WorldWideScience

Sample records for traditional ptru nano-alloys

  1. Scalable shape- and size-controlled synthesis of metal nano-alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2016-01-21

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a continuous-flow reactor, methods of making metal nano-alloys, and metal nano-alloys. An embodiment of the continuous-flow reactor includes a first tubular component having a tubular inlet and a tubular outlet, and a heated tube-in-tube gas reactor fluidly connected to the first tubular component, wherein the heated tube-in-tube gas reactor comprises an inner tube having a gas permeable surface and an outer tube. An embodiment of the method of producing metal nano-alloys, includes contacting a reducible metal precursor and a reducing fluid in a continuous-flow reactor to form a mixed solution; and flowing the mixed solution through the continuous-flow reactor for a residence time to form the metal nano-alloys. An embodiment of the composition includes a plurality of metal nano-alloys having a monodisperse size distribution and a uniform shape distribution.

  2. PtRu colloid nanoparticles for CO oxidation in microfabricated reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Saadi, Souheil; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic activity of PtRu colloid nanoparticles for CO oxidation is investigated in microfabricated reactors. The measured catalytic performance describes a volcano curve as a function of the Pt/Ru ratio. The apparent activation energies for the different alloy catalysts are between 21 and 1...

  3. Pt-Ru nanoparticles supported on functionalized carbon as electrocatalysts for the methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, J.R.C.; Fernandes, J.C.S.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Ferraria, A.M.; Duarte, R.G.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functionalized carbon using acid solutions contains surface oxygenated groups. → Uniform dispersion of PtRu nanoparticles on the carbon surface was achieved. → Physical analysis showed the formation of PtRu alloy catalysts on functionalized carbon. → PtRu alloy catalysts on functionalized carbon enhanced the methanol oxidation rate. - Abstract: Platinum-ruthenium alloy electrocatalysts, for methanol oxidation reaction, were prepared on carbons thermally treated in helium atmosphere or chemically functionalized in H 2 O 2 , or in HNO 3 + H 2 SO 4 or in HNO 3 solutions. The functionalized carbon that is produced using acid solutions contains more surface oxygenated functional groups than carbon treated with H 2 O 2 solution or HeTT. The XRD/HR-TEM analysis have showed the existence of a higher alloying degree for Pt-Ru electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon, which present superior electrocatalytic performance, assessed by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as compared to electrocatalysts on unfunctionalized carbon. It also was found that Pt-Ru alloy electrocatalysts on functionalized carbon improve the reaction rate compared to Pt-Ru on carbons treated with H 2 O 2 solution and thermally. A mechanism is discussed, where oxygenated groups generated from acid functionalization of carbon and adsorbed on Pt-Ru electrocatalysts are considered to enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the methanol oxidation reaction.

  4. Size-dependent and intra-band photoluminescence of NiS2 nano-alloys synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Linganiso, C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nickel disulfide (NiS2) nano-alloys capped and uncapped with hexadecylamine (HDA) was carried out. A cubic phase NiS2 formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. An average crystallite size of 35 nm was obtained...

  5. Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    : beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....

  6. PtRu nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen doped carbon with highly stable CO tolerance and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ying; Yang, Zehui; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Quan; Yu, Xinxin; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    As is well known, the lower durability and sluggish methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of PtRu alloy electrocatalyst blocks the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Here, we design a new PtRu electrocatalyst, with highly stable CO tolerance and durability, in which the PtRu nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen doped carbon layers derived from carbonization of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The newly fabricated electrocatalyst exhibits no loss in electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and MOR activity after potential cycling from 0.6-1.0 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, while commercial CB/PtRu retains only 50% of its initial ECSA. Meanwhile, due to the same protective layers, the Ru dissolution is decelerated, resulting in stable CO tolerance. Methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) testing indicates that the activity of newly fabricated electrocatalyst is two times higher than that of commercial CB/PtRu, and the fuel cell performance of the embedded PtRu electrocatalyst was comparable to that of commercial CB/PtRu. The embedded PtRu electrocatalyst is applicable in real DMFC operation. This study offers important and useful information for the design and fabrication of durable and CO tolerant electrocatalysts.

  7. Surface and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited PtRu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richarz, Frank; Wohlmann, Bernd; Vogel, Ulrich; Hoffschulz, Henning; Wandelt, Klaus

    1995-07-01

    PtRu alloys of different compositions were electrodeposited on Au. Twelve alloys between 0% and 100% Pt were characterized with surface sensitive spectroscopies (XPS, LEIS) after transfer from an electrochemical cell to an ultra high vaccum chamber without contact to air. The composition of the thus prepared alloys showed a linear dependence on the concentrations of the deposition solution, but was Pt-enriched both in the bulk and (even more so) at the surface. During the electrochemical reduction of the metal cations, sulfur from the supporting electrolyte 1N H 2SO 4 was found to be incorporated into the electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the determination of the electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes for the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The highest activity for this oxidation as measured by the (peak) potential of the CO oxidation cyclovoltammograms was found for a surface concentration of ˜ 50%Pt. The asymmetry of this "activity curve" (oxidation potential versus Pt surface concentration) is tentatively explained in terms of a surface structural phase separation.

  8. Mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru alloy electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Esteban A. [Grupo de Celdas de Combustible, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Planes, Gabriel A. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Agencia Postal No 3, 5800, Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica-Fisica, INQUIMAE CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A. [Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corti, Horacio R. [Grupo de Celdas de Combustible, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica-Fisica, INQUIMAE CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-15

    Mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts with 2D-hexagonal mesostructure were synthesized using a triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (Pluronic F127 {sup registered}) template, on a gold support. Large electrochemical surface areas were observed for the catalysts prepared at high overpotentials. Compared to the Pt catalyst, the Pt/Ru alloy containing 3 at% of Ru exhibited lower onset potential and more than three times the limit mass activity for methanol oxidation. This behavior is assigned to the larger pore size of the mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts obtained with this template that seems to improve the methanol accessibility to the active sites compared to those obtained using lyotropic liquid crystals. (author)

  9. Methanol oxidation catalysis and substructure of PtRu bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitani, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ono, Takahiro; Honda, Yusuke; Koizumi, Akiko; Seino, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takao A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Daimon, Hideo; Kurobe, Yukiko [Development and Technology Division, Hitachi Maxell Ltd., 6-20-1 Kinunodai, Tsukubamirai, Ibaraki 300-2496 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Catalytic material of PtRu nanoparticles supported on carbon (PtRu/C) for direct methanol fuel cells was synthesized by a polyol reduction method. Addition of phosphorus was effective for downsizing PtRu particles and improving their catalytic activity. The activity obtained was six times of that of a commercial catalysis. The samples were analyzed by techniques of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) at Pt L{sub III}-edge and Ru K-edge, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These results indicated a core-shell structure consisting of a Pt-rich core and Ru-rich shell. By examining coordination numbers determined by XAFS analysis, we found a clear correlation between the catalytic activity and the Pt-Ru atomic pair frequency occurring on the particle surface, which supports the 'bi-functional mechanism'. (author)

  10. Surface enrichment of Pt in stable Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles on MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weizhen; Nie, Lei; Chen, Ying; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposure was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. A dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting\

  11. Pt and PtRu catalyst bilayers increase efficiencies for ethanol oxidation in proton exchange membrane electrolysis and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarawneh, Rakan M.; Pickup, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    Polarization curves, product distributions, and reaction stoichiometries have been measured for the oxidation of ethanol at anodes consisting of Pt and PtRu bilayers and a homogeneous mixture of the two catalysts. These anode structures all show synergies between the two catalysts that can be attributed to the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced at the PtRu catalyst by the Pt catalyst. The use of a PtRu layer over a Pt layer produces the strongest effect, with higher currents than a Pt on PtRu bilayer, mixed layer, or either catalyst alone, except for Pt at high potentials. Reaction stoichiometries (average number of electrons transferred per ethanol molecule) were closer to the values for Pt alone for both of the bilayer configurations but much lower for PtRu and mixed anodes. Although Pt alone would provide the highest overall fuel cell efficiency at low power densities, the PtRu on Pt bilayer would provide higher power densities without a significant loss of efficiency. The origin of the synergy between the Pt and PtRu catalysts was elucidated by separation of the total current into the individual components for generation of carbon dioxide and the acetaldehyde and acetic acid byproducts.

  12. PtRu nanoparticles dispersed on nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorns as an efficient electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linwei; Gao, Ang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yuan; Ma, Jiantai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel anode catalyst is synthesized using N-doped carbon nanohorns as support. • PtRu/NCNHs exhibits an excellent activity for MOR relative to PtRu/C catalysts. • The enhancement is due to the electronic interaction between NCNHs and PtRu NPs. - Abstract: A novel anode catalyst (PtRu/NCNHs) assembled with nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorns (NCNHs) and PtRu nanoparticles (1.9 nm) exhibits an obvious enhancement in the tolerance to carbonaceous intermediates and the electocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in comparison to a commercial PtRu/C-JM catalyst and a home-made PtRu/Vulcan catalyst. The MOR mass activity of PtRu/NCNHs (850 mA mg −1 PtRu ) is 2.5 times as high as that of PtRu/C-JM (341 mA mg −1 PtRu ). The MOR specific activity of PtRu/NCNHs is 1.8 times as high as that of PtRu/Vulcan having similar Pt/Ru atomic ratios, specific electrochemical surface areas and particle sizes of PtRu NPs. The electronic interaction between PtRu NPs and NCNHs is responsible for the enhancement in the MOR activity of PtRu/NCNHs

  13. H2-splitting on Pt/Ru alloys supported on sputtered HOPG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria; Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2011-01-01

    to strain and ligand effects, caused by the compression of the surface due to the presence of the larger Pt atoms in the neighboring Ru atoms. The apparent energy of desorption at equilibrium, Eapp, for the three Pt-Ru systems is found to decrease with an increasing amount of Ru in the alloys...

  14. Barrier characteristics of Pt/Ru Schottky contacts on n-type GaN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pt/Ru Schottky rectifiers; n-type GaN; temperature–dependent electrical properties; inhomogeneous barrier heights .... a 2 μm thick Si-doped GaN films which were grown by .... ted values of ap using (9) for two Gaussian distributions of bar-.

  15. Nonalloyed carbon-supported PtRu catalysts for PEMFC applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgopoulos, D.C.; De Heer, M.P.; Keijzer, M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; de Bruijn, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    PtRu(1:1)/C catalysts were prepared by a process that was claimed previously to lead to non-alloyed Pt and Ru particles, using two different precursors, Ru nitrosyl nitrate and Ru chloride hydrate. Both X-ray diffraction and characterization by cyclic voltammetry point toward Pt and Ru being present

  16. Nonalloyed carbon-supported PtRu catalysts for PEMFC applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgopoulos, D.C.; Heer, de M.P.; Keijzer, M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Bruijn, de F.A.

    2004-01-01

    PtRu(1:1)/C catalysts were prepared by a process that was claimed previously to lead to nonalloyed Pt and Ru particles, using twodifferent precursors, Ru nitrosyl nitrate and Ru chloride hydrate. Both X-ray diffraction and characterization by cyclic voltammetrypoint toward Pt and Ru being present as

  17. Electrocatalytic activity of atomic layer deposited Pt-Ru catalysts onto N-doped carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.-C.; Larsen, J.V.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haugshøj, K.B.; Clausen, H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Christensen, L.H.; Thomsen, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Pt-Ru catalysts of various compositions, between 0 and 100 at.% of Ru, were deposited onto N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 C. The Pt and Ru precursors were trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum (MeCpPtMe3) and

  18. Effect of TiO_2 Loading on Pt-Ru Catalysts During Alcohol Electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasa, Bjorn; Kalamaras, Evangelos; Papaioannou, Evangelos I.; Vakros, John; Sygellou, Labrini; Katsaounis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 can be used to modify Pt-Ru based electrodes for alcohol oxidation. • TiO_2 modified electrodes with lower amount of metals had higher active surface area than pure Pt-Ru electrodes. • TiO_2 modified electrodes showed comparable performance with pure Pt-Ru electrode both in a single cell and in a PEM fuel cell under alcohol fuelling. - Abstract: In this study, Pt-Ru based electrodes modified by TiO_2 were prepared by means of thermal decomposition of chloride and isopropoxide precursors on Ti substrates, characterised by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical techniques and CO stripping and used as anodes for alcohol oxidation. The minimization of the metal loading without electrocatalytic activity losses was also explored. TiO_2 was chosen due to its chemical stability, low cost and excellent properties as substrate for metal dispersion. It was found that TiO_2 loading up to 50% results in a 3-fold increase of the Electrochemically Active Surface (EAS). This conclusion has been confirmed by CO stripping experiments. All samples have been evaluated during the electrochemical oxidation of methanol, ethanol and glycerol. In all cases, the Pt_2_5-Ru_2_5-(TiO_2)_5_0 electrode had better electrocatalytic activity than the pure Pt_5_0-Ru_5_0 anode. The best modified electrode, (Pt_2_5-Ru_2_5-(TiO_2)_5_0), was also evaluated as anode in a PEM fuel cell under methanol fuelling conditions. The observed higher performance of the TiO_2 modified electrodes was attributed to the enhanced Pt-Ru dispersion as well as the formation of smaller Pt and Ru particles.

  19. Radiolytic synthesis of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles using high-energy electron beam: effect of pH control on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Yuji; Kageyama, Satoru; Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro; Nitani, Hiroaki; Ueno, Koji; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2013-01-01

    Electrode catalysts composed of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles (PtRu/C) for use as a direct methanol fuel cell anode were synthesized by the reduction of precursor ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam. The effect of pH control in the precursor solution on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity was studied in order to enhance the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation. The PtRu/C structures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. The methanol oxidation activity was evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry. The initial pH of the precursor solution has little influence on the average grain size for the metal particles (approximately 3.5 nm) on the carbon particle supports, but the dispersibility of the metal particles, PtRu mixing state, and methanol oxidation activity differed. The maintenance of a low pH in the precursor solution gave the best dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles, whereas, a high pH gave the best PtRu mixing state and the highest oxidation current although a low dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles was obtained. The PtRu mixing state strongly correlated with the methanol oxidation current. In addition, a high pH was more effective for PtRu mixing when using an electron beam irradiation reduction method, because the complexation reaction of the chelating agents was improved, which resulted in an enhancement of the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  20. Radiolytic synthesis of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles using high-energy electron beam: effect of pH control on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail: okubo@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kageyama, Satoru; Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Nitani, Hiroaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Materials Structure Science (Japan); Ueno, Koji [Japan Electron Beam Irradiation Service Ltd (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Electrode catalysts composed of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles (PtRu/C) for use as a direct methanol fuel cell anode were synthesized by the reduction of precursor ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam. The effect of pH control in the precursor solution on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity was studied in order to enhance the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation. The PtRu/C structures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. The methanol oxidation activity was evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry. The initial pH of the precursor solution has little influence on the average grain size for the metal particles (approximately 3.5 nm) on the carbon particle supports, but the dispersibility of the metal particles, PtRu mixing state, and methanol oxidation activity differed. The maintenance of a low pH in the precursor solution gave the best dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles, whereas, a high pH gave the best PtRu mixing state and the highest oxidation current although a low dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles was obtained. The PtRu mixing state strongly correlated with the methanol oxidation current. In addition, a high pH was more effective for PtRu mixing when using an electron beam irradiation reduction method, because the complexation reaction of the chelating agents was improved, which resulted in an enhancement of the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  1. Electrocatalytic properties of carbon-supported Pt-Ru catalysts with the high alloying degree for formic acid electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu.; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China)

    2010-07-01

    A series of carbon-supported bimetallic Pt-Ru catalysts with high alloying degree and different Pt/Ru atomic ratio have been prepared by a chemical reduction method in the H{sub 2}O/ethanol/tetrahydrofuran (THF) mixture solvent. The structural and electronic properties of catalysts are characterized using X-ray reflection (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation of formic acid on these Pt-Ru nanoparticles are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping measurements. The results of electrochemical measurements illustrate that the alloying degree and Pt/Ru atomic ratio of Pt-Ru catalyst play an important role in the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Ru/C catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation due to the bifunctional mechanism and the electronic effect. Since formic acid is an intermediate in the methanol electrooxidation on Pt electrode in acidic electrolyte, the observation provides an additional fundamental understanding of the structure-activity relationship of Pt-Ru catalyst for methanol electrooxidation. (author)

  2. Analysis of the kinetics of methanol oxidation in a porous Pt-Ru anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan-Ping; Xing, Lei [Chemical Engineering Department, Taiyuan University of Technology, Shanxi 030024 (China); Scott, Keith [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Merz Court, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    A kinetic model of a porous Pt-Ru anode for methanol oxidation is presented. It was based on the dual-site mechanism for methanol oxidation and used to predict anode performance and the influence of species adsorption on the overall oxidation (macro-) kinetics. The performance of the porous Pt-Ru anode depended on the parameters of the intrinsic chemical kinetics of methanol oxidation and physical parameters such as electrode thickness, surface area, effective diffusion and charge transfer coefficients and concentration of methanol and temperature. The model was solved by using the finite difference method with a subroutine for solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations in each step. Surface coverage ratio distributions of adsorbed species, effectiveness of the porous electrode and macro-polarisation curves were obtained. The simulated polarisation curves were compared to experimental polarisation data for methanol oxidation on Pt-Ru porous anodes at different temperatures and methanol concentrations. The intrinsic kinetic parameters were regressed from the corresponding experimental data. The predicted polarisation curves calculated by the model, were consistent with experimental polarisation data at lower current densities. The departure of experimental data from the predicted polarisation curves at high concentration and high apparent current densities was believed to be due to two-phase flow in the electrode. (author)

  3. Methanol Electro-Oxidation on Pt-Ru Alloy Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangchuan Xing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been investigated in recent years as a catalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Improved catalyst activities were observed and attributed to metal-support interactions. We report a study on the kinetics of methanol electro-oxidation on CNT supported Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles. Alloy catalysts with different compositions, Pt53Ru47/CNT, Pt69Ru31/CNT and Pt77Ru23/CNT, were prepared and investigated in detail. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures, electrode potentials, and methanol concentrations. It was found that the reaction order of methanol electro-oxidation on the PtRu/CNT catalysts was consistent with what has been reported for PtRu alloys with a value of 0.5 in methanol concentrations. However, the electro-oxidation reaction on the PtRu/CNT catalysts displayed much lower activation energies than that on the Pt-Ru alloy catalysts unsupported or supported on carbon black (PtRu/CB. This study provides an overall kinetic evaluation of the PtRu/CNT catalysts and further demonstrates the beneficial role of CNTs.

  4. Optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation studied by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromi, Chikako; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Akira; Abe, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sputtered Pt and Ru form the Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles on the carbon support. → The deposited Pt-Ru alloy particles have uniform Pt:Ru atomic ratios. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of the Pt-Ru/C for methanol oxidation is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C. → The optimum Pt:Ru ratio of 58:42 shifts to 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. → The polygonal barrel-sputtering method is useful to prepare the DMFC anode catalyst. - Abstract: The optimum Pt and Ru atomic composition of a carbon-supported Pt-Ru alloy (Pt-Ru/C) used in a practical direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode was investigated. The samples were prepared by the polygonal barrel-sputtering method. Based on the physical properties of the prepared Pt-Ru/C samples, the Pt-Ru alloy was found to be deposited on a carbon support. The microscopic characterization showed that the deposited alloy forms nanoparticles, of which the atomic ratios of Pt and Ru (Pt:Ru ratios) are uniform and are in accordance with the overall Pt:Ru ratios of the samples. The formation of the Pt-Ru alloy is also supported by the electrochemical characterization. Based on these results, methanol oxidation on the Pt-Ru/C samples was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results indicated that the methanol oxidation activities of the prepared samples depended on the Pt:Ru ratios, of which the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is 58:42 at.% at 25 deg. C and 50:50 at.% at 40 and 60 deg. C. This temperature dependence of the optimum Pt:Ru ratio is well explained by the relationship between the methanol oxidation reaction process and the temperature, which is reflected in the rate-determining steps considered from the activation energies. It should be noted that at 25-60 deg. C, the Pt-Ru/C with Pt:Ru = 50:50 at.% prepared by our sputtering method has the higher methanol oxidation activity than that of a commercially available sample with the identical overall Pt:Ru ratio. Consequently, the polygonal barrel-sputtering method

  5. Particle size dependence of CO tolerance of anode PtRu catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Wang, Guoxiong; Muhamad, Ernee Noryana; Ueda, Wataru

    An anode catalyst for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell must be CO-tolerant, that is, it must have the function of hydrogen oxidation in the presence of CO, because hydrogen fuel gas generated by the steam reforming process of natural gas contains a small amount of CO. In the present study, PtRu/C catalysts were prepared with control of the degree of Pt-Ru alloying and the size of PtRu particles. This control has become possible by a new method of heat treatment at the final step in the preparation of catalysts. The CO tolerances of PtRu/C catalysts with the same degree of Pt-Ru alloying and with different average sizes of PtRu particles were thus compared. Polarization curves were obtained with pure H 2 and CO/H 2 (CO concentrations of 500-2040 ppm). It was found that the CO tolerance of highly dispersed PtRu/C (high dispersion (HD)) with small PtRu particles was much higher than that of poorly dispersed PtRu/C (low dispersion (LD)) with large metal particles. The CO tolerance of PtRu/C (HD) was higher than that of any commercial PtRu/C. The high CO tolerance of PtRu/C (HD) is thought to be due to efficient concerted functions of Pt, Ru, and their alloy.

  6. Ultrasonically treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as PtRu catalyst supports for methanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunwei; Hu, Xinguo; Wang, Dianlong; Dai, Changsong [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Liang; Jin, Haibo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Agathopoulos, Simeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-451 10 Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-09-29

    In the quest of fabricating supported catalysts, experimental results of transmission electron microscopy, Raman and infrared spectroscopy indicate that ultrasonic treatment effectively functionalizes multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), endowing them with groups that can act as nucleation sites which can favor well-dispersed depositions of PtRu clusters on their surface. Ultrasonic treatment seems to be superior than functionalization via regular refluxing. This is confirmed by the determination of the electrochemistry active surface area (ECA) and the CO-tolerance performance of the PtRu catalysts, measured by adsorbed CO-stripping voltammetry in 0.5M sulfuric acid solution, and the real surface area of the PtRu catalysts, evaluated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. Finally, the effectiveness for methanol oxidation is assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a sulfuric acid and methanol electrolyte. (author)

  7. Synthesis of Pt-Ru PSB-Py catalysis by {gamma}-irradiation and their electrocatalytic efficiency for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Ah; Sim, Kwang Sik; Choi, Seong Ho [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    We report here that deposition of Pt-Ru catalysis on the surface of core-shell conductive balls by radiation-chemical reduction of Pt and Ru ions, in order to use as catalysis in a fuel cell. The poly(styrene-co-4-vinylphenylboronic acid)-pyrrole (PSB-Py) with core-shell structure was obtained by in situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of the poly(styrene-co-4-vinylphenylboronic acid) (PSB). Subsequently, Pt-Ru catalysis were deposited onto PSB-Py ball by {gamma}-irradiation, in the presence/absence of poly(vinypyrolidone) (PVP) to prepare electrocatalysis for a fuel cell. The catalytic efficiency of Pt-Ru PSB-Py catalyst was examined for carbon monoxide (CO) stripping and methanol oxidation.

  8. Synthesis of Pt-Ru PSB-Py catalysis by γ-irradiation and their electrocatalytic efficiency for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Ah; Sim, Kwang Sik; Choi, Seong Ho; Jung, Sung Hee

    2009-01-01

    We report here that deposition of Pt-Ru catalysis on the surface of core-shell conductive balls by radiation-chemical reduction of Pt and Ru ions, in order to use as catalysis in a fuel cell. The poly(styrene-co-4-vinylphenylboronic acid)-pyrrole (PSB-Py) with core-shell structure was obtained by in situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of the poly(styrene-co-4-vinylphenylboronic acid) (PSB). Subsequently, Pt-Ru catalysis were deposited onto PSB-Py ball by γ-irradiation, in the presence/absence of poly(vinypyrolidone) (PVP) to prepare electrocatalysis for a fuel cell. The catalytic efficiency of Pt-Ru PSB-Py catalyst was examined for carbon monoxide (CO) stripping and methanol oxidation

  9. Mixed phase Pt-Ru catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell anode by flame aerosol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Debasish; Bischoff, H.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2005-01-01

    A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst wa......Ru1/Vulcan carbon. The kinetics of methanol oxidation on the mixed phase catalyst was also explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (c) 2005 The Electrochemical Society.......A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst...... was found to be a mixture of nanocrystalline, mostly unalloyed Pt and an amorphous phase mostly of Ru and to a lesser extent of Pt oxides on top of the crystalline phase. The flame-produced Pt1Ru1 demonstrated similar onset potential but similar to 60% higher activity compared to commercially available Pt1...

  10. Novel Pt-Ru nanoparticles formed by vapour deposition as efficient electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, Pasupathi; Ishak, Randa; Tricoli, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Ru nanoparticles supported on carbon substrates have been prepared reproducibly by a simple method that utilizes commercially available metal-organic precursors at low temperature in vacuum. Particles morphology, composition and structure have been investigated using HRTEM, EDX, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and powder XRD analysis. TEM shows that the obtained nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the substrate surface and exhibit narrow size distribution, the average diameter being ca. 2 nm. Point resolved EDX analysis demonstrates co-presence of both Pt and Ru in each particle, thereby indicating that truly bimetallic nanoparticles have been obtained. Moreover, EDX performed on several areas of the sample evidences uniform particles composition. The latter can be controlled very easily and effectively by regulating the operation temperature during particles preparation. HRTEM imaging shows that the particles possess crystalline structure. Both SAED and XRD analyses indicate presence of nanoparticles exhibiting structure consistent with that of an f.c.c. Pt-Ru alloy. Besides the f.c.c. alloy, an additional crystalline phase might also be present as noticed by SAED. These nanoparticles display electrocatalytic activity with regard to methanol oxidation as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry (CV)

  11. Novel Pt-Ru nanoparticles formed by vapour deposition as efficient electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, Pasupathi; Tricoli, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    The methods developed and described in paper-part I are employed to prepare nanometer size Pt-Ru particles on a Vulcan[reg] XC72R substrate with controlled metal loading. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed uniform particles size (average diameter 2 nm) and homogeneous dispersion of the particles over the substrate. Energy Dispersive X-ray absorption (EDX) analysis confirmed the compositional homogeneity. The catalytic activity of these supported nanoparticles with regard to methanol electrooxidation is investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and CO-stripping voltammetry techniques at temperatures between 25 and 60 deg. C. Such investigation concerns supported catalysts prepared with ca. 10 and 18 wt.% overall metal loading (Pt + Ru) onto the Vulca[reg] XC72R substrate. Comparative testing of our catalysts and a commercial Pt-Ru/Vulcan reveals markedly superior activity for our catalysts. In fact, we observe for the latter a five-fold increase of the oxidation current as compared to a commercial Pt-Ru/Vulcan with equal metal loading. One of the reasons for the greater activity is found to be the very high dispersion of the metals over the substrate, i.e. the large surface area of the active phase. Other reasons are plausibly ascribable to the varied Pt/Ru composition and/or reduced presence of contaminants at the catalyst surface

  12. Nitrogen Doped Ordered Mesoporous Carbon as Support of PtRu Nanoparticles for Methanol Electro-Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sebastián

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The low oxidation kinetics of alcohols and the need for expensive platinum group metals are still some of the main drawbacks for the commercialization of energy efficient direct alcohol fuel cells. In this work, we investigate the influence of nitrogen doping of ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK as support on the electrochemical activity of PtRu nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping procedures involve the utilization of pyrrole as both nitrogen and carbon precursor by means of a templating method using mesoporous silica. This method allows obtaining carbon supports with up to 14 wt. % nitrogen, with an effective introduction of pyridinic, pyrrolic and quaternary nitrogen. PtRu nanoparticles were deposited by sodium formate reduction method. The presence of nitrogen mainly influences the Pt:Ru atomic ratio at the near surface, passing from 50:50 on the bare (un-doped CMK to 70:30 for the N-doped CMK catalyst. The electroactivity towards the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR was evaluated in acid and alkaline electrolytes. The presence of nitrogen in the support favors a faster oxidation of methanol due to the enrichment of Pt at the near surface together with an increase of the intrinsic activity of PtRu nanoparticles.

  13. Influence of alcohol additives in the preparation of electrodeposited Pt-Ru catalysts on oxidized graphite cloths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, Juan Manuel; Duarte, Marta M.E.; Mayer, Carlos E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by potential pulse electrodeposition from solutions containing EtOH or EG at pH 2 and 5. → The catalyst particle size, loading and dispersion were influenced by solution pH and alcohol addition. → The deposits prepared at pH 2 exhibited large irregular agglomerates while those prepared at pH 5 presented smaller globular particles. → Pt-Ru system prepared using EG at pH 5 exhibited the best performance for CH 3 OH oxidation. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by multiple cycles of potentiostatic pulses from aqueous diluted chloroplatinic acid and ruthenium chloride solutions in the presence of ethanol or ethylene glycol at pH 2 and 5. SEM images showed that the metallic deposit prepared at pH 2 consisted of large irregular agglomerates, whereas smaller globular particles were obtained at pH 5. In addition, the average particle size was considerably decreased in the presence of the stabilizers. The supported Pt-Ru alloys were tested as catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Electrocatalytic activity measurements indicated that the most active electrode was obtained with ethylene glycol as additive at pH 5.

  14. Characterization and evaluation of Pt-Ru catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes by electrochemical impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, A.L.; Miranda-Hernandez, M.; Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, 62580 Morelos (Mexico); Morgado, J.; Montoya, J.A. [IMP, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-10-06

    In this work the authors present the results of a systematic characterization and evaluation of the carbon nanotube supported Pt-Ru (Pt-Ru/CNT) for its use as methanol oxidation catalyst. Its activity was compared with that of Pt and Pt-Ru catalysts supported on Vulcan and synthesized from carbonyl precursors, and another commercial Pt-Ru catalyst. The cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping and electrochemical impedance techniques were employed to determine the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts. The electrochemical studies were performed in 0.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} containing different concentrations of methanol (0.05-1M). The results showed a noticeable influence of the catalyst support (CNT) on the performance of the catalyst for CO oxidation. The electrochemical impedance studies allowed us to separate the different steps in the methanol oxidation reaction and to control these steps or reactions by varying the applied potential and the methanol concentration. At low methanol concentration and potentials the de-hydrogenation of methanol predominated. But, at high potential and methanol concentrations, the CO oxidation predominated. These results allowed us to clearly describe at what potential and concentration ranges the bi-functional effect of Ru becomes evident. Our results indicated that the CO oxidation occurs both on Pt and Ru. Compared to other catalysts, Pt-Ru supported on carbon nanotubes showed superior catalytic activity for CO and methanol oxidation. (author)

  15. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Előd L.; Oloman, Colin W.

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness ∼350 μm) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m -2, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m -2, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m -2 with PtRuMo at 5500 A m -2 and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m -2. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation.

  16. Dynamics of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol, methanol and formic acid at MWCNT platform electrochemically modified with Pt/Ru nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maxakato, NW

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative electrocatalytic behavior of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNTs) electrodecorated with Pt/Ru nanoparticles towards the oxidation of methanol (MeOH), ethylene glycol (EG) and formic acid (FA) has been investigated...

  17. Soft landing of bare PtRu nanoparticles for electrochemical reduction of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Colby, Robert; Engelhard, Mark; Moon, Daewon; Laskin, Julia

    2015-08-07

    Magnetron sputtering of two independent Pt and Ru targets coupled with inert gas aggregation in a modified commercial source has been combined with soft landing of mass-selected ions to prepare bare 4.5 nm diameter PtRu nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes with controlled size and morphology for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in solution. Employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) it is shown that the nanoparticles bind randomly to the glassy carbon electrode at a relatively low coverage of 7 × 10(4) ions μm(-2) and that their average height is centered at 4.5 nm. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images obtained in the high-angle annular dark field mode (HAADF-STEM) further confirm that the soft-landed PtRu nanoparticles are uniform in size. Wide-area scans of the electrodes using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal the presence of both Pt and Ru in atomic concentrations of ∼9% and ∼33%, respectively. Deconvolution of the high energy resolution XPS spectra in the Pt 4f and Ru 3d regions indicates the presence of both oxidized Pt and Ru. The substantially higher loading of Ru compared to Pt and enrichment of Pt at the surface of the nanoparticles is confirmed by wide-area analysis of the electrodes using time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (TOF-MEIS) employing both 80 keV He(+) and O(+) ions. The activity of electrodes containing 7 × 10(4) ions μm(-2) of bare 4.5 nm PtRu nanoparticles toward the electrochemical reduction of oxygen was evaluated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions. In both electrolytes a pronounced reduction peak was observed during O2 purging of the solution that was not evident during purging with Ar. Repeated electrochemical cycling of the electrodes revealed little evolution in the shape or position of the voltammograms indicating high stability of the nanoparticles supported on glassy carbon. The reproducibility of the nanoparticle synthesis and deposition was

  18. Effect of the structural characteristics of binary Pt-Ru and ternary Pt-Ru-M fuel cell catalysts on the activity of ethanol electrooxidation in acid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, Ermete

    2013-06-01

    In view of their possible use as anode materials in acid direct ethanol fuel cells, the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-M catalysts for ethanol oxidation has been investigated. This minireview examines the effects of the structural characteristics of Pt-Ru, such as the degree of alloying and Ru oxidation state, on the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electrodeposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles on fibrous carbon substrates in the presence of nonionic surfactant: Application for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Elod L.; Oloman, Colin W. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-28

    Liquid crystalline and micellar aqueous solutions of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 were used to direct the electrodeposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles onto graphite felts, which were investigated as novel anodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. The effects of surfactant concentration, current density and deposition time in the preparation of these three-dimensional electrodes were studied in a factorial experiment and the electrodes were characterized by SEM and ICP-AES. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry were carried out to assess the activity of the catalyzed felts for methanol oxidation. The presence of Triton X-100 (40-60wt.%) coupled with an acidic plating solution were essential for the efficient co-electrodeposition of Ru in the presence of Pt to yield approximately a 1:1 Pt:Ru atomic ratio in the deposit. The highest mass specific activity, 24Ag{sup -1} at 298K (determined by chronoamperometry after 180s at 0V versus Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4std}), was obtained for the Pt-Ru electrodeposited in the presence of 40wt.% Triton X-100 at 60Am{sup -2}, 298K for 90min. Surfactant mediated electrodeposition is a promising method for meso-scale (ca. 10-60nm diameter) catalyst particle preparation on three-dimensional electrodes. (author)

  20. Electrodeposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles on fibrous carbon substrates in the presence of nonionic surfactant: Application for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Elod L.; Oloman, Colin W.

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystalline and micellar aqueous solutions of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 were used to direct the electrodeposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles onto graphite felts, which were investigated as novel anodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. The effects of surfactant concentration, current density and deposition time in the preparation of these three-dimensional electrodes were studied in a factorial experiment and the electrodes were characterized by SEM and ICP-AES. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry were carried out to assess the activity of the catalyzed felts for methanol oxidation. The presence of Triton X-100 (40-60 wt.%) coupled with an acidic plating solution were essential for the efficient co-electrodeposition of Ru in the presence of Pt to yield approximately a 1:1 Pt:Ru atomic ratio in the deposit. The highest mass specific activity, 24 A g -1 at 298 K (determined by chronoamperometry after 180 s at 0 V versus Hg/Hg 2 SO 4 , K 2 SO 4std ), was obtained for the Pt-Ru electrodeposited in the presence of 40 wt.% Triton X-100 at 60 A m -2 , 298 K for 90 min. Surfactant mediated electrodeposition is a promising method for meso-scale (ca. 10-60 nm diameter) catalyst particle preparation on three-dimensional electrodes

  1. Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)-supported Pt-Ru catalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chunwei [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: cw.yang@hit.edu.cn; Wang Dianlong; Hu Xinguo; Dai Changsong [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2008-01-10

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a support of PtRu catalyst nanocomposites were prepared by colloid method in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) all indicate that ultrasonic treatment can effectively functionalize MWCNTs, endowing them with groups that can act as nucleation sites which can favor well-dispersed deposition of PtRu clusters on their surface. The PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts have a high and homogeneous dispersion of spherical PtRu metal particles with a narrow particle-size distribution. From XPS tests, in PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts Ru can weaken the out-shell electrons of Pt because a part of Ru form alloy with Pt. The remnant Ru exists in oxidation and provides abundant oxygen to nearby Pt, as accelerated desorption and oxidation of intermediate products of methanol oxidation at surface of Pt. By a series of electrochemistry measurements, the PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts display significantly higher performance than the PtRu/XC-72 catalysts. Finally, schematic procedures for the oxidation of MWCNTs and synthesis of PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts were given.

  2. Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)-supported Pt-Ru catalyst for methanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunwei; Wang Dianlong; Hu Xinguo; Dai Changsong; Zhang Liang

    2008-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a support of PtRu catalyst nanocomposites were prepared by colloid method in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) all indicate that ultrasonic treatment can effectively functionalize MWCNTs, endowing them with groups that can act as nucleation sites which can favor well-dispersed deposition of PtRu clusters on their surface. The PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts have a high and homogeneous dispersion of spherical PtRu metal particles with a narrow particle-size distribution. From XPS tests, in PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts Ru can weaken the out-shell electrons of Pt because a part of Ru form alloy with Pt. The remnant Ru exists in oxidation and provides abundant oxygen to nearby Pt, as accelerated desorption and oxidation of intermediate products of methanol oxidation at surface of Pt. By a series of electrochemistry measurements, the PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts display significantly higher performance than the PtRu/XC-72 catalysts. Finally, schematic procedures for the oxidation of MWCNTs and synthesis of PtRu/MWCNTs catalysts were given

  3. Enhancement of ethanol oxidation at Pt and PtRu nanoparticles dispersed over hybrid zirconia-rhodium supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Koster, Margaretta D.; Blanchard, Gary J.; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2014-12-01

    A catalytic material for electrooxidation of ethanol that utilizes PtRu nanoparticles dispersed over thin films of rhodium-free and rhodium-containing zirconia (ZrO2) supports is described here. The enhancement of electrocatalytic activity (particularly in the potential range as low as 0.25-0.5 V vs. RHE), that has been achieved by dispersing PtRu nanoparticles (loading, 100 μg cm-2) over the hybrid Rh-ZrO2 support composed of nanostructured zirconia and metallic rhodium particles, is clearly evident from comparison of the respective voltammetric and chronoamperometric current densities recorded at room temperature (22 °C) in 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 containing 0.5 mol dm-3 ethanol. Porous ZrO2 nanostructures, that provide a large population of hydroxyl groups in acidic medium in the vicinity of PtRu sites, are expected to facilitate the ruthenium-induced removal of passivating CO adsorbates from platinum, as is apparent from the diagnostic experiments with a small organic molecule such as methanol. Although Rh itself does not show directly any activity toward ethanol oxidation, the metal is expected to facilitate C-C bond splitting in C2H5OH. It has also been found during parallel voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements that the hybrid Rh-ZrO2 support increases activity of the platinum component itself toward ethanol oxidation in the low potential range.

  4. Preparation of PtRu/Carbon hybrid materials by hydrothermal carbonization: A study of the Pt:Ru atomic ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusi, Marcelo Marques; Brandalise, Michele; Correa, Olandir Vercino; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Villalba, Juan Carlo

    2009-01-01

    PtRu/Carbon materials with different Pt:Ru atomic ratios (30:70, 50:50, 60:40, 80:20 and 90:10) and 5 wt% of nominal metal load were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization using H 2 PtCl 6.6 H 2 O and RuCl 3. xH 2 O as metals sources and catalysts of the carbonization process and starch as carbon source and reducing agent. The obtained materials were treated at 900 deg C under argon and characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using thin porous coating technique. The PtRu/Carbon materials showed Pt:Ru atomic ratios obtained by EDX similar to the nominal ones. XRD analysis showed that Pt face-cubic centered (FCC) and Ru hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phases coexist in the obtained materials. The average crystallite sizes of the Pt (FCC) phase were in the range of 8-12 nm. The material prepared with Pt:Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 showed the best performance for methanol electro-oxidation. (author)

  5. PtRu catalysts supported on heteropolyacid and chitosan functionalized carbon nanotubes for methanol oxidation reaction of fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiming; Li, Chang Ming; Jiang, San Ping

    2011-09-28

    A simple self-assembly approach has been developed to functionalize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with chitosan (CS) and heteropolyacids (HPAs) of phosphomolybdic acid (H(3)PMo(12)O(40), HPMo) and phosphotungstic acid (H(3)PW(12)O(40), HPW). The non-covalent functionalization method, which introduces homogenous surface functional groups with no detrimental effect on graphene structures of CNTs, can be carried out at room temperature without the use of corrosive acids. The PtRu nanoparticles supported on HPAs-CS-CNTs have a uniform distribution and much smaller size as compared to those of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on conventional acid treated CNTs (PtRu/AO-CNTs). The onset and peak potentials for CO(ad) oxidation on PtRu/HPAs-CS-CNTs catalysts are more negative than those on PtRu/AO-CNTs, indicating that HPAs facilitate the electro-oxidation of CO. The PtRu/HPMo-CS-CNTs catalyst has a higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation and higher tolerance toward CO poisoning than PtRu/HPW-CS-CNTs. The better electrocatalytic enhancement of HPMo on the PtRu/HPAs-CS-CNTs catalyst is most likely related to the fact that molybdenum-containing HPAs such as HPMo have more labile terminal oxygen to provide additional active oxygen sites while accelerating the CO and methanol oxidation in a similar way to that of Ru in the PtRu binary alloy system.

  6. Ni2P Makes Application of the PtRu Catalyst Much Stronger in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-10-12

    PtRu is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from the loss of Ru seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrated that the presence of Ni2 P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells. Outstanding catalytic activity and stability were observed by cyclic voltammetry. Upon integrating the catalyst material into a practical direct methanol fuel cell, the highest maximum power density was achieved on the PtRu-Ni2P/C catalyst among the reference catalysts at different temperatures. A maximum power density of 69.9 mW cm(-2) at 30 °C was obtained on PtRu-Ni2P/C, which is even higher than the power density of the state-of-the-art commercial PtRu catalyst at 70 °C (63.1 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, decay in the performance resulting from Ru loss was greatly reduced owing to the presence of Ni2 P, which is indicative of very promising applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improvements of electrocatalytic activity of PtRu nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes by a H2 plasma treatment in methanol and formic acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhongqing; Jiang Zhongjie

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A H 2 plasma, that aims at reducing the fraction of the oxidized species at the outermost perimeter of metal particles, has been used to treat the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the plasma functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PtRu/PS-MWCNTs). The plasma treated PtRu/PS-MWCNTs exhibit increased electrochemically active surface area, reduced charge transfer resistance, improved electrocatalytic activity and long term stability toward methanol and formic acid oxidation, and enhanced tolerance to carbonaceous species relative to the sample untreated with the H 2 plasma. Highlights: → A H 2 plasma technique is used to treat the PtRu nanoparticles. → The H 2 plasma treated PtRu/PS-MWCNTs exhibit improved electrocatalytic activity. → The H 2 plasma treated PtRu/PS-MWCNTs have significantly reduced charge transfer resistance. → The H 2 plasma treated PtRu/PS-MWCNTs show the increased stability. → The Pt:Ru atomic ratio of PtRu nanoparticles has a significant effect on the electrochemical activity. - Abstract: A H 2 plasma has been used to treat the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the plasma functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PtRu/PS-MWCNTs). The plasma treatment does not change the size and crystalline structure of PtRu nanoparticles, but reduces the fraction of the oxidized species at the outermost perimeter of particles. The electrochemical results show that these plasma treated PtRu/PS-MWCNTs exhibit increased electrochemically active surface area, improved electrocatalytic activity and long term stability toward methanol and formic acid oxidation, and enhanced tolerance to carbonaceous species relative to the sample untreated with the H 2 plasma. The electrocatalytic activities of the plasma treated PtRu/PS-MWCNTs are found to be dependent upon the Pt:Ru atomic ratios of PtRu nanoparticles. The catalysts with a Pt:Ru atomic ratio close to 1:1 show superior properties in the electrooxidation of methanol and formic acid

  8. Electrocatalytic Activity for CO, MeOH, and EtOH Oxidation on the Surface of Pt-Ru Nanoparticles Supported by Metal Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Sik Sim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the electrocatalytic activity for CO, MeOH, and EtOH oxidation on the surface of Pt-Ru nanoparticles supported by metal oxide (Nb-TiO2-H prepared for use in a fuel cell. To prepare Nb-TiO2-supported Pt-Ru nanoparticles, first, the Nb-TiO2 supports were prepared by sol-gel reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide with a small amount of the niobium ethoxide in polystyrene (PS colloids. Second, Pt-Ru nanoparticles were then deposited by chemical reduction of the Pt4+ and Ru3+ ions onto Nb-TiO2 supports (Pt-Ru@Nb-TiO2-CS. Nb element was used to reduce electrical resistance to facilitate electron transport during the electrochemical reactions on a fuel cell electrode. Finally, the Pt-Ru@Nb-TiO2-H catalysts were formed by the removal of core-polystyrene ball from Pt-Ru@TiO2-CS at 500∘C. The successfully prepared Pt-Ru electrocatalysts were confirmed via TEM, XPS, and ICP analysis. The electrocatalytic efficiency of Pt-Ru nanoparticles was evaluated via CO, MeOH, and EtOH oxidation for use in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. As a result, the Pt-Ru@Nb-TiO2-H electrodes showed high electrocatalytic activity for the electrooxidation of CO, MeOH, and EtOH.

  9. Kinetic study of methanol oxidation on carbon-supported PtRu electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gojkovic, S.Lj.; Vidakovic, T.R.; Durovic, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Methanol electrooxidation was investigated on the carbon-supported PtRu electrocatalyst (1:1 atomic ratio) in acid media. X-ray diffraction measurement indicated alloying of Pt and Ru. Cyclic voltammetry of the sample reflects the amount of Ru in the catalyst and its ability to adsorb OH radicals. Tafel plots for the oxidation of 0.02-3 M methanol in the solutions containing 0.05-1 M HClO 4 and in the temperature range 27-40 deg. C showed reasonably well-defined linear region with the slope of about 115 mV dec -1 at the low currents, irrespective of the experimental conditions employed. Reaction order with respect to methanol was found to be 0.5. A correlation between methanol oxidation rate and pseudocapacitive current of OH adsorption on Ru sites was established. It was proposed that bifunctional mechanism is operative with the reaction between methanol residues adsorbed on Pt sites and OH radicals adsorbed on Ru sites as the rate-determining step

  10. Sol-Gel Process for Making Pt-Ru Fuel-Cell Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas; Kumta, Prashant; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A sol-gel process has been developed as a superior alternative to a prior process for making platinum-ruthenium alloy catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol in fuel cells. The starting materials in the prior process are chloride salts of platinum and ruthenium. The process involves multiple steps, is time-consuming, and yields a Pt-Ru product that has relatively low specific surface area and contains some chloride residue. Low specific surface area translates to incomplete utilization of the catalytic activity that might otherwise be available, while chloride residue further reduces catalytic activity ("poisons" the catalyst). In contrast, the sol-gel process involves fewer steps and less time, does not leave chloride residue, and yields a product of greater specific area and, hence, greater catalytic activity. In this sol-gel process (see figure), the starting materials are platinum(II) acetylacetonate [Pt(C5H7O2)2, also denoted Pt-acac] and ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate [Ru(C5H7O2)3, also denoted Ru-acac]. First, Pt-acac and Ru-acac are dissolved in acetone at the desired concentrations (typically, 0.00338 moles of each salt per 100 mL of acetone) at a temperature of 50 C. A solution of 25 percent tetramethylammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4NOH, also denoted TMAH] in methanol is added to the Pt-acac/Ruacac/ acetone solution to act as a high-molecular-weight hydrolyzing agent. The addition of the TMAH counteracts the undesired tendency of Pt-acac and Ru-acac to precipitate as separate phases during the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, thereby helping to yield a desired homogeneous amorphous gel. The solution is stirred for 10 minutes, then the solvent is evaporated until the solution becomes viscous, eventually transforming into a gel. The viscous gel is dried in air at a temperature of 170 C for about 10 hours. The dried gel is crushed to make a powder that is the immediate precursor of the final catalytic product. The precursor powder is converted to the

  11. In Situ Synthesis and Characterization of Polyethyleneimine-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Supported PtRu Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PtRu bimetallic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized on polyethyleneimine- (PEI- functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs via an effective and facile polyol reduction approach. Noncovalent surface modification of MWCNTs with PEI was confirmed by FTIR and zeta potential measurements. The morphology, crystalline structure, and composition of the hybrid material were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, respectively. According to SEM and TEM observations, PtRu nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were homogeneously deposited on PEI-MWCNTs. Cyclic voltammetry tests demonstrated that the as-prepared PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs nanocomposite had a large electrochemical surface area and exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation in comparison with oxidized MWCNTs as catalyst support. PEI-functionalized CNTs, as useful building blocks for the assembly of Pt-based electrocatalyst, may have great potential for applications such as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC.

  12. Pt and Ru X-ray absorption spectroscopy of PtRu anode catalysts in operating direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Chung, Eun-Hyuk; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Segre, Carlo U; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2006-05-25

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ex situ X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray powder diffraction enabled detailed core analysis of phase segregated nanostructured PtRu anode catalysts in an operating direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). No change in the core structures of the phase segregated catalyst was observed as the potential traversed the current onset potential of the DMFC. The methodology was exemplified using a Johnson Matthey unsupported PtRu (1:1) anode catalyst incorporated into a DMFC membrane electrode assembly. During DMFC operation the catalyst is essentially metallic with half of the Ru incorporated into a face-centered cubic (FCC) Pt alloy lattice and the remaining half in an amorphous phase. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis suggests that the FCC lattice is not fully disordered. The EXAFS indicates that the Ru-O bond lengths were significantly shorter than those reported for Ru-O of ruthenium oxides, suggesting that the phases in which the Ru resides in the catalysts are not similar to oxides.

  13. MnO2/CNT supported Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; Wang, Hongjuan; Peng, Feng; Liang, Jiahua; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jian

    2009-07-07

    Pt/MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT) and PtRu/MnO2/CNT nanocomposites were synthesized by successively loading hydrous MnO2 and Pt (or PtRu alloy) nanoparticles on CNTs and were used as anodic catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The existence of MnO2 on the surface of CNTs effectively increases the proton conductivity of the catalyst, which then could remarkably improve the performance of the catalyst in methanol electro-oxidation. As a result, Pt/MnO2/CNTs show higher electrochemical active surface area and better methanol electro-oxidation activity, compared with Pt/CNTs. As PtRu alloy nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of MnO2/CNTs instead of Pt, the PtRu/MnO2/CNT catalyst shows not only excellent electro-oxidation activity to methanol with forward anodic peak current density of 901 A/gPt but also good CO oxidation ability with lower preadsorbed CO oxidation onset potential (0.33 V vs Ag/AgCl) and peak potential (0.49 V vs Ag/AgCl) at room temperature.

  14. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Elod L.; Oloman, Colin W. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness {proportional_to}350 {mu}m) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m{sup -2}, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m{sup -2}, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m{sup -2} with PtRuMo at 5500 A m{sup -2} and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m{sup -2}. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation. (author)

  15. Electro-oxidation of ethanol and ethylene glycol on carbon-supported nano-Pt and -PtRu catalyst in acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Moitrayee; Chatterjee, Abhik; Ghosh, Susanta; Basumallick, I.

    2009-01-01

    Present paper reports kinetics of electro-oxidation of ethanol (EtOH) and ethylene glycol (EG) onto Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts of different compositions in the temperature range of 298-318 K. These catalysts have been characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, CV and amperometry. It has been observed that apparent activation energies for oxidation of EtOH and EG pass through a minimum at about 15-20 at.% of Ru in the PtRu alloy catalysts. Anodic peak current vs. composition curve also shows a maximum around this composition. The results have been explained by a geometric model, which proposes requirement of an ensemble of three Pt atoms with an adjacent Ru atom onto PtRu surface for an efficient electro-oxidation of EtOH or EG. This is further supported from statistical data analysis of probability of occurrence of such ensembles onto PtRu alloy surface. Present results also suggest that electro-oxidation of EG onto nano-PtRu catalyst surfaces follows a different path from that of EtOH at alloy composition less than 15 at.% of Ru.

  16. Electro-oxidation of ethanol and ethylene glycol on carbon-supported nano-Pt and -PtRu catalyst in acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Moitrayee; Chatterjee, Abhik; Ghosh, Susanta [Electrochemical Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Basumallick, I., E-mail: ibasumallick@yahoo.co.u [Electrochemical Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)

    2009-12-01

    Present paper reports kinetics of electro-oxidation of ethanol (EtOH) and ethylene glycol (EG) onto Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts of different compositions in the temperature range of 298-318 K. These catalysts have been characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, CV and amperometry. It has been observed that apparent activation energies for oxidation of EtOH and EG pass through a minimum at about 15-20 at.% of Ru in the PtRu alloy catalysts. Anodic peak current vs. composition curve also shows a maximum around this composition. The results have been explained by a geometric model, which proposes requirement of an ensemble of three Pt atoms with an adjacent Ru atom onto PtRu surface for an efficient electro-oxidation of EtOH or EG. This is further supported from statistical data analysis of probability of occurrence of such ensembles onto PtRu alloy surface. Present results also suggest that electro-oxidation of EG onto nano-PtRu catalyst surfaces follows a different path from that of EtOH at alloy composition less than 15 at.% of Ru.

  17. Measurement of the Ru surface content of electrodeposited PtRu electrodes with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance: implications for methanol and CO electrooxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frelink, T.; Visscher, W.; Veen, van J.A.R.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain the surface content of Ru in rough electrocodeposited PtRu electrodes, the mass change of a Pt electrode during Ru deposition was measured with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCMB). It is shown that there is a correlation between the potential of the surface oxide

  18. Investigation of the behavior of Pt-Ru mixtures with nafion in the oxygen reduction reaction; Investigacion del comportamiento de mezclas de Pt-Ru con nafion en la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez M, O

    2005-07-01

    In this work the electrochemical study for the reduction reaction of oxygen (RRO) of ruthenium, platinum and two mixtures of Pt-Ru (10:90) and Pt-Ru (50:50); to this last its were determined the kinetic and electrochemical parameters. The platinum used was analytical platinum and the ruthenium it was obtained of the decarboxylation of 200 mg of ruthenium dode carbonyl with 200 ml of 1-2 dichlorobenzene under a reflux system by 20 hours with agitation. Decanted and centrifuged by 30 minutes, the obtained ruthenium was washed with ether and it was evaporated for it later use. The material was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, elementary analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. To determine the optimum quantity of nafion to be deposited on the catalytic material, they were carried out tests with different quantities deposited on the electrodes with 1, 2, 4 and 8 {mu}L, giving better result 2 {mu}L for that it was opted for to work with this proportion in the mixtures. The electrochemical performance of 2 ruthenium relationships and platinum 0.05 mg - 0.45 mg and 0.25 mg - 0.25 mg respectively were studied with a potentiostat galvanostat EG and G Princeton Applied Research model 273a; it was found that the electrode with the mixture of 0.25 mg of platinum with 0.25 mg of ruthenium has a bigger response of current intensity after to deposit the nafion in the surface. The electro active area was determined carrying out recurrent voltametry to different scanning velocities (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mV/s) in the non faraday region with a value of 0.2082 cm{sup 2}. The mixture Pt-Ru (50:50) it presents a first order kinetics for the RRO and it is carried out via 4 electrons; the study of current density in function of the temperature presents values of 0.47 {+-} 0.3 for the charge transfer coefficient, of 118 mV/decade for the Tafel slope and it has an activation energy of 0.39 eV. (Author)

  19. Size-dependent and intra-band photoluminescence of NiS{sub 2} nano-alloys synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linganiso, Ella Cebisa [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mhlanga, Sabelo Dalton; Coville, Neil John [Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mwakikunga, Bonex Wakufwa, E-mail: bmwakikunga@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, Private Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Unexpected ultra-violet (UV) emission as well as near infra-red (IR) emissions were attributed to intra-band energy state transitions that occur as a result of the porous structure of the material. Enhanced UV and near IR PL emissions due to the smaller crystallite size of the capped NiS{sub 2} nanostructures was also observed. Band energy and local density of states calculation for NiS{sub 2} were used to support the experimentally observed luminescence results. The luminescence features at wavelengths of 400 nm (3.10 eV), 428 nm (2.90 eV), 447 nm (2.77 eV) and 464 nm (2.67) can be attributed to some of those electrons de-exciting from S (3p) levels down to the Ni (3d) (blue to UV emission) whereas those features at wavelengths of 710 nm (1.75 eV), 751 nm (1.65 eV), 754 nm (1.64 eV) [NiS{sub 2}/HDA-capped NiS{sub 2}] and 784 nm (1.58 eV) respectively seem to result from de-excitations between either Ni(3d) or S (3s, 3p) levels and Ni–S hybridization levels (red to near IR emission). Highlights: ► Rapid solid state alloying of Ni and S from their liquid state precursor by microwaves. ► New photoluminescence data of NiS{sub 2} system. ► Unexpected luminescence in the UV–Visible and near IR ranges for such a metal matrix alloy. ► Explanation of NiS{sub 2} photoluminescence from ab initio calculations by electronic energy band structure and density of states. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nickel disulfide (NiS{sub 2}) nano-alloys capped and uncapped with hexadecylamine (HDA) was carried out. A cubic phase NiS{sub 2} formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. An average crystallite size of 35 nm was obtained for the uncapped nanostructures and 9 nm was obtained for the capped nanostructures estimated using the Scherrer equation. Unexpected ultra-violet (UV) emission as well as near infrared (IR) emissions were attributed to intra-band energy state transitions that occur as a result of the porous structure of the material

  20. Size-dependent and intra-band photoluminescence of NiS2 nano-alloys synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linganiso, Ella Cebisa; Mhlanga, Sabelo Dalton; Coville, Neil John; Mwakikunga, Bonex Wakufwa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Unexpected ultra-violet (UV) emission as well as near infra-red (IR) emissions were attributed to intra-band energy state transitions that occur as a result of the porous structure of the material. Enhanced UV and near IR PL emissions due to the smaller crystallite size of the capped NiS 2 nanostructures was also observed. Band energy and local density of states calculation for NiS 2 were used to support the experimentally observed luminescence results. The luminescence features at wavelengths of 400 nm (3.10 eV), 428 nm (2.90 eV), 447 nm (2.77 eV) and 464 nm (2.67) can be attributed to some of those electrons de-exciting from S (3p) levels down to the Ni (3d) (blue to UV emission) whereas those features at wavelengths of 710 nm (1.75 eV), 751 nm (1.65 eV), 754 nm (1.64 eV) [NiS 2 /HDA-capped NiS 2 ] and 784 nm (1.58 eV) respectively seem to result from de-excitations between either Ni(3d) or S (3s, 3p) levels and Ni–S hybridization levels (red to near IR emission). Highlights: ► Rapid solid state alloying of Ni and S from their liquid state precursor by microwaves. ► New photoluminescence data of NiS 2 system. ► Unexpected luminescence in the UV–Visible and near IR ranges for such a metal matrix alloy. ► Explanation of NiS 2 photoluminescence from ab initio calculations by electronic energy band structure and density of states. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nickel disulfide (NiS 2 ) nano-alloys capped and uncapped with hexadecylamine (HDA) was carried out. A cubic phase NiS 2 formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. An average crystallite size of 35 nm was obtained for the uncapped nanostructures and 9 nm was obtained for the capped nanostructures estimated using the Scherrer equation. Unexpected ultra-violet (UV) emission as well as near infrared (IR) emissions were attributed to intra-band energy state transitions that occur as a result of the porous structure of the material. Enhanced UV and near IR PL emissions

  1. The kinetics and mechanism of methanol oxidation on Pt and PtRu catalysts in alkaline and acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA LOVIC

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic of methanol electrochemical oxidation for a series of platinum and platinum–ruthenium catalysts was investigated. A correlation between the beginning of OHad adsorption and methanol oxidation was demonstarated on Pt single crystals and Pt nanocatalyst. The activity of the nano-structured Pt catalyst was compared with single crystal platinum electrodes assuming the Kinoshita model of nanoparticles. The ruthenium-containing catalysts shifted the onset of methanol oxidation to more negative potentials. The effect was more pronounced in acid than in alkaline media. Based on the established diagnostic criteria, the reaction between COad and OHad species according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism was proposed as the rate determining step in alkaline and acid media on Pt and PtRu catalysts.

  2. Electrooxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu surfaces investigated by ATR surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio F.; Camara, Giuseppe A., E-mail: giuseppe.silva@ufms.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande-MS (Brazil); Batista, Bruno C.; Boscheto, Emerson [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos-SP, (Brazil); Varela, Hamilton, E-mail: varela@iqsc.usp.br [Ertl Center for Electrochemistry and Catalysis, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Herein, it was investigated for the first time the electro-oxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu electrodeposits in acidic media by using in situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR-SEIRAS). The experimental setup circumvents the weak absorbance signals related to adsorbed species, usually observed for rough, electrodeposited surfaces, and allows a full description of the CO coverage with the potential for both catalysts. The dynamics of adsorption-oxidation of CO was accessed by ATR-SEIRAS experiments (involving four ethanol concentrations) and correlated with expressions derived from a simple kinetic model. Kinetic analysis suggests that the growing of the CO adsorbed layer is nor influenced by the presence of Ru neither by the concentration of ethanol. The results suggest that the C-C scission is not related to the presence of Ru and probably happens at Pt sites. (author)

  3. Pt and PtRu nanoparticles supported on N-doped carbons as electrocatalysts for methanol electro oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Viviane Santos; Silva, Julio Cesar Martins; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio, E-mail: viviane_sp_saopaulo@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Methanol is a liquid transportation fuel that can be produced from fossil or renewable resources. Fuel cells employing methanol directly as fuel (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell - DMFC) are very attractive as power source for portable, mobile and stationary applications [1]. PtRu/C electrocatalyst has been considered the best electrocatalyst for methanol electro-oxidation, however, its performance is strongly dependent on the method of preparation and on the characteristics of the carbon support. N-doped carbons with different N contents (1, 2 and 5 wt%) were prepared by thermal treatment of carbon with urea at 800 deg C. Pt and PtRu nanoparticles were supported on N-doped carbons by coreduction of Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions using an alcohol-reduction process [2]. The obtained materials were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy and Cyclic Voltammetry. Pt and PtRu nanoparticles supported on N-doped carbons showed superior performance for methanol electro-oxidation when compared to the materials supported on non-modified carbon and to Pt/C and PtRu/C commercial electrocatalysts. Pt/C and PtRu/C prepared with the carbon modified with 2.5 wt% of N content showed the best activities. (author) [1] Y. Zhou, K. Neyerlin, T.S. Olson, S. Pylypenko, J. Bult, H.N. Dinh, T. Gennett, Z. Shao and R. O'Hayre, Energy Environ. Sci. 3, 1437 (2010); [2] E.V. Spinace, A.Oliveira Neto, T.R.R. Vasconcellos, M. Linardi, J. Power Sources 137, 17 (2004)

  4. Electrodeposition of mesoscopic Pt-Ru on reticulated vitreous carbon from reverse emulsions and microemulsions: Application to methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Tommy T.; Gyenge, Elod L.

    2006-01-01

    High surface area Pt-Ru (between 120 and 400 cm 2 mg -1 ) meso-sized particles and mesoporous coatings were electrodeposited on reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) three-dimensional electrodes using reverse emulsions and microemulsions. The organic phase of the colloidal media was composed of cyclohexane, Triton X-100 non-ionic surfactant and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (for ionic conductivity) while the aqueous phase contained H 2 PtCl 6 and RuCl 3 (or (NH 4 ) 2 RuCl 6 ). For microemulsification to occur isopropanol was also added as co-surfactant. The catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of methanol was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in conjunction with surface area measurement by Cu underpotential deposition. The composition and morphology of the Pt-Ru deposit was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The effects on the catalytic activity of the deposition current density, temperature, RVC pretreatment and plating bath composition are presented. It was found that the electrodeposition of Pt-Ru in reverse microemulsion yielded the highest specific surface area (400 cm 2 mg -1 ) and catalytic activity toward CH 3 OH electro-oxidation as shown, for example, by a 50-200 mV more negative anode potential determined by chronopotentiometry compared to a catalyst obtained by pure aqueous and emulsion electroplating

  5. Electrodeposition of mesoscopic Pt-Ru on reticulated vitreous carbon from reverse emulsions and microemulsions: Application to methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Tommy T. [2360 East Mall, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Gyenge, Elod L. [2360 East Mall, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)]. E-mail: egyenge@chml.ubc.ca

    2006-05-20

    High surface area Pt-Ru (between 120 and 400 cm{sup 2} mg{sup -1}) meso-sized particles and mesoporous coatings were electrodeposited on reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) three-dimensional electrodes using reverse emulsions and microemulsions. The organic phase of the colloidal media was composed of cyclohexane, Triton X-100 non-ionic surfactant and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (for ionic conductivity) while the aqueous phase contained H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and RuCl{sub 3} (or (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}RuCl{sub 6}). For microemulsification to occur isopropanol was also added as co-surfactant. The catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of methanol was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in conjunction with surface area measurement by Cu underpotential deposition. The composition and morphology of the Pt-Ru deposit was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The effects on the catalytic activity of the deposition current density, temperature, RVC pretreatment and plating bath composition are presented. It was found that the electrodeposition of Pt-Ru in reverse microemulsion yielded the highest specific surface area (400 cm{sup 2} mg{sup -1}) and catalytic activity toward CH{sub 3}OH electro-oxidation as shown, for example, by a 50-200 mV more negative anode potential determined by chronopotentiometry compared to a catalyst obtained by pure aqueous and emulsion electroplating.

  6. Highly effective and CO-tolerant PtRu electrocatalysts supported on poly(ethyleneimine) functionalized carbon nanotubes for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi; Jiang, San Ping

    2013-01-01

    A highly efficient and CO tolerant PtRu electrocatalysts supported on amino-rich, cationic poly(ethyleneimine) polyelectrolyte functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs) has been developed. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammograms, CO stripping, chronoamperometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PtRu particles with average size ∼2.5 nm are well dispersed on PEI-MWCNTs. The peak current for the methanol oxidation reaction on 40% PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs is 636mAmg Pt −1 , 5.7 times higher than 112mA mg Pt −1 measured on the 40% PtRu supported on acid treated MWCNTs (PtRu/AO-MWCNTs) under identical conditions. PtRu/PEI-MWCNTs catalysts exhibit a superior electrocatalytic activity and stability for the methanol oxidation reaction due to its high tolerance toward CO poisoning as compared with PtRu/AO-MWCNTs for direct methanol fuel cells

  7. Radiolytic Synthesis of Pt-Ru Catalysts Based on Functional Polymer-Grafted MWNT and Their Catalytic Efficiency for CO and MeOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Soo Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pt-Ru catalysts based on functional polymer-grafted MWNT (Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT were prepared by radiolytic deposition of Pt-Ru nanoparticles on functional polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (FP-MWNT. Three different types of functional polymers, poly(acrylic acid (PAAc, poly(methacrylic acid (PMAc, and poly(vinylphenyl boronic acid (PVPBAc, were grafted on the MWNT surface by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP. Then, Pt-Ru nanoparticles were deposited onto the FP-MWNT supports by the reduction of metal ions using γ-irradiation to obtain Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalysts. The Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalysts were then characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM ,and elemental analysis. The catalytic efficiency of Pt-Ru@FP-MWNT catalyst was examined for CO stripping and MeOH oxidation for use in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The Pt-Ru@PVPBAc-MWNT catalyst shows enhanced activity for electro-oxidation of CO and MeOH oxidation over that of the commercial E-TEK catalyst.

  8. Metamorphosis of the mixed phase PtRu anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells after exposure of methanol: In situ and ex situ characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Debasish [Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Aerosol Laboratory, Nano.DTU, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Chorkendorff, Ib [Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Johannessen, Tue [Aerosol Laboratory, Nano.DTU, Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-11-08

    The change in the mixed phase heavily oxidized PtRu anode with the exposure of methanol in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The investigation had two major objectives: (i) to explore the original state of the active catalyst and (ii) to understand if alloying of Pt and Ru is a requirement for higher methanol oxidation activity. It was found that the methanol oxidation activity gradually improved for {proportional_to}2 h of exposure. The impedance spectra were taken at different times within this time of improvement of activity. The impedance spectra were deconvoluted in different contributions like membrane resistance (R{sub m}), charge transfer resistance (R{sub Ct}), adsorption resistance (R{sub ad}), and oxidation resistance (R{sub ox}). The improvement of the activity was explained in terms of the effect of the pretreatment on different contributions. XRD was done on the virgin and methanol exposed sample as a possible mean to identify the difference. It was postulated that the reduction of the as prepared PtRu after exposure was responsible for the activity improvement. Also, it was shown that bulk alloy formation is not a necessary condition for higher methanol activity of PtRu catalysts. (author)

  9. Diamond nanoparticles as a support for Pt and PtRu catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Torre-Riveros, Lyda; Guzman-Blas, Rolando; Méndez-Torres, Adrián E; Prelas, Mark; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2012-02-01

    Diamond in nanoparticle form is a promising material that can be used as a robust and chemically stable catalyst support in fuel cells. It has been studied and characterized physically and electrochemically, in its thin film and powder forms, as reported in the literature. In the present work, the electrochemical properties of undoped and boron-doped diamond nanoparticle electrodes, fabricated using the ink-paste method, were investigated. Methanol oxidation experiments were carried out in both half-cell and full fuel cell modes. Platinum and ruthenium nanoparticles were chemically deposited on undoped and boron doped diamond nanoparticles through the use of NaBH(4) as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a surfactant. Before and after the reduction process, samples were characterized by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The ink-paste method was also used to prepare the membrane electrode assembly with Pt and Pt-Ru modified undoped and boron-doped diamond nanoparticle catalytic systems, to perform the electrochemical experiments in a direct methanol fuel cell system. The results obtained demonstrate that diamond supported catalyst nanomaterials are promising for methanol fuel cells.

  10. Effect of the solvent in the catalyst ink preparation on the properties and performance of unsupported PtRu catalyst layers in direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaide, Francisco; Álvarez, Garbiñe; Cabot, Pere L.; Genova-Koleva, Radostina; Grande, Hans-Jürgen; Miguel, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the organic solvent polarity on the properties of unsupported PtRu catalyst inks and on the performance of the catalyst layers prepared with them for the methanol electrooxidation, has been studied. The light scattering results indicate that the PtRu-Nafion ® aggregates in the inks prepared with n-butyl acetate (NBA) are larger than those prepared with 2-propanol (IPA). The lower polarity of the former favours the aggregation of Nafion ® and nanoparticles. The electron microscopy images and porosimetry measurements of the catalyst layers show that the secondary pore volume between the agglomerates is larger for NBA. The linear sweep voltammetry and eis results for the methanol electrooxidation in the three-electrode cell denote the higher active surface area for NBA and comparable specific oxidation rates of the intermediates in both catalysts layers. The current densities for PtRu anode catalyst layers in single DMFC are higher when the solvent is NBA, the mass transport limitations being much more apparent with IPA. The adapted transmission line equivalent circuit to interpret the impedance results in single DMFC indicates that the proton resistance for NBA is significantly lower than for IPA, thus suggesting that the greater number of accessible active sites for methanol oxidation in the former are well connected to the Nafion ® ionomers and easier transported to the membrane.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on stability of gold particle modified carbon supported Pt-Ru anode catalysts for a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Liu Juanying; Huang Qinghong; Vogel, Walter; Akins, Daniel L.; Yang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Carbon supported Au-PtRu (Au-PtRu/C) catalysts were prepared as the anodic catalysts for the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The procedure involved simple deposition of Au particles on a commercial Pt-Ru/C catalyst, followed by heat treatment of the resultant composite catalyst at 125, 175 and 200 o C in a N 2 atmosphere. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements indicated that the Au nanoparticles were attached to the surface of the Pt-Ru nanoparticles. We found that the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Au-PtRu/C catalysts for methanol oxidation is better than that of the PtRu/C catalyst. An enhanced stability of the electrocatalyst is observed and attributable to the promotion of CO oxidation by the Au nanoparticles adsorbed onto the Pt-Ru particles, by weakening the adsorption of CO, which can strongly adsorb to and poison Pt catalyst. XPS results show that Au-PtRu/C catalysts with heat treatment lead to surface segregation of Pt metal and an increase in the oxidation state of Ru, which militates against the dissolution of Ru. We additionally find that Au-PtRu/C catalysts heat-treated at 175 o C exhibit the highest electrocatalytic stability among the catalysts prepared by heat treatment: this observation is explained as due to the attainment of the highest relative concentration of gold and the highest oxidation state of Ru oxides for the catalyst pretreated at this temperature.

  12. Ethylene glycol oxidation on Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticle decorated polythiophene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, Vaithilingam; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2008-01-01

    A novel supporting material containing polythiophene (PTh) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (PTh-CNTs) is prepared by in situ polymerization of thiophene on carbon nanotubes using FeCl 3 as oxidizing agent under sonication. The prepared polythiophene/CNT composites are further decorated with Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles by chemical reduction of the corresponding metal salts using HCHO as reducing agent at pH = 11 (Pt/PTh-CNT and Pt-Ru/PTh-CNT). The fabricated composite films decorated with nanoparticles were investigated towards the electrochemical oxidation of ethylene glycol (EG). The presence of carbon nanotubes in conjugation with a conducting polymer produces a good catalytic effect, which might be due to the higher electrochemically accessible surface areas, electronic conductivity and easier charge-transfer at polymer/electrolyte interfaces, which allows higher dispersion of Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles. Such nanoparticle modified PTh-CNT electrodes exhibit better catalytic behavior towards ethylene glycol oxidation. Results show that Pt/PTh-CNT and Pt-Ru/PTh-CNT modified electrodes show enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the electro-oxidation of ethylene glycol than the Pt/PTh electrodes, which shows that the composite film is more promising for applications in fuel cells

  13. Use of Dendrimers during the Synthesis of Pt-Ru Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: Effects on the Physical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Calderón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Pt-Ru catalysts were synthesized by a novel methodology which includes the use as encapsulating molecules of dendrimers of different generation: zero (DN-0, one (DN-1, two (DN-2, and three (DN-3. Synthesized catalysts were heat-treated at 350°C, and the effects of this treatment was established from the physical (X-ray dispersive energy (XDE and X-ray diffraction (XRD and electrochemical characterization (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Results showed that the heat-treatment benefits the catalytic properties of synthesized materials in terms of CO and methanol electrochemical oxidation. The curves for CO stripping were more defined for heat-treated catalysts, and methanol oxidation current densities were higher for these materials. These changes are principally explained from the removal of organic residues remaining on the surface of the Pt-Ru nanoparticles after the synthesis procedure. After the activation of the catalysts by heating at 350°C, the real importance of the use of these encapsulating molecules and the effect of the generation of the dendrimer become visible. From these results, it can be concluded that synthesized catalysts are good catalytic anodes for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs.

  14. Nano-composite of PtRu alloy electrocatalyst and electronically conducting polymer for use as the anode in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongho Choi; Kyungwon Park; Hyekyung Lee; Youngmin Kim; Jaesuk Lee; Yungeun Sung [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju (Korea)

    2003-08-15

    Nano-composites comprised of PtRu alloy nanoparticles and an electronically conducting polymer for the anode electrode in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were prepared. Two conducting polymers of poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and poly(9-(4-vinyl-phenyl)carbazole) were used for the nano-composite electrodes. Structural analyses were carried out using Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, AC impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrocatalytic activities were investigated by voltammetry and chronoamperometry in a 2 M CH{sub 3}OH/{sub 0.5} M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the data compared with a carbon-supported PtRu electrode. XRD patterns indicated good alloy formation and nano-composite formation was confirmed by TEM. Electrochemical measurements and DMFC unit-cell tests indicate that the nano-composites could be useful in a DMFC, but its performance would be slightly lower than that of a carbon-supported electrode. The interfacial property between the PtRu-polymer nano-composite anode and the polymer electrolyte was good, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. For better performance in a DMFC, a higher electric conductivity of the polymer and a lower catalyst loss are needed in nano-composite electrodes. (Author)

  15. Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on (Pb) lead modified by Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn microparticles dispersed into poly(o-phenylenediamine) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Irannejad, Leila [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Lab., Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran); Golabi, Seyed Mehdi [Electroanalytical Chemistry Lab., Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran)

    2005-08-18

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol at a (Pb) lead electrode modified by Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn microparticles dispersed into poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) film has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry as analytical technique and 0.5M sulfuric acid as supporting electrolyte. It has been shown that the presence of PoPD film increases considerably the efficiency of deposited Pt and Pt alloys microparticles toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. The catalytic activity of Pt particles is further enhanced when Ru and especially Sn, is co-deposited in the polymer film. The effects of various parameters such as concentration of methanol, medium temperature as well as the long term stability of modified electrodes have also been investigated. (author)

  16. Electrooxidation of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} alcohols with Pt and Pt-Ru sputter deposited interdigitated array electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong-Gon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hanbat National University, San 16-1, Dukmyeong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: leecg@hanbat.ac.kr; Ojima, Hiroyuki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aoba 07, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Umeda, Minoru [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)], E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2008-02-25

    The electrooxidation of methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol was investigated with interdigitated array electrodes (IDAEs). The IDAE oxidizes alcohol at the generator and reduces the reaction intermediates produced by the oxidation process at the collector. Thus, the reaction intermediates can be estimated with the IDAE. The IDAE in the present work was made of sputter deposited Pt and Pt-Ru. The use of Ru free and added electrodes provides information on the effect of Ru addition on the alcohol oxidation. Cyclic voltammetric analyses revealed that Ru addition enhances the oxidation currents and reduces the E{sub onset} of the alcohols. The detectable reaction intermediate at the methanol and ethanol oxidation was proton, while the intermediate species was acetone in 2-propnaol oxidation.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Pt Sn / C-rare earth and PtRu / C-rare earth using an alcohol reduction process for ethanol electron-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rita Maria de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    The electro catalyst PtRu / C-rare earth and PtSn/C-rare earth (20 wt%) were prepared by alcohol reduction method using H 2 PtCl 6 .6H 2 O Ru Cl xH 2 O, SnCl 2 .2H 2 O as a source of metals 85 % Vulcan - 15 % rare earth as a support and, finally, ethylene glycol as reducing agent. The electrocatalysts were characterized physically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analyses by EDX showed that the atomic ratios of different electrocatalysts, prepared by alcohol reduction method are similar to the nominal starting compositions indicating that this methodology is promising for the preparation of electrocatalysts. In all the XRD patterns for the prepared electrocatalysts there is a broad peak at about 2θ = 25 o , which is associated with the carbon support and four additional diffraction peaks at approximately 2θ = 40 o , 47 o , 67 o e 82 o , which in turn are associated with the plans (111), (200), (220) e (311), respectively, of face-centered cubic structure (FCC) platinum. The results of X-ray diffraction also showed average crystallite sizes between 2.0 and 4.0 nm for PtSn e 2,0 a 3,0 para PtRu. The studies for the electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in acid medium were carried out using the technique of chronoamperometry in a solution 0,5 mol.L-1 H 2 SO 4 , + 1,0 mol.L-1 de C 2 H 5 OH. The polarization curves obtained in the fuel cell unit, powered directly by ethanol, are in agreement with the results of voltammetry and chronoamperometry noting the beneficial effect of rare earths in the preparation of electrocatalysts and attesting that the electrocatalysts PtSn/C are more effective than PtRu/C for the oxidation of ethanol.

  18. Improved reaction kinetics and selectivity by the TiO2-embedded carbon nanofiber support for electro-oxidation of ethanol on PtRu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Nobuyoshi; Ito, Yudai; Tsujiguchi, Takuya; Ishitobi, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    The electro-oxidation of ethanol by the catalyst of PtRu nanoparticles supported on a TiO2-embedded carbon nanofiber (PtRu/TECNF), which has recently been proposed by the authors as a highly active catalyst for methanol oxidation, is investigated by cyclic voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode and by operating a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) with the catalyst. The mass activity obtained from the cyclic voltammogram for the ethanol oxidation is compared to that for the methanol oxidation reported in our recent paper. The mass activity for the ethanol oxidation is comparable or slightly higher than that for the methanol oxidation, and the relationship between the TECNF composition, i.e., the Ti/C mass ratio, and the activity are also similar to that for the methanol oxidation. A DEFC fabricated with the PtRu/TECNF shows a higher power output compared to that with the commercial PtRu/C catalyst. An analysis of the reaction products by a simple two-step reaction model reveals that the PtRu/TECNF increases the rate constant for the reaction steps from ethanol to acetaldehyde and subsequently to CO2, but decreases that from acetaldehyde to acetic acid. This means that the PtRu/TECNF improves not only the kinetics, but also the selectivity to acetaldehyde.

  19. Incorporation of Pt, Ru and Pt-Ru nanoparticles into ordered mesoporous carbons for efficient oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojmenović, Marija; Momčilović, Milan; Gavrilov, Nemanja; Pašti, Igor A.; Mentus, Slavko; Jokić, Bojan; Babić, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon, volume-doped up to 3 w.% with Pt, Ru and Pt-Ru nanoparticles was synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly method, under acidic conditions. The content of incorporated metal was determined by EDX analysis. The X-ray diffractometry confirmed the existence of highly dispersed metallic phases in doped samples. Specific surface area was determined by N 2 -physisorption measurements to range between 452 and 545 m 2 g −1 . Raman spectroscopy of investigated materials indicated highly disordered carbon structure with crystallite sizes around 1.4 nm. In a form of thin-layer electrode on glassy carbon support, in 0.1 M KOH solution, the prepared materials displayed high activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media, with onset potentials more positive than −0.10 V vs. SCE. The kinetics of O 2 reduction was found to be affected by both the specific surface area and the concentration of metal dopants. The ethanol tolerance of (Pt, Ru)-doped OMCs was found to be higher than that of common Pt/C ORR catalysts. Presented study provides a new route for the synthesis of active and selective ORR catalysts in alkaline media, being competitive with, or superior to, the existing ones in terms of performance and price

  20. SiO2 decoration dramatically enhanced the stability of PtRu electrocatalysts with undetectable deterioration in fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinxin; Xu, Zejun; Yang, Zehui; Xu, Sen; Zhang, Quan; Ling, Ying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Prevention of Ru dissolution is essential for steady CO tolerance of anodic electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate a facile way to stabilize Ru atoms by decorating commercial CB/PtRu with SiO2, which shows a six-fold higher stability and similar activity toward a methanol oxidation reaction leading to no discernible degradation in fuel cell performance compared to commercial CB/PtRu electrocatalysts. The higher stability and stable CO tolerance of SiO2-decorated electrocatalysts originate from the SiO2 coating, since Ru atoms are partially ionized during SiO2 decorating, resulting in difficulties in dissolution; while, in the case of commercial CB/PtRu, the dissolved Ru offers active sites for Pt coalescences and CO species resulting in the rapid decay of the electrochemical surface area and fuel cell performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about the stabilization of Ru atoms by SiO2. The highest stability is obtained for a PtRu electrocatalyst with negligible effect on the electrochemical properties.

  1. Influence of polymolybdate adsorbates on electrooxidation of ethanol at PtRu nanoparticles: Combined electrochemical, mass spectrometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralec, Barbara; Lewera, Adam; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2016-05-01

    The role Keggin-type phosphomolybdate (PMo12O403-) ions (adsorbed on carbon-supported PtRu, PtRu/C) on electrooxidation of ethanol is addressed here. The combined results obtained using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltammetry are consistent with the view that presence of the Keggin-type polyoxometallate, phosphomolybdate, ions (adsorbates) leads to enlargement of the current densities associated with electrooxidation of ethanol at potentials greater than 700 mV vs. RHE. This increase of the anodic currents is correlated with the higher acetaldehyde yield which is likely to reflect changes in the reaction kinetics (e.g. more dynamic dehydrogenation of ethanol leading to acetaldehyde) or in the reaction mechanism defined by the preferential surface modification resulting not only in faster kinetics but also in higher selectivity with respect to acetaldehyde production. It is apparent from the spectroscopic data that modification of PtRu/C nanoparticles with phosphomolybdate ions leads to suppression of the formation of Ru surface oxides.

  2. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  3. [Traditional nostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.

  4. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  5. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  6. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  7. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  8. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  9. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  10. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  11. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  12. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  13. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  14. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  15. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  16. Non-Traditional Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  17. Making Tradition Healthy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/10/2007.

  18. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  19. Sadum: Traditional and Contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Panggabean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.

  20. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  1. In the Dirac tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-04-15

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.

  2. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  3. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  4. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  5. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en

  6. Reception of the Istrian musical tradition(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Dario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.

  7. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  8. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  9. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  10. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  11. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  12. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...

  14. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  15. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  16. TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamak, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...

  17. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  18. Electronic commerce versus traditional commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...

  19. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  20. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  1. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  2. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  3. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...

  4. Appraisal of traditional technologies i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jobo

    A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...

  5. Active Learning versus Traditional Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand,  active learning  changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class;  moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections  in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant  difference between active  learning and traditional  teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting  active  learning to  traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.

  6. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  7. Waldorf Education: An Innovative Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…

  8. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    intellectual property rights laws. 5 into traditional knowledge areas, in turn, has ... range of innovations in industrial, agricultural, environment and health ... Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2008 ..... Ghosh 2003 Colum J Asian L 106. 80 ..... Management'" 1998 Mich Law Rev 462-556.

  9. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  10. Japan between tradition and renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    what is still visible in the cityscapes. Furthermore, according to Greve’s publication “Learning from Tokyo urbanism: The urban sanctuaries”, they will figure out how traditions frame interactions between strangers. Thereby, the tea ceremony serves as an example for spaces in-between public and private...

  11. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  12. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  13. Goddess Traditions in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...

  14. Blending traditional and digital marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.

  15. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  16. [Hygiene between tradition and implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, M L

    2004-04-01

    The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.

  17. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  18. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Aila Pullinen

    2015-01-01

    Aila Pullinen. 2015. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embr...

  19. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786

  20. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

  1. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  2. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  3. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  4. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  5. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  6. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  7. Traditional games in primary school curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Popeska, Biljana; Jovanova-Mitkovska, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Traditional games are cultural and national heritage. They, cultural and traditional activities transmitted from one generation to another, sharing different movement and cognitive games used in order to educate, to socialize, to share the experience and to influence toward development of young generation. The people create traditional games, and they represent the habits, culture and tradition of countries, region or even a town or village. There are lot of different traditional games. They ...

  8. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1981-04-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.

  9. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  10. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  11. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  12. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.; Knudsen, Kristian; AlYami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    - pair. The two nanocrystal precursors can be uti-lized independently and can control the size with a trend of Pt(acac)2

  13. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.

    2015-05-12

    The characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are dictated by their size, shape and elemental distribution. Solution synthesis is widely utilized to form nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles, with controlled size and shape. However, the effects of variables on the characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are not completely understood. In this study, we used a continuous-flow synthetic strategy to explore the effects of the ligands and the oxidation state of a metal precursor in a shape-controlled synthesis on the final shape of the nanomaterials and the elemental distribution within the alloy. We demonstrate that this strategy can tune the size of monodisperse PtM (M=Ni or Cu) alloy nanocrystals ranging from 3 to 16 nm with an octahedral shape using acetylacetonate or halide precursors of Pt(II), Pt(IV) and Ni or Cu (II). The nanoparticles formed from halide precursors showed an enrichment of platinum on their surfaces, and the bromides could oxidatively etch the nanoparticles during synthesis with the O2/Br- pair. The two nanocrystal precursors can be uti-lized independently and can control the size with a trend of Pt(acac)2

  14. Hydrogel covered bimetallic Co:Ni magnetic nano alloy for protein adsorption in biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajar, Kausar; Alveroglu, Esra

    2017-10-01

    In this study, polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel covered CoNi magnetic nanoalloys with various Co/Ni molar ratio (from 1/4 to 4/1) were synthesized, characterized and used for adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). XRD, EDS, VSM, SEM, AFM, Automated Gas Sorption Analyzer and Fluorescence measurements were used for characterizations and adsorption studies. The results confirm that all the synthesized nanoalloys have soft ferromagnetic nature and particles size were determined to be in the range of 8.60-12.19 nm. Adsorption performances of magnetic nanoalloys were investigated on bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results showed that prepared CoNi:PAAm composites have multistage adsorption kinetics for BSA and increasing Ni content in the CoNi nanoalloys enhance the adsorption rate constant and the rate constant can be tuned between 0.003 s-1 and 0.009 s-1 and between 0.01 s-1 and 0.60 s-1 for the first order adsorption and the second order adsorption stages, respectively. These results show that CoNi:PAAm composites can open new pathways for preparing a special composite material which has specific adsorption kinetic for bio-separation technology.

  15. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.; Knudsen, Kristian; AlYami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    of variables on the characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are not completely understood. In this study, we used a continuous-flow synthetic strategy to explore the effects of the ligands and the oxidation state of a metal precursor in a shape

  16. Scalable shape- and size-controlled synthesis of metal nano-alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Knudsen, Kristian Rahbek; Lagrow, Alec; Al'yami, Noktan; Mehenni, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    tubular outlet, and a heated tube-in-tube gas reactor fluidly connected to the first tubular component, wherein the heated tube-in-tube gas reactor comprises an inner tube having a gas permeable surface and an outer tube. An embodiment of the method

  17. Development of simultaneous wire feeding mechanism for nano alloy powder synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kotov, Yury A.; Samatov, Oleg M.; Beketov, Igor V.; Azarkevich, Evgeny I.; Muzarkaev, Aidar M. [Institute of Electrophysics (Russian Federation)

    2002-12-01

    In accordance with the Local Lab project, it was necessary to design a mechanism for simultaneous feed of two wires to the explosion chamber and consider the possibility of developing a model for selection of wire parameters. The goal of the work is to explore the possibility of producing powdered mixtures, alloys and intermetallic compounds by a simultaneous electric explosion of two wires made of different metals. A mechanism providing a synchronous feed of two wires to the explosion chamber and their simultaneous electric explosion extends considerably the capabilities of the electric explosion method in production of nanopowders. In this work, we developed simultaneous wire feeding mechanism for alloy nano powders successfully.

  18. Development of simultaneous wire feeding mechanism for nano alloy powder synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kotov, Yury A.; Samatov, Oleg M.; Beketov, Igor V.; Azarkevich, Evgeny I.; Muzarkaev, Aidar M.

    2002-12-01

    In accordance with the Local Lab project, it was necessary to design a mechanism for simultaneous feed of two wires to the explosion chamber and consider the possibility of developing a model for selection of wire parameters. The goal of the work is to explore the possibility of producing powdered mixtures, alloys and intermetallic compounds by a simultaneous electric explosion of two wires made of different metals. A mechanism providing a synchronous feed of two wires to the explosion chamber and their simultaneous electric explosion extends considerably the capabilities of the electric explosion method in production of nanopowders. In this work, we developed simultaneous wire feeding mechanism for alloy nano powders successfully

  19. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  20. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  1. Traditional perception of Greeks in Serbian oral tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjik Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on material on Greeks from Vuk’s corpus of epic poems, we discuss the construction of ethnic stereotype of Greeks in Serbian language. However, the limitation of the paper’s possible conclusion lies in the nature of the corpus: Vuk had deliberately chosen one material over another, therefore, the corpus relating to Greeks cannot be considered as representative of the whole Serbian folk poems. Therefore, the discussion is limited to certain elements of the stereotype. Nevertheless, these Serbian epic folk poems contain many layers: historical, geographical, sociological, mythological and so on, with a strong foundation in traditional culture; thus, they provide an insight into geo-political situation of the time period, viewpoints, perspectives and experiences of other ethnic groups that Serbs have been into contact with. In particular, the relationship toward Greeks was marked with pronounced patriarchal attitude concerning others: we-others, ours-foreign, good-bad. In this sense, Greeks are portrayed as foreign, and as such, as a potential source of danger. On the other hand, Greeks are Christian Orthodox, which associates them with the category ours. In socio-economic sense, they were traders and wealthy, respected gentlemen. In epical-heroic profile, they were not considered as great heroes, but as "lousy army", and frequently, as unfaithful.

  2. ORAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN IGBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    control, which exists in all societies that make for near accurate preservation of traditions ... historical sources from written sources and from material objects. ..... traditions were detached very early from the rural to the urban areas, where urban.

  3. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the ... The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats · EMAIL ...

  4. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  5. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Preetam Sarkar; Lohith Kumar DH; Chanda Dhumal; Shubham Subrot Panigrahi; Ruplal Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines ac...

  7. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  8. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  9. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  10. Public Information and African Traditional Communication Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of how African traditional communication and the literature produced about it portray African traditional communication. The analysis premises an interest to ascertain whether the portrayal is in a perspective showing traditional media as capable of playing expected public information role. Drawing ...

  11. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...

  12. Challenges and Prospects of Traditional Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on challenges and prospects of traditional food processing technologies and their products in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to identify the challenges confronting traditional food processing technologies as well as the potentials the traditional food processing technologies has in boosting the ...

  13. Origen and the Platonic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria L.E. Ramelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study situates Origen of Alexandria within the Platonic tradition, presenting Origenas a Christian philosopher who taught and studied philosophy, of which theology was part and parcel. More specifically, Origen can be described as a Christian Platonist. He criticized “false philosophies” as well as “heresies,” but not the philosophy of Plato. Against the background of recent scholarly debates, the thorny issue of the possible identity between Origen the Christian Platonist and Origen the Neoplatonist is partially addressed (although it requires a much more extensive discussion; it is also discussed in the light of Origen’s formation at Ammonius’s school and the reception of his works and ideas in “pagan” Platonism. As a consequence, and against scholarly perspectives that tend to see Christianity as anti-Platonism, the final section of this paper asks the question of what is imperial and late antique Platonism and, on the basis of rich evidence ,suggests that this was not only “pagan” institutional Platonism.

  14. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  15. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  16. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  17. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Sarkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines according to age and health condition of the consumer, and seasonal considerations are presented for each of the traditional health foods of India. In the era of globalization of the population and international food trading, health conscious citizens around the globe will benefit from the wealth of knowledge on traditional Indian and ayurvedic health foods of Indian origin.

  18. Marketing - tool transformation of traditional societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Shinkarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of marketing on the TRANS­formation of a traditional society with its traditional values in a society of consumption. The de­velopment of capitalism inevitably leads to changes in the socio­political order of the whole modern world. This leads to the fact that the disappearance of the traditional elements of culture, crafts, songs and dances, rites, destroyed traditional norms and values, beliefs, moral and ethical values. Instead of the traditional culture is formed by the mass culture, society develops consumption goods and becoming all that you can sell. Marketing is one tool for the formation of a society of consumption, but it also performs other less prominent function transforms the traditional society into a consumer society with its values, mythology, norms and moral principles.

  19. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Vulgarization of popular music tradition in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Božilović, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    The vulgarization of tradition in this paper implies the alteration, false representation, and adaptation of tradition in line with the interests of certain individuals or groups in power. The author observes popular music in Serbia (jazz, pop, rock) under a sociological magnifying glass, attempting to explain and motivate the thesis which proposes a valid historical foundation of popular culture and music in the social life of Serbia. In his opinion, this kind of tradition is being 'swept un...

  1. Traditional Market Accounting: Management or Financial Accounting?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyarni, Wiyarni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...

  2. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  3. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  4. Optimal Stand Management: Traditional and Neotraditional Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Lee Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    The traditional Faustmann (1849) model has served as the foundation of economic theory of the firm for the forestry production process. Since its introduction over 150 years ago, many variations of the Faustmann have been developed which relax certain assumptions of the traditional model, including constant prices, risk neutrality, zero production and management costs...

  5. Traditional Healers' Views On Fertility | Mashamba | Indilinga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is one of the major problems facing families, both in the public and private health sectors. This article reports on findings of a study that investigated the traditional perspectives regarding infertility. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods with five traditional healers who were selected through ...

  6. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops ...

  7. Application of isotopes in traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)

  8. Malawi's Traditional Leadership and Democracy Consolidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is that the tendency to brand traditional leadership as undemocratic masks debate on its great potential for the promotion of democracy. The article contends that efforts towards democracy consolidation require foregoing harmonious power relations and linkages between traditional leaders and elected local governments; ...

  9. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  10. Backpacking with a Prayer: Tradition and Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the phenomenon of Israeli backpacking as a function of traditional, observant, and secular population segments. We explored whether and to what degree backpacking features are related to the affinity of backpackers with the Jewish tradition and faith. Our study was based on a sample of 120 Israeli backpackers who had returned…

  11. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  12. Traditional healers and pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J. A.; Boeree, M. J.; Kager, P.; Varkevisser, C. M.; Harries, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Blantyre district, Malawi. To investigate the use that tuberculosis (TB) patients in Malawi make of traditional healers and traditional medicine. A questionnaire study was carried out on 89 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to QECH. Seven

  13. African Traditional Knowledge Systems and Biodiversity Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a link between African Traditional Knowledge Systems and the management of Biodiversity. These have been passed over from one generation to the next through oral tradition. The lack of documentation of these systems of managing biodiversity has led to the existence of a gap between the scientifi cally based ...

  14. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  15. Reduce conflicts in traditional merariq traditions through the long tradition of the tribal people of sasak lombok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Nadiroh, Ulin; Saeun Fahmi, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Marriage is a container for framing the inner-to-heart relationship, the bond of love and affection between a man and woman to nurture a joy of happiness. This study aims to find out how the process and stages in traditional merariq traditions in the Sasak people, conflicts arising from merariq traditions, and reduce conflict through the tradition of selabar. The method used in this research is qualitative analysis method. In the process, merariq tradition is done by kidnapping the bride without the knowledge of the parents or the family of the women. There are several stages that must be passed by the bride and groom in the tradition merariq, namely: besejati, nyelabar, bait wali, sorong serah dan nyongkolang. Conflict that often arises, for internal family, merariq often become a place of coercion against the female family. For society, merariq impact on disruption of harmony of social life. In order to reduce the conflicts done selabar tradition, the tragedy is regarded as an alternative problem solving in the form of negotiations between the bride and groom’s family and the bride-to-be relating to ajikrame and pisuke transactions.

  16. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  17. Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2004-01-01

    From ancient wisdom to modern science and technology, Chinese cuisine has been established from a long history of the country and gained a global reputation of its sophistication. Traditional Chinese foods and cuisine that exhibit Chinese culture, art and reality play an essential role in Chinese people's everyday lives. Recently, traditional Chinese foods have drawn a great degree of attention from food scientists and technologists, the food industry, and health promotion institutions worldwide due to the extensive values they offer beyond being merely another ethnic food. These traditional foods comprise a wide variety of products, such as pickled vegetables, salted fish and jellyfish, tofu and tofu derived products, rice and rice snack foods, fermented sauces, fish balls and thousand-year-old eggs. An overview of selected popular traditional Chinese foods and their processing techniques are included in this paper. Further development of the traditional techniques for formulation and production of these foods is expected to produce economic, social and health benefits.

  18. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad, M.; Merriam, Sh.; Merriam, Sh.; Suhami, N.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities

  19. STUDY OF THE Pt/Ru(0001) INTERFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godowski, P.J.; Li, Zheshen; Bork, J.

    2007-01-01

    to the different stages of the deposition were analyzed. Up to ca. two adsorbate monolayers, the intensity changes of the peaks indicated layer-by-layer growth mode. The surface core level shifts of Ru and Pt levels were evaluated as -0.33 and -0.476 eV, respectively. The valence band spectra show a rather weak...

  20. Traditional and non-traditional educational outcomes : Trade-off or complementarity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Marieke; Waslander, Sietske

    2007-01-01

    Recently, schools have increasingly been charged with enhancing non-traditional academic competencies, in addition to traditional academic competencies. This article raises the question whether schools can implement these new educational goals in their curricula and simultaneously realise the

  1. POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Алексеевна Мамина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding.The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity.The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society.The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-25

  2. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.

  3. The Decline of Traditional Banking Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia Piciu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The decline of traditional banking activities raise the issue of efficiency of financial stability, in terms ofquantitative and qualitative aspects – the increasing danger of banking failures as well as of susceptibility due toincreased propensity of banking institutions to assume additional to risks either in the form of riskier loans offer orengaging in other "non-traditional" financial activities which give a promise for greater profitability, but also higherrisks. Non-traditional activities of banking as financial products dealers (financial derivatives, generate an increasingrisks and vulnerabilities in the form of moral hazard issues. That is the reason why and these activities should beregulated as well as are the traditional activities. Challenges posed by the decline of traditional banking activities istwofold: the stability of the banking system must be maintained, while the banking system needs to be restructured toachieve financial stability in the long run. One possible way is an appropriate regulatory framework to encourage atransition period of changing the structure of banking activity(reduction of traditional activities and expanding nontraditional activities to enable banking institutions to perform a deep methodic analysis of non traditional activities,oriented to the financial banking efficiency.

  4. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  5. Staff competence in dealing with traditional approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, M.

    2008-01-01

    backgrounds of patients there is a need for mental health professionals to recognize the existence of traditional approaches and be aware of the parallel systems of care. Competent treatment of such patients requires that mental health professionals are aware of this and exhibit a willingness and ability...... to bridge between the more traditional and the Western approaches to treatment. The delineations and various aspects of the concept cultural competence and its dimensions will be discussed from a clinical perspective. Comparative studies of the various Western and the traditional approaches respectively...

  6. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  7. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional...... philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....

  8. Treating gynaecological disorders with traditional Chinese medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, ...

  9. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  10. MARKETING OF TRADITIONAL PRODUCT IN TRANSYLVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MATIUTI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hundred years and the youth totally ignore them. On the one hand, a large variety of names for different products have appeared on the market, but they are manufactured by big firms and do not have the quality of the traditional products. On the other hand, small producers often have hygiene problems. The reinforcement of traditional products can only occur if people know the quality and the value of the products obtained from the local animal breeds, many of them being endangered species.

  11. African indigenous and traditional vegetables in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous and traditional African vegetables (AITVs) are important sources of ... and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ... size and cost, retailer storage, remainders, processing and less common AITVs.

  12. Fluency First: Reversing the Traditional ESL Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan-Gilhooly, Adele

    1991-01-01

    Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)

  13. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anne Horsfall

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teacher's impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women's status, and problems due to overpopulation. (CH)

  14. Fungal decay of traditional fishing craft

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    The artisanal fishermen land major portion of fish caught in India, employing traditional fishing craft and methods. These craft are built of indigenous wood and undergo rapid biodeterioration causing great economic loss. Soft-rot fungi...

  15. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  16. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... based on a descriptive survey from the western black sea region of Turkey · EMAIL ... on volatile oil constituents of Codonopsis radix (dangshen) by GC-MS method ...

  17. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  18. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... extracts of three Togolese medicinal plants against ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae strains ... Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of ...

  19. Protecting traditional knowledge from the grassroots up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arugomedo, Alejandro [ANDES Association (Peru); Pant, Ruchi [Ecoserve (India); Vedavathy, S. [Herbal Folklore Reseach Centre (India); Munyi, Peter [International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (Kenya); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya); Herrera, Heracilo [Dobbo Yala Foundation (Panama); Song, Yinching; Li, Jingsong [Centre of Chinese Agricultural Policy (China); Swiderska, Krystyna

    2009-06-15

    For indigenous peoples round the world, traditional knowledge based on natural resources such as medicinal herbs forms the core of culture and identity. But this wealth of knowledge is under pressure. Indigenous communities are increasingly vulnerable to eviction, environmental degradation and outside interests eager to monopolise control over their traditional resources. Intellectual property rights such as patents, however, sit uneasily with traditional knowledge. Their commercial focus wars with fundamental indigenous principles such as resource access and sharing. Local customary law offers a better fit, and findings in China, India, Kenya, Panama and Peru show how this pairing can work in practice. The research has identified common elements, and key differences, in customary law that should be informing policy on traditional knowledge and genetic resources.

  20. Physicochemical characterization of traditional Ghanaian cooking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional vegetable oils derived from Egusi (Citrullus colocynthis) and Werewere ... the FAO/WHO standards for permissible levels of impurity in edible oils. ... to produce Egusi and Werewere oils that are aligned with industry standards.

  1. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These observations could be explained by some qualitative and /or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied. Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, Essential oil, Chemistry, Analgesic, Comparison, Benin, Congo. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol.

  2. Sustainable architecture in the traditional Iranian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Niloufari, Morteza; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: mortezagharibeh@yahoo.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In Iran, traditional homes have been built in a sustainable manner to withstand the high climate diversity of the country. The aim of this paper is to present the different methods used in Iranian traditional architecture. Among the architectural principles is appropriate orientation of the building to allow the capture of solar energy and at the same time protect against the cold wind. In addition, indigenous materials were used in the constructions to provide the highest degree of comfort possible with minimal damage to the environment. Finally, Iranian traditional architecture took advantage of the soil's constant temperature by building a Shvadan which is an underground space beneath the house. This article highlighted the different Iranian traditional methods which can create a sustainable architecture.

  3. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM), a new broad-based journal, is founded on two key tenets: To publish exciting research in all areas of applied medicinal plants, Traditional medicines, Complementary Alternative Medicines, food and agricultural technologies, and ...

  4. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...... plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour....

  5. MALAYSIAN TRADITIONAL AS A TREATMENT AND COMPLEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... e Management and Business, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, ... traditional medicines are becoming increasingly popular for a .... on the respondents' experiences, views and opinions, open-ended questions were employed.

  6. Traditional uses of indigenous tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.

  7. MARKETING OF TRADITIONAL PRODUCT IN TRANSYLVANIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. MATIUTI; A. T. BOGDAN

    2009-01-01

    Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hu...

  8. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Ozcan, Tulay; Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye

    2009-01-01

    Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or ...

  9. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  10. Tao Masters: tradition, experience and ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bizerril Neto

    Full Text Available In this article I analyse the performative dimension that constitutes the transmission of tradition in taoist lineage located in Brazil, from the perspective of the anthropology of experience. The idea of knowing in taoism is based on a practical notion: one knows the legacy of tradition through personal embodied experience. The very possibility of knowing is based upon a personal relation between master and apprentice, inserted on a dialogical and genealogical.

  11. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  12. Spread of Traditional Medicines in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Sugumar, V. Raji

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we have a comprehensive database on usage of AYUSH (acronym for Ayurveda, naturopathy and Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in India at the household level. This article aims at exploring the spread of the traditional medical systems in India and the perceptions of people on the access and effectiveness of these medical systems using this database. The article uses the unit level data purchased from the National Sample Survey Organization, New Delhi. Household is the basic unit of survey and the data are the collective opinion of the household. This survey shows that less than 30% of Indian households use the traditional medical systems. There is also a regional pattern in the usage of particular type of traditional medicine, reflecting the regional aspects of the development of such medical systems. The strong faith in AYUSH is the main reason for its usage; lack of need for AYUSH and lack of awareness about AYUSH are the main reasons for not using it. With regard to source of medicines in the traditional medical systems, home is the main source in the Indian medical system and private sector is the main source in Homeopathy. This shows that there is need for creating awareness and improving access to traditional medical systems in India. By and large, the users of AYUSH are also convinced about the effectiveness of these traditional medicines. PMID:26438717

  13. Between tradition and renewal: Some considerations about the use of tradition in reformed theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van Vlastuin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the theology and practice of the Christian church a tension between tradition and renewal exists. This essay focuses on this tension to provide a first step of methodological reflection to deal with it. Firstly, this tension is illustrated from the reformed perspective of sola scripturathat led to criticism of the tradition on the one hand, whilst understanding the reformed movement as part of the tradition on the other hand. A danger of unqualified sola scriptura is subjectivity. Subsequently, the importance of tradition is elaborated from the perspective of the church as the body of Christ across all ages. This implies that Christians should study and love the traditional theology because of the fundamental unity of the church that transcends cultural diversity. Rejecting tradition will cut the church from its historical and spiritual roots. Thirdly, this raises the question whether the church is imprisoned by tradition, as well as the problem of the relation between tradition and renewal. In response, it is argued that the doctrine of incarnation guarantees openness to history. With the help of the philosophical and Christian view on structural contingency, the belief that tradition is principally open to renewal is defended. Some examples are given as illustrations of how classic theological concepts can be reframed in our postmodern context. The last part of this essay concludes with the insight of Cyprian that only the conveyed tradition can be renewed, implying that renewal is in essence not a new theology, but a new application of apostolic theology.

  14. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.

  15. CONSUMERS’ BRAND EQUITY PERCEPTIONS OF TRADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Catli, Ozlem; Ermec Sertoglu, Aysegul; Ors, Husniye

    2017-01-01

    Thisstudy aims to compare consumers' brand perception of traditional brands withbrand perceptions of non-traditional brands.  Consumers livingin Ankara constitute the universe of work, and data were gathered in aface-to-face interview using the survey method. the demographic characteristicsof the participants was prepared with the aim of evaluating and comparing onetraditional brand and one non traditional brand of brand equity related to thebrand equity by the participants. According to...

  16. The ethics of improving African traditional medical practice: scientific or African traditional research methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Aceme

    2009-11-01

    The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.

  17. The traditional knowledge and the intellectual property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle Vasquez, Rosangela

    1999-01-01

    This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme

  18. New rurality, traditional music and tourist experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Vaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Lopes-Graça, a prolific Portuguese composer, joined the French musicologist Michel Giacometti (1929-1990 in the effort of collecting and cataloguing popular songs, culminating in a collection of recordings, unique in Europe, which covered all Portugal. In the context of this paper we intend to show how the work of Lopes-Graça, challenging the traditional music, can allow a touring through traditions, while allowing design a cultural environment for the most demanding tourists. The purpose of this research is to develop a tourism product in the near future based on Lopes-Graça and Giacometti’s (musical and spatial journey through Portuguese traditional music, which portray a rural Portugal in all its dimensions including beliefs, uses and activities.

  19. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  20. Historical tradition in Serbian genre literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two Serbian science-fiction stories with a special emphasis on the motives in their narrative structure; the motive analysis is focused on those motives that represent a transposition of 'historical tradition' elements. The key words connecting images appearing in this context are: fear of losing (national identity and a strategy of resistance towards those, who presumably, want to 'take over' the identity. In this sense, a return to 'the historical tradition', in the analyzed texts, aims to reassess certain past models indicating at the same time those that have successfully served and endured as historical models in this discourse.

  1. Confucianism and the Asian Martial Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alexander Simpkins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Confucianism has been foundational in the political and social life of many Asian countries. Its influence pervades institutions and practices at every level of human activity. Martial arts have also benefited from this philosophy, as the traditional Confucian legacy continues to influence modern practices. This article briefly highlights some key figures and events, describes relevant core concepts of Confucian philosophy, and then shows exemplary applications to martial arts today. Modern martial artists can gain understanding of the traditional Confucian insights that deepen the significance of contemporary martial arts.

  2. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used In Mali for Dysmenorrhea · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Sanogo. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5SS.4 ...

  3. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey | Lech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...

  4. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  5. A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Kerimov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works and traditional singing of sacred hymns, folk songs and music of different nations. In contrast to the music scholarship, where typically image is a certain regularity, discipline and harmony, beauty of the traditional Indian music in the free improvisation, which is used by the performer. Listening carefully of this music, the man in a new world, a different sounds and explore a different idea of music for himself. The aim of the Indian music, unlike European musical culture define, explore, create and move depths to people's moods. And the Indian instruments is a miracle, that could reflect all these philosophical and aesthetic views. Along with the vocal art, this musical tradition has rich variety of melodic and rhythmic instruments.

  6. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  7. Exploring traditional and cyberbullying among Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Kelly, Colette; Molcho, Michal

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of traditional and cyberbullying victimisation with self-reported health and life satisfaction, and to examine whether involvement in risk behaviours contributes to these health outcomes. We asked questions on involvement in traditional and cyberbullying, risk behaviours, self-reported health and life satisfaction to school children. In total, 318 students aged from 15 to 18 years old in 8 post-primary schools in Ireland completed the survey. Children who were victims of bullying were more likely to report poor health, low life satisfaction and engaging in risky behaviours. Although not statistically significant, we found that cyber victimisation was positively associated with increased reporting of poor health and low life satisfaction. Traditional bullying is the most common type of bullying among school children in Ireland, and overall, seems to have a stronger association with poor health. However, a sizable proportion of children are victims of cyberbullying or of both cyberbullying and traditional bullying. It is, therefore, important to acknowledge, identify and address all types of bullying to improve the health outcomes of children.

  8. Comparative Economic Analysis of Beekeeping Using Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Tabora and Katavi regions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to undertake a comparative economic analysis of beekeeping using improved or traditional beehives. Data were collected from 198 beekeepers that were randomly selected from a sampling ...

  9. Tradition and Renewal in Contemporary Orthodox Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Begzos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This text presents the challenges that the modern world poses for the Orthodox Church. In every historical period, the Church has struggled with internal and external problems. While preserving its traditions and historical foundations, the theology of the Orthodox Church struggles with contemporary problems by showing the current, contemporary teaching about God, man and the world.

  10. Psychotherapeutic Function of the Kazakh Traditional Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerimova, Zere S.; Nussupova, Aizada S.; Burambaeva, Maryam N.; Yermanov, Zhanat R.; Emreyeva, Akmaral E.; Janseitova, Sveta S.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the psychotherapeutic parameters of traditional Kazakh music, best practices that were achieved in practical psychology. From the one hand, it allows us to see the music features in a new light, and from the other hand--to identify the ethnic psychology of the Kazakh nation. An important step in the study of the…

  11. Academic Medicine Meets Traditional African Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…

  12. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The papers in this volume were selected from presentations made in a number of special sessions on Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), which were held as ... concepts, provide case studies, and confirm once again the importance and, as yet, unrealized potential of TEK in resource and environmental management.

  13. Harmful traditional practices in a newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... impact of harmful traditional home care practices on ... She was initially on breast milk and water until the tenth day of life ... and zygomatic bone as well as loss of subcutaneous fat. (fig 1). .... ity and protection during the neo-.

  14. Insights: The Myth of the Traditional Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than half of marriages have ended in divorce since the mid-1970s. Nonetheless, schools and community organizations continue to be inclined to act as if nontraditional/neo-traditional families are an anomaly. Despite the reality of new family structures, popular television, movies, and books continue to…

  15. Traditional marriage festivals and tourism development | Oluwatoyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field work, observation and oral interview were the research instruments used to gather information from the tourist, host community, tourist product provider, and the government officials present at the 2012 festival. These are the people who will benefit greatly from the festival, if fully harnessed. The traditional marriage is a ...

  16. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  17. Comparison of Traditional and Constructivist Teaching Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second section of students had 47 students and was taught using traditional teaching approach. Learning strategy inventory questionnaire which was adapted from strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) L2 students of English, (Oxford, 1990) was employed before and after students were taught using two ...

  18. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  19. 1 ARCHETYPAL SYMBOLS OF 'TRADITION' IN 'MODERNITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Although much of what is known now as modern art of Africa is affected by extraneous .... line of five black soldiers standing at attention also take the traditional African art style of frontal .... Bonding makes parents attentive to the child‟s wide range of ... relationships and foster a sense of security and positive self-esteem.

  20. Moving beyond Traditional Methods of Survey Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In his focus article, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation," published in this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Andrew Maul wrote that it is commonly believed that self-report, survey-based instruments can be used to measure a wide range of psychological attributes, such as…

  1. African Tradition, Philosophy, and Modernization | Ikuenobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine Wiredu's views that (1) ethnophilosophy cannot be considered a legitimate philosophy because it has the feature of authoritarianism, and that (2) this feature of African tradition will not allow modern philosophy to flourish because it prevents individuals from rationally and critically examining beliefs. The ability to ...

  2. A reviewof the pharmacologicalmechanism of traditional Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reviewof the pharmacologicalmechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the intervention of coronary heart disease and stroke. W Zhang, K Gao, K Gao, J Liu, J Liu, H Zhao, H Zhao, J Wang, J Wang, Y Li, Y Li, G Murtaza, G Murtaza, J Chen, J Chen, W Wang, W Wang ...

  3. Demographic characteristics associated with Isinuka Traditional Spa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curortology – the science of natural therapy that combines the effects of climate, water and mud treatment and other forms of traditional healing practices – is enjoying a phenomenal comeback. Behind the re-emergence of curortology lies the current popular revolt against synthetic products and the demand for more natural ...

  4. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Traditional media use in Forest Conservation Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, the perception of inhabitants on appropriateness of media for FCSC does not translate to their being relevant for the same purpose. But the relevance of traditional communication to present-day development challenges was found to be very significant in the study sites. Only 2.5% and 7% of inhabitants of Oluwa forest ...

  6. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or to the housewife’s love and affection for her husband and children, since sweets and desserts are important elements of Turkish cuisine. However, the consciousnesses of nutrition and healthy eating, due to rapid change in popular life style and dietary patterns, has contributed to the increased interest in traditional foods with potential health benefits, with increased uncertainty for dessert consumption. Dairy desserts are extensively consumed due to their nutritive and sensoric characteristics. Some of traditional dairy desserts are Mustafakemalpasa, Gullac, Kazandibi, Hosmerim and Tavukgogsu, which are mainly made from milk or fresh cheese, and the current paper discusses their manufacturing processes and composition.

  7. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Errata | Adewunmi | African Journal of Traditional, Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4S (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potential of Gnidia capitata L.F.: investigations on its ... Lawsone inhibits cell growth and improves the efficacy of cisplatin in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines · EMAIL ... experimental immunesuppression in Wistar rats: biological and molecular ... Mechanisms of action of traditional herbal medicines used in the ...

  11. Colour Blocking: Disregarding Traditional Artistic Colour Harmonies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A development in the world of design – costume, fashion, graphics, architecture and general decor whereby traditional colour harmonies are reengineered to suite the taste of the time engages the attention of the paper. The trending phenomenon popularly referred to as 'colour blocking' involves the use of bright ...

  12. Changing Educational Traditions with the Change Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Louis Royce

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of a form of research intervention known as the Change Laboratory to illustrate how the processes of organisational change initiated at a secondary school can be applied to develop tools and practices to analyse and potentially re-make educational traditions in a bottom-up manner. In this regard it is shown how a…

  13. Enhancing the Lecture: Revitalizing the Traditional Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional lecture format of college courses can be enhanced by including active learning designed to further course goals of learning knowledge, developing skills, or fostering attitudes. Techniques suggested include using pauses, short writing periods, think-pair-share activities, formative quizzes, lecture summaries, and several assessment…

  14. Scrum in the Traditional Development Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Friis Sommer, Anita

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of years, the application of Scrum as a project management framework has been broadened from initially belonging to the software domain. Now companies within the field of traditional product development are starting to implement Scrum in an attempt to improve...

  15. TRADITIONAL REMEDIES IN CHILDREN AROUND EASTERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-08

    Aug 8, 2003 ... remain largely unproven by the scientific method and the concern about adverse effects have led to closer scrutiny of these products (4). Whereas most traditional remedies are safe, the potential for adverse effects or intoxication exists, as does the possibility of interaction with conventional drugs (2, 5-8).

  16. Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum Thonn. ex Hornem and Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl.) of Benin, using flow cytometry and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. K Adéoti, A Rival, A Dansi, S Santoni, S Brown, T Beule, A Nato, Y Henry, R Vodouhe, L Loko, ...

  17. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  18. CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JMaluleke

    2005-10-18

    Oct 18, 2005 ... CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY .... supremacy (sections 1(c) and 2 of the Constitution), and provides that any law ... protecting polygamy as well as related practices such as 'spouse inheritance', .... This school of thought argues that the practice of virginity testing puts the.

  19. Testing Algorithmic Skills in Traditional and Non-Traditional Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Máth, János; Abari, Kálmán

    2015-01-01

    The Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills (TAaAS) project was launched in the 2011/2012 academic year to test first year students of Informatics, focusing on their algorithmic skills in traditional and non-traditional programming environments, and on the transference of their knowledge of Informatics from secondary to tertiary education. The…

  20. The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying appears to be on the rise among adolescents due in part to increased access to electronic devices and less online supervision. Less is known about how cyberbullying differs from traditional bullying which occurs in person and the extent to which these two forms overlap. Our first aim was to examine the overlap of traditional bullying (relational, verbal, and physical) with cyberbullying. The second aim examined student- and school-level correlates of cyber victimization as compared to traditional victims. The final aim explored details of the cyberbullying experience (e.g., who sent the message, how was the message sent, and what was the message about). Data came from 28,104 adolescents (grades, 9-12) attending 58 high schools. Approximately 23% of the youth reported being victims of any form of bullying (cyber, relational, physical, and verbal) within the last month, with 25.6% of those victims reporting being cyberbullied. The largest proportion (50.3%) of victims reported they were victimized by all four forms, whereas only 4.6% reported being only cyberbullied. Multilevel analyses indicated that as compared to those who were only traditionally bullied, those who were cyberbullied were more likely to have externalizing (odds ratio = 1.44) and internalizing symptoms (odds ratio = 1.25). Additional analyses examined detailed characteristics of the cyberbullying experiences, indicating a relatively high level of overlap between cyber and traditional bullying. Implications for preventive interventions targeting youth involved with cyberbullying and its overlap with other forms of bullying are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recognition and respect for African traditional medicine | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... ... where he presented recommendations from traditional healers on how traditional medicine ... Recognizing that traditional medicine is “the most affordable and accessible system of health care for the .... Related articles ...

  2. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2{theta} =40 deg, 47 deg, 67 deg and 82 deg, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2-3 nm. For Pt Sn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2 = 34 deg and 52 deg that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. Pt Sn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electro catalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature Pt Ru/C, Pt Sn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  3. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2θ = 40{sup 0}, 47{sup 0}, 67{sup 0} and 82{sup 0}, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2–3 nm. For PtSn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2θ = 34{sup 0} and 52{sup 0} that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. PtSn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electrocatalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  4. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Louw; André Duvenhage

    2017-01-01

    Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players...

  5. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  6. Peripartum Depression, Traditional Culture, and Israeli Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Stanger, Varda; Georgakopoulos, Emily R; Stuebe, Caren M; Dishy, Gabriella A

    2016-08-01

    Although it is known that culture affects psychopathology, the nature of the relationship between culture and peripartum depression (PPD) is not fully understood. Here we report on 2 cases of Israeli women who are affiliated with traditional cultural groups that emphasize reproduction but developed PPD after childbirth. The first woman is an ultra-Orthodox Israeli Jew and the second is an Israeli Arab. The 2 cases illustrate the effect of cultural beliefs and rituals on the conceptualization, treatment, and trajectory of PPD. The cases suggest a complex relationship between traditional cultures and PPD, including the possibility that cultural factors may have both adaptive and maladaptive consequences. Future qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to further clarify this relationship. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  8. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  9. The Danish free school tradition under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    and students according to their own value base, and were given a large state subsidy. From the late 1990s a number of legislative changes were introduced demanding that non-governmental schools provide civic education and document the academic value of their teaching programs. The rules concerning......The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations, they could recruit teachers...... the monitoring of schools were also changed. This article analyses the political justification for these changes and asks to what extent the changes have altered the Danish free school tradition....

  10. The Fate of Job in Jewish Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    to a few examples of the fate of Job in Jewish tradition and concerned with Scripture's role with respect to religious normativity, this article will be guided by the following question: How can The Book of Job maintain its role within Jewish tradition as a normative text? My reading suggests that The Book......Job's piety in The Book of Job is so ideal that it becomes problematic on two levels. First, it renders God a tyrant. Second, no one can fully identify with Job. Surely, we may suffer just as much as Job does and even feel that God is unjust, but no man can ever claim to be as pious as Job. Limited...... of Job in itself is not normative. Rather, it serves as a counterpoint up against which the reception and transformation of Jewish theology can unfold and as such The Book of Job exerts its function on Jewish religiosity....

  11. Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Maluleke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In August 2011 Advocate Joyce Maluleke, Director in the Gender Directorate of the South African Department of Justice and Constitutional Development addressed the Annual General Conference of the South African Chapter of the International Association of Women Judges held in Potchefstroom on the dangers of harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriages, virginity testing, widow's rituals, levirate and sororate unions, female genital mutilation, breast sweeping/ironing, the primogeniture rule, practices such as 'cleansing' after male circumcision, and witch-hunting. Although she considers respect for tradition, culture and customs to be part of the South African identity, she argues that cultural practices should be rooted in respect for human rights, democracy and equality. We publish her paper here as an oratio.

  12. Autopsy: Traditional Jewish laws and customs "Halacha".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Norman R; Goodman, Jeffrey L; Hofman, Walter I

    2011-09-01

    Judaism has many traditions, customs, rules, and laws, which relate to the proper and ethical disposition of a decedent when a Medical Examiner/ Coroner is involved. In almost all United States jurisdictions, statutes mandate the need to determine the cause and manner of death (Coroners' Act PA Pl. 323, num. 130, section 1237). This article is a review of some religious writings, legal precedents, and forensic authorities, which may help to assist the Medical Examiner/Coroner when confronted with a Jewish decedent. There can be flexibility as to the extent that such forensic studies can and should be performed. The final consent and interpretation of the rules, laws, traditions, and customs will rest with the courts and local rabbinic authority.

  13. Ketupat as traditional food of Indonesian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Rianti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has very diverse cultures and traditions. The majority of Indonesians are Muslims; therefore, Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world. Cultures are strongly associated with religion; one of them is the Indonesian tradition of eating ketupat during Eid Al-Fitr. Ketupat is a dish made from rice and is wrapped in young coconut leaves woven in a diamond shape. Ketupat was first introduced by an Indonesian theologian named Sunan Kalijaga who was an important figure for Muslims in Java. But, eventually, the culture of consuming ketupat only during the Eid Al-Fitr is no longer prevalent. Every region in Indonesia began to have its own distinctive culture in preparing and serving ketupat. Keywords: Culture, Eid, Indonesian, ketupat, Muslim

  14. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxici...

  15. MAXIMIZING PROFIT - OPTICAL TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES EXCEEDED

    OpenAIRE

    ENEA CONSTANŢA; ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2013-01-01

    Recently concepts of globalized the services the advertising only that and substantial modifications, but that just radicals, in the structure net of touristic states. Is directed to of a new conceive the organic fashions of structures ale net of realized and of casting of guy colaborative, baze on interconexion, the interface and flexible interactions, from which his. I result the competitive advantages popularly the partners of business. The optics traditional agencies of tourings considere...

  16. Mathematics, Science and the Cambridge Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Ornelas Martins

    2012-01-01

    Copyright © 2012 World Economics Association. In this paper the use of mathematics in economics will be discussed, by comparing two approaches to mathematics, a Cartesian approach, and a Newtonian approach. I will argue that while mainstream economics is underpinned by a Cartesian approach which led to a divorce between mathematics and reality, the contributions of key authors of the Cambridge tradition, like Marshall, Keynes and Sraffa, are characterised by a Newtonian approach to mathema...

  17. Aspects of Evil in Traditional Murder Ballads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional, or folk, ballads deal with common themes, often “leaping” over some details of plot and character while “lingering” on others, with the result that songs passed down orally through generations often appear in many variants. This paper will examine several songs from Martin Simpson’s 1976 debut album, Golden Vanity. I will trace their historical origins and argue that even some ancient ballads still speak to audiences today.

  18. Industrial redesign of traditional valencian tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas, F.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea behind this project was to recover a type of Traditional Valencian Ceramics, by adapting its own particular production technology to present-day systems, installations and materials.

    Se ha pretendido recuperar una tipología de Cerámica tradicional Valenciana, adaptando su tecnología productiva a los sistemas , instalaciones y materiales actuales.

  19. The traditional medicine of Inga woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Tafur, Clara

    2000-01-01

    The Inga maintains alive a medical tradition whose therapeutics is based on the use of plants. There is evidence that they have incorporated into their medicine Hispanic medical principles and of other indigenous communities as well as the use of plants from other regions of Colombia, mainly by exchange with communities of the Amazonian jungle.119 plants used by Inga women specialists in medicine are referenced as well as the preparation of 149 remedies used to solve health problems

  20. Nuclear chemistry in the traditional chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppinger, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional undergraduate program for chemistry majors, especially at institutions devoted solely to undergraduate education, has limited space for 'special topics' courses in areas such as nuclear and radiochemistry. A scheme is proposed whereby the basic topics covered in an introductury radiochemistry course are touched upon, and in some cases covered in detail, at some time during the four-year sequence of courses taken by a chemistry major. (author) 6 refs.; 7 tabs

  1. Populism in Lithuania: defining the research tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Aleknonis, Gintaras; Matkevičienė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The research on populism and populist political communication in Lithuania is rather limited, regardless of the fact that populist movements and politicians are influential on national and local political levels; they also receive sufficient support from a significant share of the population. Because the Western European research tradition is concentrated on the challenges of right-wing populism, Lithuanian political scientists distinguish right-wing populism as more significant in comparison...

  2. Changing Educational Traditions with the Change Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Royce Botha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the use of a form of research intervention known as the Change Laboratory to illustrate how the processes of organisational change initiated at a secondary school can be applied to develop tools and practices to analyse and potentially re-make educational traditions in a bottom-up manner. In this regard it is shown how a cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT perspective can be combined with a relational approach to generate the theoretical and practical tools for managing change at a school. Referring to an ongoing research project at a school, the paper describes how teachers and management there, with the aid of the researcher, attempt to re-configure their educational praxis by drawing on past, present and future scenarios from their schooling activity. These are correlated with similarly historically evolving theoretical models and recorded empirical data using the Vygotskyian method of double stimulation employed by the Change Laboratory. A relational conceptualisation of the school’s epistemological, pedagogical and organisational traditions is used to map out the connections between various actors, resources, roles and divisions of labour at the school. In this way the research intervention proposes a model of educational change that graphically represents it as a network of mediated relationships so that its artefacts, practices and traditions can be clearly understood and effectively manipulated according to the shared objectives of the teachers and school management. Such a relationally-oriented activity theory approach has significant implications in terms of challenging conventional processes of educational transformation as well as hegemonic knowledge-making traditions themselves. 

  3. The impact of gender ideologies on men's and women's desire for a traditional or non-traditional partner

    OpenAIRE

    Thomae, M.; Houston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examine preferences for a long-term partner who conforms to traditional or non- traditional gender\\ud roles. The studies both demonstrate a link between benevolent sexism and preference for a traditional partner.\\ud However, Study 1 also demonstrates a strong preference among women for a non-traditional partner. We measured\\ud ambivalent sexist ideologies before introducing participants to either a stereotypically traditional or stereotypically non-traditional character of the opp...

  4. Determinants of a traditional agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Borysiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to define the landscape determinants as certificates of natural and cultural heritage which identify the young glacial landscape under traditional agricultural management. These studies were conducted in the upper Parsęta basin (Pomerania, Poland covered by the many annual environmental monitoring programs since 1994. The aim of this monitoring is to observe changes in geoecosystems of the temperate climate zone. The parameters of the abiotic landscape subsystem have been monitored in a wide range of terms, whereas biotic elements and cultural resources only in a very limited way. This was the reason for undertaking complementary studies. The paper presents the so-called “zero-state” for 2014, which will be a reference point from which to track the direction of landscape changes in the future. The abiotic, geobotanical, and cultural determinants of this state chosen have been characterized on the basis of field mapping data and the available literature. They were chosen based on the methodology of landscape audit to define the specificity of the traditional agricultural landscape. They were selected on the basis of assessment criteria for landscape structure: complexity (diversification of land use and cover, naturalness (syngenesis of plant communities, hydrochemical properties of surface waters, coherence of composition with natural conditions, stewardship (intensity of use, crop weeds, ecological succession, fallows, anthropogenic denudation, aesthetic and visual perception, historicity (continuity of natural landscape elements, continuation of traditional agricultural use, architectural objects, and disharmonious elements.

  5. Traditional Chinese medicine information digitalization discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.

  6. Middle Byzantine Historiography: Tradition, Innovation, and Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Wahlgren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of Greek historical writing of the Middle Byzantine period (approx. 800 until 1000 A.D., with a particular focus on the major chronicles, such as Theophanesthe Confessor (early 9th c., George the Monk (probably late 9th c., and Symeon the Logothete (second half of the 10th c.. On the one hand, it is discussed how the chroniclers engage with tradition and either accept it or reject it. Acceptance of tradition is illustrated by many cases where chroniclers keep very close to the narrative modes of their predecessors and in particular where they copy them extensively. Rejection of, or at least deviation from tradition is illustrated by many cases where new narrative techniques and modes of expression are apparent. Particular attention is paid to some aspects of narrative technique which seem to be innovative. In short, there seems to be an increased tendency towards greater logical (and hence, narrative coherence in the chronicles and an increased tendency towards concentration on a small number of settings, issues and persons (in particular, there is an increased concentration on the Capital of Constantinople and the Emperor’s person. Further, reception is discussed, and especially how Middle Byzantine historical texts were read and used in later writings, including the Slavic literatures. The need for further research in order to understand the transmission processes, especially in the form of the philological study of manuscripts, is stressed.

  7. Circle of healing: traditional storytelling, part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Walter

    2003-01-01

    For decades, Bible stories have been a source of both conflict and healing. In earlier days, Christian missionaries often went to considerable lengths to question the accuracy of traditional northern Native stories, especially those with supernatural dimensions, and to discredit traditional Native spiritual leaders, such as medicine men and women, angakoks, and shamans. The missionaries’ efforts often undercut Native culture and sometimes contributed to the intergenerational trauma that creates widespread hurt and pain in northern Native communities today. At the same time, a significant number of northern Native people derive considerable solace and support from their Christian beliefs and church affiliations, and many Christian religious organizations active in the North today no longer oppose traditional Native stories, practices, and values. Many northern Native people recognize that there is great value in both Native stories and the stories found in the Bible, but some still feel a tension in trying to reconcile acceptance of both. In his presentation, Walter Porter provided an interesting perspective on this issue, and his approach has considerable potential for healing.

  8. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.

  9. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  10. Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davyson de L. Moreira

    Full Text Available In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as "acceptably safe, albeit not having a recognized level of efficacy" fit into a special category of drugs ("traditional herbal medicine products" for which requirements of non-clinical and clinical studies are less rigorous. A regulation proposal published by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance (Anvisa defines a similar drug category ("traditional phytotherapeutic products" for registration purposes. Regarding herbal medicines, both agencies seem to be lenient regarding proof of efficacy, and consider long-standing folk use as evidence of safety and a waiver of a thorough toxicological evaluation. Nonetheless, several herbal products and constituents with a long history of folk usage are suspected carcinogenic and/or hepatotoxic. Herbal products have also been shown to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. Since herbal medicines are often used in conjunction with conventional drugs, kinetic and clinical interactions are a cause for concern. A demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes should include at least in vitroand in vivogenotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for > 3 months or intermittently for > 6 months, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies (for drugs used by women of childbearing age, and investigation of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  11. Berberis vulgaris: specifications and traditional uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Lorigoini, Zahra; Zamani-gharaghoshi, Hajar; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The medicinal plants from genus Berberis are particularly important in traditional medicine and the food basket of Iranians. Given various plants from genus Berberis and their economic, nutritional, and medicinal status in Iran, this study seeks to investigate the findings of recent studies on the phytochemical characteristics, specifications, and uses of Berberis vulgaris. In this review article, 350 articles were initially retrieved from reliable scientific databases using relevant search terms. Then, 230 articles were selected and 120 were excluded after a primary analysis. Finally, 98 articles related to the subject under study were meticulously examined and the required data were extracted and classified according to the research purposes. The findings were divided into eight separate sections: Introducing Berberidaceae family, different species of Berberis, pharmaceutical organs, B. vulgaris nutrition facts and minerals, the antioxidants and alkaloids compounds in fruit and other organs, action mechanisms of preventing and treating diseases, traditional uses of B. vulgaris, and its properties reported by recent studies. The results briefly indicate that B. vulgaris contains a large number of phytochemical materials including ascorbic acid, vitamin K, several triterpenoids, more than 10 phenolic compounds and more than 30 alkaloids. Therefore B. vulgaris may have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-nociceptive and hepato-protective effects. Regarding the use of different organs of B. vulgaris in traditional medicine and their confirmed effects in the recent studies, it is possible to use different organs of B. vulgaris, especially fruit, to develop new drugs. PMID:28656092

  12. Berberis vulgaris: specifications and traditional uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi-Madiseh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants from genus Berberis are particularly important in traditional medicine and the food basket of Iranians. Given various plants from genus Berberis and their economic, nutritional, and medicinal status in Iran, this study seeks to investigate the findings of recent studies on the phytochemical characteristics, specifications, and uses of Berberis vulgaris. In this review article, 350 articles were initially retrieved from reliable scientific databases using relevant search terms. Then, 230 articles were selected and 120 were excluded after a primary analysis. Finally, 98 articles related to the subject under study were meticulously examined and the required data were extracted and classified according to the research purposes. The findings were divided into eight separate sections: Introducing Berberidaceae family, different species of Berberis, pharmaceutical organs, B. vulgaris nutrition facts and minerals, the antioxidants and alkaloids compounds in fruit and other organs, action mechanisms of preventing and treating diseases, traditional uses of B. vulgaris, and its properties reported by recent studies. The results briefly indicate that B. vulgaris contains a large number of phytochemical materials including ascorbic acid, vitamin K, several triterpenoids, more than 10 phenolic compounds and more than 30 alkaloids. Therefore B. vulgaris may have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-nociceptive and hepato-protective effects. Regarding the use of different organs of B. vulgaris in traditional medicine and their confirmed effects in the recent studies, it is possible to use different organs of B. vulgaris, especially fruit, to develop new drugs.

  13. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOME TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOBRINAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the characterization of six traditional meat products: smoked file, smoked bacon, pork sausages, sausage prepared from swine’s entrails, pork pastrami, sheep sausages. Organoleptic tests (the aspect and shape, the aspect of freshly cut in the section, smell, taste and consistency, physico-chemical and microbiological determinations (NTG, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were performed. These analyzes are a part of quality control that must be done in order to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture for a traditional product. After identification of H2S and starch and according to fat oxidation degree it was concluded that analyzed samples didn’t contain counterfeiters and all parameters analyzed are within the maximum limits allowed by law. Considering all the procedures for manufacturing, characteristics of raw and auxiliary materials, organoleptic properties of final products analyzed in this study, it can be concluded that analyzed meat specialties meet the requirements of Ministry Order no. 690/28.09.2004 for the traditional products certification.

  14. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom.

  15. Traditional Therapies for Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rúben F; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2016-05-01

    Significance: The regeneration of healthy and functional skin remains a huge challenge due to its multilayer structure and the presence of different cell types within the extracellular matrix in an organized way. Despite recent advances in wound care products, traditional therapies based on natural origin compounds, such as plant extracts, honey, and larvae, are interesting alternatives. These therapies offer new possibilities for the treatment of skin diseases, enhancing the access to the healthcare, and allowing overcoming some limitations associated to the modern products and therapies, such as the high costs, the long manufacturing times, and the increase in the bacterial resistance. This article gives a general overview about the recent advances in traditional therapies for skin wound healing, focusing on the therapeutic activity, action mechanisms, and clinical trials of the most commonly used natural compounds. New insights in the combination of traditional products with modern treatments and future challenges in the field are also highlighted. Recent Advances: Natural compounds have been used in skin wound care for many years due to their therapeutic activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cell-stimulating properties. The clinical efficacy of these compounds has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo trials using both animal models and humans. Besides the important progress regarding the development of novel extraction methods, purification procedures, quality control assessment, and treatment protocols, the exact mechanisms of action, side effects, and safety of these compounds need further research. Critical Issues: The repair of skin lesions is one of the most complex biological processes in humans, occurring throughout an orchestrated cascade of overlapping biochemical and cellular events. To stimulate the regeneration process and prevent the wound to fail the healing, traditional therapies and natural products have been used

  16. Oral tradition in African philosophical discourse: a critique of Sophie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to discuss the place of oral tradition in African philosophical discourse. In doing this, the nature of oral tradition as well as its forms is critically discussed taking into cognizance Sophie Oluwole‟s scholarship on oral tradition in African philosophy. Oluwole defends the thesis that oral tradition almost ...

  17. Why Should One Want to Participate in a Religious Tradition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, I apply the theory of tradition Karl Popper developed in an article on the rationalist tradition to Christianity. Popper helps us to distinguish between four functions of the Christian tradition. (1) The Christian tradition helps people to order their perceptions by suggesting

  18. Protecting traditional knowledge - Does secrecy offer a solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their traditional knowledge. This paper reviews the concerns that may arise when holders of traditional knowledge attempt to rely on claiming unfair competition and contract laws to protect their traditional knowledge. Keywords: Traditional knowledge; TRIPS Agreement; unfair competition; confidential information; secrecy.

  19. The Fifth Slovene Hamlet: Return to Tradition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Marija Zlatnar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the nearly two centuries that Hamlet has been a fixture of the Slovene cultural firmament, the complete text has been translated five times, mostly by highly esteemed figures of Slovene literature and literary translation. This article focuses on the most recent translation, which was done by the prominent Slovene drama translator Srečko Fišer for a performance at the National Theatre in Ljubljana in 2013. It examines the new translation’s relations to its source text as well as to the previous translations. After the late twentieth century, when Hamlet was regarded as a text to be challenged, this new translation indicates the return to the tradition of reverence both for the source text and its author, and for the older translations. This is demonstrated on all levels, from the choice of source text edition, which seems to bear more similarities with the older translations than with the most recent predecessors, to the style, which echoes the solutions used by the earlier translators. Fišer continues the Slovenian tradition to a far greater extent than the two translators twenty years ago, by using the same strategies as the early translators, not fixing what was not broken, and only adding his own interpretation to the existing ones, instead of challenging or ignoring them. At the same time, however, traces of subversion of the source text can be detected, not in the form of rebellion, but rather as a mild disregard. This latest translation is the first one to frequently reshuffle the text. It is also the first to subordinate meaning to style. This all indicates that despite the apparent return to tradition, the source text is no longer treated with the reverence of the past.

  20. Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Östman, Leif

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher's teaching in relation to established traditions within science education in Sweden. The teacher's manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis. The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices. The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year 7 in a Swedish 9-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called "Properties of materials". The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students' attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher's manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition—a selective tradition common in science education in Sweden between 1960 and 1990.

  1. Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2010-04-12

    The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of

  2. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-07-31

    Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.

  3. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  4. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products.

  5. Multielement analysis of Nigerian traditional (black) soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanni, M.S.; Ogugbuaja, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    The element contents of some Nigerian traditional soap samples were determined using thermal neutron activation analysis. The quality control consists of replicate analyses of standard 1632A bituminous coal for precision and accuracy determination. Potassium is found to be the major element in the soaps. While some elements show fairly constant concentration in all samples analyzed, others have high maximum/minimum ratios. The elemental concentration variation in the soaps may likely have effects on their relative foaming capability and such variation is linked to the physical environment where the starting materials are obtained. (author)

  6. A study of traditional boats of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaikh, Z.A.; Tripati, S.; Shinde, V.

    are joined and sewed with coir or nylon rope. It has been observed that the centre portion of the dugout is ‘U’ shaped and bow and stern is ‘V’ in shape. Except some minor differences in joining of planks such as ‘V’ and ‘L’ groove no major changes has.... and G. V. Rajamanickam 1993. An Analysis of Different Types of Traditional Coastal Vessels along the Kerala Coast, Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 36-50. Hornell, J. 1920. The Origin and Ethnological Significance of Indian Boat Designs, Memoirs...

  7. Positively essential: traditional birth attendants in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, Shirley

    2011-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges for healthcare professionals working in developing countries is the lack of trained personnel to carry out much needed health care provision. Shirley Stronge worked as a nurse/midwife tutor in a rural area in the north of Malawi. Millennium Development Goals four and five have focused our attention on the care required by mothers and newborns. Shirley has chosen to reflect on the role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the north of Malawi and their positive impact on maternity services in this area.

  8. Tradition and innovation in Danish children's cookbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2017-01-01

    it was not the primary intention with MY Cooking, it is used in teaching home economics at most Danish public schools. The cookbook appeals to students as well as teachers and parents. Conclusion: For more than 150 years cooking has been taught to Danish children through cookbooks and different educational values have...... influenced traditional trends in food and taste education. Today children want to take mental and practical ownership to their own cooking. School teachers express great recognition of a new innovative children's cookbook and involve the book as a teaching tool in Home economics education....

  9. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  10. The Functions of Theology to Christian Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Kakaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Theology has various definitions and meanings in the Christian tradition. In this article, after discussing these definitions and meanings we have tried to illuminate the extended functions of theology in Christianity and we have also explained the meaning of this term which has been entered to our literature by means of translation from European languages into Persian. In this connection, the history of the term, "theology", is discussed rapidly and then some main branches of theology explained according to its functions. Finally, we have concentrated on some equivalents of "theology" in Persian language.

  11. Ngat is Dead. Studying Mortuary Traditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    in mortuary ceremonies, whose form and content are passionately contested by different groups of relatives. Through prolonged negotiations, Ton learns how Baluan people perform and transform their traditions and not least what role he plays himself. The film is part of long-term field research, in which...... insights prompted by filmmaking grounded in long-term familiarity and involvement with a community. It also demonstrates the benefits of an anthropologically trained film crew. … As an ethnographic film that demonstrates the value and developing insights of long-term fieldwork,this is excellent.” — Mike...

  12. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  13. Traditional and emerging materials for optical metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Alexander Y.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising and vibrant research areas in nanotechnology has been the field of metasurfaces. These are two dimensional representations of metaatoms, or artificial interfaces designed to possess specialized electromagnetic properties which do not occur in nature, for specific applications. In this article, we present a brief review of metasurfaces from a materials perspective, and examine how the choice of different materials impact functionalities ranging from operating bandwidth to efficiencies. We place particular emphasis on emerging and non-traditional materials for metasurfaces such as high index dielectrics, topological insulators and digital metamaterials, and the potentially transformative role they could play in shaping further advances in the field.

  14. Phase diagram prediction and particle characterisation of Sn-Ag nano alloy for low melting point lead-free solders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sopoušek, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Zemanová, Adéla; Buršík, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 419-425 ISSN 1450-5339 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/09/0700 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : tin * silver * nanoparticle Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2012

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment of liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment of liver diseases is derived from the regulation of liver function including storing blood and governing the free flow of qi, in which functional systems such as modern digestion, endocrine, and the gut-liver axis are involved, and is established on modern hepatic physiology, pathology, and etiology. To objectively reveal the characteristics and advantages of modern TCM treatment of liver diseases, we analyzed the clinical and research situation of TCM therapy for liver diseases in the last decade and collected major achievements that have been applied in clinical treatment of diseases, published in core journals, and confirmed by major scientific research programs. The results showed TCM combined with antiviral therapy can improve the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B. TCM can help HBV carriers prevent disease progression. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy for acute-on-chronic liver failure can block the deterioration induced by endotoxin. TCM has been widely applied in protecting the liver through nonspecific anti-inflammation, alleviating hepatic fibrosis, and preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver. TCM plays an important role in treating some currently untreatable liver diseases. Therefore, it is our common responsibility to inherit and develop effective principle-method-recipe-medicines and create a better medical care system.

  16. MAXIMIZING PROFIT - OPTICAL TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES EXCEEDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANŢA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently concepts of globalized the services the advertising only that and substantial modifications, but that just radicals, in the structure net of touristic states. Is directed to of a new conceive the organic fashions of structures ale net of realized and of casting of guy colaborative, baze on interconexion, the interface and flexible interactions, from which his. I result the competitive advantages popularly the partners of business. The optics traditional agencies of tourings considered the production and the delivery touristic services except through the of a alone objective major prism scilicet maximizarea of the profits, falls to is exceeded. For the past decades ale the century XX, the impact technological changes in the industry services becomes all determine maul influenced the „traditional sectors” in charge, as for example the education, the trade, the touring, the informatics. Certainly, globalized can be interpretation in different senses. Referenced to the touristic services, the globalized is define as be a form an advanced still more complex maul of which nationalization involves a degrees of functional integration between the touristic activities disperse on plans transfrontalier.

  17. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  18. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  19. THE ROLE OF TRADITION IN CATHOLIC THEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Morerod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The human element is one of the most significant aspects of understanding tradition in the Church. It is true that the Holy Spirit is the principle active person and the guarantee of truth in the process of the handing down of tradition. But on the other hand, God Himself entrusted man with the duty of proclaiming the faith. Still, when man comes into the picture, so emerges the problem of human fallibility and the possibility of distorting the faith which is handed down. It is therefore vital to search for criteria which might help us to separate the truth from its distortion. These criteria are supplied by the authoritative voice of the Church. The problem of authority in the Church is for today one of the most essential questions touched upon in inter-confessional Christian dialogue. It is tightly linked to another problem — that of primacy within the Church — and this is being discussed in the framework of Orthodox-Roman Catholic dialogue

  20. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  1. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; “as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided” Methods: We carried out a review of Avicenna’s Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. Results: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called ‘Manafe al-Aghziyeh’, in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. Conclusion: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies. PMID:27840499

  2. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  3. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirbeigi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  4. Massage Therapy in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Jaladat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.

  5. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  6. Commodification of Religious Tradition: Critical Study on Religious Tradition Tourism Haul at Pasar Kliwon Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ferri Setiawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The policy on tourism development program of Surakarta especially on the calendar of the event takes advantage from religious tradition as tourism commodity. The purpose of this study is to describe the religious tradition haul, the programs by the tourism department of Surakarta, and how commodification through a well implemented marketing communications process, messaging, and other media, as well as responses from the audience regarding the marketing of haul tradition in general toward creating a leading tourism object. Haul which is a tradition for commemorating the death of clerics (ulama who are followed by some local communities in Surakarta, especially those in Pasar Kliwon Regency, is utilized in tourism. Through critical study, the cultural values that are supposed to be preserved, changed into marketing values to attract visitors. The used media are the advertisement and the calendar of events. The local community gain advantages economically from this policy, but they object to it socio-culturally. Meanwhile, the tourists are generally interested in haul tradition.

  7. From medical tradition to traditional medicine: A Tibetan formula in the European framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Herbert; Vennos, Cécile

    2015-06-05

    The increasing prevalence of complex multi-factorial chronic diseases and multimorbidity reveals the need for an enlargement of the therapeutic options. Potent multicompound herbal formulations from traditional medicine systems such as Tibetan Medicine might meet the requirements. With its practice over the centuries Tibetan Medicine is one of the important medical heritages of the world. In the 20th century Tibetan formulas came to Switzerland, where the formula Gabur-25 was then registered as medicine in 1977 (Padma 28, Swissmedic No 35872). The new European directive 2004/24/EC opened the avenue for traditional herbal medicinal products and registrations followed in Austria (HERB-00037) and the UK (39568/0001). The aim of this review was to analyse not only the critical points and hazards but also chances that occur in the endeavour of bringing a ethnopharmacological based preparation to the market within a modern Western medical and regulatory framework and to discuss the necessary transformation steps from a traditional herbal formula towards a modern pharmaceutical product with the example of the Tibetan formula Gabur-25. The historic transformation process from the 19th to the 21st century is analysed, using the registration documents and other material from the library of Padma AG, Hinwil, Switzerland. The transformation of a traditional formula into a modern traditional herbal medicinal product according to the present EU regulations is a multi faceted process. The modern indication represents only a small part of the possible traditional indications. Quality and product labelling has to be adopted to modern standards. The formula, once registered, is a fixed combination of herbal and mineral ingredients. Contrary to this the concept of Asian medical tradition allows a certain flexibility in the composition of an herbal formula. The ingredients are constantly adapted to local conditions, availability of raw material and therapeutic situation. The example

  8. Adapted Traditions: The Case of Traditional Palestinian Women Healers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Popper-Giveon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines transformations in the roles and treatment practices of traditional Palestinian women healers in Israel. Comparing narratives of women healers residing in Jewish-Arab mixed cities in central Israel with those of their counterparts in the Bedouin community of the Negev reveals that traditional healing has not disappeared as a result of modernization but rather has transformed. Urban women healers are abandoning treatment of physical problems in favor of addressing life hardships; they distance themselves from problems whose cause and treatment are considered natural and prefer those perceived as derived from supernatural causes and treated through supernatural, magical and religious means. Despite these transformations, traditional Palestinian women healers appear as agents of preservation and conservatism, a role that imbues them with a central position in their community. Hence, their place is currently secured and expected to remain so as processes of modernization and acculturation increase in intensity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902119

  9. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  10. Development of Ayurveda - Tradition to trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Bahadur, Shiv; Banerjee, Subhadip; Kar, Amit; Chanda, Joydeb; Biswas, Sayan; Ahmmed, Sk Milan; Katiyar, C K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda entails a scientific tradition of harmonious living and its origin can be traced from ancient knowledge in Rigveda and Atharvaveda. Ayurveda is a traditional healthcare system of Indian medicine since ancient times. Several Ayurvedic medicines have been exploiting for treatment and management of various diseases in human beings. The several drugs have been developed and practiced from Ayurveda since ancient time to modern practice as 'tradition to trend'. The potential of Ayurvedic medicine needs to be explored further with modern scientific validation approaches for better therapeutic leads. The present study was aimed to explore the various aspects of Ayurveda and inspired drug discovery approaches for its promotion and development. We have reviewed all the literature related to the history and application of Ayurvedic herbs. Various aspects for the quality control, standardization, chemo-profiling, and metabolite fingerprinting for quality evaluation of Ayurvedic drugs. The development of Ayurvedic drugs is gaining momentum with the perspectives of safety, efficacy and quality for promotion and management of human health. Scientific documentation, process validation and several others significant parameters are key points, which can ensure the quality, safety and effectiveness of Ayurvedic drugs. The present review highlights on the major goal of Ayurveda and their significant role in healthcare system. Ayurveda deals with several classical formulations including arka, asavas, aristas, churna, taila, vati, gutika, bhasma etc. There are several lead molecules that have been developed from the Ayurvedic herbs, which have various significant therapeutic activities. Chemo-profiling of Ayurvedic drug is essential in order to assess the quality of products. It deals with bioactive compound quantification, spurious and allied drug determination, chromatographic fingerprinting, standardization, stability and quality consistency of Ayurvedic products. Scientific

  11. Female genital mutilation - from tradition to femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation has been drawing international attention for the last couple of decades, but this phenomenon is almost unknown in Serbia. In this work we will point to its basic forms and its presence in the world as well as to the variety of consequences, especially those which are the most common causes of death. With this purpose in mind, the work represents the a review of theoretical debates and empirical studies, based on which relevant data may be gathered, related to the previously mentioned subject of the work. Female genital mutilation is a phenomenon mostly in Africa, but due to migrations has become a problem thoughout the whole world. Traditional and cultural norms of strict patriarchal societies along with deeply rooted inequality of genders have contributed to the maintenance of this custom up till today. This custom includes a sequence of different procedures which are used to injure female genitals even though there are no medical reasons for such acts. They are conducted by older women in insanitary conditions and by means such as scissors, razors or glass which bring numerous consequences which can result in death. Females subdued to infibulation are at greater risk of death, although each of the forms of mutilation may have this consequence. Female genital mutilation represents violence against women due to its inevitable physical consequences and its harmful effect on health. Girls and women are subdued to the procedure which in some cases results in death, for the purpose of the community acceptance, most of all the acceptance of the future husband. Namely, women are elligible for marriage only if they are virgins, which is achieved by genital mutilation, according to the opinion of the community in which this tradition is preserved. Beside that, marriage is of high importance for the economic stability of a woman, considering the fact that all the economic power is held by men. Genital mutilation has the purpose

  12. Financial products as alternatives to traditional deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lidia MANEA

    2016-05-01

    In this context, increasing the safety of depositors appears as an undisputed necessity, which translates to our approach in the development of a constructive type applied research that takes into account the following stages: short description of risks and uncertainties characterizing the economic environment with emphasis on the importance of the financial instruments; analysis of empirical data on deposits in lei and euro at national level, identifying possible causes which led to one preference or another and finding the causes underlying the different options manifested in the capital, as compared to other counties; identifying the products that offer a dangerous alternative to traditional deposits from the Romanian banking market and describing these products and their related risks; the proposal of a new product, demonstrating its effectiveness by testing and confirmation of two hypotheses.

  13. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  14. Cultural Archetype Contents for the Traditional Wedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hee Ahn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to perform a contextual study of the wedding customs, wedding procedures, and wedding costumes included in Korean traditional wedding culture, making use of cultural contents which form cultural archetypes. The range of wedding customs studied are set limits from the Joseon dynasty to ancient times, and, for wedding procedures and costumes, to the Chosun dynasty, when a wedding ceremony became the norm. Only wedding ceremonies performed among ordinary classes are included as subjects for this research; wedding ceremonies and costumes for court are excluded. The cultural archetypes developed within these boundaries suggest prior cultural content, developed beforehand. The research methods are focused on document records inquiry and genre paintings during the Joseon era, using museum resources as visual materials. The following is the outcome of this research: Firstly, wedding customs and procedures observed among folk materials are presented in chronological order. Secondly, the brides' and grooms' wedding costumes are also presented chronologically, differentiated by class-characteristics.

  15. On the edge between tradition and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Nandhakumar, Joe

    2011-01-01

    system of values, creating a “double bind” dynamics (Bateson 1972), which denies a clear way to succeed in achieving innovation and a new organizational identity. Therefore, innovation practices are confined within safe spaces, that we call innovation enclosures, such as temporary/thematic exhibitions...... cannot succeed, if it is not supported by a favourable global network, providing a negotiation space (Law and Callon 1992). Starting from this theory, we analyze the case of two local museums, in order to gain insights into museum innovation and the emerging interplay with traditional practices. We...... investigate also how external pressure from a network, apparently supporting innovation, may instead create a conflicting system of values, compromising the emergence of a negotiation space and hindering the innovation process. Our study suggests that museum innovation is still unsettled, on the edge between...

  16. Lincoln, Paine and the American Freethought Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Caron

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the media as in a variety of books aimed at the general public, Abraham Lincoln’s name has often been paired with public figures who have been identified or have self-identified as modern-day freethinkers. This essay offers comments on the relationship between Lincoln and the American freethought tradition, with a final focus on Thomas Paine, all of which are considered in the context of the 2006 Lincoln bicentennial, the New Atheism movement, and the increase in the number of American “nones.” Some historiographical shifts and communication strategies used by freethinkers are also emphasized. The purpose of the essay is to provide some insight into the renewal of interest for freethought in the United States.

  17. Resident physicians in Mexico: tradition or humiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a great history and tradition in relation to the training of resident physicians, but what we find behind this process?, Power relations implied and not implied, unnoticed or ignored for convenience by the academic and health institutions, with the aggravation of forgetting its commitment to the training of men and women "professionals" and limited to meet another indicator of "human resources for health." The resident physician in academic and scientific training is immersed in this dehumanized maelstrom and ends up becoming a character for the domain of knowledge as power, forgetting that his act and its rationale lies in the principle of "primum non nocere" to that we would add: nor your person, nor your fellowman, much less whom you have the moral, ethical and civic responsibility to convey some of your knowledge and your experience, that is, part of your essence”.

  18. Populism in Lithuania: Defining the Research Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleknonis Gintaras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on populism and populist political communication in Lithuania is rather limited, regardless of the fact that populist movements and politicians are influential on national and local political levels; they also receive sufficient support from a significant share of the population. Because the Western European research tradition is concentrated on the challenges of right-wing populism, Lithuanian political scientists distinguish right-wing populism as more significant in comparison to left-wing populism. Although Lithuanian researchers note, that in the balance of the left-right wing populists, Lithuania stands out with the majority of left-wing populists, in comparison to the popularity and number of right-wing populists in neighbouring countries.

  19. ROMANIAN FAMILY BETWEEN TRADITIONS AND MODERNISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca MARDARE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Families and living arrangements have changed dramatically since the 1960s in the majority of European countries. Family life and the meaning of family have undergone a profound change. Relationships between partners or spouses, but also the relationships between parents and their children, have moved away from the realm of normative control and institutional canons, into the ideal of reflexive ‘pure relationships’ based on mutual consent and the recognition of individual autonomy. Following the collapse of communism, Romania has experienced dramatic changes in family formation. Common patterns include delays and/or declines in marriage and fertility, increasing rates of cohabitation and non-marital childbearing, rising rates of divorce. This paper aims to document the main stages of the evolution of marital behaviours in Romania from the traditional family of the 19th century to present days.

  20. BENCHMARKING – BETWEEN TRADITIONAL & MODERN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ungureanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of benchmarking requires a continuous process of performance improvement of different organizations in order to obtain superiority towards those perceived as market leader’s competitors. This superiority can always be questioned, its relativity originating in the quick growing evolution of the economic environment. The approach supports innovation in relation with traditional methods and it is based on the will of those managers who want to determine limits and seek excellence. The end of the twentieth century is the period of broad expression of benchmarking in various areas and its transformation from a simple quantitative analysis tool, to a resource of information on performance and quality of goods and services.

  1. Traditional use of medicinal plants by elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rocha Alves Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: identify the traditional use of medicinal plants by the elderly. Methods: exploratory and descriptive study conducted in the Intermunicipal Consortium on Health. Three hundred and fifty-one questionnaires were applied to the elderly to survey socio-demographic information and issues related to plants. Results: the use of plants was reported by 78.4% of the elderly, and these were collected in backyards. The most often cited plants were mint, boldo, fennel, lemongrass and chamomile. Regarding the reason for use, 33.3% participants said that “it’s not harmful to health”, 61.8% usually indicate the use to other people. Most elderly make use of plants in a safe manner, and these are present in the daily lives of these people as a therapeutic method. Conclusion: the elderly make use of medicinal plants as an important therapeutic resource.

  2. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Moral traditions and norms of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar ALDAMBERGENOVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses moral and political, moral and economic, moral and business, moral and pragmatic, hygienic and other relations. The concept of " ethical tradition" includes not only moral values but also a set of core components associated with the development of ethical and moral qualities that characterize it against the backdrop of life events. Here it is pertinent to note that it is very important to assess personality according to his deeds. Each person has the vision of the concept of " value", which is not formed by itself it is made on the basis of norms , concepts , moral relations , transmitted from generation to generation through the h istorical experience. Monitoring of normative behavior of personality is not a reckless submission standards , it examines the various forms of behavior within a framework . Personality does not simply follow moral standards; on the contrary , it is active an d inquisitive in mastering and applying them in practice.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicines and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chip-Ping; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

    2011-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines have been widely investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because none of the current therapies-either the cholinesterase inhibitors or antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors-has profound effects on halting the progression of AD. In recent years, scientists have isolated many active compounds from herbs, which can alleviate dementia and neurodegenerative syndrome with fewer side effects than conventional drugs and, thus, are regarded as promising drug candidates for AD therapy. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress on six herbs for AD therapy-Huperzia serrata, Amaryllidaceae family, Ginkgo biloba, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Polygala tenuifolia, and Salvia officinalis-and focus on the analysis of their active components and possible mechanisms of pharmacological actions on AD. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Canarian Camel: A Traditional Dromedary Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schulz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The domestic camel (dromedary is the most important livestock species in the Canary Islands and the most important autochthonous European camel population. After six centuries of a successful adaptation process to the particular environment of the Canary Islands, the abandonment of traditional agriculture has led this population to a major bottleneck. Along with a lack of foreign genetic interchanges, this could lead the population to the brink of extinction. Genetic analysis using 13 microsatellites showed the closest genetic proximity to the North African (Tindouf, Algeria camel population and a certain degree of sub-division, with significant genetic differences among breeders. An important level of genetic differentiation among the different populations analyzed was found with a global FST value of 0.116.

  6. Contextualized personality: traditional and new assessment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Watson, David; Komar, Jennifer; Min, Ji-A; Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine

    2007-12-01

    We describe our ongoing program of research related to the assessment of contextualized personality, focusing on social roles and cultural cues as contextual factors. First, we present our research employing the traditional assessment approach, wherein participants are asked to rate explicitly their personality across several different roles. We argue that this hypothetical approach is potentially susceptible to the influence of stereotypes, social desirability, and demand characteristics. We therefore describe the development of three novel and subtle assessment procedures that are based on obtaining online self-representations that are activated while occupying a specific context. Finally, the strengths and limitations of all four approaches, as well as directions for future research in the study of contextualized personality, are discussed.

  7. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J

    1988-01-01

    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication.

  8. Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

  9. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  10. [Traditional medicine under Japanese rule after 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-won

    2003-12-01

    Japan, which occupied Korea from 1910 through the end of World War II, transformed traditional medicine. Japanese colonialists propagandized the "benefits of modern civilization such as western medicine" and rejected the advantages of traditional medicine. This bias against Korean traditional medicine mirrored the government's rejection of its own traditional medicine. So, Korean traditional medicine was marginalized in the national health care system: traditional doctors were excluded from public institutions and references to traditional medicine were purged from school textbooks and newspapers. The wars that Japan waged between 1931 and 1944 effected a favorable change toward traditional medicines, however. The wars created a severe shortage of drugs and medical personnel. Thus the colonial government was eager for Koreans to cultivate and gather herbal drugs; it also built a large research institute for herbalism at the Keijo Imperial University in 1938. The colonial government made pharmacopoeia for traditional herbal drugs including plant and animal drugs from 1937 to 1942, independently from Japan. Under these conditions, the prestige of traditional medicine was greatly improved. Influential newspapers and magazines covered the traditional medicine and public lectures on traditional medicine drew large audiences. The wartime government abandoned its opposition to traditional medicine, and appointed a traditional practitioner to the staff of the public hospital in 1934. Moreover, the government allowed the association of the traditional medical doctors in Seoul to train three hundred more practitioners between 1937 and 1942. Japanese colonial policy toward traditional medicine reflected the contradiction between modernizing ideology and the reality of poor colonial medical care. Japanese propaganda promised that the colonial regime would provide more advanced medicine to Korea, but the promise was an empty one. In this situation, traditional medical doctors

  11. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM: aconstitutional-based concept and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6–7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  12. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM): aconstitutional-based concept and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Min; Komakech, Richard; Karigar, Chandrakant Shivappa; Saqib, Asma

    2017-06-01

    Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM) basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6-7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  13. Traditional Games and Children of Today. Belgrade-OMEP Traditional Games Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivic, Ivan, Ed.; Marjanovic, Aleksandra, Ed.

    Collected in this volume are preliminary materials related to the Belgrade-OMEP Project whose purpose is to make a record of those traditional children's games which are a part of the folk culture of various countries. The purpose of this publication is two-fold: (1) to serve as a handbook for the present collaborators on the Project in their…

  14. 105-116 Effect of Winged Subsoiler and Traditional Tillage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3) compared to traditional tillage (Qs = 34 mm-season-. 1, T = 49 ... Maresha plow that cuts soil deeper than achieved with the traditional .... Data Processing and Analysis. Statistical ... soil compaction and shallow depth could be addressed.

  15. The importance of traditional healers in the planning of rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of traditional healers in the planning of rural healthcare ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... There has been increasing debate on whether traditional healers actually matter in planning for healthcare delivery and ...

  16. Analysis of Lullabic Songs in Traditional African Communities: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. An International ... of children's traditional games, playsongs and traditional toys in the African environments have .... For her, crying is an inferior strategy in the kind of war she is poised to wage.

  17. Determinants of Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. ... Results: One hundred and eighty-six questionnaires ... A gradual phasing out of traditional bone setting with a road map towards making orthodox fracture ...

  18. Enhancing the role of traditional leaders in African governance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... ... which brought Jerry Rawlings to power, "I saw examples where the grassroots ... over the Internet via the Traditional Authority Applied Research Network ... In this study, the research team is focusing on traditional leaders ...

  19. Marriage ceremony: The clash between traditional marriage rites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marriage ceremony: The clash between traditional marriage rites and ... and a woman who has agreed to marry, be socially described as a married couple ... People agreed that traditional marriage rites should be compulsory but performance ...

  20. Implementation of Traditional Malay Design Values in Contemporary Malay Houses

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Hosseini; Gurupiah Mursib; Raja Nafida Raja Shahminan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional houses are the most essential architectural experience that is in harmony with the people's culture, beliefs, environment and lifestyles. The development of design values in contemporary architecture by tracking traditional design values in architecture paves the way for arguments concerning the implementation of authentic Malay traditional house design values in contemporary Malay houses. In addition, it is hypothesized that the Malay traditional houses theoretically provide a co...

  1. The Invention of Tradition: Illyrian Heraldry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "Illyrian heraldry", as a phenomenon of the invented tradition, encompasses the rolls of arms - armorials, which appear in Dalmatia, Italy, Spain and Austria at the end of the XVI and beginning of the XVII century. These armorials contained Serbian and other southern Slav monarchic, territorial and family coats of arms. The authenticity, heraldic sources and origins of these armorials are extremely complex problems that can be traced back to the medieval heraldic heritage of the Serbs, on the one hand, and reveal the intricate web of political circumstances in the XVI and XVII centuries. Illyrian heraldry is also closely linked to the personal and political ambitions of the Spanish admiral, Don Pedro Ohmučević Grgurić, from Slano near Dubrovnik. One cannot, however, link the entire Illyrian heraldry movement only to the daring ambitions of Petar Ohmučević Grgurić In in the XVI and XVII centuries historical constructions, inspired for the most part by sincere Slav patriotism, emerged that proved the unity of the Illyrians and the Slavs, revealed the alleged Slav origins of famous figures (Alexander the Great, Justinian, or simply extolled the splendor and magnitude of a lost Slav kingdom, that could be restored again. Much as it was developing within the spiritual scope of the Catholic church, this "Slovine" movement found its historical basis in the medieval statehood of Serbia and Bosnia, particularly in the powerful empire of Stephan Dushan (1331-55, in the Serbian potentates, heroes, their glitter and opulence, which used to glorify the Slav world. Since the XVII century till today, despite their doubtful authenticity, the Illyrian armorials have been considered important genealogical and heraldic documents. Many families relied on the information in Illyrian heraldic collections when claiming their true, or, more often purported, ancient hereditary rights, titles and lands. The Illyrian armorials were transcribed and reprinted in

  2. Contemporary Inuit Traditional Beliefs Concerning Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, A. A.; Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    Inuit religious mythology and the importance of meteorites as "messages" from the Creator of all things is only now being recognized. Field investigations near Resolute, Cornwallis Island in the high Canadian Arctic in 1988 are the bases for this paper. Through interpreters, several elders of the local Inuit described in detail the Inuit belief, recognition, and wonder at the falling meteors & meteorites during the long Polar Night and Polar Day. Such events are passed on in the oral tradition from generation to generation by the elders and especially those elders who fulfill the shamanistic roles. The Inuit have come across rocks that they immediately recognize as not being "natural" and in the cases of a fall that was observed and the rock recovered the meteorite is kept either on the person or in some hidden niche known only to that person. In one story recounted a meteorite fell and was recovered at the birth of one very old elder and the belief was that if the rock was somehow damaged or taken from his possession he would die. Some indirect indication also was conveyed that the discovery and possession of meteorites allow shaman to have "supernatural" power. This belief in the supernatural power of meteorites can be seen historically in many societies, including Islam and the "black rock" (Kaaba) of Mecca. It should also be noted, however, that metallic meteorites were clearly once the major source of iron for Eskimo society as is indicated from the recovery of meteoritical iron arrow heads and harpoon heads from excavated pre-Viking contact sites. The one evident thing that became clear to the author is that the Inuit distinctly believe that these meteorites are religious objects of the highest order and it brings into question the current academic practice of sending meteorites south to research institutes. Any seeming conflict with the traditional use of meteoric iron is more apparent than real--the animals, the hunt, and the act of survival--all being

  3. An Assessment Of Traditional Uighur Medicine In Current Xinjiang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Data showed that, among the registered and studied traditional Uighur medicine, the main therapeutic areas of traditional Uighur medicine focused on skin disease, urogenital disease, rheumatism and digestive system disease. The representative traditional Uighur patent medicine included the following: ...

  4. Polanyi and the Role of Tradition in Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic of the modern mind is a disdain for tradition. Polanyi argues that neglecting the role of tradition leads to philosophical incoherence as well as moral and political chaos. Polanyi's postcritical philosophy represents an attempt to show how tradition plays a vital role in the process of discovery. Ultimately, a coherent account of…

  5. [Review on community herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenjun; Qu, Liping; Ye, Zuguang; Ji, Jianxin; Li, Bogang

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe.

  6. The Intersection of Culture and Science in South African Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional African medicine often carries with it a perception and stigma of being irrational and ungrounded in scientific method in academia. One reason for this common prejudicial view of traditional African medicine is the failure to effectively interpret African traditional medicine concepts, as these are often metaphorical ...

  7. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  8. Patients Consulting Traditional Health Practioners In The Context Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients Consulting Traditional Health Practioners In The Context Of Hiv/Aids In Urban Areas In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. ... A number of HIV positive patients were using traditional medicine and ART concurrently, dropped out of ART because of side effects and were using traditional medicine for HIV. Keywords: Patients ...

  9. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although traditional medicine plays an important role in Ethiopian society, knowledge about the extent and characteristics of traditional healing practices and practitioners is limited and has frequently been ignored in the national health system. Objective: To review history of practices and policies on traditional ...

  10. The convergence and convenience of talent, traditional knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The convergence and convenience of talent, traditional knowledge and performance in the Chewa drumming tradition. ... the elements that constitute the Chewa art of drumming, the application of this art in the traditional medium of music and dance, and the adaptation of the art by Malawi's contemporary music performers.

  11. Traditional Bullying as a Potential Warning Sign of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M.; Morgan, Chad A.; Limber, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Although traditional bullying and cyberbullying share features in common, they differ in important ways. For example, cyberbullying is often characterized by perceived anonymity and can occur any time of the day or night. Conversely, perpetrators of traditional bullying are known to the victim, and most traditional bullying occurs at school. Yet,…

  12. Twelve Girls' Band' A Modern Miracle of Traditional Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoZhanxiong

    2004-01-01

    Twelve antique traditional instruments. Twelve spirited, pretty girls. "Twelve Girls' Band" is a traditional instrument orchestra playing well-known folk music in the form of pop. Besides age-old traditional instruments peculiar to China, such as zheng (ancient 21 to 25-stringed plucked instrument), qin (seven-stringed plucked instrument) and erhu (two-stringed Chinese fiddle),

  13. Immobilization: A Revolution in Traditional Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Linko, Matti

    In nature many micro-organisms tend to bind to solid surfaces. This tendency has long been utilized in a number of processes, for example in producing vinegar and acetic acid in bioreactors filled with wood shavings. Acetobacteria are attached to the surface of these shavings. In modern technical language: they are immobilized. Also yeast cells can be immobilized. In the brewing industry this has been the basis for maintaining efficient, continuous fermentation in bioreactors with very high yeast concentrations. The most dramatic change in brewing over recent years has been the replacement of traditional lagering of several weeks by a continuous process in which the residence time is only about 2h. Continuous primary fermentation is used on a commercial scale in New Zealand. In this process, instead of a carrier, yeast is retained in reactors by returning it partly after separation. In many pilot scale experiments the primary fermentation is shortened from about 1week to 1-2days using immobilized yeast reactors. When using certain genetically modified yeast strains no secondary fermentation is needed, and the total fermentation time in immobilized yeast reactors can therefore be shortened to only 2days.

  14. Traditional heritage and trends of modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Snežana M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of contemporary sociological theory and liberal-democratic political doctrine of the 'end of history', 'open society', globalization as a world-historical process is also the thesis about finally liberated the individual and autonomous personality 'of our time'. Modernization theorists from Marx argued that economic development brings changes. Actually, economic development is connected with breakthrough from absolute norms and values towards rationality, tolerance, trust, and participation, so transition from traditionalism to modernism according to theory affects forms of value. This paper examines relationship between values and social (political, economic, cultural transformation as well as the extent to which the validity transformation threatened severe and dramatic social events during last decade. There still remains a dilemma for modern scientific and philosophic thought: is the individual truly free of the pressure of belonging to various types of group compounds like class, ethno-cultural background, family background, gender etc, or have individualization and reflexivity led to an increase in isolation, narcissism, apathy, cynicism, exclusion, marginal position in society, emphasizing materialistic goals and inability to control their own lives.

  15. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  16. Research traditions and evolutionary explanations in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-02-01

    In this article, I argue that distinguishing 'evolutionary' from 'Darwinian' medicine will help us assess the variety of roles that evolutionary explanations can play in a number of medical contexts. Because the boundaries of evolutionary and Darwinian medicine overlap to some extent, however, they are best described as distinct 'research traditions' rather than as competing paradigms. But while evolutionary medicine does not stand out as a new scientific field of its own, Darwinian medicine is united by a number of distinctive theoretical and methodological claims. For example, evolutionary medicine and Darwinian medicine can be distinguished with respect to the styles of evolutionary explanations they employ. While the former primarily involves 'forward looking' explanations, the latter depends mostly on 'backward looking' explanations. A forward looking explanation tries to predict the effects of ongoing evolutionary processes on human health and disease in contemporary environments (e.g., hospitals). In contrast, a backward looking explanation typically applies evolutionary principles from the vantage point of humans' distant biological past in order to assess present states of health and disease. Both approaches, however, are concerned with the prevention and control of human diseases. In conclusion, I raise some concerns about the claim that 'nothing in medicine makes sense except in the light of evolution'.

  17. Traditional costume: contemporary elements in street culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Merlo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the memory of the costumes and the way people record and interpret their relations with them. This is on the assumption that we put ourselves at all, and for that reason, too, the popular costumes reveal the political place of each subject on the Festa de São Benedito in Congada de Ilhabela - manifestation of African descent culture chosen to treated in this text. This study aimed to understand the role of costume in the composition of the cultural identity of black ethnic-racial group of Ilhabela, to point out how a seemingly simple costume can reveal so many meanings for the group in question. The Congada de Ilhabela is the devotion of a population to a saint; holy and black people who resisted the many prejudices and deep social and economic transformations. Therefore, the expression of that culture and tradition invented by means of a negotiated identity will be discussed. Regarding the costume, the study will be based on material culture and participant observation conducted with this population between the years 1995 to 2002.

  18. Obstetrical referrals by traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Rozina; Hashmi, Haleema; Mustafa, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan 90% of births are conducted by TBA's. In most cases, TBA's are unable to diagnose the complications and are often unable to take decisions on timely referral. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, nature and outcome of life threatening obstetrical conditions in referrals by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). This Observational, Descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2007, in the obstetrical unit of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, a tertiary care community based hospital. The study included patients referred by TBA's who developed life threatening obstetric conditions (LTOCs). Total 64 patients were referred by TBA's. The prevalence was 7.8%. Out of them, 53 (82.8%) patients admitted with life threatening obstetric conditions. The near-miss morbidities and mortalities were 45 (84.9%) and 8 (15%) respectively. Maternal mortality to Near-miss morbidity ratio was 1:6. Obstructed labour caused near-miss morbidity in 32 (60.3%) patients with no mortality. Postpartum haemorrhage as life threatening condition developed in 16 (30.1%) patients with 10 (18.8%) near-miss morbidities and 6 (11.3%) mortalities. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 1 (1.88%) near-miss morbidity and 2 (3.76%) mortalities. The mortality index for puerperal sepsis is (66.6%) almost double of postpartum haemorrhage (37.5%). Mortality to near miss morbidity ratio is high. Misidentification and late referrals of complicated cases by TBA's were responsible for near-miss morbidities and mortalities.

  19. Benchmarketing - Fashionable Term Concerning Traditional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Udrescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a major factor to boost the competitiveness of the firm in an environment which is more and more turbulent. It centers the company’s management as being the ideal satisfaction of the current and potential consumer. This is why, in our conception, the marketing’s management represents a subsystem of the company’s’ general management by which shall be administered to specific activities, and also designed to contour the company’s’ activity object. In this article, the intent is to highlight the fact that the benchmarketing has come loose from cultivating the traditional process to the innovative organizational culture product. In this paper, the authors consider benchmarketing as a process of qualitative organizational culture adaptation to market requirements, depending on the context, so as to ensure the improvement of the economic criteria of appreciation of the business lucrative activities. Based on direct observations concerning small firms, followed by analysis, comparison and synthesis, the authors suggest taking into consideration the theoretical and practical benchmarketings’ approach, as being the current strategy of acquiring and cultivating excellence, as initiation philosophy and business development.

  20. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Hosam O; Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Ali, Hayssam M; Elshikh, Mohamed S; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M; El-Esawi, Mohamed; El-Ansary, Diaa O

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus , Brassica juncea , and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus ; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii . Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis , pods of S. alexandrina , and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  1. Earth construction: traditional building techniques of Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. Guedes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NCREP – Consultancy in Rehabilitation of Built Heritage Ltd., surveyed the constructive features of Bhutan's vernacular rammed earth built heritage, as part of a project financed by the World Bank and commissioned by the Division for the Conservation of Heritage Sites (DCHS of the Department of Culture - Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs of Bhutan. This work, which aimed at better understanding the structural behaviour of this heritage and, based on this information, proposing measures to mitigate its seismic risk, included the study of 18 traditional rammed earth buildings in two villages in the Punakha district. The surveys were conducted house-to-house, based on a DCHS script, and included surveys of artisans responsible for building these constructive typologies, supported by a questionnaire integrated within the project, to collect information on the procedures, rites and practices followed in these constructions. This article focuses only on the first part of the work; it presents the main constructive characteristics assessed from the survey carried out on this built heritage and compiles the results of the surveys of the artisans.

  2. Some directions beyond traditional quantum secret sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Srikanth, R [Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Devanahalli, Bangalore 562 110 (India)], E-mail: suds@ee.ucla.edu, E-mail: srik@rri.res.in

    2008-06-15

    We investigate two directions beyond the traditional quantum secret sharing (QSS). Firstly, a restriction on QSS that comes from the no-cloning theorem is that any pair of authorized sets in an access structure should overlap. From the viewpoint of application, this places an unnatural constraint on secret sharing. We present a generalization, called assisted QSS (AQSS), where access structures without pairwise overlap of authorized sets are permissible, provided some shares are withheld by the share dealer. We show that no more than {lambda}-1 withheld shares are required, where {lambda} is the minimum number of partially linked classes among the authorized sets for the QSS. Our result means that such applications of QSS need not be thwarted by the no-cloning theorem. Secondly, we point out a way of combining the features of QSS and quantum key distribution (QKD) for applications where classical information is shared by quantum means. We observe that in such case, it is often possible to reduce the security proof of QSS to that of QKD.

  3. Some directions beyond traditional quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R

    2008-01-01

    We investigate two directions beyond the traditional quantum secret sharing (QSS). Firstly, a restriction on QSS that comes from the no-cloning theorem is that any pair of authorized sets in an access structure should overlap. From the viewpoint of application, this places an unnatural constraint on secret sharing. We present a generalization, called assisted QSS (AQSS), where access structures without pairwise overlap of authorized sets are permissible, provided some shares are withheld by the share dealer. We show that no more than λ-1 withheld shares are required, where λ is the minimum number of partially linked classes among the authorized sets for the QSS. Our result means that such applications of QSS need not be thwarted by the no-cloning theorem. Secondly, we point out a way of combining the features of QSS and quantum key distribution (QKD) for applications where classical information is shared by quantum means. We observe that in such case, it is often possible to reduce the security proof of QSS to that of QKD

  4. Human biological rhythm in traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxing Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a comprehensive and thorough understanding of biological rhythm. Biological rhythm is an inherent connotation of “harmony between human and nature”, one of the thoughts in TCM. TCM discusses emphatically circadian rhythm, syzygial rhythm and seasonal rhythm, and particularly circadian and seasonal rhythms. Theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are the principles and methods, with which TCM understands biological rhythms. Based on theories in TCM, biological rhythm in essence is a continuous variation of the human body state synchronized with natural rhythms, and theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are both language tools to describe this continuous variation and theoretical tools for its investigation and application. The understandings of biological rhythm in TCM can be applied to etiology, health care, disease control and treatment. Many understandings in TCM have been confirmed by modern research and clinical reports, but there are still some pending issues. TCM is distinguished for its holistic viewpoint on biological rhythms.

  5. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  6. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam O. Elansary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  7. Diverticular Disease: Traditional and Evolving Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Lenore; Moran, Patricia E

    Diverticular disease includes diverticulosis, which are sac protrusions of the intestinal mucosa, and diverticulitis, inflammation of the diverticula. Diverticular disease is listed as one of the top 10 leading physician diagnoses for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient clinic visits in the United States. There are several classifications of diverticular disease ranging from asymptomatic diverticulosis to diverticulitis with complications. Several theories are linked to the development of diverticula which includes the physiology of the colon itself, collagen cross-linking, and recently challenged, low-fiber intake. The differential diagnoses of lower abdominal pain in addition to diverticular disease have overlapping signs and symptoms, which can make a diagnosis challenging. Identification of the distinct signs and symptoms of each classification will assist the practitioner in making the correct diagnosis and lead to appropriate management. The findings from recent studies have changed the paradigm of diverticular disease. The purpose of this article is to discuss traditional dogma and evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of diverticular disease. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about diverticular disease for improved outcomes.

  8. Economic impact of traditional medicine practice worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Pejcic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to summarize available findings from publications that reported expenditure on traditional/complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM within a representative general population sample of a nation or a defined geographical area. A total of 24 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The expenditure on TM/CAM varies worldwide, but direct comparison of the findings of publications included in this review is limited due to the differences in the definitions of TM/CAM, inclusion of various forms of TM/CAM, use of different names and categorization, as well as differences in reported currencies and time periods in which data were collected. Data about the expenditure on TM/CAM in most countries throughout the world are scarce. Further national studies should be conducted in order to provide up-to-date assessment of the TM/CAM related expenditure patterns and use. Uniform nomenclature, definition of TM/CAM and standardized instruments would provide basis for comparability of data of studies conducted in various regions and time periods.

  9. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Elshikh, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M.; El-Ansary, Diaa O.

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases. PMID:29636772

  10. Traditional zootherapeutic studies in India: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aims to review the zootherapeutic practices of the different ethnic communities of India. This work is also an attempt to present a list of animals' use for medicinal purposes by different communities of India. Data were gathered from 15 published research papers of various authors on zootherapeutic studies in India from 2000 to 2007. Approximately 109 animals and their 270 uses are reported in traditional medicine in different parts of India. Of these, the highest numbers of animal species (42, 38.5% with 50 (18.5% uses have been reported for the treatment of Respiratory system related problems. Rheumatic and other pains are treated with 32 species (29.4% in 34 (12.9% uses. Gastric problems are reported to be treated with 22 (20.2% species in 26 (9.9% uses. The mammals constitute the highest number of animals used for medicinal purposes. 44 (40% mammals, 24 (22% invertebrates, 18 (17% birds, 12 (11% reptiles, nine (8% fishes and two (2% amphibians have been reported for medicinal purposes. Of the total 109 animal species reported, 76(70% are included in IUCN red data list and 36 (33% animal species are listed in CITES appendix I, II, and III. This work will be helpful in biodiversity conservation in India and also give a clue to investigate bio-active compound in these animal raw materials.

  11. An analysis of application of health informatics in Traditional Medicine: A review of four Traditional Medicine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Ikram, Raja Rina; Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Abdullah, Noraswaliza

    2015-11-01

    This paper shall first investigate the informatics areas and applications of the four Traditional Medicine systems - Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine and Traditional Malay Medicine. Then, this paper shall examine the national informatics infrastructure initiatives in the four respective countries that support the Traditional Medicine systems. Challenges of implementing informatics in Traditional Medicine Systems shall also be discussed. The literature was sourced from four databases: Ebsco Host, IEEE Explore, Proquest and Google scholar. The search term used was "Traditional Medicine", "informatics", "informatics infrastructure", "traditional Chinese medicine", "Ayurveda", "traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine", and "traditional malay medicine". A combination of the search terms above was also executed to enhance the searching process. A search was also conducted in Google to identify miscellaneous books, publications, and organization websites using the same terms. Amongst major advancements in TCM and Ayurveda are bioinformatics, development of Traditional Medicine databases for decision system support, data mining and image processing. Traditional Chinese Medicine differentiates itself from other Traditional Medicine systems with documented ISO Standards to support the standardization of TCM. Informatics applications in Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine are mostly ehealth applications that focus more on spiritual healing, Islamic obligations and prophetic traditions. Literature regarding development of health informatics to support Traditional Malay Medicine is still insufficient. Major informatics infrastructure that is common in China and India are automated insurance payment systems for Traditional Medicine treatment. National informatics infrastructure in Middle East and Malaysia mainly cater for modern medicine. Other infrastructure such as telemedicine and hospital information systems focus its

  12. Parametric Modelling and Traditional Architecture: Improving the thermal comfort of the traditional courtyard house in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Harrouni Khalid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional courtyard house of the Mediterranean Basin has been viewed as a complex regulating system that creates a microclimate which historically worked, and still works, in a passive way to provide acceptable thermal comfort in summer. The internal courtyard is generally described as a positive factor that can moderate extreme outdoor climatic conditions. However, some researches have shown that the courtyard could become a negative factor from the energy efficiency point of view. For this purpose, this paper is based on a research study exploring sustainable characteristics of Moroccan traditional housing and its climatic adaptation, delving into the Rabat-Salé case study. A traditional courtyard model is used as a case study to analyze the indoor thermal comfort without using mechanical heating and cooling systems. The thermal behavior of the rooms surrounding the courtyard is analyzed under a temperate and humid climate of Rabat-Salé medina. The simulation modelling is carried out to analyze the effectiveness of different parameters to improve the indoor climate during summer and winter, including the façade orientation, the air infiltration, the surroundings, the ceiling height, the walls and roof/ceiling insulation and the shading devices. Tools for climatic design, Mahoney’s tables, Givoni and Szokolay bio climatic diagrams have been also used to improve design strategies in terms of thermal comfort.

  13. Toward justice and social transformation? Appealing to the tradition against the tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naude

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with a brief statement on the well-known contradictory nature of the Reformed tradition in South Africa, defending injustice and struggling for justice in the name of the same tradition. By following the work of Reformed systematic theologian D.J. Smit, it argues that the justice-affirming potential of the Reformed tradition is a hermeneutical task built on three specific re-interpretations: (1 the reinterpretation of Scripture from the perspective of the weak, the poor and the oppressed (against a hermeneutic of creation orders and God-willed division of people (2 a rereading of John Calvin to affirm the dignity and freedom of all humans (against the grain of neo-Calvinist interpretations (3 a rereading of Karl Barth with a focus on God’s inclusive grace, Christian confessions and the nature of the Christian life (against the limitation of his influence because of his perceived actualistic view on Scripture or unscientific, foundational methodology. The article closes with a brief look into the agenda for social transformation faced by us in the second decade of the 21st century, and under what conditions the  Reformed faith will be able to make an enduring contribution to public life in (South Africa.

  14. Traditional practices used by infertile women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, S; Efe, S Yaman

    2010-09-01

    Numerous traditional methods are used in the treatment of infertility around the world. To identify the traditional practices of infertile women using one clinic in Ankara, Turkey. The population comprised all women (5700) who attended one infertility outpatient clinic in 2007. The sample was calculated using sample calculation formula and 410 women were included in the study. The survey method was used for data collection. Of the responding women, 27.3% had tried a traditional practice, and 67.8% who tried traditional practices used an herbal mixture. The reason for the women's use of a traditional practice was 'hope' (66.9%), and 15.2% of them had experienced an adverse effect related with traditional practice. Maternal education level, perceived economic status, duration of marriage all significantly affected the use of traditional practices (Pwomen who had received unsuccessful medical treatment for infertility and who had experienced side effects after medical treatment had a higher rate of use of traditional practice (Pwomen who responded to the questionnaire had tried traditional methods, and some experienced adverse effects related to the practice. For couples with infertility problems, educational programmes and consultation services should be organized with respect to their traditional culture. Women should be informed about the hazards of traditional practices and avoidance of harmful practices, and continuous emotional support must be provided for infertile couples. In the future, nursing staff should play a much larger role in these supportive services.

  15. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Capital of Non-Traditional Students at a German University. Do Traditional and Non-Traditional Students Access Different Social Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändle, Tobias; Häuberer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Social capital is of particular value for the acquisition of education. Not only does it prevent scholars from dropping out but it improves the educational achievement. The paper focuses on access to social resources by traditional and non-traditional students at a German university and asks if there are group differences considering this…

  17. Modern bioinformatics meets traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Huajun

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is gaining increasing attention with the emergence of integrative medicine and personalized medicine, characterized by pattern differentiation on individual variance and treatments based on natural herbal synergism. Investigating the effectiveness and safety of the potential mechanisms of TCM and the combination principles of drug therapies will bridge the cultural gap with Western medicine and improve the development of integrative medicine. Dealing with rapidly growing amounts of biomedical data and their heterogeneous nature are two important tasks among modern biomedical communities. Bioinformatics, as an emerging interdisciplinary field of computer science and biology, has become a useful tool for easing the data deluge pressure by automating the computation processes with informatics methods. Using these methods to retrieve, store and analyze the biomedical data can effectively reveal the associated knowledge hidden in the data, and thus promote the discovery of integrated information. Recently, these techniques of bioinformatics have been used for facilitating the interactional effects of both Western medicine and TCM. The analysis of TCM data using computational technologies provides biological evidence for the basic understanding of TCM mechanisms, safety and efficacy of TCM treatments. At the same time, the carrier and targets associated with TCM remedies can inspire the rethinking of modern drug development. This review summarizes the significant achievements of applying bioinformatics techniques to many aspects of the research in TCM, such as analysis of TCM-related '-omics' data and techniques for analyzing biological processes and pharmaceutical mechanisms of TCM, which have shown certain potential of bringing new thoughts to both sides. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  19. Ganoderma lucidum - from tradition to modern medicine

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    Ćilerdžić Jasmina Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum has a long tradition of use in folk medicine of the Far East, which is documented in the oldest Chinese pharmacopoeia, written in the first century B.C, declaring it a superior medicine. The healing properties of G. lucidum reflected on folk names such as: Reishi, Mannentake, Ling Zhi etc., which mean “herb of spiritual power”, “mushroom of immortality” or “10,000-year mushroom”, respectively. It has been known, for thousands of years, that this species extends life span, increases youthful vigour and vitality and it was used in the treatments of hepatitis, kidneys’ disease, hypertension, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, arteriosclerosis, ulcers and various types of cancer. However, Western civilisation did not discover its healing properties until the 20th century. Modern scientific researches and numerous clinical trails, conducted in recent decades, have confirmed the ancient knowledge of Eastern nations and given them a scientific basis. These studies have demonstrated many biological activities of G. lucidum extracts and compounds, including: immunomodulating, antioxidative, cytotoxic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimicrobial, etc. It has been reported that its extracts play important role in detoxification of the body and protecton of the liver, as well as in reducing cardiovascular problems, stress and anxiety. However, its most important effect is undoubtedly immunostimulating one as it is the basis of many other positive effects. The Japanese government introduced G. lucidum on the official list of auxiliary agents for the treatments of various cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes and chronic bronchitis. Many chemical components have been isolated from G. lucidum, but polysaccharides and terpenoids are the main carriers of its bioactivities.

  20. Reasons for patronage of traditional bone setters

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    Innocent Egbeji Abang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to analyze the different reasons why patients with fractures patronize traditional bone setters (TBS and their impression of the outcome of the treatment by the TBS. Materials and Methods: A 24 month prospective observational study was conducted from February 2012 to January 2014. All the patients were recruited from the orthopedics outpatient clinic. The demographic data of each patient, the type of injury, presentation to hospital or not, reasons for leaving the hospital, reasons for patronage of the TBS and their impression of the outcome of TBS′ treatment, effect of educational background on patronage of TBS and reason for presenting to hospital for orthodox treatment. Data Analysis: Analysis was done with SPSS software Version 20. Results: A total 79 patients were recruited for the study and they had different reasons for patronizing TBS. These reasons include an external locus of decision making in 19 (24.1% patients, and greater faith in TBS compared to orthodox medicine in 16 (20.3%. Twelve (15.2% believed that TBS are more competent than orthodox medical practitioners while another group 11 (13.9% considered the fees of TBS cheaper than those in the hospital. The delay in treatment in the hospital, forceful removal of patients from hospital against their will and nonsatisfaction with hospital treatment accounted for 5 (6.3%. Poor attitude of hospital staff, fear of amputation, and patients being unconscious during the injury accounted for 2 (2.5%. Their ages ranged from 17 to 83 years, with mean age of 36.8 ± 11.8 years. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Conclusions and Recommendations: With recent advancements in the practice of orthopedics and trauma, there is still a very high patronage of the TBS by most of our patients. This is largely due to the dependence of the patients on their sponsors for treatment, while the influence of cultural and religious beliefs continues to

  1. TRADITIONS OF RUSSIAN BUSINESS AND CORPORATE PATRIOTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Sverdlikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of employees’ loyalty to organization is usually associated with the analysis of the organizational culture, its norms, values, rules, which create a peculiar relationships the staff and the organization. In modern Russia there is an interesting symbiosis of the different epochs cultures, determining the personnel loyalty to organizations. The article represents the results of the researches received in the last decade by well-known Western and Russian sociological centers, as well as by some separate Russian sociologists. A significant feature of these studies is that they were conducted solely with the use of quantitative methods and in the format of Western corporate values and Western evaluation tools. The author research demonstrates that the corporate culture of Russian organizations, as well as the personnel loyalty, does not meet many inherent in international practice, evaluation criteria. Russian business culture is usually regarded as being in the process of becoming, to some extent, “underdeveloped” in comparison with the culture that exists in countries with strong capitalist traditions. This is not true. Over 25 years in Russia of market economy development have formed a certain system of values, incorporating values of pre-revolutionary business, ideological orientations of the Soviet era and the values that have been formed in recent years. Low degree of personnel’s loyalty towards the organizations, in this respect, is not a symptom of the cultural underdevelopment, it is a specific cultural trait of the domestic business, which has a quite rational basis and is not a subject to exclusively negative interpretation. This conclusion is based on the results of qualitative and quantitative research, conducted using methods of biographical analysis and content analysis of contemporary business periodicals. These qualitative and quantitative research methods in the analysis of the Russian corporate values determine a

  2. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man

    2011-06-01

    With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created.

  3. Impact of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganyado, Edmond; Teta, Charles; Masiri, Busani

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies show cultural worldviews are a key determinant of environmental risk perceptions; thus, they could influence climate change adaptation strategies. African traditional worldviews encourage harmony between humans and the environment through a complex metaphysical belief system transmitted through folklore, taboos, and traditional knowledge. However, African traditional worldviews hold a belief in traditional gods that was shown to have a low connectedness to nature and a low willingness to change. In Makueni District, Kenya, 45% of agropastoralists surveyed believed drought was god's plan and could not be changed. In contrast, traditional knowledge, which is shaped by African traditional worldviews, is often used to frame adaptive strategies such as migration, changing modes of production, and planting different crop varieties. Furthermore, traditional knowledge has been used as a complement to science in areas where meteorological data was unavailable. However, the role of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaption remains understudied. Hence, there is a need to systematically establish the influence of African traditional worldviews on climate change risk perception, development of adaptive strategies, and policy formulation and implementation. In this commentary, we discuss the potential impacts of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:189-193. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  4. ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL BUILDING TECHNIQUES AND DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Tanac Zeren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Western part of the Anatolia is one of the most important regions of the World that many civilizations have lived during the history since ancient times. Kula is an important historical town dating back to 17th century and is hosting important timber farmed structures (mansions unique with their space organizations, architectural features and structural system. This study creates an analysis model which is based on a detailed case study, defining structural system and damage causes for the upcoming restoration works within the region, and this methodology can be applied for other traditional regions as well.

  5. Typological Study of Traditional Mosque Ornamentation in Malaysia – Prospect of Traditional Ornament in Urban Mosque

    OpenAIRE

    N. Utaberta; S. D. M. Sojak; M. Surat; A. I. Che-Ani; M.M. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Since the admission of Islam onto the Malay World in 16th century, the Malay culture began to grow in line with the teachings of Islam as a guide of life. Mosque become a symbol of Muslim communities, as well as the cultural values that have been adapted represent the maturity and readiness of Malay Muslim in manifest a lifestyle tradition into the community. Refinement of ornament that used to take from Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before were adopted and refined to the Islami...

  6. Physiopathology of dementia from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-07-01

    The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. [Advances on pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine under disease states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zi-peng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Rui-jie; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-xin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more and more research shows that the pharmacokinetic parameter of traditional Chinese medicine can be affected by the disease states. It's possible that drug metabolic enzymes, transporters, cell membrane permeability and the change of microbes group could be interfered with physiological and pathological changes, which enables the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine in the body to be altered, including the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters of traditional chinese medicine are altered. It's found that investigating the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the pathological state is more useful than that of in normal state because the great part of traditional Chinese medicine is mainly used to treat disease. This article reflects the latest research on the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the disease state such as diabete, cerebral ischemia, liver injury, inflammatory disease, nervous system disorders and fever in order to provide certain reference for clinicians designing reasonable administration dose.

  8. [Different philosophical traditions for knowledge development in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ariane; Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Gendron, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    doctoral studies in nursing engage a critical reflections about philosophical traditions inherent to knowledge development. critical realism, hermeneutics, postmodernism and poststructuralism refer to philosophical traditions that are generally less explored in nursing, although they are attracting greater attention. this paper offers an introductory presentation to these traditions as the authors also reflect upon their contribution to nursing knowledge development in. for each tradition, ontological and epistemological properties are presented to provide an overview of their main features. Contributions to nursing knowledge development are then discussed. ontology refers to stratified, fixed and changing, or multiple realities, depending on the philosophical tradition. Likewise, epistemology emphasizes the explanatory power of knowledge, intersubjectivity, or inherent power dynamics. the diversity of philosophical traditions represents an asset that can significantly contribute to the advancement of the nursing discipline. clarification of the philosophical dimensions that underlie knowledge development is essential for doctoral nursing students in the process of developing their research projects and future programmes of research.

  9. Traditional Postpartum Practices Among Malaysian Mothers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Fariza; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2016-07-01

    To briefly describe the postpartum practices among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia and to identify commonalities in their traditional postpartum beliefs and practices. This narrative review collated information on traditional postpartum practices among Malaysian mothers through a literature search for published research papers on traditional postpartum practices in Malaysia. This review shows that Malaysian mothers have certain postpartum practices that they considered to be important for preventing future ill health. Despite the perceived differences in intra-ethnic postpartum practices, most Malaysian mothers, although from different ethnicities, share similarities in their postpartum regimens and practices in terms of beliefs and adherence to food taboos, use of traditional postpartum massage and traditional herbs, and acknowledgment of the role of older female family members in postpartum care. Health care providers should be aware of multiethnic traditional postpartum practices and use the commonalities in these practices as part of their postpartum care regimen.

  10. Ceramic tiles: above and beyond traditional applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available At present ceramic tiles are already being marketed with characteristics and performance features that make them products whose applications go far beyond traditional tile uses. These are not just future possibilities: their industrial and commercial reality already makes them immediately serviceable in multiple environments. And this is precisely the key concept in these new tile applications: their features make them useable for wholly different functions – functions till now reserved for other products – or, in certain cases, for entirely novel functions. In addition, the functionalities involved are destined to improve aspects directly related to the quality of life, conditions of habitability or, for instance, to using such a vital natural source of energy as solar radiation. It should, therefore, be stressed that these new generations of ceramic tiles are to be considered part of the range of architectural elements for both external and internal uses, since, as the following will show, they provide the surfaces they clad with a broad spectrum of properties and functions without detriment to the aesthetic qualities, always so characteristic, of ceramic tile. To illustrate the above, the present paper describes three new families of ceramic products. These groups of products are conceptually different and many-sided, which makes them serviceable as functional elements in different contexts.

    En estos momentos, ya hay en el mercado baldosas cerámicas dotadas de características y prestaciones que hacen de ellas productos con aplicaciones que van mucho más allá de los usos a que tradicionalmente han estado asociadas. No se trata tan sólo de posibilidades futuras, sino de productos con una realidad industrial y comercial, que permite su implantación inmediata en los diferentes ámbitos en los que pueden desarrollar su funcionalidad. Y este es precisamente el concepto clave de estas nuevas aplicaciones de las baldosas cer

  11. Traditional application of slates in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, Manuela; Cardenes Van den Eynde, Víctor

    2017-04-01

    Commercial slates in Uruguay are represented by dolomitic and pelitic slates, which are known in the local market with the generic name of "piedra laja". The dolomitic slates, or more precisely the "slaty dolomitic semipelites" and "slaty dolomitic metacarbonate rocks" (following the nomenclature of the British Geological Survey for metamorphic rocks, Robertson 1999), dominates the production since 1960. The mining started in a quarry called "Libro Gigante", which means "giant book" in Spanish, as the slaty cleavage of these rocks is almost vertical, which resembles a book when looked from far away. These slates integrate the Lavalleja Group, a unit that comprises the schist belt of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt that crops out in south-eastern Uruguay. According to Morales Demarco et al (2013), there are two active slate mining districts in this region: the northern, called "Arroyo Minas Viejas Mining District", from where light grey, light and dark green and green-red slate varieties are mined, and the southern called "Arroyo Mataojo Mining District" and where only dark grey slates are extracted. Few kilometres eastern from these districts, and still in Lavalleja Group, a quarry of slaty dolomitic pelite is found with sporadic production. Far to the east, the slaty muscovitic pelites of Rocha Group are mined from one quarry in "Puntas del Chafalote". The traditional applications of these slates in the country are as façade cladding and floor slabs, both indoor and outdoor. The potential use of the dolomitic slates as roofing slates has been investigated and discarded by Morales Demarco et al (2013), as the slabs resulting from splitting are too thick (0.5 to 2 cm) and thus too heavy for this application. The parameter that controls the fissility of slates is the mass value (Bentz and Martini, 1968; DIN EN 12326-2, 2000) and is very important to determine their potential applications. It takes into account the number of mica layers per mm and the average

  12. Identifying the Principles of Traditional Iranian Architecture in the Light of Vastu Shastra, the Traditional Indian Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goodarzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Iranian houses have always been recognized as examples of 'good-design' in the context of Iranian Architecture according to many scholars. It is believed that their creation has been influenced by the systems of beliefs in the traditional Iranian society; an established system closely followed in their design process which has led to their phenomenal architectural design. The traditional houses of Kashan are excellent examples of such which have often been described as the finest examples of Traditional Iranian houses. However insufficient documentation of the design process of these architectural masterpieces has led to disputes among scholars in determining the exacct architectural system, behind their creation. The effect therefore is not only the inability in creating houses with the same quality in current architectural societies of Iran, but also their decay due to lack of attention and preservation. Historical studies point towards an influence of Indian Architectural system, Vastu Shastra, on the creation of traditional Iranian houses, which appears to be the earlier practice of house design within the Indo-Aryan communities. Using Vastu Shastra as a framework, the objective is to conduct case studies on 22 traditional houses of Kashan to identify the existence of a similar well-established system in Iran based on which all the traditional houses have been designed, and further to introduce it as the traditional architectural system in Iran. In this way the principles of traditional houses of Kashan can be identified in the light of Vastu Shastra, the traditional Indian wisdom.

  13. Application of nuclear irradiation to traditional chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jianping; Li Xuehu; Lu Xihong; Tao Lei; Wang Shuyang

    2010-01-01

    The application of nuclear irradiation in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has received much attention. In this paper we reviewed the application of nuclear radiation on the cultivation, breeding and disinfection of traditional Chinese medicine, and pointed out that the combination of radiation-induced mutagenesis and biological technology would promise broad prospects for increasing the cellular mutation rate and speeding up the genetic improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. (authors)

  14. NICHE MARKETS FOR TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    Social media is becoming more and more important in our daily life as it influences the ways people live and how they think. For example, people no longer just rely on traditional travel agencies for travelling. Thus, how traditional travel agencies survive in such transformation is crucial. In order to find connections between social media and travel agencies marketing strategies, quantitative research was introduced to encourage and help the traditional travel agencies to find their niche m...

  15. Portuguese traditional sausages: different types, nutritional composition, and novel trends

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Marcos; Cláudia Viegas; André M. de Almeida; Maria Manuela Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sausages—smoked, fermented or dried—are meat products that are part of the traditional daily diet in rural Portugal, and also highly valued in major cities with an increasing demand. These ethnic meat products are manufactured mainly by small-scale industries or artisanal producers according to and/or inspired by traditional processes. They are present in a wide variety of types, many recognized for their quality (38 certified products). Presently, cure technologies used are impor...

  16. First developmental stages of advertising in traditional media

    OpenAIRE

    Kesl, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The first developmental stages of advertising in traditional media Jakub Kesl Abstract Diploma thesis "The first developmental stages of advertising in traditional media" deals with the commercial use of media in its first forms and handles the evolution of advertising communication in conjunction with the development of media. Traditional media - print, radio and television in the period starting with emergence of these media until the point of establishment of advertising as their more or l...

  17. Practice Location Characteristics of Non-Traditional Dental Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Eric S; Jones, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Current and future dental school graduates are increasingly likely to choose a non-traditional dental practice-a group practice managed by a dental service organization or a corporate practice with employed dentists-for their initial practice experience. In addition, the growth of non-traditional practices, which are located primarily in major urban areas, could accelerate the movement of dentists to those areas and contribute to geographic disparities in the distribution of dental services. To help the profession understand the implications of these developments, the aim of this study was to compare the location characteristics of non-traditional practices and traditional dental practices. After identifying non-traditional practices across the United States, the authors located those practices and traditional dental practices geographically by zip code. Non-traditional dental practices were found to represent about 3.1% of all dental practices, but they had a greater impact on the marketplace with almost twice the average number of staff and annual revenue. Virtually all non-traditional dental practices were located in zip codes that also had a traditional dental practice. Zip codes with non-traditional practices had significant differences from zip codes with only a traditional dental practice: the populations in areas with non-traditional practices had higher income levels and higher education and were slightly younger and proportionally more Hispanic; those practices also had a much higher likelihood of being located in a major metropolitan area. Dental educators and leaders need to understand the impact of these trends in the practice environment in order to both prepare graduates for practice and make decisions about planning for the workforce of the future.

  18. Do the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The statutory recognition of traditional healers as healthcare practitioners in South Africa in terms of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act 22 of 2007 is based on various assumptions, opinions and generalizations. One of the prominent views is that the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. It even has been alleged that this number can be as high as 80 per cent of the South African population. For medical doctors and other health practitioners registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA, this new statutory status of traditional health practitioners, means the required presence of not only a healthcare competitor that can overstock the healthcare market with service lending, medical claims and healthcare costs, but also a competitor prone to malpractice. Aims The study aimed to determine if the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study following the modern historical approach of investigation and literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers, as primary sources to determine if the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It is clear that there is no trustworthy statistics on the percentages of South Africans using traditional healers. A scientific survey is needed to determine the extent to which traditional healers are consulted. This will only be possible after the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 has been fully enacted and traditional health practitioners have become fully active in the healthcare sector. Conclusion In poorer, rural areas no more than 11.2 per cent of the South African population regularly consult traditional healers, while the figure for the total population seems to be no more than 1.4 per cent. The argument that the majority of South

  19. Investigation of Indonesian Traditional Houses through CFD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendri; Koerniawan, M. D.

    2017-03-01

    Modern buildings in Indonesia rely mostly on artificial lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation. It means more energy is used to drive mechanical appliances, and presumably not sustainable. Meanwhile modern buildings consume much energy, traditional architectures are known as the source of knowledge for sustainable, energy efficient and climate responsive design. Noticeably, one of the differences between modern and traditional buildings in Indonesia is shown in their strategy to provide thermal comfort to the user. Traditional buildings use natural ventilation, but modern buildings use mechanical air conditioning. By focusing on wind-driven ventilation, the study aims to investigate natural ventilation strategy of Indonesian traditional house, and their potential improvement to be used in modern Indonesian buildings. Three traditional houses are studied in this research, representing west, central, and east Indonesia. The houses are Lampung traditional house, Javanese traditional house, and Toraja traditional house. CFD simulation is conducted to simulate wind-driven ventilation behaviour and the temperature of the buildings. Concisely, the wind-natural ventilation of case study houses is potential to provide thermal comfort inside the houses. However, the strategy still can be optimized by adding some other passive design strategies: sun-shading; vegetation; or buildings arrangement in the traditional dwelling. Consideration about the roof’s shape and windows position to the roof is important as well to create a uniform air distribution.

  20. Benefits of Traditional Hydro to MHK and the Regulatory Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2017-07-12

    Presentation discussing how traditional hydropower laws and regulations can be leveraged when developing marine and hydrokinetic projects as well as exceptions to FERC licensing for hydrokinetic projects.

  1. Certainty, leaps of faith, and tradition: rethinking clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, L C

    1998-12-01

    Clinical decision making requires that clinicians think quickly and in ways that will foster optimal, safe client care. Tradition influences clinical decision making, enhancing efficiency of resulting nursing action; however, since many decisions must be based on data that are either uncertain, incomplete, or indirect, clinicians are readily ensnared in processes involving potentially faulty logic associated with tradition. The author addresses the tenacity of tradition and then focuses on three processes--consensus formation, the grounding of certainty in inductive reasoning, and affirming the consequent--that have affected clinical decision making. For some recipients of care, tradition has had a substantial and invalid influence on their ability to access care.

  2. Traditional leadership factor in modern local government system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional leadership factor in modern local government system in Ghana: policy Implementation, role conflict and marginalization. ... at promoting education, health and environmental management, are highly commendable in Ghana.

  3. Traditional medicines, HIV, and related infections: workshop 2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Bessong, P; Liu, H

    2011-04-01

    Traditional medicines are an integral part of health care worldwide, even though their efficacy has not been scientifically proven. HIV-infected individuals may use them singularly or in combination with conventional medicines. Many in vitro studies have proven the anti-HIV, anti-Candida, and anti-herpes simplex virus potential of traditional plants and identified some of the mechanisms of action. Very few in vivo studies are available that involve a small number of participants and show controversial results. In addition, knowledge is limited of the role of traditional medicines in the enhancement of the immune system. The use of traditional medicines with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) has created a problem because drug interactions compromise the efficacy of ARVs. Several currently popular plants have been studied in the laboratory for their interaction with ARVs, with disadvantageous results. Unfortunately, no clinical trials are available. The science of traditional medicines is relatively new and is at present being modernized worldwide. However, there are still ethical issues regarding traditional medicines that need to be addressed-for example, regulations regarding quality control and standardization of medicines, regulation and education of healers who deliver these medicines, and unregulated clinical trials. The workshop addressed the following questions about traditional medicine and their use in HIV infection: What are the mechanisms of action of anti-HIV traditional medicines? Should traditional medicines be used in conjunction with ARV? Do traditional medicines enhance the immune system? Should medicinal plants be used for the control of oral infections associated with HIV? What are the ethical issues surrounding the use of traditional medicines for the treatment of HIV and associated infections?

  4. Personalized medicine: a confluence of traditional and contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Samineh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2014-01-01

    Traditional systems of medicine have attained great popularity among patients in recent years. Success of this system in the treatment of disease warrants consideration, particularly in cases for which conventional medicine has been insufficient. This study investigates the similarities in principles and approaches of 3 traditional systems and explores whether conventional medicine is able to exploit the advantages of traditional systems. This study first identifies and explores the advantages of 3 well-known systems-traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), ayurveda, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-that are similar in their basic principles and methods. Second, it clarifies whether and how conventional medicine could exploit the advantages of traditional systems as it modernizes, to become more personalized. Finally, this study investigates the possibility that conventional medicine could benefit from traditional typology to improve its personalization. The acknowledgment of the unity of humans and nature, applying rational methods, and personalized approaches is fundamentally similar in the 3 systems. Additionally, they all promote the holistic view that health is harmony and disease is disharmony of the body. Other similarities include their recognition of the unique nature of every person and their categorization of people into different body types. Although conventional medicine has mostly failed to incorporate the advantages of traditional medicine, its integration with traditional medicine is achievable. For instance, exploiting traditional typologies in genomic and other studies may facilitate personalization of conventional medicine. From its review, the research team concludes that prospects are bright for the integration of traditional and conventional medicines and, consequently, for a dramatic improvement in health systems.

  5. The Post-traditional Chef in Traditional France: Negotiating the Gastronational myth in Le chef en France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    – very often with a distinct focus on the margins of these countries- and valorising the exoticism in the proximity. In these shows there is often uphold another kind of modern-premodern dichotomy not between white and darker cultures, but between the urban, post-traditional culture (incorporated...... by the host) and the traditional pastoral culture in which archaic modes of being and living still exists. In the programs we often see a negotiation between the post-traditional and the traditional culture that often try to underline the entanglement and the interdependency of the two worlds in the national...

  6. Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years Robin Horton has argued for what he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. Horton's thesis stands in contrast to the standard Western anthropological appraisal of traditional African thought.

  7. Cultural heritage in the food traditions of the Sakha people ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper emphasizes the importance of studying the traditional Yakut/Sakha food as a historical, sociological, psychological and economic factor in the life of the ethnos. The Sakha are one of the most ancient Turkic peoples. Throughout many centuries, the Sakha managed to preserve their food traditions. Life in severe ...

  8. Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercian Mystical Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Brian Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercian mystical tradition; Bernard's hagiography, the Vita prima; Bernard, sharing with audience, perceptions of God's advent as the divine Word; Brothers of the New Monastery in 1098, less interest in the mystical; Medieval mystics and mystical traditions; Sensuous...

  9. Use of Traditional Botanical Medicines During Pregnancy in Rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Jason; Asanti, Daniel; Nsabimana, Damien; Anastos, Kathryn; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin; Sirotin, Nicole; Nathan, Lisa M

    To evaluate the perceptions of healthcare and traditional medicine providers regarding the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of traditional medicine use amongst pregnant women in a rural Rwandan population. Six focus groups with physicians, nurses, and community health workers and four individual in-depth interviews with traditional medicine providers were held. Qualitative data was gathered using a structured questionnaire querying perceptions of the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of use of traditional medicines in pregnancy. The healthcare provider groups perceived a high prevalence of traditional botanical medicine use by pregnant women (50-80%). All three groups reported similar indications for use of the medicines and the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women who use them. The traditional medicine providers and the healthcare providers both perceived that the most commonly used medicine is a mixture of many plants, called Inkuri. The most serious side effect reported was abnormally bright green meconium with a poor neonatal respiratory drive. Thirty-five traditional medicines were identified that are used during pregnancy. Perceptions of high prevalence of use of traditional medicines during pregnancy with possible negative perinatal outcomes exist in areas of rural Rwanda.

  10. Career Maturity of Students in Accelerated versus Traditional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Richard, George V.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors assessed the career maturity of students in accelerated versus traditional academic programs. Students in traditional programs were hypothesized to be more advanced regarding their career decision making and development when compared with students in accelerated programs. The Medical Career Development Inventory (see M. L. Savickas,…

  11. Vicarious Versus Traditional Learning in Biology: A Case of Sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare between learning sexually transmitted infections in Biology by observation and traditional classroom lecture method ... The study found that observational method was more effective and preferred by students as compared to traditional lecture method ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidan Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  13. Attitudes toward clinical and traditional treatment for the Buruli ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satisfaction with clinical treatment is not higher than with traditional medicine; people tend to turn to clinical medicine after traditional treatments fail. Few social stigmas result from the disease other than avoidance of the unsightly ulcer and the unpleasant smell, and among children, some teasing. The major concern ...

  14. Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

  15. Post-modern career assessment for traditionally disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-modern career assessment for traditionally disadvantaged South African learners: Moving away from the 'expert opinion' ... Perspectives in Education ... This article explores the perceptions of learners from a disadvantaged community regarding the limitations and advantages of traditional and post-modern career ...

  16. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  17. Notions Of Mental Illness By Vhavenda Traditional Healers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on a study that investigated the notions of mental illness by Vhavenda traditional healers in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Specifically, the aim of the researchers was to understand and describe these traditional healers' representations of the causes of mental illness, including the diagnostic and ...

  18. Learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning of science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment were investigated by looking at: 1) the nature of \\"cognitive border crossing\\" exhibited by the students from the traditional to the scientific worldview, and 2) whether or not three learning theories / hypotheses: border crossing, collaterality, and ...

  19. Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click here to go to the Mann Library Home Page Click here to return to the HEARTH Home Page Click , Tradition and History HEARTH is a core electronic collection of books and journals in Home Economics and Archive: Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH). Ithaca, NY: Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University

  20. Knowledge and Practice of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. One of the strategies Ministries of Health and their partners have adopted with the aim of promoting safe motherhood since the 1980's is training unskilled traditional birth attendants (TBAs). However, the assumption that training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) would contribute greatly to reduce maternal ...

  1. Regulating traditional justice in South Africa: a comparative analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without a reconsideration of the issues, the Bill will still be met with criticism even from those it is meant to regulate, and could potentially result in various constitutional challenges and litigations. KEYWORDS: Traditional Courts Bill; traditional justice systems; customary law; ascertainment; legal representation; hierarchy of ...

  2. Parental deceptive information: A case of traditional uvulectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional uvulectomy (TU) is a partial or radical removal of the uvula by traditional practitioners. Therapeutic uvulectomy is performed as a remedy for various ailments usually; persistent cough, sore throat, dry throat, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, rejection of breast by a child and growth retardation. In Tanzania, TU is done ...

  3. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...

  4. Current and future prospects of integrating traditional and alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Health Research Bulletin 7, September 2005 ... Abstract: Traditional medicine and medicinal plants, in general, continue to be a powerful ... medicines and deliberate efforts should be made to encourage local industrial production of traditional/herbal medicines ... paper examines some evidences and indicators of ...

  5. Comparison of pressure-driven membrane processes and traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article a comparison is made between drinking water production from surface water using pressure-driven membrane processes and using traditional surface water treatment systems. Three alternatives are considered: Traditional treatment using coagulation/flocculation, sand filtration, physicochemical softening, ...

  6. Methods of Conflict Resolution in African Traditional Society | Ajayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the patterns or mechanism for conflict resolution in traditional African societies with particular reference to Yoruba and Igbo societies in Nigeria and Pondo tribe in South Africa. The paper notes that conflict resolution in traditional African societies provides opportunity to interact with the parties ...

  7. Traditional use, antibacterial activity and antifungal activity of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fleshy leaves and roots of most species within the Aloe family are used in many traditional treatments (Mabberley, 1987). Traditional healers and indigenous people utilize mainly the leaf sap of this genus widely for the treatment of wounds, burns, rashes, itches, cracked lips and cracked skin (Cera et al., 1980).

  8. A Comparison of Alienation among Alternatively and Traditionally Certified Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoho, Alan R.; Martin, Nancy K.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of alienation among alternatively and traditionally certified teachers. A total of 228 teachers in grades K-12 from a public university offering both traditional certification (TC) and cooperative alternative certification (AC) graduate programs were assessed using the School Alienation…

  9. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-04-29

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  10. A Comparison of Collaborative and Traditional Instruction in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubera, Chip; Aruguete, Mara S.

    2013-01-01

    Although collaborative instructional techniques have become popular in college courses, it is unclear whether collaborative techniques can replace more traditional instructional methods. We examined the efficacy of collaborative courses (in-class, collaborative activities with no lectures) compared to traditional lecture courses (in-class,…

  11. Students Awareness towards Traditional Cultural Dances in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R. Albattat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has many ethnic groups, and each ethnic group has own custom and tradition that most Malaysians are not aware, especially traditional dances. Among the Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, situated in the Borneo Island have the most diverse ethnic groups in Sarawak. It has more than 30 ethnic groups. Each of the ethnic groups has its own language, cultures and lifestyle. In this regards, this research focuses on the main ethnic groups of Sarawak which are Orang Ulu, Malays, Melanau, Bidayuh, Chinese and Ibans. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of awareness among the Management and Science University (MSU students regarding their level of awareness and knowledge about traditional dances of Sarawak. The data were gathered by distributing questionnaires among MSU students. The data were then analysed using SPSS system version 18.0. Results concluded that, most of MSU students have limited knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. Interests, internet, performing arts clubs and family background are the independent variable factors to learn and gain knowledge about Sarawak traditional dances. The level of awareness among MSU students towards Sarawak traditional dances can be enhanced through events and special occasions to increase level of awareness towards Sarawak cultures. The government plays a major role in introducing Sarawak cultures to the whole of Malaysia. Future studies could focus on factors that influence the level of awareness towards Sarawak traditional dances, and the contribution of Sarawak’s traditional dances to Malaysia’s cultural and heritage tourism.

  12. Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, from traditional use to immunomodulatory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Hobbe Friso

    2000-01-01

    Natural products have been an important resource for the maintenance of life for ages. Evaluation of traditionally used medicines, keeping into account the traditional principles that are applied in drug therapy, may supply leads towards effective drug discovery. This thesis deals with the

  13. Bidding model for sustainable projects using the traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional procurement method (TPM) is still widely used in construction because of some advantages it offers over other methods. Contractor selection in the traditional procurement method can no longer be overlooked- being a vital process that influences project success in terms of cost, quality, function, and ...

  14. Traditional wrestling in Niger: between state voluntarism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional wrestling occupies pride of place in Niger, compared to other sports and cultural activities. Interest in traditional wrestling is widespread among Nigériens from all walks of life: young men, adults, senior citizens, young women, mature women, adult men, handicapped persons, prisoners, peasant farmers, civil ...

  15. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health and drug policies of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health recognize the important role traditional health systems play in health care. Unfortunately, little has ... Conclusion: The Ethiopian government firmly supports and encourages traditional medicine through its policies as part of the national heritage. Despite these ...

  16. Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…

  17. Traditional Islamic Education in Morocco: Sociohistorical and Psychological Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Lotfi, Abdelhamid

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses present forms of traditional Islamic (Quranic) education in Morocco in the light of modernization. Also considered is the potential impact of such traditional pedagogy on various cognitive abilities, whose growth is sometimes said to have been stunted by such experiences. (Author/SJL)

  18. Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    Envelope representations such as the auditory or traditional spectrogram can be defined by the set of envelopes from the outputs of a filterbank. Common envelope extraction methods discard information regarding the fast fluctuations, or phase, of the signal. Thus, it is difficult to invert, or re...... to the framework is proposed, which leads to a more accurate inversion of traditional spectrograms...

  19. Traditional Birth Attendants Issue: A Menace in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of births in Nigeria still occur at homes of traditional birth attendant. Traditional birth attendants are popular in developing and low resource countries. They lack no formal education or medical training and their clients end up with obstetric complications which lead to severe morbidity ...

  20. Learning and Teaching Traditional Music in Cambodia: Challenges and Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Substantial efforts have been made since the Khmer Rouge regime to revitalize traditional Cambodian music genres. While they have met with some success, local circumstances still present many difficulties for the transmission of traditional music to the younger generations. This study explores the challenges in learning and teaching traditional…

  1. Traditional leadership and independent bantustans of south africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this article is to explore and discuss the legal position and the role of the politics of the traditional leaders in the independent Bantustans or homelands of apartheid South Africa. As a point of departure, this article gives a brief account of the status of the traditional leaders before the inception of apartheid.

  2. Traditional medicine development for medical and dental primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gradual extinction of the forests and the inevitable disappearance of the aged Traditional Medical Practitioner should pose an impending deadline for us to learn, acquire and document our medical cultural endowment for the benefit of all Africans and indeed the entire mankind. Key Words: Traditional African Medicine ...

  3. Blending Online and Traditional Instruction in the Mathematics Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Gene; Haefner, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the MathOnline system at the University of Colorado (Colorado Springs), a learning delivery method that, in addition to blending synchronous and asynchronous learning, combines traditional mathematics instruction with distance learning. Student surveys indicate the system greatly enhances traditional learners' educational experiences…

  4. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  5. Chieftaincy succession disputes and the challenge to traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two succession disputes at the provincial and the sub-provincial level of the traditional political hierarchy are analysed in detail. Both cases represented a challenge to traditional authority and are an indication of the changing relationship between chiefs and their subjects in Mamprusi society and throughout Northern ...

  6. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  7. The task of understanding the Gospel traditions: Werner Kelber's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research of WH Kelber on the Gospel traditions have important implications. His main emphases are summarized and certain aspects briefly commended. A critical discussion concerning the aims of interpretation, the issue of conflicting traditions, the immense problem of orality and the interpretation of Mark is ...

  8. Traditionally protected forests and nature conservation in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 920 traditionally protected forests have been found in sample areas in Handeni District (23 villages) and Mwanga District (Usangi and Ugweno Divisions). The size of the forests is between 0.125 and 200 ha. In earlier times sacred forests (one of the seven different types of traditionally protected forests in Handeni) ...

  9. In Vitro Testing of African Traditional Medicines for Cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view ...

  10. Traditional medicines and alternative practice in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at identifying Ghanaian traditional medicines used for the management of prostate diseases and their constituents. Reviews of studies conducted on them are also presented. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Traditional Medicine samples from consecutive patients with either ...

  11. Traditional medication use among out-patients attending the eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional medicine practice is thriving in Nigeria. Proximity, easy accessibility, cost and increasing interest in natural products of plant origin are factors that have been implicated. Inappropriate and unregulated use of traditional medications can result in hazardous effects. Lately, the World Health Organization ...

  12. US and Russian Traditions in Rhetoric, Education and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional rhetoric attempts to find the available means of persuasion in public assemblies, law courts and ceremonials and is grounded in cultural values and beliefs. Traditional rhetoric supports the development of social communities and posits education as a primary means of maintaining these communities. In contrast, contemporary alternatives…

  13. Trends and Challenges of Traditional Medicine in Africa | Abdullahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the introduction of cosmopolitan medicine, traditional medicine used to be the dominant medical system available to millions of people in Africa in both rural and urban communities. However, the arrival of the Europeans marked a significant turning point in the history of this age-long tradition and culture. This paper ...

  14. Traditional medicine in late pregnancy and labour: perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa most black women use antenatal care services and deliver in clinics, and a considerable number complement this use of formal health services with traditional medicine. This study reported here examined the knowledge, beliefs and practical experiences of pregnant women, traditional healers and midwives ...

  15. Influence of the areas of specialization of Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs) make use of plants in alleviation of many illnesses including memory loss. Their specialization categories could include traditional healers, herbalists, herb sellers, etc. Most of them learnt the trade as apprentices from their trainers or their parents. This study was designed to ...

  16. The prevalence, types and effects of traditional eye medicine use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on ...

  17. The Predicaments of Language Learners in Traditional Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Mansor, Mahani

    2009-01-01

    Some public universities in developing countries have traditional language learning environments such as classrooms with only blackboards and furniture which do not provide conducive learning environments. These traditional environments are unable to cater for digital learners who need to learn with learning technologies. In order to create…

  18. Traditional Ethics and Social Stability: The African experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional ethics in this paper refers to the norms, precepts, principles and moral codes, which regulate the conduct and actions of individuals in African societies. The paper provides a clear understanding of African Ethics and morality. It shows how traditional ethical principles helped to maintain and ensure social order ...

  19. Problem Behaviours, Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Longitudinal Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…

  20. Complex transmission in a literate music tradition: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, R.

    2008-01-01

    How is it possible to arrive at musical sound from a written document? Is it possible by reading only? Usually a clear distinction is made between oral and written traditions in music. However, written music traditions cannot work by transmission through writing alone. Oral transmission is always