory designs have been suggested, analyzed and followed, such as uniform zonal pricing with redispatch or nodal pricing. However, the literature has either focused on the short-term efficiency of congestion management or specific issues of timing investments. In contrast, this paper presents a generalized and flexible economic modeling framework based on a decomposed inter-temporal equilibrium model including generation, transmission, as well as their inter-linkages. Short and long-term effects of different congestion management designs can hence be analyzed. Specifically, we are able to identify and isolate implicit frictions and sources of inefficiencies in the different regulatory designs, and to provide a comparative analysis including a benchmark against a first-best welfare-optimal result. To demonstrate the applicability of our framework, we calibrate and numerically solve our model for a detailed representation of the Central Western European (CWE) region, consisting of 70 nodes and 174 power lines. Analyzing six different congestion management designs until 2030, we show that compared to the first-best benchmark, i.e., nodal pricing, inefficiencies of up to 4.6% arise. Inefficiencies are mainly driven by the approach of determining cross-border capacities as well as the coordination of transmission system operators' activities.

  11. Influence of TCSC Devices on Congestion Management in a Deregulated Power System Using Evolutionary Programming Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthichristy, A., Dr.; Elanthirayan, R.; Brindha, R., Dr.; Siddhiq, M. S.; Venkatesh, N.; Harshit, M. V.; Nikhilreddy, M.

    2018-04-01

    Congestion management is one of the technical challenges in power system deregulation. In deregulated electricity market it may always not be possible to dispatch all of the contracted power transactions due to congestion of the transmission corridors. Transmission congestion occurs when there is insufficient transmission capacity to simultaneously accommodate all constraints for transmission of a line. Flexible Alternative Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices can be an alternative to reduce the flows in the heavily loaded lines, resulting in an increased loadability, low system loss, improved stability of the network, reduced cost of production and fulfilled contractual requirement by controlling the power flow in the network. A method to determine the optimal location of FACTS has been suggested based on reduction of total system VAR power losses. The simulation was done on IEEE 14 bus system and results were obtained.

  12. Digital Advertising Traffic Operation: Flow Management Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2017-01-01

    In a Web Advertising Traffic Operation the Trafficking Routing Problem (TRP) consists in scheduling the management of Web Advertising (Adv) campaign between Trafficking campaigns in the most efficient way to oversee and manage relationship with partners and internal teams, managing expectations through integration and post-launch in order to ensure success for every stakeholders involved. For our own interest we did that independent research projects also through specific innovative tasks val...

  13. CYCLISTS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ON ROUNDABOUT (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena BELIKOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth of motorization level leads to the necessity of crossroads modernization and this is reflected in the other movement participants. This article discusses and compares the methods of cyclists traffic management on roundabout in terms of security, efficiency of implementation, simplicity of organization and cost.

  14. Road Transport Policy And Traffic Management In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road Transport Policy And Traffic Management In Nigeria. ... the attitude of the road driver to traffic engineering, control and management requirement. ... sources of data collection with simple percentage method of analysis and system theory ...

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Conflict Mitigation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    This is a presentation that describes the UAS Traffic Management Approach to an alternate means of compliance with 91.113 right of way regulations. UTM is an "air traffic management" ecosystem for uncontrolled operations.

  16. Active traffic management case study: phase 1 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This study developed a systematic approach for using data from multiple sources to provide active traffic management : solutions. The feasibility of two active traffic management solutions is analyzed in this report: ramp-metering and real-time : cra...

  17. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool (ACAT) provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA air traffic management...

  18. From Goods to Traffic:First Steps Toward an Auction-based Traffic Signal Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Jeffery; Maskell, Simon; Sklar, Elizabeth Ida

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a major issue that plagues many urban road networks large and small. Traffic engineers are now leaning towards Intelligent Traffic Systems as many physical changes to road networks are costly or infeasible. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) have become a popular paradigm for intelligent solutions to traffic management problems. There are many MAS approaches to traffic management that utilise market mechanisms. In market-based approaches, drivers “pay” to use the roadways. Howeve...

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald D.

    2018-01-01

    UTM is an 'air traffic management' ecosystem for uncontrolled operations. UTM utilizes industry's ability to supply services under FAA's regulatory authority where these services do not exist. UTM development will ultimately enable the management of large scale, low-altitude UAS operations. Operational concept will address beyond visual line of sight UAS operations under 400 ft. AGL. Information architecture, data exchange protocols, software functions. Roles/responsibilities of FAA and operators. Performance requirements.

  20. Automated Traffic Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A data management system and method that enables acquisition, integration, and management of real-time data generated at different rates, by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources. The system achieves this functionality by using an expert system to fuse data from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control tower sources, to establish and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation. The system may be configured as a real-time airport surface traffic management system (TMS) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline data, and airport operations data to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. In the TMS operational mode, empirical data shows substantial benefits in ramp operations for airlines, reducing departure taxi times by about one minute per aircraft in operational use, translating as $12 to $15 million per year savings to airlines at the Atlanta, Georgia airport. The data management system and method may also be used for scheduling the movement of multiple vehicles in other applications, such as marine vessels in harbors and ports, trucks or railroad cars in ports or shipping yards, and railroad cars in switching yards. Finally, the data management system and method may be used for managing containers at a shipping dock, stock on a factory floor or in a warehouse, or as a training tool for improving situational awareness of FAA tower controllers, ramp and airport operators, or commercial airline personnel in airfield surface operations.

  1. Managing traffic induced emissions in the future Beirut Central Business District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; Sbayti, Hayssam; Kayssi, Isam; Baaj, Hadi

    2003-01-01

    The increased urbanization of the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) over the past years has led severe traffic congestion due to a deficient transportation system and significant reliance on private vehicles as the primary passenger transport mode. As a result, air quality is continuously deteriorating particularly in densely populated areas. Beirut Central District (BCD), the center of economic growth in the GBA, is expected to witness adverse air quality impacts in the medium and long-term future. Hence, there is a growing need to couple the efficiency of transport activities with acceptable air quality since both factors affect the welfare of residents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of selected traffic management alternatives and emission reduction strategies on air quality in the BCD area. Four traffic alternatives and three emission reduction strategies were analyzed for their effect on emission factors, total emissions and exposure levels

  2. Comparative Study on New AQM Mechanisms for Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna B B

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As usage of network goes increasing day by day, managing network traffic becomes a very difficult task. It is important to avoid high packet loss rates in the Internet. Congestion is the one of the major issue in the present networks. Congestion Control is one of the solutions adopted to solve the congestion issue and to control it. Numbers of queue management algorithms are proposed for congestion control and to reduce high packet loss rates. Active Queue Management (AQM is one such mechanism which provides better control over congestion. In this paper a study is made on recent load based AQM techniques that are proposed and its merits and shortfall is presented.

  3. Freeway geometric design for active traffic management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Continued growth in travel on congested urban freeway corridors exceeds the ability of agencies to provide sufficient solutions and alternatives based on traditional roadway expansion and improvement projects. Several countries are implementing manag...

  4. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2

  5. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2016-11-10

    Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC) with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2 simulation results

  6. Self-management of congestive heart failure among elderly men in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Motohiro; Majima, Tomoko

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the process of self-management in elderly male patients with congestive heart failure among those who have had not needed re-hospitalization for more than 2 years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 male congestive heart failure patients. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using the modified grounded theory approach. As a result of the analysis, the core concept identified was a process of living life such that symptoms do not worsen, while balancing good choices and preferences. By trial and error, the men tried to find the limits of physical capacity and dietary choices that would lead to the worsening of symptoms, while also trying to maintain quality of life to the extent possible. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. FLECH - A Danish market solution for DSO congestion management through DER flexibility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Nordentoft, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    Future electric power systems will face new operational challenges due to the high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). In Denmark distribution system operator (DSO) expects a significant congestion increased in distribution grids. In order to manage these congestions and mobilize...... the DERs as economically efficient as possible in the future distribution grid, the brand new notion of Flexibility Clearing House (FLECH) is proposed in this paper. With the Aggregator-based offers, the proposed FLECH market has the ability to promote small scale DERs (up to 5MW) for actively...... participating in trading flexibility services, which are stipulated accommodating the various requirements of DSO. Accordingly, the trading setups and processes of the FLECH market are also illustrated in detail. A quantitative example is utilized to illustrate the formulation and classification of flexibility...

  8. Congestion Control Algorithm in Distribution Feeders: Integration in a Distribution Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine L. Vandoorn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing share of distributed energy resources poses a challenge to the distribution network operator (DNO to maintain the current availability of the system while limiting the investment costs. Related to this, there is a clear trend in DNOs trying to better monitor their grid by installing a distribution management system (DMS. This DMS enables the DNOs to remotely switch their network or better localize and solve faults. Moreover, the DMS can be used to centrally control the grid assets. Therefore, in this paper, a control strategy is discussed that can be implemented in the DMS for solving current congestion problems posed by the increasing share of renewables in the grid. This control strategy controls wind turbines in order to avoid congestion while mitigating the required investment costs in order to achieve a global cost-efficient solution. Next to the application and objective of the control, the parameter tuning of the control algorithm is discussed.

  9. Coordination strategies for distribution grid congestion management in a Multi-Actor, Multi-Objective Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Hu, Junjie; Heussen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    It is well understood that the electric vehicle as a distributed energy resource can provide valuable services to the power system. Such services, however, would have to co-exist with hard constraints imposed by EV user demands and distribution grid operation constraints. This paper aims to address...... the interactions between the stakeholders involved, mainly considering the distribution grid congestion problem, and conceptualize several approaches by which their diverse, potentially conflicting, objectives can be coordinated. A key aspect to be considered is the relationship between the operational planning...... and the handling of real-time events for reliable grid operation. This paper presents an analysis of key stakeholders in terms of their objectives and key operations. Three potential strategies for congestion management are presented and evaluated based on their complexity of implementation, the value and benefits...

  10. THE QUESTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SYSTEMS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shirin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current systems and methods for automated traffic management in cities are analyzed. The management in cities is analyzed. The management levels are specified. There were fermulated the general requirements, objectives and funnctions of the automated sistems for traffic management with regard to the modern transport problems as well as proposed their aditional managemrnt and infor-maton functions. A phased approach to the implementation of projects on creation of automated sys-tems of traffic management is offered.

  11. Traffic Management for Next Generation Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao

    required by the next generation transport network to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) guaranteed video services. Augmenting network capacity and upgrading network nodes indicate long deployment period, replacement of equipment and thus significant cost to the network service providers. This challenge may...... slacken the steps of some network operators towards providing IPTV services. In this dissertation, the topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed to tackle the problem addressed. The scheme simplifies the deployment process by placing an intelligent switch with centralized traffic...... management functions at the edge of the network, scheduling traffic on behalf of the other nodes. The topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme is able to provide outstanding flow isolation due to its centralized scheduling ability, which is essential for providing IPTV services. In order to reduce...

  12. Congestion levies; Congestieheffingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit en Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-20

    Traffic jams or congestion can be controlled by means of Pigouvian levies. Congestion costs comprise both time losses as scheduling costs. Because a part of those costs are external costs, the free market output is not Pareto-efficient, and therefore levies are required to recover the efficiency. With some restrictions, road-pricing for the western part of the Netherlands is considered to be a feasible option

  13. A novel fair active queue management algorithm based on traffic delay jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Shun; Yu, Shao-Hua; Dai, Jin-You; Luo, Ting

    2009-11-01

    In order to guarantee the quantity of data traffic delivered in the network, congestion control strategy is adopted. According to the study of many active queue management (AQM) algorithms, this paper proposes a novel active queue management algorithm named JFED. JFED can stabilize queue length at a desirable level by adjusting output traffic rate and adopting a reasonable calculation of packet drop probability based on buffer queue length and traffic jitter; and it support burst packet traffic through the packet delay jitter, so that it can traffic flow medium data. JFED impose effective punishment upon non-responsible flow with a full stateless method. To verify the performance of JFED, it is implemented in NS2 and is compared with RED and CHOKe with respect to different performance metrics. Simulation results show that the proposed JFED algorithm outperforms RED and CHOKe in stabilizing instantaneous queue length and in fairness. It is also shown that JFED enables the link capacity to be fully utilized by stabilizing the queue length at a desirable level, while not incurring excessive packet loss ratio.

  14. Simplified web-based decision support method for traffic management and work zone analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Traffic congestion mitigation is one of the key challenges that transportation planners and operations engineers face when : planning for construction and maintenance activities. There is a wide variety of approaches and methods that address work : z...

  15. Software-Defined Congestion Control Algorithm for IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of computer networks, increase in the number of Internet users, and popularity of multimedia applications have exacerbated the congestion control problem. Congestion control is a key factor in ensuring network stability and robustness. When the underlying network and flow information are unknown, the transmission control protocol (TCP must increase or reduce the size of the congestion window to adjust to the changes of traffic in the Internet Protocol (IP network. However, it is possible that a software-defined approach can relieve the network congestion problem more efficiently. This approach has the characteristic of centralized control and can obtain a global topology for unified network management. In this paper, we propose a software-defined congestion control (SDCC algorithm for an IP network. We consider the difference between TCP and the user datagram protocol (UDP and propose a new method to judge node congestion. We initially apply the congestion control mechanism in the congested nodes and then optimize the link utilization to control network congestion.

  16. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the researches conducted in the field of safety management systems.Safety management system framework, methods and tools for safety analysis in Air Traffic Control have been reviewed.Principles of development of Integrated safety management system in Air Traffic Services have been proposed.

  17. What is required to guarantee data quality for regional traffic management. Implementation of traffic data quality management in the Middle Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelen, P.A.G.; Vrancken, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    VERDER, a partnership of different governmental organizations in the Middle Netherlands, initiated different projects for regional traffic management to better use existing road capacity and safeguard mobility in the Middle Netherlands. This active form of traffic management requires traffic data

  18. A novel symbiotic organisms search algorithm for congestion management in deregulated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sumit; Saha, Subhodip; Mukherjee, V.

    2017-01-01

    In today's competitive electricity market, managing transmission congestion in deregulated power system has created challenges for independent system operators to operate the transmission lines reliably within the limits. This paper proposes a new meta-heuristic algorithm, called as symbiotic organisms search (SOS) algorithm, for congestion management (CM) problem in pool based electricity market by real power rescheduling of generators. Inspired by interactions among organisms in ecosystem, SOS algorithm is a recent population based algorithm which does not require any algorithm specific control parameters unlike other algorithms. Various security constraints such as load bus voltage and line loading are taken into account while dealing with the CM problem. In this paper, the proposed SOS algorithm is applied on modified IEEE 30- and 57-bus test power system for the solution of CM problem. The results, thus, obtained are compared to those reported in the recent state-of-the-art literature. The efficacy of the proposed SOS algorithm for obtaining the higher quality solution is also established.

  19. Transmission congestion and voltage profile management coordination in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin, H.Y.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a generalized active/reactive iterative coordination process between GENCOs and the Independent System Operator (ISO) for active (transmission congestion) and reactive (voltage profile) management in the day-ahead market. GENCOs apply priced-based unit commitment without transmission and voltage security constraints, schedule their units and submit their initial bids to the ISO. The ISO executes congestion and voltage profile management for eliminating transmission and voltage profile violations. If violations are not eliminated, the ISO minimizes the transmission and voltage profile violations and sends a signal via the Internet to GENCOs. GENCOs reschedule their units taking into account the ISO signals and submit modified bids to the ISO. The voltage problem is addressed and a linear model is formulated and used in the proposed method. The voltage problem is formulated as a linear programming with a block-angular structure and Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition is applied to generate several smaller problems for a faster and easier solution of large-scale power systems. Two 36 unit GENCOs are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed generalized active/reactive coordination algorithm. (author)

  20. The use of a transport simulation system (AIMSUN to determine the environmental effects of pedestrianization and traffic management in the center of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Mintsis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion in urban areas results in increased energy consumption and vehicle emissions. Traffic management that alleviates traffic congestion also mitigates the environmental effects of vehicular traffic. This study uses the transport simulation model AIMSUN to evaluate the environmental effect of a set of traffic management and pedestrianization schemes. The effects of the pedestrianization of specific sections of roads, converting two-way roads into one-way roads for traffic and changing the direction of flow of traffic along one-way roads were simulated for different areas of Thessaloniki’s city centre network. The assessment of the environmental effect was done by determining the predicted fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG and air pollutants. Fuel consumption and the environmental indicators were quantified directly using the fuel consumption and emissions model in AIMSUN. A typical weekday morning peak period, between 09:00am–10:00am, was simulated and the demand data obtained using a macroscopic traffic assignment model previously developed for the wider area of Thessaloniki. The results presented in this paper are for network-wide simulation statistics (i.e. fuel consumed, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS flight operations. Given this, and understanding that the FAA faces a mandate to modernize the present air traffic management system through computer automation and significantly reduce the number of air traffic controllers by FY 2020, the FAA maintains that a comprehensive, yet fully automated UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace is needed. The concept of UTM is to begin by leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today. Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management (ATM), NASA is working with industry to develop prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that would evolve airspace integration procedures for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude flight operations that autonomously manage UAS operating in an approved low-altitude airspace environment. UTM is a cloud-based system that will autonomously manage all traffic at low altitudes to include UASs being operated beyond visual line of sight of an operator. UTM would thus enable safe and efficient flight operations by providing fully integrated traffic management services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning re-routing, separation management, sequencing spacing, and contingency management. UTM removes the need for human operators to continuously monitor aircraft operating in approved areas. NASA envisions concepts for two types of UTM systems. The first would be a small portable system, which could be moved between geographical areas in support of operations such as precision agriculture and public safety. The second would be a Persistent system, which would support low-altitude operations in an approved area by providing continuous automated

  2. Road traffic management based on self-load-balancing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most challenging problems for nowadays cities. Several contributions mainly based on V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication have been published, but most of them have never been applied due to their communication related problems and costs. In this article, a novel cost-effective approach is introduced inspired by social life of insects where direct (V2V communication does not exist anymore. Vehicles are equipped with devices that perform simple tasks, but their interactions with the environment through RSUs (Road Side Units allow the creation of an intelligence which notifies drivers about congested road segments to avoid them. We call this emerging behavior self-load balancing. Description of the fundamentals of this approach and its performance are detailed in this work.

  3. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  4. Long-term congestion management by investment in gas-turbine generators : a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, L.A.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2007-01-01

    Load management is one of the most important tasks in the operation of an electric power system. Transmission congestion occurs whenever the grid has one or more violations of the physical, operation, or policy constraints under which it normally operates. In a deregulated electricity market, the independent system operator (ISO) must ensure that contracted power transactions are carried out reliably. Several schemes of congestion management run the risk of increasing electricity prices due to the market power of local generators in congested areas. An alternative is to manage congestion through the installation of reserve gas turbine generators which can be brought online to the system within a short time. The use of gas turbines at different buses in the system can enhance the system in ways of transmission relief during emergency events. This paper proposed a framework for the evaluation of long-term investment by the ISO on gas-turbine generators as a tool for providing transmission congestion relief in the dispatch stage based on cost-benefit analysis. The objective of the framework is to optimally decide the locations and sizes of the generators at different buses in the network in order to minimize the total cost of investment of gas turbines and to minimize total system congestion. A bus-wise cost-benefit analysis was carried out by solving the DC optimal power flow (dc-OPF) model. The CIGRE 32-Bus system was used for the case study. It was shown that network overloading can be significantly reduced with the support of gas turbines at selected buses. The long-term decision of the investment on gas-turbine would depend on the opportunity cost of the gas-turbine with respect to the congestion problem. The gas turbines could also reduce the amount of unserved energy during peak load conditions. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Market Surveillance Panel Report : constrained off payments and other issues in the management of congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In October 2002, the Market Surveillance Panel (MSP), an independent body appointed by and accountable to Ontario's Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO), expressed concerns regarding the need to enhance transmission capability to relieve congestion. Concerns were also expressed for the lack of outage coordination among generators and transmitters. A stressed transmission system is a barrier to market efficiency and competition. It also prevents low cost generation from running, thereby requiring replacement by more expensive supply. The MSP examined the efficiency of the electricity market by looking at how off payments of the Congestion Management Settlement Credits (CMSC) improve the efficiency of the market. Following a consultation process with market participants, the MSP determined that constrained off CMSC payments could be eliminated without any reduction in market efficiency. This report presents a series of recommendations to reduce constrained off CMSC payments in some cases, and to eliminate them in others. The report also describes the mechanics of a CMSC review for hydroelectric facilities, as well as CMSC payments related to the 25 Hz sub-system. Barriers to effective transmission planning were noted and suggestions for reform were presented

  6. A plausible congestion management scheme for the internal electricity market of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Olmos, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for the management of network congestion in the Internal Electricity Market (IEM) of the European Union. This scheme tries to combine the rigor in the treatment of the energy and transmission capacity transactions with the flexibility and pragmatism that are necessary to make the scheme compatible with the current diversity of regulatory approaches and market structures in the Member States participating in the IEM. First, a reference scheme is presented with a complete formulation that jointly deals with the energy and capacity markets. Because of the implementation difficulties of this conceptually ideal approach, a more pragmatic scheme is proposed instead. The core of this scheme is an explicit auction mechanism that must be run prior to any short-term (daily, typically) energy markets. In this auction, where only transmission capacity is traded, both bilateral contracts and energy bids to Power Exchanges can participate in order to acquire the capacity that is necessary to carry out their transactions. Some technical issues related to the practical implementation of the proposed approach are also examined; these include market liquidity, the financial or physical nature of the long-term contracts, the potential problems of 'slicing' transmission capacity and the allocation of congestion rents. Market power issues are ignored. (author)

  7. A plausible congestion management scheme for the internal electricity market of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Olmos, L. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica

    2005-06-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for the management of network congestion in the Internal Electricity Market (IEM) of the European Union. This scheme tries to combine the rigor in the treatment of the energy and transmission capacity transactions with the flexibility and pragmatism that are necessary to make the scheme compatible with the current diversity of regulatory approaches and market structures in the Member States participating in the IEM. First, a reference scheme is presented with a complete formulation that jointly deals with the energy and capacity markets. Because of the implementation difficulties of this conceptually ideal approach, a more pragmatic scheme is proposed instead. The core of this scheme is an explicit auction mechanism that must be run prior to any short-term (daily, typically) energy markets. In this auction, where only transmission capacity is traded, both bilateral contracts and energy bids to Power Exchanges can participate in order to acquire the capacity that is necessary to carry out their transactions. Some technical issues related to the practical implementation of the proposed approach are also examined; these include market liquidity, the financial or physical nature of the long-term contracts, the potential problems of 'slicing' transmission capacity and the allocation of congestion rents. Market power issues are ignored. (author)

  8. NASA and FAA Programs in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will present an overview of NASA and joint NASA/FAA R&D programs related to Air Traffic Management. In addition it will address the plans for the new Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program, which will investigate methods for achieving the airline industries needs for increased flexibility in the nation's air traffic management system.

  9. Transportation and General Traffic Management, Change 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth those transportation and general traffic management responsibilities, guidelines, and procedures governing the use of commercial and Government transportation for NASA. Transportation is an integral function of the logistic process, involving all activities incident to the movement of persons and things. The fundamental and continuous objectives of transportation are to control and diminish the time-distance of lines of communication by the most suitable means. The function of transportation is accomplished through, and encompasses all, the planning, direction, supervision, and execution of the technical, operational, and administrative tasks required to procure or furnish efficient and economical conveyance of cargo and personnel by all modes of commercial and Government transportation. This Handbook is applicable to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  10. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-19

    NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have designed and developed an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and ...

  11. A Trial-and-Error Method with Autonomous Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Traffic Counts for Cordon-Based Congestion Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a practical trial-and-error method to solve the optimal toll design problem of cordon-based pricing, where only the traffic counts autonomously collected on the entry links of the pricing cordon are needed. With the fast development and adoption of vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I facilities, it is very convenient to autonomously collect these data. Two practical properties of the cordon-based pricing are further considered in this article: the toll charge on each entry of one pricing cordon is identical; the total inbound flow to one cordon should be restricted in order to maintain the traffic conditions within the cordon area. Then, the stochastic user equilibrium (SUE with asymmetric link travel time functions is used to assess each feasible toll pattern. Based on a variational inequality (VI model for the optimal toll pattern, this study proposes a theoretically convergent trial-and-error method for the addressed problem, where only traffic counts data are needed. Finally, the proposed method is verified based on a numerical network example.

  12. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  13. Towards a Cloud Based Smart Traffic Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M. M.; Hakimpour, F.

    2017-09-01

    Traffic big data has brought many opportunities for traffic management applications. However several challenges like heterogeneity, storage, management, processing and analysis of traffic big data may hinder their efficient and real-time applications. All these challenges call for well-adapted distributed framework for smart traffic management that can efficiently handle big traffic data integration, indexing, query processing, mining and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel, distributed, scalable and efficient framework for traffic management applications. The proposed cloud computing based framework can answer technical challenges for efficient and real-time storage, management, process and analyse of traffic big data. For evaluation of the framework, we have used OpenStreetMap (OSM) real trajectories and road network on a distributed environment. Our evaluation results indicate that speed of data importing to this framework exceeds 8000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We also evaluate performance of data retrieval in our proposed framework. The data retrieval speed exceeds 15000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We have also evaluated scalability and performance of our proposed framework using parallelisation of a critical pre-analysis in transportation applications. The results show that proposed framework achieves considerable performance and efficiency in traffic management applications.

  14. TOWARDS A CLOUD BASED SMART TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic big data has brought many opportunities for traffic management applications. However several challenges like heterogeneity, storage, management, processing and analysis of traffic big data may hinder their efficient and real-time applications. All these challenges call for well-adapted distributed framework for smart traffic management that can efficiently handle big traffic data integration, indexing, query processing, mining and analysis. In this paper, we present a novel, distributed, scalable and efficient framework for traffic management applications. The proposed cloud computing based framework can answer technical challenges for efficient and real-time storage, management, process and analyse of traffic big data. For evaluation of the framework, we have used OpenStreetMap (OSM real trajectories and road network on a distributed environment. Our evaluation results indicate that speed of data importing to this framework exceeds 8000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We also evaluate performance of data retrieval in our proposed framework. The data retrieval speed exceeds 15000 records per second when the size of datasets is near to 5 million. We have also evaluated scalability and performance of our proposed framework using parallelisation of a critical pre-analysis in transportation applications. The results show that proposed framework achieves considerable performance and efficiency in traffic management applications.

  15. Automatic road traffic safety management system in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskarbski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.

  16. Multilevel Coordination in Smart Grids for Congestion Management of Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; Saleem, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    The operation of the distribution network will change in the near future due to increasing size and number of distributed energy resources (DER) and demand side resources (DSR). An active distribution network is proposed to address the challenges. The normal operation of an active distribution...... network requires coordination of different values and operation constraints of various involved actors. This paper proposes a multilevel coordination strategy for congestion management of distribution network. Firstly, the scheme of an active distribution network is described. Then, the coordination...... strategies between various actors, i.e., distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators (FO), and EV owners are discussed. Further, a mathematical formulation of the chosen coordination strategies between DSO and FOs are presented and some case studies are shown to illustrate the effectiveness...

  17. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  18. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  19. The SMART personalised self-management system for congestive heart failure: results of a realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Yvonne K; Haywood, Annette; Bentley, Claire L; Parker, Jack; Hawley, Mark S; Mountain, Gail A; Mawson, Susan

    2014-11-25

    Technology has the potential to provide support for self-management to people with congestive heart failure (CHF). This paper describes the results of a realist evaluation of the SMART Personalised Self-Management System (PSMS) for CHF. The PSMS was used, at home, by seven people with CHF. Data describing system usage and usability as well as questionnaire and interview data were evaluated in terms of the context, mechanism and outcome hypotheses (CMOs) integral to realist evaluation. The CHF PSMS improved heart failure related knowledge in those with low levels of knowledge at baseline, through providing information and quizzes. Furthermore, participants perceived the self-regulatory aspects of the CHF PSMS as being useful in encouraging daily walking. The CMOs were revised to describe the context of use, and how this influences both the mechanisms and the outcomes. Participants with CHF engaged with the PSMS despite some technological problems. Some positive effects on knowledge were observed as well as the potential to assist with changing physical activity behaviour. Knowledge of CHF and physical activity behaviour change are important self-management targets for CHF, and this study provides evidence to direct the further development of a technology to support these targets.

  20. The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-11

    The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

  1. Effective traffic management based on bounded rationality and indifference bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Bie, Jing; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Constrained cognitive abilities cause imperfections in drivers' choice behaviour and appear largely systematic and predictable. This study introduces the concept of 'effective control space' to build upon this knowledge as an opportunity to increase the effectiveness of Dynamic Traffic Management

  2. Agent-Based Collaborative Traffic Flow Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose agent-based game-theoretic approaches for simulation of strategies involved in multi-objective collaborative traffic flow management (CTFM). Intelligent...

  3. An annotated outline for a traffic management center operations manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This draft Traffic Management Center (TMC) and Operations manual outline is meant to serve as a model "checklist" for the development of similar manuals used in deployed environments. The purpose of this outline is to provide a reference for agencies...

  4. Uninhabited Traffic Management System Evaluator (UTME), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of this effort is the development of an Uninhabited Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Manager Evaluator (UTME) specifically targeted at evaluating...

  5. Improving traffic signal management and operations : a basic service model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides a guide for achieving a basic service model for traffic signal management and : operations. The basic service model is based on simply stated and defensible operational objectives : that consider the staffing level, expertise and...

  6. CONGESTION AS A RESULT OF SCHOOL AND SHOPPING CENTER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Kumaat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of land use in public facilities such as shopping center and school gives an impact on transportation problem in Manado City, North Sulawesi.  To determine factors which have causal relationship with congestion  as a result of school and shopping center activity then it need to be assessed and studied.  Descriptive study with observational survey was used in this study. The study ran Structural Equation Modelling (SEM by using AMOS program. Estimated method was used to calculate sample size then found 300 repondents, comprised : visitors and mall managers, school visitors, parents, school managers, Public Works department, and urban planning department .The study yielded a statistically significant correlation between  school and shopping center activity with congestion s. The result  indicated that school activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. Shopping center activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. The closer proximity from school to shooping center will causes severe traffic congestion. The relationship between school facility with proximity was found in p value at  p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05 . The relationship between shopping center facility with proximity was found in p value at  p= 0,020 (p ≤ 0,05. While, the relationship between proximity with congestion was p= 0,008 (p ≤ 0,05. Monastery school and Mega Mall activity were affecting congestion because a closer proximity of two facilities. This indicates that the occurence of traffic congestion in Monastery School  may be dependent on existence of  Piere Tendean road link

  7. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES FOR MONITORING AND INTELLECTUAL ROAD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Belov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of automatic management of road traffic technologies in major cities of Ukraine is carried out in the given article. Priority directions of studies are determined for producing modern and perspective technologies in the given area. The facilities for monitoring and intelligence management of the road traffic on the basis of the programmed logical controller, using the device of fuzzy logic are considered.

  9. Cyber-Threat Assessment for the Air Traffic Management System: A Network Controls Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandip; Sridhar, Banavar

    2016-01-01

    Air transportation networks are being disrupted with increasing frequency by failures in their cyber- (computing, communication, control) systems. Whether these cyber- failures arise due to deliberate attacks or incidental errors, they can have far-reaching impact on the performance of the air traffic control and management systems. For instance, a computer failure in the Washington DC Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZDC) on August 15, 2015, caused nearly complete closure of the Centers airspace for several hours. This closure had a propagative impact across the United States National Airspace System, causing changed congestion patterns and requiring placement of a suite of traffic management initiatives to address the capacity reduction and congestion. A snapshot of traffic on that day clearly shows the closure of the ZDC airspace and the resulting congestion at its boundary, which required augmented traffic management at multiple locations. Cyber- events also have important ramifications for private stakeholders, particularly the airlines. During the last few months, computer-system issues have caused several airlines fleets to be grounded for significant periods of time: these include United Airlines (twice), LOT Polish Airlines, and American Airlines. Delays and regional stoppages due to cyber- events are even more common, and may have myriad causes (e.g., failure of the Department of Homeland Security systems needed for security check of passengers, see [3]). The growing frequency of cyber- disruptions in the air transportation system reflects a much broader trend in the modern society: cyber- failures and threats are becoming increasingly pervasive, varied, and impactful. In consequence, an intense effort is underway to develop secure and resilient cyber- systems that can protect against, detect, and remove threats, see e.g. and its many citations. The outcomes of this wide effort on cyber- security are applicable to the air transportation infrastructure

  10. Alternative approaches to condition monitoring in freeway management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In response to growing concerns over traffic congestion, traffic management systems have been built in large urban areas in an effort to improve the efficiency and safety of the transportation network. This research effort developed an automated cond...

  11. Predictive functional control for active queue management in congested TCP/IP networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, N; Haeri, M

    2009-01-01

    Predictive functional control (PFC) as a new active queue management (AQM) method in dynamic TCP networks supporting explicit congestion notification (ECN) is proposed. The ability of the controller in handling system delay along with its simplicity and low computational load makes PFC a privileged AQM method in the high speed networks. Besides, considering the disturbance term (which represents model/process mismatches, external disturbances, and existing noise) in the control formulation adds some level of robustness into the PFC-AQM controller. This is an important and desired property in the control of dynamically-varying computer networks. In this paper, the controller is designed based on a small signal linearized fluid-flow model of the TCP/AQM networks. Then, closed-loop transfer function representation of the system is derived to analyze the robustness with respect to the network and controller parameters. The analytical as well as the packet-level ns-2 simulation results show the out-performance of the developed controller for both queue regulation and resource utilization. Fast response, low queue fluctuations (and consequently low delay jitter), high link utilization, good disturbance rejection, scalability, and low packet marking probability are other features of the developed method with respect to other well-known AQM methods such as RED, PI, and REM which are also simulated for comparison.

  12. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-11-08

    The unprecedented growth of today's cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  13. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  14. Human factors in Traffic Management. State-of-the-Art Background Document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, H.; Goede, M. de; Hogema, J.H.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Martens, M.H.; Rasker, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    TrafficQuest is constantly taking stock of the state of affairs in the field of traffic management and the direction being taken by developments. Traffic management is on the threshold of significant change. Countless new developments will make it possible to deploy traffic management more

  15. Directing Traffic: Managing Internet Bandwidth Fairly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Thomas A.; Griggs, Tyler J.

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions today face budgetary restraints and scarce resources, complicating the decision of how to allot bandwidth for campus network users. Additionally, campus concerns over peer-to-peer networking (specifically outbound Internet traffic) have increased because of bandwidth and copyright issues. In this article, the authors…

  16. The indicative effects of inefficient urban traffic flow on fuel cost and exhaust air pollutant emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moselakgomo, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor urban traffic management such as poor intersection controls, congestions, illegal roadway blockages and construction works causes “stop-go” driving conditions with excessive idling resulting in wasted fuel and increased air pollutant emissions...

  17. Optimal model of congestion management in deregulated environment of power sector with promotion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, Yog Raj; Singh, Randhir

    2010-01-01

    In the competitive electricity market it becomes very much important to give special consideration for development of renewable energy sources (RESs) due to environmental and other social problems related with conventional generations. So this paper presents an optimal model of congestion management with special emphasis for promotion of RES in competitive electricity market. This paper presents a generalized optimal model of congestion management for deregulated power sector that dispatches the pool in combination with privately negotiated bilateral and multilateral contracts while maximizing social benefit. This model determines the locational marginal pricing (LMP) based on marginal cost theory. It also determines the size of non-firm transactions as well as pool demand and generations. Both firms as well as non-firm transactions are considered in this model. The proposed model has been applied to IEEE-30 bus test system with addition of some RES for analysis of the proposed model. The RES supplies its power to load either through the firm transaction or through power pool. The power from RES is not subjected to any curtailment in proposed model of congestion management. (author)

  18. Distributed and Centralized Conflict Management Under Traffic Flow Management Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Eric; Bilimoria, Karl (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Current air transportation in the United States relies on a system born half a century ago. While demand for air travel has kept increasing over the years, technologies at the heart of the National Airspace System (NAS) have not been able to follow an adequate evolution. For instance, computers used to centralize flight data in airspace sectors run a software developed in 1972. Safety, as well as certification and portability issues arise as major obstacles for the improvement of the system. The NAS is a structure that has never been designed, but has rather evolved over time. This has many drawbacks, mainly due to a lack of integration and engineering leading to many inefficiencies and losses of performance. To improve the operations, understanding of this complex needs to be built up to a certain level. This work presents research done on Air Traffic Management (ATM) at the level of the en-route sector.

  19. Wilmington Area Planning Council, New Castle County, Delaware and Cecil County, Maryland : a performance-based approach to integrating congestion management into the metropolitan planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Wilmington Area Planning Council takes an objectives-driven, performance-based approach to its metropolitan transportation planning, including paying special attention to integrating its Congestion Management Process into its planning efforts. Th...

  20. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  1. Vehicle-class Specific Control of Freeway Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.

    2013-01-01

    The increase of mobility of the past decades has led to substantial congestion on the freeways. Traffic jams emerge both on a daily basis at the same location, as well as during accidents when a part of the freeways is temporarily blocked. In those cases, traffic management centers intervene into

  2. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  3. Applying Graph Theory to Problems in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, Amir H.; Goldberg, Alan T.; Bagasol, Leonard N.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2017-01-01

    Graph theory is used to investigate three different problems arising in air traffic management. First, using a polynomial reduction from a graph partitioning problem, it isshown that both the airspace sectorization problem and its incremental counterpart, the sector combination problem are NP-hard, in general, under several simple workload models. Second, using a polynomial time reduction from maximum independent set in graphs, it is shown that for any fixed e, the problem of finding a solution to the minimum delay scheduling problem in traffic flow management that is guaranteed to be within n1-e of the optimal, where n is the number of aircraft in the problem instance, is NP-hard. Finally, a problem arising in precision arrival scheduling is formulated and solved using graph reachability. These results demonstrate that graph theory provides a powerful framework for modeling, reasoning about, and devising algorithmic solutions to diverse problems arising in air traffic management.

  4. Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor Operational Field Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd; Landry, Steven J.; Hoang, Ty; Nickelson, Monicarol; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (McTMA) is a research prototype system which seeks to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic control (ATC) operations. Time-based metering is an efficient alternative to traditional air traffic management techniques such as distance-based spacing (miles-in-trail spacing) and managed arrival reservoirs (airborne holding). While time-based metering has demonstrated significant benefit in terms of arrival throughput and arrival delay, its use to date has been limited to arrival operations at just nine airports nationally. Wide-scale adoption of time-based metering has been hampered, in part, by the limited scalability of metering automation. In order to realize the full spectrum of efficiency benefits possible with time-based metering, a much more modular, scalable time-based metering capability is required. With its distributed metering architecture, multi-center TMA offers such a capability.

  5. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-01-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p max . This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic

  6. Controlling chaos in Internet congestion control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang E-mail: chenmoon110@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaofan; Han Zhengzhi

    2004-07-01

    The TCP end-to-end congestion control plus RED router queue management can be modeled as a discrete-time dynamical system, which may create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior. Based on the basic features of the TCP-RED model, we propose a time-dependent delayed feedback control algorithm to control chaos in the system by perturbing the accessible RED parameter p{sub max}. This method is able to stabilized a router queue occupancy at a level without knowing the exact knowledge of the network. Further, we study the situation of the presence of the UDP traffic.

  7. CCS_WHMS: A Congestion Control Scheme for Wearable Health Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mohamed Amine; Ben Othman, Jalel; Bagaa, Miloud; Badache, Nadjib

    2015-12-01

    Wearable computing is becoming a more and more attracting field in the last years thanks to the miniaturisation of electronic devices. Wearable healthcare monitoring systems (WHMS) as an important client of wearable computing technology has gained a lot. Indeed, the wearable sensors and their surrounding healthcare applications bring a lot of benefits to patients, elderly people and medical staff, so facilitating their daily life quality. But from a research point of view, there is still work to accomplish in order to overcome the gap between hardware and software parts. In this paper, we target the problem of congestion control when all these healthcare sensed data have to reach the destination in a reliable manner that avoids repetitive transmission which wastes precious energy or leads to loss of important information in emergency cases, too. We propose a congestion control scheme CCS_WHMS that ensures efficient and fair data delivery while used in the body wearable system part or in the multi-hop inter bodies wearable ones to get the destination. As the congestion detection paradigm is very important in the control process, we do experimental tests to compare between state of the art congestion detection methods, using MICAz motes, in order to choose the appropriate one for our scheme.

  8. Real Time Emulation of Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the real time evaluation of the dynamic tariff (DT) method for alleviating congestion in a distribution networks with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). The DT method is implemented in a real time digital testing platform that emulates a real distribution...

  9. A Perspective on NASA Ames Air Traffic Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes past and present air-traffic-management research at NASA Ames Research Center. The descriptions emerge from the perspective of a technical manager who supervised the majority of this research for the last four years. Past research contributions built a foundation for calculating accurate flight trajectories to enable efficient airspace management in time. That foundation led to two predominant research activities that continue to this day - one in automatically separating aircraft and the other in optimizing traffic flows. Today s national airspace uses many of the applications resulting from research at Ames. These applications include the nationwide deployment of the Traffic Management Advisor, new procedures enabling continuous descent arrivals, cooperation with industry to permit more direct flights to downstream way-points, a surface management system in use by two cargo carriers, and software to evaluate how well flights conform to national traffic management initiatives. The paper concludes with suggestions for prioritized research in the upcoming years. These priorities include: enabling more first-look operational evaluations, improving conflict detection and resolution for climbing or descending aircraft, and focusing additional attention on the underpinning safety critical items such as a reliable datalink.

  10. Metro manila transport and traffic management plan (1993-1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, former President Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force on Traffic Management to formulate plans and programs to improve the traffic situation in Metro Manila and to address the emerging problem of air pollution and concern on renewable energy sources for transportation. The Task Force formulated the Metro Manila Traffic Improvement Plan (TRIP) which was approved by President Aquino for implementation. TRIP called for the development of a mass urban transport system, which included the expansion of the light rail transit system and the construction and improvement of the Metro Manila road network. Culled mainly from the TRIP proposals, the Updated Transport and Traffic Management Plan for Metro Manila (1993-1998) was developed through interagency discussions, public consultations, data collation and research work. This plan is directed towards the development of a more responsive public transport system, expansion of road network capacity, and improvement of traffic management and enforcement. Constraints may be present along the way but opportunities and potentials exist for the deliverance of daily commuters struggling to make a living.

  11. Mathematical principles of road congestion pricing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    route during the morning peak hour: cost and demand functions. the same at all traffic levels. Although car running costs rise with increases in travel time in congested urban travel conditions, they are usually regarded by road users as being.

  12. Societal benefits by in-car centric traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, B.J.C.M.; van de Weijer, C.J.T.; van Woensel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Currently in traffic management (TM) road authorities use infrastructure-based systems to influence people. With market parties being able to offer more and better data at lower cost, and with in-car systems used for communication to the driver, there is a big opportunity for making TM more

  13. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  14. Congestion management rules and trading strategies in the Spanish electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furio, Dolores; Lucia, Julio J. [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Actuarial, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Los Naranjos, s/n, 46022 - Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This paper analyses the economic incentives embodied in the rules governing the resolution of transmission constraints in the Spanish wholesale electricity market and the way these incentives may have influenced on the trading behaviour of both the generators and the demand side. The evidence obtained is consistent with them responding to these incentives. In particular, buyers would respond to the way congestion costs are billed to them by abandoning the daily market in favour of the intraday market as far as possible. Additionally, some strategic generators may have been prompted the system operator to require them to inject electricity into the system to solve network congestions. Finally, these results may contribute to shed light on what should be expected of the reform in the aforementioned rules. (author)

  15. Congestion management rules and trading strategies in the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furio, Dolores; Lucia, Julio J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the economic incentives embodied in the rules governing the resolution of transmission constraints in the Spanish wholesale electricity market and the way these incentives may have influenced on the trading behaviour of both the generators and the demand side. The evidence obtained is consistent with them responding to these incentives. In particular, buyers would respond to the way congestion costs are billed to them by abandoning the daily market in favour of the intraday market as far as possible. Additionally, some strategic generators may have been prompted the system operator to require them to inject electricity into the system to solve network congestions. Finally, these results may contribute to shed light on what should be expected of the reform in the aforementioned rules. (author)

  16. Electronic Toll And Traffic Management Systems, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION OR ETC AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OR ETTM, AUTOMATIC VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION OR AVI : ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (ETTM) SYSTEMS ARE NOT A FUTURISTIC DREAM, THEY ARE OPERATING OR ARE BEING TESTED TODAY I...

  17. A Queuing Model-Based System for Triggering Traffic Flow Management Algorithms, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation air traffic management systems are expected use multiple software tools and quantitative methods for managing traffic flow in the National Airspace....

  18. Decision support tools to support the operations of traffic management centers (TMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The goal of this project is to develop decision support tools to support traffic management operations based on collected intelligent transportation system (ITS) data. The project developments are in accordance with the needs of traffic management ce...

  19. Guidelines for deploying connected vehicle-enabled weather responsive traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    State and local Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are interested in providing effective traffic management and operations strategies to mitigate the roadway mobility and safety problems due to adverse weather. Weather Responsive Traffic Management...

  20. Planning and managing rural recreational traffic flows: why the future can’t be more like the past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Vries, de J.R.; Beunen, R.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing popularity of rural tourism can cause traffic related problems at certain areas. Traffic congestion and parking problems are likely to occur as the infrastructure at these countryside destinations is seldom capable of dealing with the growing number of cars. Values which make the

  1. Local Traffic Management: Tools for Local Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Elkhart County will discuss recent efforts to improve signalized corridor management as well as specific actions taken to accommodate special event planning. Case studies of special events with limited access and infrastructure serving the event site will be discussed.

  2. Driving with a congestion assistant : mental workload and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; Driel, C. J.G. van; Hof, T.; Arem, B. van; Hoedemaeker, M.

    2009-01-01

    New driver support systems are developed and introduced to the market at increasing speed. In conditions of traffic congestion drivers may be supported by a" Congestion Assistant", a system that combines the features of a Congestion Warning System (acoustic warning and gas pedal counterforce) and a

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Dynamic Tariff Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic tariff (DT) method is designed for the distribution system operator (DSO) to alleviate the congestions that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of distribute energy resources (DERs). Sensitivity analysis of the DT method is crucial because of its decentralized...... control manner. The sensitivity analysis can obtain the changes of the optimal energy planning and thereby the line loading profiles over the infinitely small changes of parameters by differentiating the KKT conditions of the convex quadratic programming, over which the DT method is formed. Three case...

  4. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing through Quadratic Programming for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2015-01-01

    ) calculates dynamic tariffs and publishes them to the aggregators, who make the optimal energy plans for the flexible demands. The DLMP through QP instead of linear programing as studied in previous literatures solves the multiple solution issue of the ag- gregator optimization which may cause......This paper presents the distribution locational mar- ginal pricing (DLMP) method through quadratic programming (QP) designed to alleviate the congestion that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of flexible demands. In the DLMP method, the distribution system operator (DSO...

  5. Disease management 360 degrees: a scorecard approach to evaluating TRICARE's programs for asthma, congestive heart failure, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenya; Dall, Timothy M; Zhang, Yiduo; Hogan, Paul F; Arday, David R; Gantt, Cynthia J

    2010-08-01

    To assess the effect of TRICARE's asthma, congestive heart failure, and diabetes disease management programs using a scorecard approach. EVALUATION MEASURES: Patient healthcare utilization, financial, clinical, and humanistic outcomes. Absolute measures were translated into effect size and incorporated into a scorecard. Actual outcomes for program participants were compared with outcomes predicted in the absence of disease management. The predictive equations were established from regression models based on historical control groups (n = 39,217). Z scores were calculated for the humanistic measures obtained through a mailed survey. Administrative records containing medical claims, patient demographics and characteristics, and program participation status were linked using an encrypted patient identifier (n = 57,489). The study time frame is 1 year prior to program inception through 2 years afterward (October 2005-September 2008). A historical control group was identified with the baseline year starting October 2003 and a 1-year follow-up period starting October 2004. A survey was administered to a subset of participants 6 months after baseline assessment (39% response rate). Within the observation window--24 months for asthma and congestive heart failure, and 15 months for the diabetes program--we observed modest reductions in hospital days and healthcare cost for all 3 programs and reductions in emergency visits for 2 programs. Most clinical outcomes moved in the direction anticipated. The scorecard provided a useful tool to track performance of 3 regional contractors for each of 3 diseases and over time.

  6. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro; Jesuk Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed...

  7. Effective Road Model for Congestion Control in VANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Dongre, Manoj M.; Bawane, Narendra G.

    2016-01-01

    Congestion on the roads is a key problem to deal with, which wastes valuable time.. Due to high mobility rate and relative speed link failure occur very often. VANET is used to tackle the problem of congestion, and make decisions well in advance to avoid traffic congestion. In this paper we proposed a solution to detect and control the traffic congestion by using of both (V2V) and (V2I), as a result the drivers become aware of the location of congestion as well as way to avoid getting stuck i...

  8. New Solutions Based On Wireless Networks For Dynamic Traffic Lights Management: A Comparison Between IEEE 802.15.4 And Bluetooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collotta Mario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Networks are widely used to detect and exchange information and in recent years they have been increasingly involved in Intelligent Transportation System applications, especially in dynamic management of signalized intersections. In fact, the real-time knowledge of information concerning traffic light junctions represents a valid solution to congestion problems. In this paper, a wireless network architecture, based on IEEE 802.15.4 or Bluetooth, in order to monitor vehicular traffic flows near to traffic lights, is introduced. Moreover, an innovative algorithm is proposed in order to determine dynamically green times and phase sequence of traffic lights, based on measured values of traffic flows. Several simulations compare IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth protocols in order to identify the more suitable communication protocol for ITS applications. Furthermore, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed algorithm for the dynamic management of traffic lights, some case studies have been considered and several simulations have been performed.

  9. Generic Traffic Descriptors in Managing Service Quality in BISDN/ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic models for multiservice broadband networks differsignificantly regarding simple analytic models applicable intelephone traffic and circuit-switch network. The paper presentsa clear analysis of standardised traffic descriptors andquality parameters of the main services in BISDNIATM. Trafficdescriptors have been associated with the basic values andconcepts developed within generic traffic theory. Part systematisationof traffic parameters has been performed as basis for formalisedgeneralised description of parameters and effectivequality management of A TM services.

  10. Time-based collision risk modeling for air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alan E.

    Since the emergence of commercial aviation in the early part of last century, economic forces have driven a steadily increasing demand for air transportation. Increasing density of aircraft operating in a finite volume of airspace is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the risk of collision, and in response to a growing number of incidents and accidents involving collisions between aircraft, governments worldwide have developed air traffic control systems and procedures to mitigate this risk. The objective of any collision risk management system is to project conflicts and provide operators with sufficient opportunity to recognize potential collisions and take necessary actions to avoid them. It is therefore the assertion of this research that the currency of collision risk management is time. Future Air Traffic Management Systems are being designed around the foundational principle of four dimensional trajectory based operations, a method that replaces legacy first-come, first-served sequencing priorities with time-based reservations throughout the airspace system. This research will demonstrate that if aircraft are to be sequenced in four dimensions, they must also be separated in four dimensions. In order to separate aircraft in four dimensions, time must emerge as the primary tool by which air traffic is managed. A functional relationship exists between the time-based performance of aircraft, the interval between aircraft scheduled to cross some three dimensional point in space, and the risk of collision. This research models that relationship and presents two key findings. First, a method is developed by which the ability of an aircraft to meet a required time of arrival may be expressed as a robust standard for both industry and operations. Second, a method by which airspace system capacity may be increased while maintaining an acceptable level of collision risk is presented and demonstrated for the purpose of formulating recommendations for procedures

  11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  12. Use of computers for meeting future challenges in traffic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Since overall distribution costs, including transportation, is approaching 10% of the material expense dollar, new strategies are emerging in distribution management. Innovative technology utilizing computer hardware and software is an aid to solving inventory control and distribution problems. This paper discusses the information needs of the shipper traffic manager and the role of computers in meeting this need. DOE, in association with Union Carbide's Nuclear Division, has utilized data base technology to collect and report transportation statistics for a variety of management information needs

  13. The Denver region traffic signal system improvement program : planning for management and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) works with over 30 local jurisdictions on the Traffic Signal System Improvement Program (TSSIP), a combination of management and operations strategies designed to time and coordinate traffic signals ...

  14. Automatic Generation of Least-Possible-Impact Traffic Management Initiatives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Weather accounts for 70% of the annual cost of air traffic delays and cancellations, of which about 60% are estimated to be avoidable. Traffic Management Initiatives...

  15. Congestion management by determining optimal location of TCSC in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besharat, Hadi; Taher, Seyed Abbas

    2008-01-01

    In a deregulated electricity market, it may always not be possible to dispatch all of the contracted power transactions due to congestion of the transmission corridors. The ongoing power system restructuring requires an opening of unused potentials of transmission system due to environmental, right-of-way and cost problems which are major hurdles for power transmission network expansion. Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTSs) devices can be an alternative to reduce the flows in heavily loaded lines, resulting in an increased loadability, low system loss, improved stability of the network, reduced cost of production and fulfilled contractual requirement by controlling the power flows in the network. A method to determine the optimal location of thyristor controlled series compensators (TCSCs) has been suggested in this paper based on real power performance index and reduction of total system VAR power losses. (author)

  16. Transit Station Congestion Index Research Based on Pedestrian Simulation and Gray Clustering Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A congestion phenomenon in a transit station could lead to low transfer efficiency as well as a hidden danger. Effective management of congestion phenomenon shall help to reduce the efficiency decline and danger risk. However, due to the difficulty in acquiring microcosmic pedestrian density, existing researches lack quantitative indicators to reflect congestion degree. This paper aims to solve this problem. Firstly, platform, stair, transfer tunnel, auto fare collection (AFC machine, and security check machine were chosen as key traffic facilities through large amounts of field investigation. Key facilities could be used to reflect the passenger density of a whole station. Secondly, the pedestrian density change law of each key traffic facility was analyzed using pedestrian simulation, and the load degree calculating method of each facility was defined, respectively, afterwards. Taking pedestrian density as basic data and gray clustering evaluation as algorithm, an index called Transit Station Congestion Index (TSCI was constructed to reflect the congestion degree of transit stations. Finally, an evaluation demonstration was carried out with five typical transit transfer stations in Beijing, and the evaluation results show that TSCI can objectively reflect the congestion degree of transit stations.

  17. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational

  18. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  19. Using multisensory cues to facilitate air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary K; Pierce, Russell S; Spence, Charles

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we sought to investigate whether auditory and tactile cuing could be used to facilitate a complex, real-world air traffic management scenario. Auditory and tactile cuing provides an effective means of improving both the speed and accuracy of participants' performance in a variety of laboratory-based visual target detection and identification tasks. A low-fidelity air traffic simulation task was used in which participants monitored and controlled aircraft.The participants had to ensure that the aircraft landed or exited at the correct altitude, speed, and direction and that they maintained a safe separation from all other aircraft and boundaries. The performance measures recorded included en route time, handoff delay, and conflict resolution delay (the performance measure of interest). In a baseline condition, the aircraft in conflict was highlighted in red (visual cue), and in the experimental conditions, this standard visual cue was accompanied by a simultaneously presented auditory, vibrotactile, or audiotactile cue. Participants responded significantly more rapidly, but no less accurately, to conflicts when presented with an additional auditory or audiotactile cue than with either a vibrotactile or visual cue alone. Auditory and audiotactile cues have the potential for improving operator performance by reducing the time it takes to detect and respond to potential visual target events. These results have important implications for the design and use of multisensory cues in air traffic management.

  20. Concepts and algorithms for terminal-area traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Chapel, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The nation's air-traffic-control system is the subject of an extensive modernization program, including the planned introduction of advanced automation techniques. This paper gives an overview of a concept for automating terminal-area traffic management. Four-dimensional (4D) guidance techniques, which play an essential role in the automated system, are reviewed. One technique, intended for on-board computer implementation, is based on application of optimal control theory. The second technique is a simplified approach to 4D guidance intended for ground computer implementation. It generates advisory messages to help the controller maintain scheduled landing times of aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. An operational system for the second technique, recently evaluated in a simulation, is also described.

  1. Impact of Considering 110 kV Grid Structures on the Congestion Management in the German Transmission Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffrichter, André; Barrios, Hans; Massmann, Janek; Venkataramanachar, Bhavasagar; Schnettler, Armin

    2018-02-01

    The structural changes in the European energy system lead to an increase of renewable energy sources that are primarily connected to the distribution grid. Hence the stationary analysis of the transmission grid and the regionalization of generation capacities are strongly influenced by subordinate grid structures. To quantify the impact on the congestion management in the German transmission grid, a 110 kV grid model is derived using publicly available data delivered by Open Street Map and integrated into an existing model of the European transmission grid. Power flow and redispatch simulations are performed for three different regionalization methods and grid configurations. The results show a significant impact of the 110 kV system and prove an overestimation of power flows in the transmission grid when neglecting subordinate grids. Thus, the redispatch volume in Germany to dissolve bottlenecks in case of N-1 contingencies decreases by 38 % when considering the 110 kV grid.

  2. Research on urban road congestion pricing strategy considering carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Peng, Z.; Wang, K.; Song, X.; Yao, B.; Feng, T.

    2015-01-01

    Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide

  3. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole

  4. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Vincent, Danny; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have designed and developed and an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The system was operationally evaluated at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators and En Route Air Traffic Controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the capacity of a demand impacted airport. The TMA consists of trajectory prediction, constraint-based runway scheduling, traffic flow visualization and controllers advisories. The TMA was used and operationally evaluated for forty-one rush traffic periods during a one month period in the Summer of 1996. The evaluations included all shifts of air traffic operations as well as periods of inclement weather. Performance data was collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations without the TMA. The engineering data indicates that the operations with the TMA show a one to two minute per aircraft delay reduction during rush periods. The human factor data indicate a perceived reduction in en route controller workload as well as an increase in job satisfaction. Upon completion of the evaluation, the TMA has become part of the normal operations at the Ft. Worth ARTCC.

  5. Looking for optimal number and placement of FACTS devices to manage the transmission congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimzadeh, Sajad; Tavakoli Bina, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Some applications of FACTS devices show that they are proper and effective tools to control the technical parameters of power systems. However determination of optimal number, location, size and type of these devices is a difficult problem. Moreover, applying a suitable objective function for optimal placement of FACTS devices plays a very important role in economic improvement of a power market. In this paper optimal placement of parallel and series FACTS devices is studied. The STATCOM is selected as a parallel FACTS device and SSSC as a series one. The optimization problem is formulated in regard to restructured environment and a new objective function is defined so that its minimization can alleviate the congestion and provide fairer conditions for power market participants. Moreover, an index based on objective function value is presented to determine the optimal number of each FACTS device in a specific designed algorithm. The power injection models for STATCOM and SSSC are adopted by applying neural models based on the averaging technique. This model takes the converter power losses into account and produces the required PQ-phasor that is suitable for power system steady state analysis. The proposed method is applied on modified IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus and 118-bus test systems and the results are analyzed.

  6. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  7. The future of traffic management : State of the art, current trends and perspectives for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Taale, H.; Wilmink, I.; Van Katwijk, R.; Immers, B.; Schuurman, H.

    2012-01-01

    In the world of traffic management a lot is happening and developments move quickly. Traffic Quest helps to keep track of these developments by systematically collecting, developing and transferring knowledge. The partners in TrafficQuest together cover the entire spectrum including the fundamental,

  8. Occurrence, aetiology and challenges in the management of congestive heart failure in sub-saharan Africa: experience of the Cardiac Centre in Shisong, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantchou Tchoumi Jacques Cabral

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, the aetiology and the management of congestive heart failure in the cardiac centre of the St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong in Cameroon. METHODS: Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 8121 patients was consulted in the referral cardiac centre of St. Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital. Of these patients, 462 were diagnosed with congestive heart failure according to the modified Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure. Complementary investigations used to confirm and establish the aetiology of the disease were the chest X-ray, electrocardiography, bi-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS: The results showed that the occurrence of congestive heart failure in our centre was 5,7%. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 198 females and 264 males, aged between 8 and 86 years old (42.5, plus or minus 18 years old. Post rheumatic valvulopathies (14.6% and congenital heart diseases (1.9% were the first aetiologic factor of congestive heart failure in the young, meanwhile cardiomyopathies (8,3% in elderly followed by hypertensive cardiomyopathy (4.4%. Congestive heart failure was also seen in adults with congenital heart diseases in 0.01%. In this zone of Cameroon, we discovered that HIV cardiomyopathy (1.6% and Cor pulmonale (8% were represented, aetiological factors not mentioned in previous studies conducted in urban areas of Cameroon. The mean duration of hospital stay for the compensation treatment was thirteen days, ranging between 7 and 21 days, the mortality being 9.2%. All the medications recommended for the treatment of congestive heart failure are available in our centre but many patients are not compliant to the therapy or cannot afford them. Financial limitation is causing the exacerbation of the disease and premature death. CONCLUSION: Our data show a high incidence of congestive heart failure mainly due to post

  9. 交通拥堵条件下的公交发车间隔过渡模型研究%A Bus Departure Time Interval Transition Model Considering Traffic Congestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红召; 孔娟娟; 刘晴辉

    2016-01-01

    The existing planning models of bus departure time interval usually ignored the important impact factor of real-time traffic congestion. To solve the issue, a departure time interval transition method is presented considering passenger travel demand and traffic congestion. The bus operating hours is divided into several temporary periods separately according to the passenger travel demand and the congestion conditions by the clustering method of samples with sequence. Then these temporary periods are combined to form a period set, in which each period possess the features including passenger travel flow and traffic congestion. Consequently, the departure interval transition model is established to adjust the transient time separately between two neighbor periods to match the passenger travel demand and departure plan. Finally a practical experiment for one bus route in Hangzhou is implemented to verify the proposed model by PARAMICS simulation. The result shows that the model can keep the load ratio in the range of 40%to 70%with the precondition of satisfying the passenger travel demand, and help to improve the service level and the efficiency of the bus transit system.%针对现有公交发车间隔模型忽略了交通拥堵状态对公交运营影响的问题,提出了交通拥堵条件下响应客流需求的发车间隔设计方法。采用有序样本聚类方法,分别根据客流需求及交通拥堵状态对时间段进行聚类划分,并融合处理为若干具有不同客流与拥堵状态综合特征的时间段;分析相邻时段综合特征关系,建立了发车间隔的过渡模型,该模型确定发车时段之间的衔接时长,通过调整衔接时间长度将发车序列在时间轴上平移,弥补交通拥堵造成的客流需求与发车计划匹配错位。最后采用杭州市某线路的运营数据对该模型进行了分析验证,PARAMICS交通仿真实验表明,该模型在满足客流需求的前提下使

  10. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 8. Operational Logic Flow Diagrams for a Generic Advanced Air Traffic Management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of the services a generic Advanced Air Traffic Management System (AATMS) should provide to the useres of the system to facilitate the safe, efficient flow of traffic. It provides a definition of the functions which t...

  11. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  13. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  14. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  15. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  16. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    signalling system. Therefore, the entire maintenance system needs to change from the previous system to the newest system, and hence, new optimisation techniques need to be established so as to facilitate managers in creating ideal maintenance strategies. The aim of this thesis is to develop new maintenance......The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... between European countries. In various countries across the world, there is a gradual shift from the current signalling systems to ERTMS. Amongst the European countries, Denmark was the first country to commence a full upgrading of its signalling system to ERTMS. A variety of maintenance requirements...

  17. Managing Traffic Flows for Cleaner Cities: The Role of Green Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiamma Perez-Prada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities worldwide suffer from serious air pollution problems and are main contributors to climate change. Green Navigation systems have a great potential to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from traffic. This research evaluates the impacts of different percentages of green drivers on traffic, CO2, and NOx over the entire Madrid Region. A macroscopic traffic model was combined with an enhanced macroscopic emissions model and a GIS (Geographic Information Systems to simulate emissions on the basis of average vehicle speeds and traffic intensity at the link level. NOx emissions are evaluated, taking into account not only the exhaust emissions produced by transport activity, but also the amount of the population exposed to these air pollutants. Results show up to 10.4% CO2 and 13.8% NOx reductions in congested traffic conditions for a 90% penetration of green drivers; however, the population’s exposure to NOx increases up to 20.2%. Moreover, while traffic volumes decrease by 13.5% for the entire region, they increase by up to 16.4% downtown. Travel times also increase by 28.7%. Since green drivers tend to choose shorter routes through downtown areas, eco-routing systems are an effective tool for fighting climate change, but are ineffective to reduce air pollution in dense urban areas.

  18. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  19. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  20. Traffic Steering Framework for Mobile-Assisted Resource Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    With the expected growth of mobile data traffic it is essential to manage the network resources efficiently. In order to undertake this challenge, we propose a framework for network-centric, mobile-assisted resource management, which facilitates traffic offloading from mobile network to Wi-Fi...... to the network backbone. What is more, we give an overview of existing standardization activities on offloading the mobile traffic through Wi-Fi....

  1. Enhancing lean supply chain through traffic light quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazharul Islam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a continuous journey to grow and excel the company. Any company want to develop and cope with the world pace must adopt lean. However, in most of the organizations the management culture or people’s mentality is not so good to embrace change. They have predestined mind set where no change is normally allowed. Lean is a cooperative way of working that involves all departments and all personnel to work together in a team for the betterment of the entire company. Without providing fixed solution of any problem it suggests the best way that people willingly accept to do. Lean normally deals with highest quality, shorter lead time and lowest cost. In Bangladesh, most of the garment manufacturing companies are experiencing a massive quality problem. We describe a case where traffic light, a tool of lean quality system was adopted to a garment manufacturing company in Bangladesh. We also provide the charts to contrast the before and after scenario in detail, in order to illustrate the company benefits. After the traffic light system being implemented, the quality status was improved, production capacity was increased; significant days were saved that enhanced the lead time and thus strengthen the supply chain.

  2. A neurophysiological training evaluation metric for air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghini, G; Aricò, P; Ferri, F; Graziani, I; Pozzi, S; Napoletano, L; Imbert, J P; Granger, G; Benhacene, R; Babiloni, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the possibility to apply a neuroelectrical cognitive metrics for the evaluation of the training level of subjects during the learning of a task employed by Air Traffic Controllers (ATCos). In particular, the Electroencephalogram (EEG), the Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the Electrooculogram (EOG) signals were gathered from a group of students during the execution of an Air Traffic Management (ATM) task, proposed at three different levels of difficulty. The neuroelectrical results were compared with the subjective perception of the task difficulty obtained by the NASA-TLX questionnaires. From these analyses, we suggest that the integration of information derived from the power spectral density (PSD) of the EEG signals, the heart rate (HR) and the eye-blink rate (EBR) return important quantitative information about the training level of the subjects. In particular, by focusing the analysis on the direct and inverse correlation of the frontal PSD theta (4-7 (Hz)) and HR, and of the parietal PSD alpha (10-12 (Hz)) and EBR, respectively, with the degree of mental and emotive engagement, it is possible to obtain useful information about the training improvement across the training sessions.

  3. Acceleration of aircraft-level Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph Lucio

    This dissertation describes novel approaches to solving large-scale, high fidelity, aircraft-level Traffic Flow Management scheduling problems. Depending on the methods employed, solving these problems to optimality can take longer than the length of the planning horizon in question. Research in this domain typically focuses on the quality of the modeling used to describe the problem and the benefits achieved from the optimized solution, often treating computational aspects as secondary or tertiary. The work presented here takes the complementary view and considers the computational aspect as the primary concern. To this end, a previously published model for solving this Traffic Flow Management scheduling problem is used as starting point for this study. The model proposed by Bertsimas and Stock-Patterson is a binary integer program taking into account all major resource capacities and the trajectories of each flight to decide which flights should be held in which resource for what amount of time in order to satisfy all capacity requirements. For large instances, the solve time using state-of-the-art solvers is prohibitive for use within a potential decision support tool. With this dissertation, however, it will be shown that solving can be achieved in reasonable time for instances of real-world size. Five other techniques developed and tested for this dissertation will be described in detail. These are heuristic methods that provide good results. Performance is measured in terms of runtime and "optimality gap." We then describe the most successful method presented in this dissertation: Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition. Results indicate that a parallel implementation of Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition optimally solves the original problem in much reduced time and with better integrality and smaller optimality gap than any of the heuristic methods or state-of-the-art, commercial solvers. The solution quality improves in every measureable way as the number of subproblems

  4. Air Traffic Management: Civil/Military Systems and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    THE SELECTION AND SCREENING OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS James 0. Boone, Ph.D. Chief, Selection & Testing Research Unit Aviation Psychology Laboratory...Intermittent Positive Control (IPC), later renamed Automatic Traffic Advisory and Resolution Service ( ATARS ). The specific surveillance needs identified...in Clementon, New Jersey. Coincident with DABS development is the Automatic Traffic Advisory and Pesolution Service ( ATARS )--a ground-based collision

  5. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...

  6. Public transport traffic management systems simulation in Craiova city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    Urban transport is a comprehensive and dynamic mechanism. Therefore, all the problems for improving and reorganization of the system can be examined only in the light of a systemic approach. Currently, public passenger transport is one of the most important branches of the urban development in cities and metropolis. Public passenger transport activity and all the steps taken to improve that activity are considered to be of great social importance. In the current stage of city development, one of the main tasks is to create a public passenger transportation system that is safe, affordable, economical, reliable and environmentally friendly. The important role of passenger transport in the city's economy and achieving important social services to the population, dictates the need to introduce measures in the system that are harmonious, balanced and effective. This can only be done, in the context of current development, only after the system as a whole is tested extensively through special traffic and management software. (Author)

  7. A new intelligent approach for air traffic control using gravitational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, poor management of this congestion may lead to a lot of flight delays, increase of operational errors by air traffic control personnel ... the PLT [8–11], and decreasing the duration of scheduling. [12, 13]. Hansen [3], Hu ...... [14] Hu X-B and Paolo E D 2009 An efficient genetic algorithm with uniform crossover for air ...

  8. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha. These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites. For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century, and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data.

  9. The Development of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (MCTMA): Traffic Flow Management Research in a Multi-Facility Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Davis, Thomas J.; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is a decision-support tool for traffic managers and air traffic controllers that provides traffic flow visualization and other flow management tools. TMA creates an efficiently sequenced and safely spaced schedule for arrival traffic that meets but does not exceed specified airspace system constraints. TMA is being deployed at selected facilities throughout the National Airspace System in the US as part of the FAA's Free Flight Phase 1 program. TMA development and testing, and its current deployment, focuses on managing the arrival capacity for single major airports within single terminal areas and single en route centers. The next phase of development for this technology is the expansion of the TMA capability to complex facilities in which a terminal area or airport is fed by multiple en route centers, thus creating a multicenter TMA functionality. The focus of the multi-center TMA (McTMA) development is on the busy facilities in the Northeast comdor of the US. This paper describes the planning and development of McTMA and the challenges associated with adapting a successful traffic flow management tool for a very complex airspace.

  10. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF MAJOR TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC FLOW MANAGEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klimovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive algorithms, which current traffic systems are based on, exist for many decades. Information technologies have developed significantly over this period and it makes more relevant their application in the field of transport. This paper analyses modern trends in the development of adaptive traffic flow control methods. Reviewed the most perspective directions in the field of intelligent transport systems, such as high-speed wireless communication between vehicles and road infrastructure based on such technologies as DSRC and WAVE, traffic jams prediction having such features as traffic flow information, congestion, velocity of vehicles using machine learning, fuzzy logic rules and genetic algorithms, application of driver assistance systems to increase vehicle’s autonomy. Advantages of such technologies in safety, efficiency and usability of transport are shown. Described multi-agent approach, which uses V2I-communication between vehicles and intersection controller to improve efficiency of control due to more complete traffic flow information and possibility to give orders to separate vehicles. Presented number of algorithms which use such approach to create new generation of adaptive transport systems.

  11. South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) regional traveler information system for weather responsive traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    FHWAs Road Weather Management Program partnered : with the South Dakota DOT to develop and implement a : Weather Responsive Traffic Management (WRTM) : strategy that involves mobile data collection and traveler : information dissemination during w...

  12. Control of Future Air Traffic Systems via Complexity Bound Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace

  13. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and

  14. Give or take? Rewards versus charges for a congested bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.; Knockaert, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities to relieve traffic congestion using subsidies instead of Pigouvian taxes, as well as revenue-neutral combinations of rewards and taxes ('feebates'). The model considers a Vickrey-ADL model of bottleneck congestion with endogenous scheduling. With inelastic

  15. Congestion management of deregulated power systems by optimal setting of Interline Power Flow Controller using Gravitational Search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated electricity market it may at times become difficult to dispatch all the required power that is scheduled to flow due to congestion in transmission lines. An Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC can be used to reduce the system loss and power flow in the heavily loaded line, improve stability and loadability of the system. This paper proposes a Disparity Line Utilization Factor for the optimal placement and Gravitational Search algorithm based optimal tuning of IPFC to control the congestion in transmission lines. DLUF ranks the transmission lines in terms of relative line congestion. The IPFC is accordingly placed in the most congested and the least congested line connected to the same bus. Optimal sizing of IPFC is carried using Gravitational Search algorithm. A multi-objective function has been chosen for tuning the parameters of the IPFC. The proposed method is implemented on an IEEE-30 bus test system. Graphical representations have been included in the paper showing reduction in LUF of the transmission lines after the placement of an IPFC. A reduction in active power and reactive power loss of the system by about 6% is observed after an optimally tuned IPFC has been included in the power system. The effectiveness of the proposed tuning method has also been shown in the paper through the reduction in the values of the objective functions.

  16. Robust Traffic Flow Management: Coevolutionary Approach, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop a Coevolutionary Decision Support Tool (CDST) that explicitly incorporates weather uncertainty (non-probabilistically) into strategic Traffic Flow...

  17. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  18. CTAS and NASA Air Traffic Management Fact Sheets for En Route Descent Advisor and Surface Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katharine

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Management System (SMS) is a decision support tool that will help controllers, traffic managers, and NAS users manage the movements of aircraft on the surface of busy airports, improving capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. The Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project at NASA is developing SMS in cooperation with the FAA's Free Flight Phase 2 (FFP2) pro5ram. SMS consists of three parts: a traffic management tool, a controller tool, and a National Airspace System (NAS) information tool.

  19. Optimal Tradable Credits Scheme and Congestion Pricing with the Efficiency Analysis to Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We allow for three traffic scenarios: the tradable credits scheme, congestion pricing, and no traffic measure. The utility functions of different modes (car, bus, and bicycle are developed by considering the income’s impact on travelers’ behaviors. Their purpose is to analyze the demand distribution of different modes. A social optimization model is built aiming at maximizing the social welfare. The optimal tradable credits scheme (distribution of credits, credits charging, and the credit price, congestion pricing fees, bus frequency, and bus fare are obtained by solving the model. Mode choice behavior under the tradable credits scheme is also studied. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the model’s availability and explore the effects of the three schemes on traffic system’s performance. Results show congestion pricing would earn more social welfare than the other traffic measures. However, tradable credits scheme will give travelers more consumer surplus than congestion pricing. Travelers’ consumer surplus with congestion pricing is the minimum, which injures the travelers’ benefits. Tradable credits scheme is considered the best scenario by comparing the three scenarios’ efficiency.

  20. Briefing paper : toward a best practice model for managed lanes in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Over the past two decades, agencies : have increasingly implemented managed : lanes (MLs) to mitigate growing urban traffic : congestion in the United States. Multiple operating : projects : representing a combination : of HOV-to-HOT conversions a...

  1. Study on the propagation and dissipation of inland ship congestion under different control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyi; Wu, Hongyu; Wen, Zhe

    2017-05-01

    Inland waterway transportation is an important part of the comprehensive transportation system of sustainable development, and it is also a way of transportation which is restricted by natural conditions greatly. In recent years, the problems of insufficient traffic capacity of The Three Gorges become prominent due to the increasing in the number of ships. And the ship's detention caused by gale, frog, accident and one-way traffic in dry season has occurred, which not only increased the pressure of the navigable waterway but also seriously affected the safety of shipping. Based on the different types of ships, the Arena software was used to simulate the ship traffic flow. The paper analyzed the traffic congestion propagation and dissipation rule of the ship under different navigation control methods, and provided decision reference for the navigation management department to formulate the relevant navigation control strategy.

  2. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  3. An intelligent vehicular traffic signal control system with state flow chart design and fpga prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, U.S.; Memon, T.D.; Noonari, A.S.; Ansari, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language) code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III. (author)

  4. An Intelligent Vehicular Traffic Signal Control System with State Flow Chart Design and FPGA Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMAIR SAEEDSOLANGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III.

  5. An Architecture to Manage Incoming Traffic of Inter-Domain Routing Using OpenFlow Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walber José Adriano Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP is the current state-of-the-art inter-domain routing between Autonomous Systems (ASes. Although BGP has different mechanisms to manage outbound traffic in an AS domain, it lacks an efficient tool for inbound traffic control from transit ASes such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs. For inter-domain routing, the BGP’s destination-based forwarding paradigm limits the granularity of distributing the network traffic among the multiple paths of the current Internet topology. Thus, this work offered a new architecture to manage incoming traffic in the inter-domain using OpenFlow networks. The architecture explored direct inter-domain communication to exchange control information and the functionalities of the OpenFlow protocol. Based on the achieved results of the size of exchanging messages, the proposed architecture is not only scalable, but also capable of performing load balancing for inbound traffic using different strategies.

  6. Making the connection: advancing traffic incident management in transportation planning : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    "The intent of this primer is to inform and guide traffic incident management (TIM) professionals and transportation planners to initiate and develop collaborative relationships and advance TIM programs through the metropolitan planning process. The ...

  7. Planning for active traffic management in Virginia : international best practices and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Active Traffic Management (ATM) applications, such as variable speed limits, queue warning systems, and dynamic : ramp metering, have been shown to offer mobility and safety benefits. Yet because they differ from conventional capacity : investments i...

  8. Evaluation of mobile source greenhouse gas emissions for assessment of traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in investigating the air quality benefits of traffic : management strategies in light of challenges associated with the global warming and climate change. : However, there has been a lack of syst...

  9. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  10. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : state of Utah final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Utah. The document discusses evaluation findings in the followin...

  11. Portable traffic management system smart work zone application : operational test evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    As part of its statewide Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) sponsored an operational test of the Portable Traffic Management System (PTMS) in a work zone application in cooperation with its pr...

  12. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  13. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  14. Application of travel time information for traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes findings and implementations of probe vehicle data collection based on Bluetooth MAC address matching : technology. Probe vehicle travel time data are studied in the following field deployment case studies: analysis of traffic ...

  15. Application of travel time information for traffic management : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using conventional methods, it is extremely costly to measure detailed traffic characteristics in high quality spatial or temporal resolution. For analyzing travel characteristics on roadways, the floating car method, developed in the 1920s, has hist...

  16. Analysis of Intra-Urban Traffic Problems in Nigeria: A Study of Lagos Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raji Bashiru

    2013-07-01

    local government areas. However, the observed spatial and temporal pattern o.l vehicular traffic congestion enabled us to suggest possible measures for the reduction of traffic congestion within the metropolis.

  17. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  18. Traffic Management by Using Admission Control Methods in Multiple Node IMS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission Control methods (AC as a possible solution for traffic management in IMS networks (IP Multimedia Subsystem - from the point of view of an efficient redistribution of the available network resources and keeping the parameters of Quality of Service (QoS. The paper specifically aims at the selection of the most appropriate method for the specific type of traffic and traffic management concept using AC methods on multiple nodes. The potential benefit and disadvantage of the used solution is evaluated.

  19. Measuring accessibility and congestion in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Kofie, Richard Y.; Allotey, Albert N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on extensive gps-measurements, the paper addresses the level of intra-urban accessibility and provides indications of the level of congestion in Accra, Ghana. Traffic flows within the urban area are analyzed with respect to speed, time-of-day, direction, road type and land cover type. The s...... and less during off-peak hours. Delays are frequently found within the inner fringe areas. The paper discusses the methodological potentials and barriers for applying gps tracklog points for analysing traffic flows within an urban road network........ The speed information is extrapolated to cover the total mapped urban road net¬work with time- and direction-specific data. A series of time-distance maps are created using network analysis to illustrate the level of accessibility at different times of the day and at different directions relative...... to the city centre. Peak hour traffic speeds are compared with off-peak levels and theoretical free-flow estimations to provide an indica-tion of the level of congestion. It is found that the core areas are somewhat congested during the day period, while the fringe areas are more congested during peak hours...

  20. Vehicle routing under time-dependent travel times: the impact of congestion avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Daily traffic congestions form major problems for businesses such as logistical service providers and distribution firms. They cause late arrivals at customers and additional hiring costs for the truck drivers. The additional costs of traffic congestions can be reduced by taking into account and

  1. A Congestion Control System Based on VANET for Small Length Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchin Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As vehicle population has been increasing on a daily basis, this leads towards increased number of accidents. To overcome this issue, Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET has come up with lot of novel ideas such as vehicular communication, navigation and traffic controlling. In this study, the main focus is on congestion control at the intersections which result from unclear ahead. For this purpose, a city lane and intersection model has been proposed to manage vehicle mobility. It shows the actual vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to traffic infrastructure communication. The experiment was conducted using Network Simulator 2 (NS 2. The implementation required modelling the road side unit, traffic control unit, and on-board unit along the roadside. In the simulation, including traffic volume, the distance between two signals, end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput and packet lost were taken into consideration. These parameters ensure efficient communication between the traffic signals. This results in improved congestion control and road safety, since the vehicles will be signalled not to enter the junction box and information about other vehicles.

  2. The Challenges of Field Testing the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) in an Operational Air Traffic Control Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Swenson, Harry N.

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), the sequence and schedule tool of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), was evaluated at the Fort Worth Center (ZFW) in the summer of 1996. This paper describes the challenges encountered during the various phases of the TMA field evaluation, which included system (hardware and software) installation, personnel training, and data collection. Operational procedures were developed and applied to the evaluation process that would ensure air safety. The five weeks of field evaluation imposed minimal impact on the hosting facility and provided valuable engineering and human factors data. The collection of data was very much an opportunistic affair, due to dynamic traffic conditions. One measure of the success of the TMA evaluation is that, rather than remove TMA after the evaluation until it could be fully implemented, the prototype TMA is in continual use at ZFW as the fully operational version is readied for implementation.

  3. Demonstration of Market-Based Real-Time Electricity Pricing on a Congested Feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; le Ray, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Congestion management can delay grid reinforcements needed due to the growth of distributed technologies like photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This paper presents a method of congestion management for low voltage feeders using indirect control from the smart grid demonstration EcoGrid EU, where...... prices to 1900 houses, with a virtual feeder of 28 houses receiving congestion pricing. Simulations are used to calculate the cost from using this congestion management method, while demonstration results indicate that congestion can be managed successfully....

  4. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) National Campaign II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweiss, Arwa S.; Owens, Brandon D.; Rios, Joseph L.; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Mohlenbrink, Christoph P.

    2018-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) effort at NASA aims to enable access to low-altitude airspace for small UAS. This goal is being pursued partly through partnerships that NASA has developed with the UAS stakeholder community, the FAA, other government agencies, and the designated FAA UAS Test Sites. By partnering with the FAA UAS Test Sites, NASA's UTM project has performed a geographically diverse, simultaneous set of UAS operations at locations in six states. The demonstrations used an architecture that was developed by NASA in partnership with the FAA to safely coordinate such operations. These demonstrations-the second or 'Technical Capability Level (TCL 2)' National Campaign of UTM testing-was performed from May 15 through June 9, 2017. Multiple UAS operations occurred during the testing at sites located in Alaska, Nevada, Texas, North Dakota, Virginia, and New York with multiple organizations serving as UAS Service Suppliers and/or UAS Operators per the specifications provided by NASA. By engaging various members of the UAS community in development and operational roles, this campaign provided initial validation of different aspects of the UTM concept including: UAS Service Supplier technologies and procedures; geofencing technologies/conformance monitoring; ground-based surveillance/sense and avoid; airborne sense and avoid; communication, navigation, surveillance; and human factors related to UTM data creation and display. Additionally, measures of performance were defined and calculated from the flight data to establish quantitative bases for comparing flight test activities and to provide potential metrics that might be routinely monitored in future operational UTM systems.

  5. Modelling and experimental study for automated congestion driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urhahne, Joseph; Piastowski, P.; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Bebis, G; Boyle, R.; Parvin, B.; Koracin, D.; Pavlidis, I.; Feris, R.; McGraw, T.; Elendt, M.; Kopper, R.; Ragan, E.; Ye, Z.; Weber, G.

    2015-01-01

    Taking a collaborative approach in automated congestion driving with a Traffic Jam Assist system requires the driver to take over control in certain traffic situations. In order to warn the driver appropriately, warnings are issued (“pay attention” vs. “take action”) due to a control transition

  6. Bottleneck congestion and distribution of work start times: The economics of staggered work hours revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Henderson (1981), a number of studies examined the effect of staggered work hours by analyzing models of work start time choice that consider the trade-off between negative congestion externalities and positive production externalities. However, these studies described traffic congestion using flow congestion models. This study develops a model of work start time choice with bottleneck congestion and discloses the intrinsic properties of the model. To this end, this ...

  7. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Piris, Luis; Rivera, Diego; Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan

    2018-02-02

    One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS) Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic) in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  8. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cruz-Piris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  9. Application of economic models to estimate the acceptability of a vehicle congestion charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Jiménez Serpa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Through the study of the problems generated by vehicular traffic congestion during periods of maximum demand, the negative externality of congestion would be assessed using Multinomial Logit, Mixed and econometric models, and willingness to pay through a Pigouvian rate. Objective: In this article, we propose to implement a congestion charge to manage vehicular demand, through the application of declared preference gages and econometric models. Methodology: The study consists of the execution of 6 steps or stages: Background of the problem, Context of study, Methodological Foundations, Specification and estimation of the model, Estimation of the function average cost user and social marginal cost, Results obtained Discussion and report. Results: Analyzing the models obtained from the 2053 observations made through the declared preference surveys, it was observed that in order to discourage the use of the private car, a rate of COP 7000 per vehicle entering the congestion area or area should be charged, which would decrease the Use of Auto Particular in 68.7%, referring to this behavior we can say that the government policies that set the collection of the congestion charge is a policy that does not fit the perception of the users. Conclusions: This research identified the rate that reflects as closely as possible the marginal social cost and the generalized costs of each trip in terms of the impacts on the others. Now if we consider the marginal cost due to congestion, we have that the current demand is excessive, the users enjoy the benefit at a cost of $ 3,100COP, but impose to others a quota of $22,152COP. Finally, it is necessary to strengthen the legal basis with the regulation and creation of a National Vehicle Electronic Identification System, which will allow, in principle, charges for congestion.

  10. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  11. 459 Road Transport System Management and Traffic in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-16

    Oct 16, 2010 ... reason for this being the catalytic effect of transport development on socio- economic ... as well as in promoting regional cooperation. In Lagos State ... The primary road network (Federal and State roads) which link the major .... Recently, in 2002, when a survey of Lagos urban traffic was conducted, the.

  12. Adaptive traffic signal control with actor-critic methods in a real-world traffic network with different traffic disruption events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslani, Mohammad; Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The transportation demand is rapidly growing in metropolises, resulting in chronic traffic con-gestions in dense downtown areas. Adaptive traffic signal control as the principle part of in-telligent transportation systems has a primary role to effectively reduce traffic congestion by making a

  13. Congestion, air pollution, and road safety in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shefer, Daniel [Department of Urban and Regional Economics and Transport, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    1993-06-01

    The continuous rapid growth in Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration process and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is paramount to initiate and implement programs which jointly treat traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. A host of market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can, and perhaps should, be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives which may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to thoroughly investigate these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the `socially optimal level of congestion` which will yield the highest net social benefit. 2 figs., 43 refs.

  14. Developing a Minimum Data Set for an Information Management System to Study Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Gharagozlu, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Each year, around 1.2 million people die in the road traffic incidents. Reducing traffic accidents requires an exact understanding of the risk factors associated with traffic patterns and behaviors. Properly analyzing these factors calls for a comprehensive system for collecting and processing accident data. The aim of this study was to develop a minimum data set (MDS) for an information management system to study traffic accidents in Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Data were collected from the traffic police, trauma centers, medical emergency centers, and via the internet. The investigated resources for this study were forms, databases, and documents retrieved from the internet. Forms and databases were identical, and one sample of each was evaluated. The related internet-sourced data were evaluated in their entirety. Data were collected using three checklists. In order to arrive at a consensus about the data elements, the decision Delphi technique was applied using questionnaires. The content validity and reliability of the questionnaires were assessed by experts' opinions and the test-retest method, respectively. An (MDS) of a traffic accident information management system was assigned to three sections: a minimum data set for traffic police with six classes, including 118 data elements; a trauma center with five data classes, including 57 data elements; and a medical emergency center, with 11 classes, including 64 data elements. Planning for the prevention of traffic accidents requires standardized data. As the foundation for crash prevention efforts, existing standard data infrastructures present policymakers and government officials with a great opportunity to strengthen and integrate existing accident information systems to better track road traffic injuries and fatalities.

  15. Congestion with incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of random delays during a repeatedly occurring demand peak in a congested facility, such as an airport or an urban road. Congestion is described in the form of a dynamic queue using the Vickrey bottleneck model and assuming Nash equilibrium in departure times. Ever...

  16. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  17. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  18. Application of Artificial Intelligence in Transportation Demand Management: Development and Implementation of E-sutra

    OpenAIRE

    Resdiansyah; Ircham; Sandjoko, Otto

    2013-01-01

    Allowing traffic to grow to a level at which there is extensive and regular congestion is economically inefficient. Although the construction of additional roads can alleviate some of the effects of congestion, the benefits may be counterbalanced unless the growth in traffic volumes can be restrained. Therefore, another alternative is by implementing Transportation Demand Management (TDM), which means people still travel but at the same time the private car USAge is reduced. This paper presen...

  19. Adaptive mechanism-based congestion control for networked systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C. L. Philip

    2013-03-01

    In order to assure the communication quality in network systems with heavy traffic and limited bandwidth, a new ATRED (adaptive thresholds random early detection) congestion control algorithm is proposed for the congestion avoidance and resource management of network systems. Different to the traditional AQM (active queue management) algorithms, the control parameters of ATRED are not configured statically, but dynamically adjusted by the adaptive mechanism. By integrating with the adaptive strategy, ATRED alleviates the tuning difficulty of RED (random early detection) and shows a better control on the queue management, and achieve a more robust performance than RED under varying network conditions. Furthermore, a dynamic transmission control protocol-AQM control system using ATRED controller is introduced for the systematic analysis. It is proved that the stability of the network system can be guaranteed when the adaptive mechanism is finely designed. Simulation studies show the proposed ATRED algorithm achieves a good performance in varying network environments, which is superior to the RED and Gentle-RED algorithm, and providing more reliable service under varying network conditions.

  20. Battling gridlock : congestion fees are working in Europe and Asia, but its questionable if they will succeed in car-crazy North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, R. [Colleges Integrating Immigrants to Employment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Crawford, E.A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

    2008-07-01

    This article described different traffic congestion schemes that cities around the world have adopted to ease traffic grid-lock. Congestion fees that discourage road use involve assigning a price to a road based on the demand for using that road. A weekday congestion fee which was imposed on drivers in the city of London in 2003 resulted in a 30 per cent drop in vehicular traffic in the city centre. The pricing structure was independent of vehicle type, distance travelled or time of day. The successful scheme is credited with an increase in cycling and public transit ridership as well as a decrease in accidents and air pollution without hindering business within the congestion zone. However, the effectiveness of congestion fees in North America is questionable. Although San Diego's high-occupancy toll lanes have helped reduce congestion and pollution because the revenue raised is invested in public transportation, objections have been raised regarding plans to implement congestion fees in San Francisco and New York city centres because doing so would prevent those with low incomes from driving in the city. London has responded to such challenges by putting all net revenues derived from the fees back into public transportation. Similar measures were taken in Stockholm, Sweden where massive improvements were made to its transit system prior to introducing congestion fees to avert criticism. In order for congestion fees to be effective and gain public approval, there should be clear objectives that include demand management, good transportation alternatives, revenues that go to public transit and a simple pricing system that uses proven technology. The cumulative annual cost of congestion in 9 urban centres in Canada ranged from $2.3 billion to $3.7 billion in 2002 according to Transport Canada. Analysts have cautioned that congestion schemes would be difficult to duplicate in North American cities that are highly dependent on automobiles. However, the authors

  1. Battling gridlock : congestion fees are working in Europe and Asia, but its questionable if they will succeed in car-crazy North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, R.; Crawford, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article described different traffic congestion schemes that cities around the world have adopted to ease traffic grid-lock. Congestion fees that discourage road use involve assigning a price to a road based on the demand for using that road. A weekday congestion fee which was imposed on drivers in the city of London in 2003 resulted in a 30 per cent drop in vehicular traffic in the city centre. The pricing structure was independent of vehicle type, distance travelled or time of day. The successful scheme is credited with an increase in cycling and public transit ridership as well as a decrease in accidents and air pollution without hindering business within the congestion zone. However, the effectiveness of congestion fees in North America is questionable. Although San Diego's high-occupancy toll lanes have helped reduce congestion and pollution because the revenue raised is invested in public transportation, objections have been raised regarding plans to implement congestion fees in San Francisco and New York city centres because doing so would prevent those with low incomes from driving in the city. London has responded to such challenges by putting all net revenues derived from the fees back into public transportation. Similar measures were taken in Stockholm, Sweden where massive improvements were made to its transit system prior to introducing congestion fees to avert criticism. In order for congestion fees to be effective and gain public approval, there should be clear objectives that include demand management, good transportation alternatives, revenues that go to public transit and a simple pricing system that uses proven technology. The cumulative annual cost of congestion in 9 urban centres in Canada ranged from $2.3 billion to $3.7 billion in 2002 according to Transport Canada. Analysts have cautioned that congestion schemes would be difficult to duplicate in North American cities that are highly dependent on automobiles. However, the authors

  2. Traffic incident and crisis management : challenges and obstacles in information sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbruggen, J.G.M.; Nijkamp, P.; Smits, J.M.; Mohabir, G.

    2012-01-01

    Disaster Management and Traffic Incident Management involves the coordinated interactions of many public and private actors. On many levels, there is clearly a strong relation be-tween the road infrastructure and the effective handling of large scale disasters. To support these tasks in an effective

  3. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  4. Simulating and evaluating an adaptive and integrated traffic lights control system for smart city application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuana, E.; Rahardjo, K.; Gozali, F.; Tan, S.; Rambung, R.; Adrian, D.

    2018-01-01

    A city could be categorized as a smart city when the information technology has been developed to the point that the administration could sense, understand, and control every resource to serve its people and sustain the development of the city. One of the smart city aspects is transportation and traffic management. This paper presents a research project to design an adaptive traffic lights control system as a part of the smart system for optimizing road utilization and reducing congestion. Research problems presented include: (1) Congestion in one direction toward an intersection due to dynamic traffic condition from time to time during the day, while the timing cycles in traffic lights system are mostly static; (2) No timing synchronization among traffic lights in adjacent intersections that is causing unsteady flows; (3) Difficulties in traffic condition monitoring on the intersection and the lack of facility for remotely controlling traffic lights. In this research, a simulator has been built to model the adaptivity and integration among different traffic lights controllers in adjacent intersections, and a case study consisting of three sets of intersections along Jalan K. H. Hasyim Ashari has been simulated. It can be concluded that timing slots synchronization among traffic lights is crucial for maintaining a steady traffic flow.

  5. Using mobile probes to inform and measure the effectiveness of macroscopic traffic control strategies on urban networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Urban traffic congestion is a problem that plagues many cities in the United States. Testing strategies to alleviate this : congestion is especially challenging due to the difficulty of modeling complex urban traffic networks. However, recent work ha...

  6. Dynamic traffic management and air quality; Dynamisch verkeersmanagement en luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    Traffic flow can be improved by means of dynamic routing and regulation as a result of which traffic might choose a different route. Therefore, in this report also attention is paid to the effects on other road sections, such as improvement of the air quality. Calculations were carried out for the cases Southeast Amsterdam, Alkmaar and De Bilt. The detailed impacts on traffic and on air quality are available in the annex. All the reported air quality impacts are calculated using CAR II, version 8.0 for the year 2010. [Dutch] Doorstroming van het verkeer kan worden bevorderd door middel van dynamisch routeren en doseren. Het verkeer zal door deze maatregel een andere route gaan kiezen. Daarom besteedt de publicatie ook aandacht aan de effecten op de overige wegvakken, zoals verbetering van de luchtkwaliteit. Voor deze publikatie zijn berekeningen uitgevoerd voor de cases Amsterdam-zuidoost, Alkmaar en De Bilt. De gedetailleerde verkeerseffecten en effecten op luchtkwaliteit staan in de gratis beschikbare bijlage. Alle in deze rapportage opgenomen effecten op luchtkwaliteit zijn berekend met CAR II, versie 8.0 voor het jaar 2010.

  7. Intelligent traffic lights based on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ying

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, I describes the traffic lights system and it has some. Through analysis, I used MATLAB technology, transformed the camera photographs into digital signals. Than divided the road vehicle is into three methods: very congestion, congestion, a little congestion. Through the MCU programming, solved the different roads have different delay time, and Used this method, saving time and resources, so as to reduce road congestion.

  8. Efficiency of Roundabouts as Compared to Traffic Light Controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison is made between roundabouts with traffic light and without traffic light and signalized intersections on the basis of their performance to simplify traffic congestion. Computer simulations are used to propose critical arrival rates to separate between the three mentioned modes to decrease congestion at intersection ...

  9. Effects of mental workload on physiological and subjective responses during traffic density monitoring: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated operators' mental workload while monitoring traffic density in a city traffic control center. To determine the mental workload, physiological signals (ECG, EMG) were recorded and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered for 16 operators. The results showed that the operators experienced a larger mental workload during high traffic density than during low traffic density. The traffic control center stressors caused changes in heart rate variability features and EMG amplitude, although the average workload score was significantly higher in HTD conditions than in LTD conditions. The findings indicated that increasing traffic congestion had a significant effect on HR, RMSSD, SDNN, LF/HF ratio, and EMG amplitude. The results suggested that when operators' workload increases, their mental fatigue and stress level increase and their mental health deteriorate. Therefore, it maybe necessary to implement an ergonomic program to manage mental health. Furthermore, by evaluating mental workload, the traffic control center director can organize the center's traffic congestion operators to sustain the appropriate mental workload and improve traffic control management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. OPTIMAL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FOR AIRCRAFT APPROACHING THE AERODROME LANDING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Ivenin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research proposes a mathematical optimization approach of arriving aircraft traffic at the aerodrome zone. The airfield having two parallel runways, capable of operating independently of each other, is modeled. The incoming traffic of aircraft is described by a Poisson flow of random events. The arriving aircraft are distributed by the air traffic controller between two runways. There is one approach flight path for each runway. Both approach paths have a common starting point. Each approach path has a different length. The approach trajectories do not overlap. For each of the two approach procedures, the air traffic controller sets the average speed of the aircraft. The given model of airfield and airfield zone is considered as the two-channel system of mass service with refusals in service. Each of the two servicing units includes an approach trajectory, a glide path and a runway. The servicing unit can be in one of two states – free and busy. The probabilities of the states of the servicing units are described by the Kolmogorov system of differential equations. The number of refusals in service on the simulated time interval is used as criterion for assessment of mass service system quality of functioning. This quality of functioning criterion is described by an integral functional. The functions describing the distribution of aircraft flows between the runways, as well as the functions describing the average speed of the aircraft, are control parameters. The optimization problem consists in finding such values of the control parameters for which the value of the criterion functional is minimal. To solve the formulated optimization problem, the L.S. Pontryagin maximum principle is applied. The form of the Hamiltonian function and the conjugate system of differential equations is given. The structure of optimal control has been studied for two different cases of restrictions on the control of the distribution of incoming aircraft

  11. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  12. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  13. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyi Zhou; Yixin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and poli...

  14. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air traffic control schedule advisor are as follows: first, for each new arrival, it develops an admissible flight plan for that aircraft. Second, as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule. Third, if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and FORTRAN.

  15. Disturbance of Traffic Noise: Evaluation on the Effects and Management on Road Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalib, Nur Hazliyana Abdul; Mashros, Nordiana; Aminudin, Eeydzah; Zakaria, Rozana; Haron, Zaiton; Talib, Muhammad Hilmi Abd; Hamid, Abdul Rahim Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Several adverse of stimuli can cause annoyance due to the characterized by such effects of distraction on health and delay in activities. Noise annoyance mainly due to the increasing in traffic volume has recognized as important environmental stressor which associated to anxiety and depression. In this manner, it can impose serious damage to human wellbeing, human comfort ability and reduces labour productivity. Hence, this paper aims in evaluating the effects on traffic noise and managing the precaution on road corridors in order to reduce the traffic noise. This case study had been conducted at residential area which is located at Taman Mutiara Rini, residential area located in the southern region of West Peninsular Malaysia. The traffic noise index (TNI) and noise pollution level (NPL) were recorded for a whole day in order to evaluate noise performance with different time durations. From the study, it was shown that the noise level at the Mutiara Rini is above than 75 dBA at most of time which is exceed the permissible limit from the guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Environment (DOE). According to the guidelines, the maximum limitation for noise pollution during daytime at residential area is about 55 dBA. From the interviewed conducted, it shows that reduction on the traffic noise can be improved by proposing and providing the noise barrier which includes the restoration of trees and concrete wall which can reduce the effects on the traffic noise.

  16. Defining the drivers for accepting decision making automation in air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C; Williamson, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Air Traffic Management (ATM) operators are under increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of their operation to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution involves increasing the utilisation of automation within the ATM system. The success of this approach is contingent on Air Traffic Control Operators' (ATCOs) willingness to accept increased levels of automation. The main aim of the present research was to examine the drivers underpinning ATCOs' willingness to accept increased utilisation of automation within their role. Two fictitious scenarios involving the application of two new automated decision-making tools were created. The results of an online survey revealed traditional predictors of automation acceptance such as age, trust and job satisfaction explain between 4 and 7% of the variance. Furthermore, these predictors varied depending on the purpose in which the automation was to be employed. These results are discussed from an applied and theoretical perspective. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Efficiency improvements in ATM are required to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution is to increase the utilisation of automation within Air Traffic Control. The present research examines the drivers underpinning air traffic controllers' willingness to accept increased levels of automation in their role.

  17. NASA UAS Traffic Management National Campaign Operations across Six UAS Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph; Mulfinger, Daniel; Homola, Jeff; Venkatesan, Priya

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management research aims to develop policies, procedures, requirements, and other artifacts to inform the implementation of a future system that enables small drones to access the low altitude airspace. In this endeavor, NASA conducted a geographically diverse flight test in conjunction with the FAA's six unmanned aircraft systems Test Sites. A control center at NASA Ames Research Center autonomously managed the airspace for all participants in eight states as they flew operations (both real and simulated). The system allowed for common situational awareness across all stakeholders, kept traffic procedurally separated, offered messages to inform the participants of activity relevant to their operations. Over the 3- hour test, 102 flight operations connected to the central research platform with 17 different vehicle types and 8 distinct software client implementations while seamlessly interacting with simulated traffic.

  18. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy. The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety.

  19. Managing congestion in distribution grids - Market design consideration. How heat pumps can deliver flexibility though well-designed markets and virtual power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg Rasmussen, L. [NEAS Energy, Aalborg (Denmark); Bang, C.; Togeby, M. [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    of end-users to react to price fluctuations e.g. spot prices, thus enabling them to save on their electricity bill, and contribute to the overall system balance. The aim of this report is to discuss challenges with congestions in the distribution grids and how these can be solved through different tariffs and connection agreements, and how a market can be designed to manage congestion in local grids. A part of this is the investigation of the principal questions: Does the DSO have information about potential congestions, and what should the geographic scope of such a signal be? End-user demand can be controlled by a computer in each home which responds to a price signal that originates from the DSO, or it could be controlled by a centralised system, e.g. a virtual-power-plant (VPP) setup. The VPP set-up is in focus in this project, but the signal from the DSO should likely be useable in relation to both control solutions. How future signals from the DSO to the consumer would work in practice is open to discussion as there are a number of potential options, each which vary with respect to their geographic scope, timing, notice, and price level. Our initial findings indicate a number of issues that appear to be clear: 1) The signal indicating a potential congestion in distribution grids must originate from the DSO, and this signal will be directed to the retailer/aggregator/balance responsible, which will pass it on to end-users. 2) Ideally, the signal with grid tariffs should be sent to all end-users (not only heat pumps) in the congested area (i.e. possibly a small fraction of the DSO area). However, with more than 10,000 potential grids this may not be practical, and costs may not allow for this ideal solution. 3) Simple time-of-use tariffs can be an important first step in the direction of dynamic tariffs. Time-of-use tariffs can motivate behavioural change, i.e. computers and communication are not a requirement. It has not been analysed in detail how far in the

  20. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  1. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  2. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  3. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  4. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. Methods This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. Results GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Conclusion Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information. PMID:28848627

  5. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach's alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information.

  6. Military Curricula for Vocational and Technical Education. Traffic Management and Accident Investigation, 17-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force, Washington, DC.

    This teaching guide and student workbook for a postsecondary level course in traffic management and accident investigation is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the 132-hour course is to expose students to…

  7. CSIR NYENDA programme: traffic management R&D capacity building - balancing the opportunities and constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR's NyendaWeb programme is developed to provide support to the road safety and traffic management fraternity particularly to efforts aimed at stopping the carnage on South African roads and then also to achieve sustainability in transport...

  8. Desk Congest Desktop Congesting Software for Desktop Clutter Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. Adepoju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The computer desktop environment is a working environment which can be likened unto a users desk in homes and offices. Often times the computer desktop get cluttered with files either as shortcuts used for quick links files stored temporarily to be accessed later or just being dumped there for no vivid reasons. However previous researches have shown that cluttered desktop affects users productivity and getting these files organized is a laborious task for most users. To be able to conveniently alleviate the effect clutters have on users performances and productivity there is need for third party software that will help get the desktop environment organized in a logical and efficient manner. It is to this end that desktop decongesting software is being designed and implemented to help curb clutter problems which existing tools have only partially addressed. The system is designed using Visual Basic .Net and it proves to be effective in tackling desktop congestion problem.

  9. Research on Urban Road Congestion Pricing Strategy Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitian Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The objective function of the upper level model is to minimize the sum of travel costs and the carbon dioxide emissions costs. The lower level is a multi-modal transportation network equilibrium model. To solve the model, the method of successive averages (MSA and the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA are introduced. The proposed method and algorithm are tested through the numerical example. The results show that the proposed congestion pricing strategy can mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon emissions effectively.

  10. Continuous integration congestion cost allocation based on sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Q.; Wang, Y.N.

    2004-01-01

    Congestion cost allocation is a very important topic in congestion management. Allocation methods based on the Aumann-Shapley value use the discrete numerical integration method, which needs to solve the incremented OPF solution many times, and as such it is not suitable for practical application to large-scale systems. The optimal solution and its sensitivity change tendency during congestion removal using a DC optimal power flow (OPF) process is analysed. A simple continuous integration method based on the sensitivity is proposed for the congestion cost allocation. The proposed sensitivity analysis method needs a smaller computation time than the method based on using the quadratic method and inner point iteration. The proposed congestion cost allocation method uses a continuous integration method rather than discrete numerical integration. The method does not need to solve the incremented OPF solutions; which allows it use in large-scale systems. The method can also be used for AC OPF congestion management. (author)

  11. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.

  12. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  13. ANALYSIS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL MANAGEMENT AT AIRPORTS WITH LOW FLIGHT INTENSITY IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii E. Nechaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses various options for air traffic management at low flight intensity airports and airports located remotely in the North, where air traffic control service is not necessary.There are some examples of already implemented concepts in foreign countries: such as remote control tower, which allows to control air traffic, being at a considerable distance from the airport. Such a remote control tower is already put into operation at the Örnsköldsvik airport (Sweden. The prospects of this system development in other countries are observed in this article. A remote control tower will also appear in the United States in the nearest future. Also the paper considers the pros and cons of this system and its effect on flight safety.Moreover, there are given the examples of using non-towered and uncontrolled airports, where air traffic control service is not provided. This kind of airports is partly used in the USA and in New Zealand. The article describes flight procedures in the area of uncontrolled airports, including visual flight rules and instrument flight rules.We also analyze the possibilities of remote control towers and uncontrolled airports adaptation in the Russian Federation. It is a very important problem for Russia because most airports do not provide more than 10 movements per day. But air traffic control service exists in all airports.

  14. What can a pilot congestive heart failure disease management program tell us about likely return on investment?: A case study from a program offered to federal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanVonno, Catherine J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Smith, Mark W; Thomas, Eileen G; Kelley, Doniece; Goetzel, Ron; Berg, Gregory D; Jain, Susheel K; Walker, David R

    2005-12-01

    In 1999, the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Federal Employee Program (FEP) implemented a pilot disease management program to manage congestive heart failure (CHF) among members. The purpose of this project was to estimate the financial return on investment in the pilot CHF program, prior to a full program rollout. A cohort of 457 participants from the state of Maryland was matched to a cohort of 803 nonparticipants from a neighboring state where the CHF program was not offered. Each cohort was followed for 12 months before the program began and 12 months afterward. The outcome measures of primary interest were the differences over time in medical care expenditures paid by FEP and by all payers. Independent variables included indicators of program participation, type of heart disease, comorbidity measures, and demographics. From the perspective of the funding organization (FEP), the estimated return on investment for the pilot CHF disease management program was a savings of $1.08 in medical expenditure for every dollar spent on the program. Adding savings to other payers as well, the return on investment was a savings of $1.15 in medical expenditures per dollar spent on the program. The amount of savings depended upon CHF risk levels. The value of a pilot initiative and evaluation is that lessons for larger-scale efforts can be learned prior to full-scale rollout.

  15. Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM): A Blueprint for Greater Autonomy in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Wing, David

    2017-01-01

    The aviation users of the National Airspace System (NAS) - the airlines, General Aviation (GA), the military and, most recently, operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) - are constrained in their operations by the design of the current paradigm for air traffic control (ATC). Some of these constraints include ATC preferred routes, departure fix restrictions and airspace ground delay programs. As a result, most flights cannot operate on their most efficient business trajectories and a great many flights are delayed even getting into the air, which imposes a significant challenge to maintaining efficient flight and network operations. Rather than accepting ever more sophisticated scheduling solutions to accommodate the existing constraints in the airspace, a series of increasingly capable airborne technologies, integrated with planned improvements in the ground system through the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Next Generation Air Traffic Management System (NextGen) programs, could produce much greater operational flexibility for flight path optimization by the aviation system users. These capabilities, described in research coming out of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, can maintain or improve operational safety while taking advantage of air and ground NextGen technologies in novel ways. The underlying premise is that the nation's physical airspace is still abundant and underused, and that the delays and inefficient flight operations resulting from artificial structure in airspace use and procedural constraints on those operations may not be necessary for safe and efficient flight. This article is not an indictment of today's NAS or the people who run it. Indeed, it is an exceptional achievement that Air Traffic Management (ATM) - the complex human/machine conglomeration of communications, navigation and surveillance equipment and the rules and procedures for controlling traffic in the airspace - has both the capacity and enables the degree

  16. Simulating traffic for incident management and ITS investment decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    UTPS-type models were designed to adequately support planning activities typical of the 1960s and 1970s. However, these packages were not designed to model intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and support incident management planning. To ov...

  17. Traffic incident management in construction and maintenance work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Federal Highway Administration published updated rules governing work zone safety and mobility; all highway construction and maintenance projects using federal-aid highway funds are required to develop transportation management plans (TM...

  18. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  19. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Local empathy provides global minimization of congestion in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    We present a mechanism to avoid congestion in complex networks based on a local knowledge of traffic conditions and the ability of routers to self-coordinate their dynamical behavior. In particular, routers make use of local information about traffic conditions to either reject or accept information packets from their neighbors. We show that when nodes are only aware of their own congestion state they self-organize into a hierarchical configuration that delays remarkably the onset of congestion although leading to a sharp first-order-like congestion transition. We also consider the case when nodes are aware of the congestion state of their neighbors. In this case, we show that empathy between nodes is strongly beneficial to the overall performance of the system and it is possible to achieve larger values for the critical load together with a smooth, second-order-like, transition. Finally, we show how local empathy minimize the impact of congestion as much as global minimization. Therefore, here we present an outstanding example of how local dynamical rules can optimize the system’s functioning up to the levels reached using global knowledge.

  1. An energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chunhua; Xu, Guoqing; Xu, Kun; Pan, Zhongming; Liang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information. • Vehicle velocity profile and fuel consumption are optimized at the same time. • It is proved that a further energy saving is achieved by the proposed approach. • The proposed approach is useful especially for autonomous hybrid vehicles. - Abstract: The traffic preview information is very helpful for hybrid vehicles when distributing the power requirement of the vehicle to power sources and when determining the next driving route of the vehicle. In this research, an energy management approach for hybrid vehicles is proposed, which optimizes the vehicle velocity profile while minimizing the fuel consumption with the help of the traffic preview information, so that a further energy saving for hybrid vehicles can be achieved. The Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is adopted on the proposed approach. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) is selected as an example, and the proposed energy management approach is applied to the FCHV in a computer simulation environment for the offline and online cases respectively. Simulation results show that the fuel economy of the FCHV is improved by the proposed energy management approach compared to a benchmark case where the driving cycle is fixed and only the hybrid power split (allocation) ratio is optimized. The proposed energy management approach is useful especially for the autonomous hybrid vehicles.

  2. Characterizing the tradeoffs and costs associated with transportation congestion in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    We consider distribution and location-planning models for supply chains that explicitly : account for traffic congestion effects. The majority of facility location and transportation : planning models in the operations research literature consider fa...

  3. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  4. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  5. Two-vehicle injury severity models based on integration of pavement management and traffic engineering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Yan, Xuedong; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The severity of traffic-related injuries has been studied by many researchers in recent decades. However, the evaluation of many factors is still in dispute and, until this point, few studies have taken into account pavement management factors as points of interest. The objective of this article is to evaluate the combined influences of pavement management factors and traditional traffic engineering factors on the injury severity of 2-vehicle crashes. This study examines 2-vehicle rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions that occurred on Tennessee state routes from 2004 to 2008. Both the traditional ordered probit (OP) model and Bayesian ordered probit (BOP) model with weak informative prior were fitted for each collision type. The performances of these models were evaluated based on the parameter estimates and deviances. The results indicated that pavement management factors played identical roles in all 3 collision types. Pavement serviceability produces significant positive effects on the severity of injuries. The pavement distress index (PDI), rutting depth (RD), and rutting depth difference between right and left wheels (RD_df) were not significant in any of these 3 collision types. The effects of traffic engineering factors varied across collision types, except that a few were consistently significant in all 3 collision types, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), rural-urban location, speed limit, peaking hour, and light condition. The findings of this study indicated that improved pavement quality does not necessarily lessen the severity of injuries when a 2-vehicle crash occurs. The effects of traffic engineering factors are not universal but vary by the type of crash. The study also found that the BOP model with a weak informative prior can be used as an alternative but was not superior to the traditional OP model in terms of overall performance.

  6. Flow-based market coupling. A joint ETSO-EuroPEX proposal for cross-border congestion management and integration of electricity markets in Europe. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    ETSO and EuroPEX have previously published separate proposals for congestion management and market operation across borders in Europe. ETSO has described a 'vision' in which Transmission System Operators (TSOs) would support trade between a variety of different markets by taking explicit account of the physical flows of electricity between them ('flow-based modelling'). EuroPEX has described 'Decentralized Market Coupling' as a method to integrate regional energy markets with cross-border congestion management. In most respects the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals are consistent and complementary. In particular, both organisations agree that market-based congestion management mechanisms should be used at all borders wherever possible, and that they should be co-ordinated to take account of the interdependence of physical flows. Furthermore, both ETSO and EuroPEX recognize that integrated markets are in general more efficient than separate ones, but accept that coupling of regional markets is the most realistic way of achieving efficiency benefits in the short and medium term. The commonalty between the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals has been noted by the 'Florence' Regulators' Forum, which has therefore encouraged ETSO and EuroPEX to work together to develop joint proposals. They have responded by setting up a Joint Working Group, which has produced this report to describe its progress to date. Currently, there exists a wide variety of organisational structures and operational practices in Europe. Consequently, ETSO and EuroPEX agreed at an early stage that, although a joint vision of a flow-based market coupling (FMC) model should be developed, it was equally important to identify how the current arrangements could evolve towards it in a series of practical steps. The work is not yet complete. This is an interim report designed to expose ideas at an early stage to enable Regulators, Users and other interested parties to join the debate and provide feedback. In particular

  7. Flow-based market coupling. A joint ETSO-EuroPEX proposal for cross-border congestion management and integration of electricity markets in Europe. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    ETSO and EuroPEX have previously published separate proposals for congestion management and market operation across borders in Europe. ETSO has described a 'vision' in which Transmission System Operators (TSOs) would support trade between a variety of different markets by taking explicit account of the physical flows of electricity between them ('flow-based modelling'). EuroPEX has described 'Decentralized Market Coupling' as a method to integrate regional energy markets with cross-border congestion management. In most respects the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals are consistent and complementary. In particular, both organisations agree that market-based congestion management mechanisms should be used at all borders wherever possible, and that they should be co-ordinated to take account of the interdependence of physical flows. Furthermore, both ETSO and EuroPEX recognize that integrated markets are in general more efficient than separate ones, but accept that coupling of regional markets is the most realistic way of achieving efficiency benefits in the short and medium term. The commonalty between the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals has been noted by the 'Florence' Regulators' Forum, which has therefore encouraged ETSO and EuroPEX to work together to develop joint proposals. They have responded by setting up a Joint Working Group, which has produced this report to describe its progress to date. Currently, there exists a wide variety of organisational structures and operational practices in Europe. Consequently, ETSO and EuroPEX agreed at an early stage that, although a joint vision of a flow-based market coupling (FMC) model should be developed, it was equally important to identify how the current arrangements could evolve towards it in a series of practical steps. The work is not yet complete. This is an interim report designed to expose ideas at an early stage to enable Regulators, Users and other interested parties to join the

  8. Mathematic Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Adaptive Congestion Control in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, Rola; Université de Versailles

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a preventive congestion control mechanism applied at highway entrances and devised for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The proposed mechanism provides a vehicular admission control, regulates input traffic and performs vehicular traffic shaping. Our congestion control mechanism includes two classes of vehicles and is based on a specific priority ticket pool scheme with queue-length threshold scheduling policy, tailored to vehicular networks. In an attempt t...

  9. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  10. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TERMS OF DATA EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Kamenický

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of train running and IT support of conflict resolution decision for an efficient use of the existing railway infrastructure is needed. To meet these requirements standardized interfaces between infrastructure managers and railway undertakings and infrastructure description are indispensable.

  11. Complexity analysis of the Next Gen Air Traffic Management System: trajectory based operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    According to Federal Aviation Administration traffic predictions currently our Air Traffic Management (ATM) system is operating at 150 percent capacity; forecasting that within the next two decades, the traffic with increase to a staggering 250 percent [17]. This will require a major redesign of our system. Today's ATM system is complex. It is designed to safely, economically, and efficiently provide air traffic services through the cost-effective provision of facilities and seamless services in collaboration with multiple agents however, contrary the vision, the system is loosely integrated and is suffering tremendously from antiquated equipment and saturated airways. The new Next Generation (Next Gen) ATM system is designed to transform the current system into an agile, robust and responsive set of operations that are designed to safely manage the growing needs of the projected increasingly complex, diverse set of air transportation system users and massive projected worldwide traffic rates. This new revolutionary technology-centric system is dynamically complex and is much more sophisticated than it's soon to be predecessor. ATM system failures could yield large scale catastrophic consequences as it is a safety critical system. This work will attempt to describe complexity and the complex nature of the NextGen ATM system and Trajectory Based Operational. Complex human factors interactions within Next Gen will be analyzed using a proposed dual experimental approach designed to identify hazards, gaps and elicit emergent hazards that would not be visible if conducted in isolation. Suggestions will be made along with a proposal for future human factors research in the TBO safety critical Next Gen environment.

  12. The European air traffic management response to volcanic ash crises: towards institutionalised aviation crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopagne, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A cloud of ash drifting from the erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010 covered Europe and created an unprecedented situation. It resulted in an almost complete lockdown of European airspace in the period from 15th to 21st April, 2010: more than 100,000 flights were cancelled, 10 million people were affected and over US$1.8bn was lost by airlines globally. This paper presents the air traffic management (ATM) view of the situation. Through an analysis of the evolution of the events in the affected region, the paper will provide more details on ATM planning, reaction and follow-up actions. Furthermore, the influence of this event on the identification of further improvements needed to advance volcanic procedures internationally will be discussed. Actions undertaken since the end of the event - the establishment of the European Aviation Crisis Coordination Cell, running of the International Civil Aviation Organization VOLCEX 11/01 volcanic ash exercise and European response to the Grimsvötn eruption in May 2011 - will be discussed at the end of the paper.

  13. Traffic management mechanism for intranets with available-bit-rate access to the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahbub; Sirisena, Harsha R.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    1997-10-01

    The design of a traffic management mechanism for intranets connected to the Internet via an available bit rate access- link is presented. Selection of control parameters for this mechanism for optimum performance is shown through analysis. An estimate for packet loss probability at the access- gateway is derived for random fluctuation of available bit rate of the access-link. Some implementation strategies of this mechanism in the standard intranet protocol stack are also suggested.

  14. How Formal Methods Impels Discovery: A Short History of an Air Traffic Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Dowek, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a process of algorithmic discovery that was driven by our goal of achieving complete, mechanically verified algorithms that compute conflict prevention bands for use in en route air traffic management. The algorithms were originally defined in the PVS specification language and subsequently have been implemented in Java and C++. We do not present the proofs in this paper: instead, we describe the process of discovery and the key ideas that enabled the final formal proof of correctness

  15. Airborne Separation Assurance and Traffic Management: Research of Concepts and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Wing, David J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Conway, Sheila R.

    1999-01-01

    To support the need for increased flexibility and capacity in the future National Airspace System, NASA is pursuing an approach that distributes air traffic separation and management tasks to both airborne and ground-based systems. Details of the distributed operations and the benefits and technical challenges of such a system are discussed. Technology requirements and research issues are outlined, and NASA s approach for establishing concept feasibility, which includes development of the airborne automation necessary to support the concept, is described.

  16. Orange County Transit/traffic Management Integration And Traveler Information Project: Evaluation Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, R.; Hickman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This document focuses on a Field Operational Test (FOT) to develop an integrated information system for transit and traffic management and for traveler information that relies on Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buses as probe vehicles. The document provides the evaluation plan for the FOT. The plan covers three principal elements: 1) Institutional, TMC Operator and Bus Operator, 2) Public Knowledge and Perceptions, and 3) System performance. The document provides an overall evaluatio...

  17. Analysis of a Dynamic Multi-Track Airway Concept for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Multi-track Airways (DMA) Concept for Air Traffic Management (ATM) proposes a network of high-altitude airways constructed of multiple, closely spaced, parallel tracks designed to increase en-route capacity in high-demand airspace corridors. Segregated from non-airway operations, these multi-track airways establish high-priority traffic flow corridors along optimal routes between major terminal areas throughout the National Airspace System (NAS). Air traffic controllers transition aircraft equipped for DMA operations to DMA entry points, the aircraft use autonomous control of airspeed to fly the continuous-airspace airway and achieve an economic benefit, and controllers then transition the aircraft from the DMA exit to the terminal area. Aircraft authority within the DMA includes responsibility for spacing and/or separation from other DMA aircraft. The DMA controller is responsible for coordinating the entry and exit of traffic to and from the DMA and for traffic flow management (TFM), including adjusting DMA routing on a daily basis to account for predicted weather and wind patterns and re-routing DMAs in real time to accommodate unpredicted weather changes. However, the DMA controller is not responsible for monitoring the DMA for traffic separation. This report defines the mature state concept, explores its feasibility and performance, and identifies potential benefits. The report also discusses (a) an analysis of a single DMA, which was modeled within the NAS to assess capacity and determine the impact of a single DMA on regional sector loads and conflict potential; (b) a demand analysis, which was conducted to determine likely city-pair candidates for a nationwide DMA network and to determine the expected demand fraction; (c) two track configurations, which were modeled and analyzed for their operational characteristic; (d) software-prototype airborne capabilities developed for DMA operations research; (e) a feasibility analysis of key attributes in

  18. Dealing with the white death: avalanche risk management for traffic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Bründl, Michael; Rhyner, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses mitigation strategies to protect traffic routes from snow avalanches. Up to now, mitigation of snow avalanches on many roads and railways in the Alps has relied on avalanche sheds, which require large initial investments resulting in high opportunity costs. Therefore, avalanche risk managers have increasingly adopted organizational mitigation measures such as warning systems and closure policies instead. The effectiveness of these measures is, however, greatly dependent on human decisions. In this article, we present a method for optimizing avalanche mitigation for traffic routes in terms of both their risk reduction impact and their net benefit to society. First, we introduce a generic framework for assessing avalanche risk and for quantifying the impact of mitigation. This allows for sound cost-benefit comparisons between alternative mitigation strategies. Second, we illustrate the framework with a case study from Switzerland. Our findings suggest that site-specific characteristics of avalanche paths, as well as the economic importance of a traffic route, are decisive for the choice of optimal mitigation strategies. On routes endangered by few avalanche paths with frequent avalanche occurrences, structural measures are most efficient, whereas reliance on organizational mitigation is often the most appropriate strategy on routes endangered by many paths with infrequent or fuzzy avalanche risk. Finally, keeping a traffic route open may be very important for tourism or the transport industry. Hence, local economic value may promote the use of a hybrid strategy that combines organizational and structural measures to optimize the resource allocation of avalanche risk mitigation.

  19. Evaluation of the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid and Lat-Long Grid for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn; Dahm, Johann; Oran, Elaine; Alexandrov, Natalia; Boris, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Air Traffic Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (ATMLG) is used to simulate a 24 hour period of air traffic flow in the National Airspace System (NAS). During this time period, there are 41,594 flights over the United States, and the flight plan information (departure and arrival airports and times, and waypoints along the way) are obtained from an Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS) dataset. Two simulation procedures are tested and compared: one based on the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), and the other based on the stationary Latitude-Longitude (Lat- Long) grid. Simulating one full day of air traffic over the United States required the following amounts of CPU time on a single processor of an SGI Altix: 88 s for the MLG method, and 163 s for the Lat-Long grid method. We present a discussion of the amount of CPU time required for each of the simulation processes (updating aircraft trajectories, sorting, conflict detection and resolution, etc.), and show that the main advantage of the MLG method is that it is a general sorting algorithm that can sort on multiple properties. We discuss how many MLG neighbors must be considered in the separation assurance procedure in order to ensure a five-mile separation buffer between aircraft, and we investigate the effect of removing waypoints from aircraft trajectories. When aircraft choose their own trajectory, there are more flights with shorter duration times and fewer CD&R maneuvers, resulting in significant fuel savings.

  20. Problems in air traffic management. VII., Job training performance of air traffic control specialists - measurement, structure, and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-07-01

    A statistical study of training- and job-performance measures of several hundred Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS) representing Enroute, Terminal, and Flight Service Station specialties revealed that training-performance measures reflected: : 1....

  1. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Aziziankohan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology:  In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings:  The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  2. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziziankohan, A.; Jolai, F.; Khalilzadeh, M.; Soltani, R.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology: In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings: The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  3. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziziankohan, A.; Jolai, F.; Khalilzadeh, M.; Soltani, R.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology: In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings: The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  4. Final test report for traffic management data dictionary (TMDD) and related standards as deployed by the Utah department of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-23

    This report presents the results of the ITS Standards Testing Program for the field testing, assessment, and evaluation of the three volumes comprising the Standards for Traffic Management Center to Center Communications (TMDD) version 2.1 and the NT...

  5. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  6. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final detailed test plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment". This document defines the objective, approach,...

  7. Integrating Emerging Data Sources into Operational Practice : Opportunities for Integration of Emerging Data for Traffic Management and TMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    With the emergence of data generated from connected vehicles, connected travelers, and connected infrastructure, the capabilities of traffic management systems or centers (TMCs) will need to be improved to allow agencies to compile and benefit from u...

  8. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final test plans : state of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : state of Utah". This document defines the objective, approach, an...

  9. Congestive Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is among the most common causes of admission to hospitals in the United States, especially in those over age 65. Few data exist regarding the prevalence CHF of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) owing to congestive heart failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nevertheless, CSR is expected to be highly prevalent among those with CHF. Treatment should focus on the underlying mechanisms by which CHF increases loop gain and promotes unstable breathing. Few data are available to determine prevalence of CSR in the ICU, or how CSR might affect clinical management and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Real-Time Automated Traffic Incident Response Plan Management System: A Web Structure for the Regional Highway Network in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents, caused by various factors, may lead to heavy traffic delay and be harmful to traffic capacity of downstream sections. Traffic incident management (TIM systems have been developed widely to respond to traffic incidents intelligently and reduce the losses. Traffic incident response plans, as an important component of TIM, can effectively guide responders as to what and how to do in traffic incidents. In the paper, a real-time automated traffic incident response plan management system was developed, which could generate and manage traffic incident response plans timely and automatically. A web application structure and a physical structure were designed to implement and show these functions. A standard framework of data storage was also developed to save information about traffic incidents and generated response plans. Furthermore, a conformation survey and case-based reasoning (CBR were introduced to identify traffic incident and generate traffic incident response plans automatically, respectively. Twenty-three traffic crash-related incidents were selected and three indicators were used to measure the system performance. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The system is practicable to generate traffic incident response plans and has been implemented in China.

  11. Congestion-Aware Warehouse Flow Analysis and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2015-12-18

    Generating realistic configurations of urban models is a vital part of the modeling process, especially if these models are used for evaluation and analysis. In this work, we address the problem of assigning objects to their storage locations inside a warehouse which has a great impact on the quality of operations within a warehouse. Existing storage policies aim to improve the efficiency by minimizing travel time or by classifying the items based on some features. We go beyond existing methods as we analyze warehouse layout network in an attempt to understand the factors that affect traffic within the warehouse. We use simulated annealing based sampling to assign items to their storage locations while reducing traffic congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The proposed method enables a range of applications including efficient storage assignment, warehouse reliability evaluation and traffic congestion estimation.

  12. Congestion-Aware Warehouse Flow Analysis and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2015-01-01

    Generating realistic configurations of urban models is a vital part of the modeling process, especially if these models are used for evaluation and analysis. In this work, we address the problem of assigning objects to their storage locations inside a warehouse which has a great impact on the quality of operations within a warehouse. Existing storage policies aim to improve the efficiency by minimizing travel time or by classifying the items based on some features. We go beyond existing methods as we analyze warehouse layout network in an attempt to understand the factors that affect traffic within the warehouse. We use simulated annealing based sampling to assign items to their storage locations while reducing traffic congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The proposed method enables a range of applications including efficient storage assignment, warehouse reliability evaluation and traffic congestion estimation.

  13. Congestion control in wireless links based on selective delivery of erroneous packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, congestion control in packet networks is performed by reducing the transmission rate when congestion is detected, in order to cut down the traffic that overwhelms the capacity of the network. However, if the bottleneck is a wireless link, congestion is often cumulated because...... the performance of the proposed mechanism against traditional congestion control with a simulation study. The results show that the proposed approach can improve the overall performance both by increasing the throughput over the wireless and improving the video quality in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR...

  14. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  15. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  16. A time-based concept for terminal-area traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Tobias, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    An automated air-traffic-management concept that has the potential for significantly increasing the efficiency of traffic flows in high-density terminal areas is discussed. The concept's implementation depends on techniques for controlling the landing time of all aircraft entering the terminal area, both those that are equipped with on-board four-dimensional (4D) guidance systems as well as those aircraft types that are conventionally equipped. The two major ground-based elements of the system are a scheduler which assigns conflict-free landing times and a profile descent advisor. Landing time provided by the scheduler is uplinked to equipped aircraft and translated into the appropriate 4D trajectory by the-board flight-management system. The controller issues descent advisories to unequipped aircraft to help them achieve the assigned landing times. Air traffic control simulations have established that the concept provides an efficient method for controlling various mixes of 4D-equipped and unequipped, as well as low- and high-performance, aircraft. Piloted simulations of profiles flown with the aid of advisories have verified the ability to meet specified descent times with prescribed accuracy.

  17. Decisions of hypermarkets location in dense urban area – effects on streets network congestion in the Bucharest case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen ROSCA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents some partial results of the research carried out by the Transportation, Traffic and Logistics Department - University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, funded by the Romanian Ministry of Research and Education through the National University Research Council. In this paper we provide: a brief description of the interrelation between the life style changes of Romanian people during the last decades and the car traffic congestion in large cities; the streets network modelling of a radial-circular urban structure (the characteristic of a historically developed city as Bucharest city is, in case of car traffic congestion; the assessment model of the additional car traffic congestion for certain locations with large attractivity. Having an important effect on the entire lifestyle of urban people, the decision of a hypermarket location might be a complex one, taking into consideration the new leisure and shopping tendencies but also the additional car traffic congestion caused by the chosen location.

  18. Metropolis Parking Problems and Management Planning Solutions for Traffic Operation Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobility are clearly illustrated by the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in developing countries. Following the dramatic incensement of traffic demand, the parking problem has been becoming much more seriously important in many metropolises. With the aim of seeking solutions as to how the parking system could operate more efficiently by using new technologies and new methodologies, this paper discusses the application of geographic information system into the parking planning and management for traffic operation effectiveness in metropolis. The concentration of this paper includes the characteristics of parking demand and the causations of parking problems, especially the basic parking principle and strategies for solving parking problems from the perspective of geographic information system are discussed in enough detail in this paper.

  19. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  20. An Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in a Connected Vehicle Environment: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Jing; Hao Huang; Long Chen

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern depending on road traffic demand. This results in excessive delays for road users. Adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has shown a powerful ability to effectively alleviate u...

  1. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control: Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm with Experience Replay and Target Network

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Juntao; Shen, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Ito, Minoru; Shiratori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive traffic signal control, which adjusts traffic signal timing according to real-time traffic, has been shown to be an effective method to reduce traffic congestion. Available works on adaptive traffic signal control make responsive traffic signal control decisions based on human-crafted features (e.g. vehicle queue length). However, human-crafted features are abstractions of raw traffic data (e.g., position and speed of vehicles), which ignore some useful traffic information and lead t...

  2. A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Tang

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR, but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and

  3. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration: 1 Research and Procedural Testing of Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sara R.; Kibler, Jennifer L.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) will operationally demonstrate the feasibility of efficient arrival operations combining ground-based and airborne NASA technologies. The ATD-1 integrated system consists of the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering which generates precise time-based schedules to the runway and merge points; Controller Managed Spacing decision support tools which provide controllers with speed advisories and other information needed to meet the schedule; and Flight deck-based Interval Management avionics and procedures which allow flight crews to adjust their speed to achieve precise relative spacing. Initial studies identified air-ground challenges related to the integration of these three scheduling and spacing technologies, and NASA's airborne spacing algorithm was modified to address some of these challenges. The Research and Procedural Testing of Routes human-in-the-loop experiment was then conducted to assess the performance of the new spacing algorithm. The results of this experiment indicate that the algorithm performed as designed, and the pilot participants found the airborne spacing concept, air-ground procedures, and crew interface to be acceptable. However, the researchers concluded that the data revealed issues with the frequency of speed changes and speed reversals.

  4. Trajectory Assessment and Modification Tools for Next Generation Air Traffic Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Connie; Lee, Paul; Mainini, Matthew; Lee, Homola; Lee, Hwasoo; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) based high fidelity air traffic control human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations, with a focus on the expected requirement of enhanced automated trajectory assessment and modification tools to support future air traffic flow management (ATFM) planning positions. The simulations were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Centers Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) in 2009 and 2010. The test airspace for all three simulations assumed the mid-term NextGenEn-Route high altitude environment utilizing high altitude sectors from the Kansas City and Memphis Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Trajectory assessment, modification and coordination decision support tools were developed at the AOL in order to perform future ATFM tasks. Overall tool usage results and user acceptability ratings were collected across three areas of NextGen operatoins to evaluate the tools. In addition to the usefulness and usability feedback, feasibility issues, benefits, and future requirements were also addressed. Overall, the tool sets were rated very useful and usable, and many elements of the tools received high scores and were used frequently and successfully. Tool utilization results in all three HITLs showed both user and system benefits including better airspace throughput, reduced controller workload, and highly effective communication protocols in both full Data Comm and mixed-equipage environments.

  5. Hyper-Spectral Networking Concept of Operations and Future Air Traffic Management Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The NASA sponsored Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is conducting research to improve the operational efficiency of the future National Airspace System (NAS) through diverse and secure multi-band, multi-mode, and millimeter-wave (mmWave) wireless links. Worldwide growth of air transportation and the coming of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase air traffic density and complexity. Safe coordination of aircraft will require more capable technologies for communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS). The HSCNA project will provide a foundation for technology and operational concepts to accommodate a significantly greater number of networked aircraft. This paper describes two of the HSCNA projects technical challenges. The first technical challenge is to develop a multi-band networking concept of operations (ConOps) for use in multiple phases of flight and all communication link types. This ConOps will integrate the advanced technologies explored by the HSCNA project and future operational concepts into a harmonized vision of future NAS communications and networking. The second technical challenge discussed is to conduct simulations of future ATM operations using multi-bandmulti-mode networking and technologies. Large-scale simulations will assess the impact, compared to todays system, of the new and integrated networks and technologies under future air traffic demand.

  6. Semantic Representation and Scale-Up of Integrated Air Traffic Management Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Ranjan, Shubha; Wei, Mie; Eshow, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Each day, the global air transportation industry generates a vast amount of heterogeneous data from air carriers, air traffic control providers, and secondary aviation entities handling baggage, ticketing, catering, fuel delivery, and other services. Generally, these data are stored in isolated data systems, separated from each other by significant political, regulatory, economic, and technological divides. These realities aside, integrating aviation data into a single, queryable, big data store could enable insights leading to major efficiency, safety, and cost advantages. In this paper, we describe an implemented system for combining heterogeneous air traffic management data using semantic integration techniques. The system transforms data from its original disparate source formats into a unified semantic representation within an ontology-based triple store. Our initial prototype stores only a small sliver of air traffic data covering one day of operations at a major airport. The paper also describes our analysis of difficulties ahead as we prepare to scale up data storage to accommodate successively larger quantities of data -- eventually covering all US commercial domestic flights over an extended multi-year timeframe. We review several approaches to mitigating scale-up related query performance concerns.

  7. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  8. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...

  9. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry

    2010-07-01

    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Traffic Flow Prediction Using MI Algorithm and Considering Noisy and Data Loss Conditions: An Application to Minnesota Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow forecasting is useful for controlling traffic flow, traffic lights, and travel times. This study uses a multi-layer perceptron neural network and the mutual information (MI technique to forecast traffic flow and compares the prediction results with conventional traffic flow forecasting methods. The MI method is used to calculate the interdependency of historical traffic data and future traffic flow. In numerical case studies, the proposed traffic flow forecasting method was tested against data loss, changes in weather conditions, traffic congestion, and accidents. The outcomes were highly acceptable for all cases and showed the robustness of the proposed flow forecasting method.

  11. Traveler oriented traffic performance metrics using real time traffic data from the Midtown-in-Motion (MIM) project in Manhattan, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In a congested urban street network the average traffic speed is an inadequate metric for measuring : speed changes that drivers can perceive from changes in traffic control strategies. : A driver oriented metric is needed. Stop frequency distrib...

  12. Slot allocation on congested motorways : An alternative to congestion pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    1999-01-01

    With respect to the prevailing congestion problems in the more urbanised regions of the European Union, transportation planners and policymakers are facing a dilemma. Supply-side measures, i.e. increasing the capacities, might shorten the congestion duration, especially if bottlenecks can be

  13. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  14. V2X application-reliability analysis of data-rate and message-rate congestion control algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Math, C. Belagal; Li, H.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) require Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication. In dense traffic, the communication channel may become congested, impairing the reliability of the ITS safety applications. Therefore, European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) demands

  15. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  16. A hierarchical framework for air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik

    Air travel in recent years has been plagued by record delays, with over $8 billion in direct operating costs being attributed to 100 million flight delay minutes in 2007. Major contributing factors to delay include weather, congestion, and aging infrastructure; the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) aims to alleviate these delays through an upgrade of the air traffic control system. Changes to large-scale networked systems such as air traffic control are complicated by the need for coordinated solutions over disparate temporal and spatial scales. Individual air traffic controllers must ensure aircraft maintain safe separation locally with a time horizon of seconds to minutes, whereas regional plans are formulated to efficiently route flows of aircraft around weather and congestion on the order of every hour. More efficient control algorithms that provide a coordinated solution are required to safely handle a larger number of aircraft in a fixed amount of airspace. Improved estimation algorithms are also needed to provide accurate aircraft state information and situational awareness for human controllers. A hierarchical framework is developed to simultaneously solve the sometimes conflicting goals of regional efficiency and local safety. Careful attention is given in defining the interactions between the layers of this hierarchy. In this way, solutions to individual air traffic problems can be targeted and implemented as needed. First, the regional traffic flow management problem is posed as an optimization problem and shown to be NP-Hard. Approximation methods based on aggregate flow models are developed to enable real-time implementation of algorithms that reduce the impact of congestion and adverse weather. Second, the local trajectory design problem is solved using a novel slot-based sector model. This model is used to analyze sector capacity under varying traffic patterns, providing a more comprehensive understanding of how increased automation

  17. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  18. Human-system safety methods for development of advanced air traffic management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, William R.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems (author) (ml)

  19. Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations.

  20. Intelligent Packet Shaper to Avoid Network Congestion for Improved Streaming Video Quality at Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaul, Manohar; Khosla, Rajiv; Mitsukura, Y

    2003-01-01

    of this intelligent traffic-shaping algorithm on the underlying network real time packet traffic and the eradication of unwanted abruption in the streaming video qualiy. This paper concluded from the end results of the simulation that neural networks are a very superior means of modeling real-time traffic......This paper proposes a traffic shaping algorithm based on neural networks, which adapts to a network over which streaming video is being transmitted. The purpose of this intelligent shaper is to eradicate all traffic congestion and improve the end-user's video quality. It possesses the capability...