WorldWideScience

Sample records for traditional paper-and-pencil tests

  1. Validation of a Paper and Pencil Test Battery for the Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Jun, Dae Won; Bai, Daiseg; Kim, Ji Yean; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Sang Bong; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jeong, Soung Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Song, Do Seon; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jung, Young Kul; Yoon, Eileen L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a new paper and pencil test battery to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in Korea. A new paper and pencil test battery was composed of number connection test-A (NCT-A), number connection test-B (NCT-B), digit span test (DST), and symbol digit modality test (SDMT). The norm of the new test was based on 315 healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 70 years old. Another 63 healthy subjects (n = 31) and cirrhosis patients (n = 32) were included as a validation cohort. All participants completed the new paper and pencil test, a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and computerized cognitive function test (visual continuous performance test [CPT]). The scores on the NCT-A and NCT-B increased but those of DST and SDMT decreased according to age. Twelve of the cirrhotic patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with MHE based on the new paper and pencil test battery. The total score of the paper and pencil test battery showed good positive correlation with the CFF (r = 0.551, P cognitive function test. Also, this score was lower in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE (P cognitive test decreased significantly in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE. Test-retest reliability was comparable. In conclusion, the new paper and pencil test battery including NCT-A, NCT-B, DST, and SDMT showed good correlation with neuropsychological tests. This new paper and pencil test battery could help to discriminate patients with impaired cognitive function in cirrhosis (registered at Clinical Research Information Service [CRIS], https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris, KCT0000955). © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. Inventory of Motive of Preference for Conventional Paper-and-Pencil Tests: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Mehmet Taha; Dogan, Nuri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop the Inventory of Motive of Preference for Conventional Paper-And-Pencil Tests and to evaluate students' motives for preferring written tests, short-answer tests, true/false tests or multiple-choice tests. This will add a measurement tool to the literature with valid and reliable results to help…

  3. A comparison of paper-and-pencil and computerized forms of Line Orientation and Enhanced Cued Recall Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşkar, Petek; Altun, Arif; Cangöz, Banu; Cevik, Vildan; Kaya, Galip; Türksoy, Hasan

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests could produce similar results as the conventional forms. Comparisons on 77 volunteer undergraduates were carried out with two neuropsychological tests: Line Orientation Test and Enhanced Cued Recall Test. Firstly, students were assigned randomly across the test medium (paper-and-pencil versus computerized). Secondly, the groups were given the same test in the other medium after a 30-day interval between tests. Results showed that the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Computer-based did not correlate with the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Paper-and-pencil results. Line Orientation Test-Computer-based scores, on the other hand, did correlate significantly with the Line Orientation Test-Paper-and-pencil version. In both tests, scores were higher on paper-and-pencil tests compared to computer-based tests. Total score difference between modalities was statistically significant for both Enhanced Cued Recall Tests and for the Line Orientation Test. In both computer-based tests, it took less time for participants to complete the tests.

  4. Correlations between the scores of computerized adaptive testing, paper and pencil tests, and the Korean Medical Licensing Examination

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    Mee Young Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the usefulness of computerized adaptive testing (CAT in medical school, the General Examination for senior medical students was administered as a paper and pencil test (P&P and using CAT. The General Examination is a graduate examination, which is also a preliminary examination for the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. The correlations between the results of the CAT and P&P and KMLE were analyzed. The correlation between the CAT and P&P was 0.8013 (p=0.000; that between the CAT and P&P was 0.7861 (p=0.000; and that between the CAT and KMLE was 0.6436 (p=0.000. Six out of 12 students with an ability estimate below 0.52 failed the KMLE. The results showed that CAT could replace P&P in medical school. The ability of CAT to predict whether students would pass the KMLE was 0.5 when the criterion of the theta value was set at -0.52 that was chosen arbitrarily for the prediction of pass or failure.

  5. Symbolic magnitude processing in elementary school children: A group administered paper-and-pencil measure (SYMP Test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2017-08-01

    The ability to compare symbolic numerical magnitudes correlates with children's concurrent and future mathematics achievement. We developed and evaluated a quick timed paper-and-pencil measure that can easily be used, for example in large-scale research, in which children have to cross out the numerically larger of two Arabic one- and two-digit numbers (SYMP Test). We investigated performance on this test in 1,588 primary school children (Grades 1-6) and examined in each grade its associations with mathematics achievement. The SYMP Test had satisfactory test-retest reliability. The SYMP Test showed significant and stable correlations with mathematics achievement for both one-digit and two-digit comparison, across all grades. This replicates the previously observed association between symbolic numerical magnitude processing and mathematics achievement, but extends it by showing that the association is observed in all grades in primary education and occurs for single- as well as multi-digit processing. Children with mathematical learning difficulties performed significantly lower on one-digit comparison and two-digit comparison in all grades. This all suggests satisfactory construct and criterion-related validity of the SYMP Test, which can be used in research, when performing large-scale (intervention) studies, and by practitioners, as screening measure to identify children at risk for mathematical difficulties or dyscalculia.

  6. Validity of Cognitive ability tests – comparison of computerized adaptive testing with paper and pencil and computer-based forms of administrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žitný, P.; Halama, P.; Jelínek, Martin; Květon, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2012), s. 181-194 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP406/09/P284 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : item response theory * computerized adaptive testing * paper and pencil * computer-based * criterion and construct validity * efficiency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.215, year: 2012

  7. Developing and evaluating a paper-and-pencil test to assess components of physics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Sophie; Borowski, Andreas; Fischer, Hans E.; Gess-Newsome, Julie; von Aufschnaiter, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Teachers' professional knowledge is assumed to be a key variable for effective teaching. As teacher education has the goal to enhance professional knowledge of current and future teachers, this knowledge should be described and assessed. Nevertheless, only a limited number of studies quantitatively measures physics teachers' professional knowledge. The study reported in this paper was part of a bigger project with the broader goal of understanding teacher professional knowledge. We designed a test instrument to assess the professional knowledge of physics teachers (N = 186) in the dimensions of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and pedagogical knowledge (PK). A model describing the relationships between these three dimensions of professional knowledge was created to inform the design of the tests used to measure CK, PCK, and PK. In this paper, we describe the model with particular emphasis on the PCK part, and the subsequent PCK test development and its implementation in detail. We report different approaches to evaluate the PCK test, including the description of content validity, the examination of the internal structure of professional knowledge, and the analysis of construct validity by testing teachers across different school subjects, teachers from different school types, pre-service teachers, and physicists. Our findings demonstrate that our PCK test results could distinguish physics teachers from the other groups tested. The PCK test results could not be explained by teachers' CK or PK, cognitive abilities, computational skills, or science knowledge.

  8. A Comparison of Validity Rates between Paper-and-Pencil and Computerized Testing with the MMPI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Nicole L.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of computerized testing in psychopathology assessment has increased in recent years, limited research has examined the impact of this format in terms of potential differences in test validity rates. The current study explores potential differences in the rates of valid and invalid Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2…

  9. Paper-and-Pencil and Web-Based Testing: The Measurement Invariance of the Big Five Personality Tests in Applied Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Alessandri, Guido; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the measurement equivalence of a five-factor measure of personality across two groups applying for jobs, who completed the same questionnaire using either a paper-and-pencil (n = 429) or a web online answer format (n = 651). The data were collected using the Big Five Questionnaire-2 (BFQ-2; which is a measure of the Five…

  10. Intranet Effectiveness: A Public Relations Paper-and-Pencil Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgolo-Poore, Marie E.; Pitt, Leyland F.; Ewing, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process directed at developing a simple paper-and-pencil checklist to assess Intranet effectiveness. Discusses the checklist purification procedure, and attempts to establish reliability and validity for the list. Concludes by identifying managerial applications of the checklist, recognizing the limitations of the approach, and…

  11. Examination of the equivalence of self-report survey-based paper-and-pencil and internet data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K; Russell, Elizabeth J

    2013-03-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as nonequivalent samples in different conditions due to recruitment, participant self-selection to conditions, and data collection procedures, as well as incomplete or inappropriate statistical procedures for examining equivalence. We conducted 2 studies examining the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection that accounted for these issues. In both studies, we used measures of personality, social desirability, and computer self-efficacy, and, in Study 2, we used personal growth initiative to assess quantitative equivalence (i.e., mean equivalence), qualitative equivalence (i.e., internal consistency and intercorrelations), and auxiliary equivalence (i.e., response rates, missing data, completion time, and comfort completing questionnaires using paper-and-pencil and the Internet). Study 1 investigated the effects of completing surveys via paper-and-pencil or the Internet in both traditional (i.e., lab) and natural (i.e., take-home) settings. Results indicated equivalence across conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of missing data and completion time. Study 2 examined mailed paper-and-pencil and Internet surveys without contact between experimenter and participants. Results indicated equivalence between conditions, except for auxiliary equivalence aspects of response rate for providing an address and completion time. Overall, the findings show that paper-and-pencil and Internet data collection methods are generally equivalent, particularly for quantitative and qualitative equivalence, with nonequivalence only for some aspects of auxiliary equivalence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all

  12. Response rate of bricklayers and supervisors on an internet or a paper-and-pencil questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Julitta S.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether or not internet surveys yield response rates comparable to paper-and-pencil surveys for specific occupational groups, such as construction workers. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in response rates between a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an

  13. Psychometric comparison of paper-and-pencil and online personality assessments in a selection setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Joubert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine whether the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32i yielded comparable results when two different modes of administration, namely paper and-pencil and Internet- based administration, were used in real-life, high-stakes selection settings. Two studies were conducted in which scores obtained online in unproctored settings were compared with scores obtained during proctored paper-and-pencil settings. The psychometric properties of the paper-and-pencil and Internet-based applications were strikingly similar. Structural equation modelling with EQS indicated substantial support for the hypothesis that covariance matrices of the paper-and-pencil and online applications in both studies were identical. It was concluded that relationships between the OPQ32i scales were not affected by mode of administration or supervision.

  14. Paper and pencil vs online self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) applied to university population: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carrascosa, R; García Segovia, P; Martínez Monzó, J

    2011-01-01

    To test the reliability of dietary intake data measured with an online food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) applied to a university population by comparing the results with those from a paper and pencil version. A total of 50 students were recruited from the second-year Food Technology course at the Universitat Politècnica de València (Comunidad Valenciana, Spain) in the academic year 2008-2009. The students were between the ages of 20-32. The participants completed both presentation modes of the FFQ (paper and pencil and online) in a cross-over study with a time interval of 3-week. To study the effect of ordering of the questionnaires, participants were randomly assigned to group A (paper and pencil FFQ first) and group B (online FFQ first). Both self-administered semi-quantitative presentations of the FFQ included 84 food items divided into six groups (dairy products; eggs, meat and fish; vegetables, legumes and fruits; bread, cereals and similar; oils, fats and sweets; beverages and pre-cooked). Participants were asked how frequently and how much each food item they had consumed in the previous year. The response rate was 78% (39 students, 23% men and 77% women). For the total sample, the median dietary intakes were higher for the paper and pencil FFQ than the online version for energy (2,077 vs. 1,635 kcal/day), proteins (96 vs. 88 g/day), carbohydrates (272 vs. 211 g/day), and fat (70 vs. 58 g/day), respectively. These differences were statistically significant. However, there were not significant differences between the two presentations when the consumption by groups of food was calculated, except for "beverages and pre-cooked" group. The pilot testing showed that this online FFQ is a useful tool for estimating the intake of food groups in this university population. On the other hand, the differences found in the results of the absolute quantities of energy and nutrients intakes were not clear. These differences could be due to the problems that the

  15. Performance vs. Paper-And-Pencil Estimates of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, James K.

    Arima's Discrimination Learning Test (DLT) was reconfigured, made into a self-paced mode, and administered to potential recruits in order to determine if: (1) a previous study indicating a lack of difference in learning performance between white and nonwhites would hold up; and (2) the correlations between scores attained on the DLT and scores…

  16. Internet Administration of Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires Used in Couple Research: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L.; Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Dey, Jodi; Rolffs, Jaci

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnaires assessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits,…

  17. A new paper and pencil task reveals adult false belief reasoning bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Patricia I; Bernstein, Daniel M; Begeer, Sander

    2015-09-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to take other people's perspective by inferring their mental state. Most 6-year olds pass the change-of-location false belief task that is commonly used to assess ToM. However, the change-of-location task is not suitable for individuals over 5 years of age, due to its discrete response options. In two experiments, we used a paper and pencil version of a modified change-of-location task (the Real Object Sandbox task) to assess false belief reasoning continuously rather than discretely in adults. Participants heard nine change-of-location scenarios and answered a critical question after each. The memory control questions only required the participant to remember the object's original location, whereas the false belief questions required participants to take the perspective of the protagonist. Participants were more accurate on memory trials than trials requiring perspective taking, and performance on paper and pencil trials correlated with corresponding trials on the Real Object Sandbox task. The Paper and Pencil Sandbox task is a convenient continuous measure of ToM that could be administered to a wide range of age groups.

  18. The use of research questionnaires with hearing impaired adults: online vs. paper-and-pencil administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorén Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating hearing rehabilitation, it is reasonable to use self-report questionnaires as outcome measure. Questionnaires used in audiological research are developed and validated for the paper-and-pencil format. As computer and Internet use is increasing, standardized questionnaires used in the audiological context should be evaluated to determine the viability of the online administration format. The aim of this study was to compare administration of questionnaires online versus paper- and pencil of four standardised questionnaires used in hearing research and clinic. We included the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA, Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Methods A cross-over design was used by randomly letting the participants complete the questionnaires either online or on paper. After 3 weeks the participants filled out the same questionnaires again but in the other format. A total of 65 hearing-aid users were recruited from a hearing clinic to participate on a voluntary basis and of these 53 completed both versions of the questionnaires. Results A significant main effect of format was found on the HHIE (p Conclusions For three of the four included questionnaires the participants’ scores remained consistent across administrations and formats. For the fourth included questionnaire (HHIE a significant difference of format with a small effect size was found. The relevance of the difference in scores between the formats depends on which context the questionnaire is used in. On balance, it is recommended that the administration format remain stable across assessment points.

  19. Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

  20. Instructional Supports for Representational Fluency in Solving Linear Equations with Computer Algebra Systems and Paper-and-Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Davis, Jon D.; Rohwer, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    This research addresses the issue of how to support students' representational fluency--the ability to create, move within, translate across, and derive meaning from external representations of mathematical ideas. The context of solving linear equations in a combined computer algebra system (CAS) and paper-and-pencil classroom environment is…

  1. Investigating Plane Geometry Problem-Solving Strategies of Prospective Mathematics Teachers in Technology and Paper-and-Pencil Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Ilhan; Akyuz, Didem; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate plane geometry problem-solving strategies of prospective mathematics teachers using dynamic geometry software (DGS) and paper-and-pencil (PPB) environments after receiving an instruction with GeoGebra (GGB). Four plane geometry problems were used in a multiple case study design to understand the solution strategies…

  2. The Psoriatic Arthritis Impact of Disease 12-item questionnaire: equivalence, reliability, validity, and feasibility of the touch-screen administration versus the paper-and-pencil version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Di Carlo, Marco; Carotti, Marina; Farah, Sonia; Gutierrez, Marwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the last few years, there has been a shift toward a more patient-centered perspective of the disease by adopting patient-reported outcomes. Touch-screen formats are increasingly being used for data collection in routine care and research. Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the equivalence, reliability, validity and respondent preference for a computerized touch-screen version of the Psoriatic Arthritis Impact of Disease 12-item (PsAID-12) questionnaire in comparison with the original paper-and-pencil version, in a cohort of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods One hundred and fifty-nine patients with PsA completed both the touch screen- and the conventional paper-and-pencil administered PsAID-12 questionnaire. Agreement between formats was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients. Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient was used to test convergent validity of the touch screen format of PsAID-12, while receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to test discriminant validity. In order to assess the patient’s preference, the participants filled in an additional questionnaire. The time taken to complete both formats was measured. Results A high concordance between the responses to the two modes of the PsAID-12 tested was found, with no significant mean differences. Intraclass correlation coefficients between data obtained for touch-screen and paper versions ranged from 0.801 to 0.962. There was a very high degree of correlation between the touch-screen format of PsAID-12 and composite disease activity indices (all at a P level touch-screen format of PsAID-12, assessed using the minimal disease activity – Outcome Measurements in Rheumatology Clinical Trials criteria, was very good, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.937 and a resulting cutoff value of 2.5. The touch-screen questionnaire was readily accepted and preferred. The mean time spent for completing the

  3. Response effects due to bystander presence in CASI and paper-and-pencil surveys of drug use and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, W S; Wright, D L; Supple, A J

    2000-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of bystanders on self-administered interviews asking about the use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Interview participants were adolescents and young adults living in urban and suburban areas of the United States. Participants were assigned randomly to either a computerized or a paper-and-pencil self-administered interview. Results show that the impact of bystanders during the interview varies according to the identity of the bystander, age of the person interviewed, and the mode of interview. When a parent was present during the interview, survey participants were less likely to report the use of alcohol and marijuana. The influence of parents was stronger for adolescents than for young adults. The use of computer-assisted self-administered interviewing, compared to interviews with paper-and-pencil forms, reduced the effects due to the presence of parents during the interview. The presence of siblings during the interview had a small, negative effect on reports of using alcohol or illicit drugs. Among married or cohabiting respondents, the presence of the husband, wife, or live-in partner had no influence on reports of alcohol use or drug use.

  4. Using computer-assisted survey instruments instead of paper and pencil increased completeness of self-administered sexual behavior questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, Simone; Lewis, Dyani; Vaisey, Alaina; Smyth, Eris; Wood, Anna; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Lorch, Rebecca; Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane

    2015-01-01

    To compare the data quality, logistics, and cost of a self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire administered either using a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI) or by paper and pencil in a primary care clinic. A self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire was administered to 16-29 year olds attending general practice. Questionnaires were administered by either paper and pencil (paper) or CASI. A personal digital assistant was used to self-administer the CASI. A total of 4,491 people completed the questionnaire, with 46.9% responses via CASI and 53.2% by paper. Completion of questions was greater for CASI than for paper for sexual behavior questions: number of sexual partners [odds ratio (OR), 6.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.32, 14.11] and ever having had sex with a person of the same gender (OR, 2.89; 95% CI: 1.52, 5.49). The median number of questions answered was higher for CASI than for paper (17.6 vs. 17.2; P questionnaire compared with $11.83 for paper. Electronic devices using CASI are a tool that can increase participants' questionnaire responses and deliver more complete data for a sexual behavior questionnaire in primary care clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linking Computer Algebra Systems and Paper-and-Pencil Techniques To Support the Teaching of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwaarden, Onno A.; Gielen, Joseph L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on students showing a lack of conceptual insight while using computer algebra systems (CAS) in the setting of an elementary calculus and linear algebra course for first year university students in social sciences. The use of a computer algebra environment has been incorporated into a more traditional course but with special attention on…

  6. Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: A Comparison of Psychometric Features and Respondent Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Boo, Jaeyool; Bleiler, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the characteristics of computerized and paper-and-pencil versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) using scores for 224 college students. Results show that mode of administration has little effect on the psychometric properties of the SES although the computerized version took longer and was preferred by examinees. (SLD)

  7. The Multimedia Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2: Its Psychometric Properties, Equivalence with the Paper-and-Pencil Version, and Respondent Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo

    2015-01-01

    A multimedia version of Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2 (Piers-Harris 2) was created with audio and cartoon animation to facilitate the measurement of self-concept among younger children. This study aimed to assess the psychometric qualities of the computer version of Piers-Harris 2 scores, examine its score equivalence with the paper-and-pencil version, and survey the respondent preference of the two versions. Two hundred and forty eight Taiwanese students from the first to fourth grade were recruited. In regard to the psychometric properties, high internal consistency (α = .91) was found for the total score of multimedia Piers-Harris 2. High interscale correlations (.77 to .83) of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 scores and the results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 contained good structural characteristics. The scores of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 also had significant correlations with the scores of the Elementary School Children's Self Concept Scale. The equality of convergence and criterion-related validities of Piers-Harris 2 scores for the multimedia and paper-and-pencil versions and the results of ICCs between the scores of the multimedia and paper-and-pencil Piers-Harris 2 suggested their high level of equivalence. Participants showed more positive attitudes towards the multimedia version.

  8. The Multimedia Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2: Its Psychometric Properties, Equivalence with the Paper-and-Pencil Version, and Respondent Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo

    2015-01-01

    A multimedia version of Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2 (Piers-Harris 2) was created with audio and cartoon animation to facilitate the measurement of self-concept among younger children. This study aimed to assess the psychometric qualities of the computer version of Piers-Harris 2 scores, examine its score equivalence with the paper-and-pencil version, and survey the respondent preference of the two versions. Two hundred and forty eight Taiwanese students from the first to fourth grade were recruited. In regard to the psychometric properties, high internal consistency (α = .91) was found for the total score of multimedia Piers-Harris 2. High interscale correlations (.77 to .83) of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 scores and the results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 contained good structural characteristics. The scores of the multimedia Piers-Harris 2 also had significant correlations with the scores of the Elementary School Children’s Self Concept Scale. The equality of convergence and criterion-related validities of Piers-Harris 2 scores for the multimedia and paper-and-pencil versions and the results of ICCs between the scores of the multimedia and paper-and-pencil Piers-Harris 2 suggested their high level of equivalence. Participants showed more positive attitudes towards the multimedia version. PMID:26252499

  9. Developing and Evaluating a Paper-and-Pencil Test to Assess Components of Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Sophie; Borowski, Andreas; Fischer, Hans E.; Gess-Newsome, Julie; von Aufschnaiter, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' professional knowledge is assumed to be a key variable for effective teaching. As teacher education has the goal to enhance professional knowledge of current and future teachers, this knowledge should be described and assessed. Nevertheless, only a limited number of studies quantitatively measures physics teachers' professional…

  10. The Art Gallery Test: A Preliminary Comparison between Traditional Neuropsychological and Ecological VR-Based Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gamito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological validity should be the cornerstone of any assessment of cognitive functioning. For this purpose, we have developed a preliminary study to test the Art Gallery Test (AGT as an alternative to traditional neuropsychological testing. The AGT involves three visual search subtests displayed in a virtual reality (VR art gallery, designed to assess visual attention within an ecologically valid setting. To evaluate the relation between AGT and standard neuropsychological assessment scales, data were collected on a normative sample of healthy adults (n = 30. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures [Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, and Color Trails Test (CTT] along with the outcomes from the three subtests of the AGT. The results showed significant correlations between the AGT subtests describing different visual search exercises strategies with global and specific cognitive measures. Comparative visual search was associated with attention and cognitive flexibility (CTT; whereas visual searches involving pictograms correlated with global cognitive function (MoCA.

  11. Assessing Energy Intake in Daily Life: Signal-Contingent Smartphone Application Versus Event-Contingent Paper and Pencil Estimated Diet Diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Wouters

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Investigating between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants such as emotions and stress presents challenges because both vary from moment to moment throughout the day. A smartphone application (app, was developed to map momentary between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants in the context of daily life. The aim of this study was to compare energy intake reported with the signal-contingent app and reported with an event-contingent paper and pencil diet diary. Methods: In a counterbalanced, cross-sectional design, adults (N = 46 from the general population reported between-meal snack intake during four consecutive days with the app and four consecutive days with a paper and pencil diet diary. A 10-day interval was applied between the two reporting periods. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare both instruments on reported momentary and daily energy intake from snacks.  Results: Results showed no significant difference (B = 11.84, p = .14 in momentary energy intake from snacks between the two instruments. However, a significant difference (B = –105.89, p < .01 was found on energy intake from total daily snack consumption. Conclusions: As at momentary level both instruments were comparable in assessing energy intake, research purposes will largely determine the sampling procedure of choice. When momentary associations across time are the interest of study, a signal-contingent sampling procedure may be a suitable method. Since the compared instruments differed on two main features (i.e. the sampling procedure and the device used it is difficult to disentangle which instrument was the most accurate in assessing daily energy intake.

  12. Is the Male Advantage in Mental-Rotation Performance Task Independent? On the Usability of Chronometric Tests and Paper-and-Pencil Tests in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah; Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Schmelter, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of the data of 862 second and fourth graders collected in two previous studies, focusing on the influence of method (psychometric vs. chronometric) and stimulus type on the gender difference in mental-rotation accuracy. The children had to solve mental-rotation tasks with animal pictures, letters, or cube…

  13. Performance on naturalistic virtual reality tasks depends on global cognitive functioning as assessed via traditional neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Gamito, Pedro; Alghazzawi, Daniyal M; Fardoun, Habib M; Rosa, Pedro J; Sousa, Tatiana; Picareli, Luís Felipe; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo

    2017-08-14

    This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT. The results showed that the SCT correlated with global cognitive performance as measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The SCT explained one third of the total variance of this test and revealed good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating scores below one standard deviation in this screening tool. These findings suggest that performance of such functional tasks involves a broad range of cognitive processes that are associated with global cognitive functioning and that may be difficult to isolate through paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests.

  14. Moving virtuality into reality: A comparison study of the effectiveness of traditional and alternative assessments of learning in a multisensory, fully immersive physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamor, Keysha Ingram

    This paper contains a research study that investigated the relative efficacy of using both a traditional paper-and-pencil assessment instrument and an alternative, virtual reality (VR) assessment instrument to assist educators and/or instructional designers in measuring learning in a virtual reality learning environment. To this end, this research study investigated assessment in VR, with the goal of analyzing aspects of student learning in VR that are feasible to access or capture by traditional assessments and alternative assessments. The researcher also examined what additional types of learning alternative assessments may offer. More specifically, this study compared the effectiveness of a traditional method with an alternative (performance-based) method of assessment that was used to examine the ability of the tools to accurately evidence the levels of students' understanding and learning. The domain area was electrostatics, a complex, abstract multidimensional concept, with which students often experience difficulty. Outcomes of the study suggest that, in the evaluation of learning in an immersive VR learning environment, assessments would most accurately manifest student learning if the assessment measure matched the learning environment itself. In this study, learning and assessing in the VR environment yielded higher final test scores than learning in VR and testing with traditional paper-and-pencil. Being able to transfer knowledge from a VR environment to other situations is critical in demonstrating the overall level of understanding of a concept. For this reason, the researcher recommends a combination of testing measures to enhance understanding of complex, abstract concepts.

  15. Testing Algorithmic Skills in Traditional and Non-Traditional Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Máth, János; Abari, Kálmán

    2015-01-01

    The Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills (TAaAS) project was launched in the 2011/2012 academic year to test first year students of Informatics, focusing on their algorithmic skills in traditional and non-traditional programming environments, and on the transference of their knowledge of Informatics from secondary to tertiary education. The…

  16. Computerized Tests. New practical and ethical challenges for Psychological Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Susana Lozzia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to bring the readers in our field of knowledge closer to the new problems and solutions resulting from the application of computer systems to Psychological Assessment. Therefore, this work puts forward a suitable implementation of Computer-based and Internet-delivered Testing, includes a description of the new technologies that can be applied to Psychological Assessment: administration of traditional paper-and-pencil tests through computers, elaboration of automated reports, computerized adaptive tests, automated test construction and automatic generation of items, as well as the specific guidelines and regulations governing the development of each of these areas. This study provides an outline of the current issues connected with the appropriate use of Computerized Tests by way of conclusion and finally encourages psychologists to keep debating and reflecting on these topics.

  17. Virginity testing in South Africa: re-traditioning the postcolony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Umhlanga is a ceremony celebrating virginity. In South Africa, it is practiced, among others, by the Zulu ethnic group who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu Natal. After falling into relative disuse in the Zulu community, the practice of virginity testing made a comeback some 10 years ago at around the time of the country's first democratic election and coinciding with the period when the HIV pandemic began to take hold. In July 2005 the South African Parliament passed a new Children's Bill which will prohibit virginity testing of children. The Bill has been met with outrage and public protest on the part of Zulu citizens. Traditional circumcision rites are also addressed in the new bill but are not banned. Instead, male children are given the right to refuse to participate in traditional initiation ceremonies which include circumcision. This paper asks why the practice of virginity testing is regarded as so troubling to the new democratic order that the state has chosen to take the heavy-handed route of banning it. The paper further asks why the state's approach to traditional male circumcision has been so different to its approach to virginity testing. Finally, the paper asks what these two challenging cases in the country's new democracy tell us about the nature of liberal democratic citizenship in South Africa 10 years after apartheid's formal demise.

  18. Testing Cases under Title VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Michael; Werden, Gregory J.

    This paper discusses Congressional and judicial attempts to deal with the problem of employment practices which lead to discriminatory outcomes but which may not be discriminatory in intent. The use of paper and pencil tests as standards for hiring and promotion is focused on as an example of this type of employment practice. An historical account…

  19. WEB-BASED ADAPTIVE TESTING SYSTEM (WATS FOR CLASSIFYING STUDENTS ACADEMIC ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemu LEE,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT has been highlighted as a promising assessment method to fulfill two testing purposes: estimating student academic ability and classifying student academic level. In this paper, we introduced the Web-based Adaptive Testing System (WATS developed to support a cost effective assessment for classifying students’ ability into different academic levels. Instead of using a traditional paper and pencil test, the WATS is expected to serve as an alternate method to promptly diagnosis and identify underachieving students through Web-based testing. The WATS can also help provide students with appropriate learning contents and necessary academic support in time. In this paper, theoretical background and structure of WATS, item construction process based upon item response theory, and user interfaces of WATS were discussed.

  20. Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    : beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....

  1. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  2. Cross-Mode Comparability of Computer-Based Testing (CBT) versus Paper-Pencil Based Testing (PPT): An Investigation of Testing Administration Mode among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Hosseini, Monirosadat; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Advent of technology has caused growing interest in using computers to convert conventional paper and pencil-based testing (Henceforth PPT) into Computer-based testing (Henceforth CBT) in the field of education during last decades. This constant promulgation of computers to reshape the conventional tests into computerized format permeated the…

  3. Evaluation of a Secure Laptop-Based Testing Program in an Undergraduate Nursing Program: Students' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jinyuan; Gunter, Glenda; Tsai, Ming-Hsiu; Lim, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the many robust learning management systems, and the availability of affordable laptops, have made secure laptop-based testing a reality on many campuses. The undergraduate nursing program at the authors' university began to implement a secure laptop-based testing program in 2009, which allowed students to use their newly purchased laptops to take quizzes and tests securely in classrooms. After nearly 5 years' secure laptop-based testing program implementation, a formative evaluation, using a mixed method that has both descriptive and correlational data elements, was conducted to seek constructive feedback from students to improve the program. Evaluation data show that, overall, students (n = 166) believed the secure laptop-based testing program helps them get hands-on experience of taking examinations on the computer and gets them prepared for their computerized NCLEX-RN. Students, however, had a lot of concerns about laptop glitches and campus wireless network glitches they experienced during testing. At the same time, NCLEX-RN first-time passing rate data were analyzed using the χ2 test, and revealed no significant association between the two testing methods (paper-and-pencil testing and the secure laptop-based testing) and students' first-time NCLEX-RN passing rate. Based on the odds ratio, however, the odds of students passing NCLEX-RN the first time was 1.37 times higher if they were taught with the secure laptop-based testing method than if taught with the traditional paper-and-pencil testing method in nursing school. It was recommended to the institution that better quality of laptops needs to be provided to future students, measures needed to be taken to further stabilize the campus wireless Internet network, and there was a need to reevaluate the Laptop Initiative Program.

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized, Everyday Memory Measures and Traditional Memory Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngjohn, James R.; And Others

    Test-retest reliabilities and practice effect magnitudes were considered for nine computer-simulated tasks of everyday cognition and five traditional neuropsychological tests. The nine simulated everyday memory tests were from the Memory Assessment Clinic battery as follows: (1) simple reaction time while driving; (2) divided attention (driving…

  5. CUSUM-based person-fit statistics for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be estimated inaccurately. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT),

  6. CUSUM-based person-fit statistics for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT),

  7. An initial validation of the Virtual Reality Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test in a college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G

    2014-01-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) has utility for the detection of cognitive processing deficits. While the PASAT has demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, administration of the PASAT has been known to create undue anxiety and frustration in participants. As a result, degradation of performance may be found on the PASAT. The difficult nature of the PASAT may subsequently decrease the probability of their return for follow up testing. This study is a preliminary attempt at assessing the potential of a PASAT embedded in a virtual reality environment. The Virtual Reality PASAT (VR-PASAT) was compared with a paper-and-pencil version of the PASAT as well as other standardized neuropsychological measures. The two modalities of the PASAT were conducted with a sample of 50 healthy university students, between the ages of 19 and 34 years. Equivalent distributions were found for age, gender, education, and computer familiarity. Moderate relationships were found between VR-PASAT and other putative attentional processing measures. The VR-PASAT was unrelated to indices of learning, memory, or visuospatial processing. Comparison of the VR-PASAT with the traditional paper-and-pencil PASAT indicated that both versions require the examinee to sustain attention at an increasingly demanding, externally determined rate. Results offer preliminary support for the construct validity (in a college sample) of the VR-PASAT as an attentional processing measure and suggest that this task may provide some unique information not tapped by traditional attentional processing tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-Graduate Student Performance in "Supervised In-Class" vs. "Unsupervised Online" Multiple Choice Tests: Implications for Cheating and Test Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores differences in multiple choice test (MCT) scores in a cohort of post-graduate students enrolled in a management and leadership course. A total of 250 students completed the MCT in either a supervised in-class paper and pencil test or an unsupervised online test. The only statistically significant difference between the nine…

  9. Traditional nuclear physics as a test of nuclear exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapershtein, E.E.; Starodubskii, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The review considers the testing of some exotic hypotheses about the properties of the nucleon in a nuclear medium in phenomena of traditional nuclear physics. The hypothesis of nucleon swelling proposed to explain the EMC effects is considered in detail. The consequences of this hypothesis for the charge densities and cross sections for scattering of fast electrons and protons by nuclei are analyzed. Also considered are the Nolen--Schiffer anomaly, the Coulomb sum rule for inelastic electron scattering, y scaling, and some other nuclear processes. It is shown that one can estimate the possible scale of nuclear exotics by analyzing many of these phenomena. Thus, examination of high-precision data on the elastic scattering of electrons with energy 500--700 MeV using density distributions calculated on the basis of the self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems yields a restriction on the amount of nucleon swelling: α=δr N /r N approx-lt 10%. A similar analysis for protons with energy 0.8--1.0 GeV using Glauber theory gives α approx-lt 6%. An even more stringent restriction, α approx-lt 3%, follows from data on y scaling in 56 Fe

  10. In Vitro Testing of African Traditional Medicines for Cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view ...

  11. A Comparison of Procedures for Content-Sensitive Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, G. Gage; Zara, Anthony R.

    1991-01-01

    This simulation investigated two procedures that reduce differences between paper-and-pencil testing and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) by making CAT content sensitive. Results indicate that the price in terms of additional test items of using constrained CAT for content balancing is much smaller than that of using testlets. (SLD)

  12. On the issue of item selection in computerized adaptive testing with response times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. The computer-based delivery mode brings with it certain advantages. One advantage is the ability to adapt the difficulty level of the test to the ability level of the test taker in what has been termed

  13. A Review of Models for Computer-Based Testing. Research Report 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been incremental growth in computer-based testing (CBT) as a viable alternative to paper-and-pencil testing. However, the transition to CBT is neither easy nor inexpensive. As Drasgow, Luecht, and Bennett (2006) noted, many design engineering, test development, operations/logistics, and psychometric changes…

  14. A Study on Individualized Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin YAŞAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare KR-20 reliability levels of “Paper and Pencil Test” developed according to Classical Test Theory and “Individualized Test” developed according to Item Response Theory (Two-Parameter Logistic Model, and the correlation levels of skill measurements obtained via these two methods in a group of students. Individualized test developed in accordance with the Two-Parameter Logistic Model was applied by means of a question pool consisting of 61 multiple-choice items which can be answered in 13 steps. On the other hand, a paper and pencil test of 47 multiple-choice items was applied to the sample student group. After the test developed according to these two methods was applied to the same group, KR-20 reliability coefficient was calculated as 0.67 for the individualized test and as 0.75 for the paper and pencil test prepared according to Classical test theory. Calculated KR-20 reliability coefficients obtained from the study were converted into Fisher Z and tested at the significance level of 0.05. No meaningful difference was detected at the 0.05 significant difference level between the two KR-20 reliability coefficients obtained from the two methods. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was calculated as 0.36 between the points of the individualized test and the measurement results of the paper and pencil test. A positive yet low correlation was observed between the measurement results obtained from the tests developed according to both methods. Consequently, it was seen that at the 0.05 significance level there was no statistically significant difference between KR-20 reliability coefficients of the tests developed according to the two methods and that there was a low correlation between the skill measurements of the students in both tests, but there was no significant correlation at the 0.05 significance level between the skill measurements obtained from both tests.

  15. Computer Adaptive Multistage Testing: Practical Issues, Challenges and Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim SARI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of many test in the educational and psychological measurement is to measure test takers’ latent trait scores from responses given to a set of items. Over the years, this has been done by traditional methods (paper and pencil tests. However, compared to other test administration models (e.g., adaptive testing, traditional methods are extensively criticized in terms of producing low measurement accuracy and long test length. Adaptive testing has been proposed to overcome these problems. There are two popular adaptive testing approaches. These are computerized adaptive testing (CAT and computer adaptive multistage testing (ca-MST. The former is a well-known approach that has been predominantly used in this field. We believe that researchers and practitioners are fairly familiar with many aspects of CAT because it has more than a hundred years of history. However, the same thing is not true for the latter one. Since ca-MST is relatively new, many researchers are not familiar with features of it. The purpose of this study is to closely examine the characteristics of ca-MST, including its working principle, the adaptation procedure called the routing method, test assembly, and scoring, and provide an overview to researchers, with the aim of drawing researchers’ attention to ca-MST and encouraging them to contribute to the research in this area. The books, software and future work for ca-MST are also discussed.

  16. Person Fit Based on Statistical Process Control in an Adaptive Testing Environment. Research Report 98-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Person-fit research in the context of paper-and-pencil tests is reviewed, and some specific problems regarding person fit in the context of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Some new methods are proposed to investigate person fit in a CAT environment. These statistics are based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. A…

  17. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  18. Empirical Investigation of Job Applicants' Reactions to Taking a Pre-Employment Honesty Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John W.; Joy, Dennis

    Employee theft is widespread and difficult to detect. Many companies have attempted to control the employee theft problem through pre-employment screening. The use of paper-and-pencil honesty tests in this process has become increasingly common. These two studies empirically investigated job applicants' (N=450) reactions to taking a pre-employment…

  19. Improving the Traditional Testing Methods in Learning Foreign Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachovski, Veno; Dimova, Slobodanka; Vaneva, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    A model for gathering oral answers as part of testing the speaker skills (i.e. command of language, native or foreign) is presented, as well as the software used in the experimentation. The research presented here is a result of more than six (6) months’ work with TESOL experts, based on 60 test...

  20. Following international trends while subject to past traditions: neuropsychological test use in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Løvstad, Marianne; Norup, Anne; Nybo, Taina; Persson, Bengt A; Rivera, Diego Fernando; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses whether these traditions still influence attitudes toward test use and choice of tests. The study is based on survey data from 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The average participant used 9 tests in a standard assessment, and 25 tests overall in their practice. Test use was moderated by nationality, competence level, practice profile, and by attitude toward test selection. Participants who chose their tests flexibly used fewer tests than those adhering to the flexible battery approach, but had fewer tests from which to choose. Testing patients with psychiatric disorders was associated with using more tests. IQ, memory, attention, and executive function were the domains with the largest utilization rate, while tests of motor, visual/spatial, and language were used by few. There is a lack of academic achievement tests. Screening tests played a minor role in specialized assessments, and symptom validity tests were seldom applied on a standard basis. Most tests were of Anglo-American origin. New test methods are implemented rapidly in the Nordic countries, but test selection is also characterized by the dominating position of established and much researched tests. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria traditions are currently weak, but national differences in size of test batteries seem to be influenced by these longstanding traditions.

  1. Validating app and 1-week version of the ´Control of allergic rhinitis and asthma test´ (CARAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Corina; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M.J.; de Kroon, Jorn; van Heijst, Elisabeth; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Fonseca, Joao; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    The Control of allergic rhinitis and asthma test (CARAT) has been designed to assess control of both asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), covering a 4 week period, using paper-and-pencil (4wCARAT). It met al COSMIN criteria for patient reported outcomes. The aim is validation of the 1-week digital

  2. Are traditional cognitive tests useful in predicting clinical success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A; Deem, Lisa P; Straja, Sorin R

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the predictive value of the Dental Admission Test (DAT) for clinical success using Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skilled performance. The Ackerman theory is a valid, reliable schema in the applied psychology literature used to predict complex skill acquisition. Inconsistent stimulus-response skill acquisition depends primarily on determinants of cognitive ability. Consistent information-processing tasks have been described as "automatic," in which stimuli and responses are mapped in a manner that allows for complete certainty once the relationships have been learned. It is theorized that the skills necessary for success in the clinical component of dental schools involve a significant amount of automatic processing demands and, as such, student performance in the clinics should begin to converge as task practice is realized and tasks become more consistent. Subtest scores of the DAT of four classes were correlated with final grades in nine clinical courses. Results showed that the DAT subtest scores played virtually no role with regard to the final clinical grades. Based on this information, the DAT scores were determined to be of no predictive value in clinical achievement.

  3. Testing In College Admissions: An Alternative to the Traditional Predictive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneborg, Clifford E.

    1982-01-01

    A decision-making or utility theory model (which deals effectively with affirmative action goals and allows standardized tests to be placed in the service of those goals) is discussed as an alternative to traditional predictive admissions. (Author/PN)

  4. Test person operated 2-Alternative Forced Choice Audiometry compared to traditional audiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Brandt, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

      Background: With a newly developed technique, hearing thresholds can be estimated with a system operated by the test persons themselves. This technique is based on the 2 Alternative Forced Choice paradigm known from the psychoacoustic research theory. Test persons can operate the system very......-likelihood and up-down methods has proven effective and reliable even under suboptimal test settings. In non-optimal testing conditions i.e. as a part of a hearing conservation programme the headphone Sennheiser HDA-200 has been used as it contains hearing protection. This test-method has been validated......-retest studies of 2AFC audiometry are comparable to test-retest results known from traditional audiometry under standard clinical settings.   Conclusions 2 Alternative Forced Choice audiometry can be a reliable alternative to traditional audiometry especially under certain circumstances, where it can...

  5. Evaluating the Comparability of PPT and CBT by Implementing the Compulsory Islamic Culture Course Test in Jordan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnaser Sanad Alakyleh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aims to determine whether the university students' scores in the compulsory Islamic culture course test on a selected sample differ across the paper-and pencil test (PPT & computer-based test (CBT versions, and to reveal the relationship between gender and the student's level of performance in the test. Therefore, the study evaluated the comparability of two versions of a compulsory Islamic culture course test (PPTs and (CBTs. The importance of conducting the study in Jordan stems from the fact that public and private universities have begun to move away from the traditional patterns of tests such (PPTs and went towards (CBTs. In addition to detecting which model gives the best in the output and has the characteristics of the psychometric test, furthermore, indicates whether there were any differences between males and females, the study sample consisted of 120 individuals, 67 females and 53 males from scientific, health and humanities colleges. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two versions provided to students CBT and PPT with 0.36 moderate correlation indicators in the pre-CBT test, no significant differences between the males and females in the CBT test results. Therefore, on the basis of the results of the present study, the CBT test is an option and a preferred alternative for regular students of the bachelor's level at the University of Jordan.

  6. NASA Task Load Index (TLX). Volume 1.0; Paper and Pencil Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the materials necessary to collect subjective workload assessments with the NASA Task Load Index. This procedure for collecting workload ratings was developed by the Human Performance Group at NASA Ames Research Center during a three year research effort that involved more than 40 laboratory. simulation. and inflight experiments. Although the technique is still undergoing evaluation. this booklet is being distributed to allow other researchers to use it in their own experiments. Comments or suggestions about the procedure would be greatly appreciated. This package is intended to fill a "nuts and bolts" function of describing the procedure. A bibliography provides background information about previous empirical findings and the logic that supports the procedure.

  7. Reasoning with Paper and Pencil: The Role of Inscriptions in Student Learning of Geometric Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse how students use inscriptions as tools for thinking and learning in mathematical problem-solving activities. The empirical context is that of learning about geometric series in a small group setting. What has been analysed is how students made use of inscriptions, self-made as well as those provided by…

  8. simulate_CAT: A Computer Program for Post-Hoc Simulation for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Kalender

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer software developed by the author. The software conducts post-hoc simulations for computerized adaptive testing based on real responses of examinees to paper and pencil tests under different parameters that can be defined by user. In this paper, short information is given about post-hoc simulations. After that, the working principle of the software is provided and a sample simulation with required input files is shown. And last, output files are described

  9. Correlation between thromboelastography and traditional coagulation test parameters in hospitalized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubanick JV

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean V Rubanick, Medora B Pashmakova, Micah A Bishop, James W Barr Department of Veterinary Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: A hospital-based, prospective cross-sectional study was used to compare kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG parameters with traditional coagulation tests in 29 hospitalized dogs. Cases were included if the attending clinician requested coagulation testing. Blood was obtained from each dog and coagulation (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin activity, d-dimer concentration, and fibrinogen concentration and TEG analyses were performed. Hematocrit (Hct was also measured. Traditional coagulation results were evaluated for correlation with those from kaolin-activated TEG. Spearman’s correlation was used to calculate correlation coefficients. Fibrinogen was positively correlated with maximum amplitude (Pearson r=0.72, P<0.001 and global clot strength (Pearson r=0.72, P<0.001. There was no correlation between any of the remaining coagulation variables, TEG parameters, or Hct. Results of kaolin-activated TEG and traditional coagulation tests are not interchangeable means of monitoring coagulation derangements in this intensive care unit patient population. Determination of a true outcome measure is necessary to establish TEG’s clinical relevance to veterinary medicine. Keywords: TEG, thromboelastography, coagulation, hemostasis

  10. Experimental tests on winter cereal: Sod seeding compared to minimum tillage and traditional plowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional plowing and minimum tillage, the sod seeding technique has been tested in order to evaluate the differences in energy consumption, labor and machinery requirement and CO2 emission reduction. The experiments were conducted on winter cereal seeding in a Po valley farm in October 2011. The tests were carried out as follows: wheat variety seeding, over corn and alfalfa crops, in large plots with three repetitions for each thesis. They included: sod seeding anticipated by round up weeding in the case of the plots over alfalfa; traditional plowing at 35 cm followed by rotary tillage and combined seeding (seeder plus rotary tiller; minimum tillage based on ripping at the same depth (35 cm and combined seeder ( seeder plus rotary tiller. The following farm operations - fertilizer, and other agrochemical distributionshave been the same in all the considered theses. The results, statistically significant (P<0.001 in terms of yields, highlighted slight differences: the best data in the case of the traditional plowing both in the case of wheat crop over corn and alfalfa (84.43 and 6.75 t/ha; slightly lower yields for the sod seeding (6.23 and 79.9 t/ha for corn and alfalfa respectively; lower in the case of minimum tillage (5.87; 79.77 t/ha in the two situations. Huge differences in energy and oil consumption have been recorded: in the case of succession to corn 61.47; 35.31; 4.27 kg oil/ha respectively for, traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding; in the case of alfalfa 61.2; 50.96; 5.14 kg oil/ha respectively for traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding. The innovative technique, highlighted huge energy saving with an oil consumption equal to 92% and 89% (P<0.001 of what happens in traditional plowing and minimum tillage. Large differences concern labor and machine productivity. These parameters together with oil consumption and machine size [power (kW and weight (t] lead to even greater differences in

  11. Legal standard of care: a shift from the traditional Bolam test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ash; Samanta, Jo

    2003-01-01

    An essential component of an action in negligence against a doctor is proof that the doctor failed to provide the required standard of care under the circumstances. Traditionally the standard of care in law has been determined according to the Bolam test. This is based on the principle that a doctor does not breach the legal standard of care, and is therefore not negligent, if the practice is supported by a responsible body of similar professionals. The Bolam principle, however, has been perceived as being excessively reliant upon medical testimony supporting the defendant. The judgment given by the House of Lords in the recent case of Bolitho imposes a requirement that the standard proclaimed must be justified on a logical basis and must have considered the risks and benefits of competing options. The effect of Bolitho is that the court will take a more enquiring stance to test the medical evidence offered by both parties in litigation, in order to reach its own conclusions. Recent case law shows how the court has applied the Bolitho approach in determining the standard of care in cases of clinical negligence. An understanding of this approach and of the shift from the traditional Bolam test is relevant to all medical practitioners, particularly in a climate that is increasingly litigious.

  12. Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET - Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Sanvicente-Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate and adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET, in both paper-and-pencil and computerized versions. The RMET is a well-accepted instrument for assessment of Theory of Mind (ToM, an important component of social cognition. Methods: Following a guideline for translation of material for clinical populations, this study had three main phases: 1 formal translation and semantic adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese; 2 an acceptability trial with health professionals as judges evaluating picture-word matching; and 3 a trial using the paper-and-pencil and computerized versions (experiments built in E-Prime 2.0.10 software with healthy participants to test whether the instrument has similar outputs to those expected in versions in other languages. Results: RMET was adequately adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. This version showed acceptability and outputs similar to versions of the instrument in other languages, including the original one. We kept the same number of images as the original English version. Conclusions: Considering the scarcity of cognitive assessment instruments adequately adapted to Portuguese and the importance of social cognition in many psychiatric disorders, this work adds an important resource to Brazilian research and is administrable in both paper-and-pencil and computerized versions.

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Traditional Training Methods in Non-Traditional Training Programs for Adult Learners through a Pre-Test/Post-Test Comparison of Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Caleb D.; Burris, Scott; Fraze, Steve; Doerfert, David; McCulloch, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of hot and cold food bars into grocery stores in an effort to capture a portion of the home meal replacement industry is presenting new challenges for retail food establishments. To ensure retail success and customer safety, employees need to be educated in food safety practices. Traditional methods of training are not meeting…

  14. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  15. An alternative to the traditional cold pressor test: the cold pressor arm wrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Anthony John

    2014-01-16

    Recently research on the relationship between stress and cognition, emotion, and behavior has greatly increased. These advances have yielded insights into important questions ranging from the nature of stress' influence on addiction(1) to the role of stress in neural changes associated with alterations in decision-making(2,3). As topics being examined by the field evolve, however, so too must the methodologies involved. In this article a practical and effective alternative to a classic stress induction technique, the cold pressor test (CPT), is presented: the cold pressor arm wrap (CPAW). CPT typically involves immersion of a participant's dominant hand in ice-cold water for a period of time(4). The technique is associated with robust activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axis (and release of catecholamines; e.g. adrenaline and noradrenaline) and mild-to-moderate activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with associated glucocorticoid (e.g. cortisol) release. While CPT has been used in a wide range of studies, it can be impractical to apply in some research environments. For example use of water during, rather than prior to, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to damage sensitive and expensive equipment or interfere with acquisition of MRI signal. The CPAW is a practical and effective alternative to the traditional CPT. Composed of a versatile list of inexpensive and easily acquired components, CPAW makes use of MRI-safe gelpacs cooled to a temperature similar to CPT rather than actual water. Importantly CPAW is associated with levels of SAM and HPA activation comparable to CPT, and can easily be applied in a variety of research contexts. While it is important to maintain specific safety protocols when using the technique, these are easy to implement if planned for. Creation and use of the CPAW will be discussed.

  16. A molecular phylogeny of the Cephinae (Hymenoptera, Cephidae based on mtDNA COI gene: a test of traditional classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Budak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cephinae is traditionally divided into three tribes and about 24 genera based on morphology and host utilization. There has been no study testing the monophyly of taxa under a strict phylogenetic criterion. A molecular phylogeny of Cephinae based on a total of 68 sequences of mtDNA COI gene, representing seven genera of Cephinae, is reconstructed to test the traditional limits and relationships of taxa. Monophyly of the traditional tribes is not supported. Monophyly of the genera are largely supported except for Pachycephus. A few host shift events are suggested based on phylogenetic relationships among taxa. These results indicate that a more robust phylogeny is required for a more plausible conclusion. We also report two species of Cephus for the first time from Turkey.

  17. Testing the Efficacy of MyPsychlab to Replace Traditional Instruction in a Hybrid Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kasey L.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Galazyn, Magdalena; Donnelly, Seamus

    2016-01-01

    Online course-packs are marketed as improving grades in introductory-level coursework, yet it is unknown whether these course-packs can effectively replace, as opposed to supplement, in-class instruction. This study compared learning outcomes for Introductory Psychology students in hybrid and traditional sections, with hybrid sections replacing…

  18. Traditional/Block Scheduling, Gender, and Test Scores in College Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelskamp, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Block scheduling is the reallocation of a school day into longer class sessions to allow for more active teaching strategies and active engagement of students, in the effort to increase student performance. Various types of block scheduling exist. Traditional scheduling is when the school day is divided into six to eight sessions, with each…

  19. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Daniela A; Benítez, Hugo A; Borissov, Ivailo M; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.

  20. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Schmieder

    Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.

  1. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy characterized by parallel use of the continuous reaction time and portosystemic encephalopathy tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Vilstrup, H

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a frequent complication to liver cirrhosis that causes poor quality of life, a great burden to caregivers, and can be treated. For diagnosis and grading the international guidelines recommend the use of psychometric tests of different modalities (computer...... based vs. paper and pencil). To compare results of the Continuous Reaction time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests in a large unselected cohort of cirrhosis patients without clinically detectable brain impairment and to clinically characterize the patients according to their test...

  2. Evaluation of Computer Based Testing in lieu of Regular Examinations in Computer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Koichi

    Because computer based testing (CBT) has many advantages compared with the conventional paper and pencil testing (PPT) examination method, CBT has begun to be used in various situations in Japan, such as in qualifying examinations and in the TOEFL. This paper describes the usefulness and the problems of CBT applied to a regular college examination. The regular computer literacy examinations for first year students were held using CBT, and the results were analyzed. Responses to a questionnaire indicated many students accepted CBT with no unpleasantness and considered CBT a positive factor, improving their motivation to study. CBT also decreased the work of faculty in terms of marking tests and reducing data.

  3. Stability of puppy reaction to traditional puppy aptitude test under experimentally reared condtions

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Keisuke; Eguchi, Yusuke; Uetake, Katsuji; Tnaka, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The puppy aptitude test (PAT) is a general method for choosing a puppy. However, the reliability of the test has been in doubt because of its lack of a scientific base. In this report, we conducted PAT and some other behavioral tests before and after the establishment of socialization in order to investigate the stability of behavioral traits of puppies. Ten puppies were tested of eleven items on PAT at 57 and 140 days of age. The puppy’s behavior was videotaped and rated by four people using...

  4. Oral rapid test: an alternative to traditional HIV screening in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Paola Irarrazábal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants' perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. METHODS: A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. RESULTS: The ELISA reported 184 (37% of the 497 participants as being "positive" for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4% as being "reactive" for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%-99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001. Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. Trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01733927.

  5. Seedling imaging analysis and traditional tests to assess okra seed vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuti,Ana Lúcia Pereira; Marcos-Filho,Júlio

    2013-01-01

    Seed vigor testing is an important component of quality control programs adopted by seed industry. The software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) has been successfully used for seed vigor assessment in different species. The objective of this research was to verify the SVIS efficiency to assess okra seed vigor in comparison to other vigor tests used for this species. Five seed lots of 'Clemson Americano' and four of 'Santa Cruz' were submitted to germination (speed and percentage), cold germin...

  6. Implementation of a Computerized Screening Inventory: Improved Usability Through Iterative Testing and Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A

    2016-03-09

    The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F3,1276=25.44, PUsability testing revealed several critical

  7. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivato, Alberto; Gaspari, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration

  8. Documentation of tests on particle size methodologies for laser diffraction compared to traditional sieving and sedimentation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte; Dalsgaard, Kristian

    Sieving and sedimentation analyses by pipette or hydrometer are historically the traditional methods for determining particle size distributions (PSD). A more informative and faster alternative has for years been laser diffraction (LD). From 2003 to 2013 the authors of this paper have worked...... intensively with PSD and performed various tests and investigations, using LD, sedimentation (by pipette) and sieving. The aim was to improve and understand the relationship between these various techniques, pre-treatment effects and preferably find a unifying correlation factor. As a result, method...... comparisons of LD and sieving/sedimentation are difficult, as LD is a 3D optical volume measurement, sieving is a 2D width measurement, and sedimentation is density dependent. Platy particles like clay are generally measured to be coarser than traditional methods when LD is used. For LD the clay...

  9. Indirect effects and traditional trophic cascades: a test involving wolves, coyotes, and pronghorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kim Murray; Gese, Eric M; Berger, Joel

    2008-03-01

    The traditional trophic cascades model is based on consumer resource interactions at each link in a food chain. However, trophic-level interactions, such as mesocarnivore release resulting from intraguild predation, may also be important mediators of cascades. From September 2001 to August 2004, we used spatial and seasonal heterogeneity in wolf distribution and abundance in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem to evaluate whether mesopredator release of coyotes (Canis latrans), resulting from the extirpation of wolves (Canis lupus), accounts for high rates of coyote predation on pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns observed in some areas. Results of this ecological perturbation in wolf densities, coyote densities, and pronghorn neonatal survival at wolf-free and wolf-abundant sites support the existence of a species-level trophic cascade. That wolves precipitated a trophic cascade was evidenced by fawn survival rates that were four-fold higher at sites used by wolves. A negative correlation between coyote and wolf densities supports the hypothesis that interspecific interactions between the two species facilitated the difference in fawn survival. Whereas densities of resident coyotes were similar between wolf-free and wolf-abundant sites, the abundance of transient coyotes was significantly lower in areas used by wolves. Thus, differential effects of wolves on solitary coyotes may be an important mechanism by which wolves limit coyote densities. Our results support the hypothesis that mesopredator release of coyotes contributes to high rates of coyote predation on pronghorn fawns, and demonstrate the importance of alternative food web pathways in structuring the dynamics of terrestrial systems.

  10. Comparing Children's Performance on and Preference for a Number-Line Estimation Task: Tablet versus Paper and Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, Carley; Coret, Marian; Choi, Michael; Volden, Joanne; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Tablet computers (tablets) are positioned to be powerful, innovative, effective, and motivating research and assessment tools. We addressed two questions critical for evaluating the appropriateness of using tablets to study number-line estimation, a skill associated with math achievement and argued to be central to numerical cognition. First, is…

  11. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-and-Pencil Homework on Student Performance in College Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Shandy; Powers, Robert A.; Segalla, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    College algebra fulfills general education requirements at many colleges in the United States. The study reported here investigated differences in mathematics achievement between undergraduates in college algebra classes using one of two homework methods: "WeBWorK," an open-source system for web-based homework, or traditional…

  12. A Paper-and-Pencil Strategy for Teaching Mitosis and Meiosis, Diagnosing Learning Problems and Predicting Examination Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Walker, Julie O.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Bajema strategy for teaching meiosis and how it is used in the general genetics course at Ball State University and can be used to identify students who have misconceptions of meiosis that can interfere with their learning the basics of Mendelian inheritance. (Contains 11 references.) (MDH)

  13. Psychometrics behind Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The paper provides a survey of 18 years' progress that my colleagues, students (both former and current) and I made in a prominent research area in Psychometrics-Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). We start with a historical review of the establishment of a large sample foundation for CAT. It is worth noting that the asymptotic results were derived under the framework of Martingale Theory, a very theoretical perspective of Probability Theory, which may seem unrelated to educational and psychological testing. In addition, we address a number of issues that emerged from large scale implementation and show that how theoretical works can be helpful to solve the problems. Finally, we propose that CAT technology can be very useful to support individualized instruction on a mass scale. We show that even paper and pencil based tests can be made adaptive to support classroom teaching.

  14. A Neuropsychological Approach of Developmental Dyscalculia and a Screening Test Via a Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Christos Zygouris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional definitions of Developmental Dyscalculia state that a child must substantially underachieve on mathematical abilities tests relative to the level expected given age, education and intelligence. However, cognitive developmental neuropsychological studies nowadays suggest that not only core numerical but also cognitive skills of children with developmental dyscalculia present deficits. The main aim of the research protocol was to construct a battery of six tests that can be delivered by computer in order to screen children’s arithmetic and cognitive skills. The hypothesis of the study was that children that are already diagnosed by paper and pencil tests as dyscalculic will present lower scores and larger time latencies not only in arithmetical but also in executive function tasks. A total of 134 right handed children (74 male and 60 female, age range 8 – 12 years participated in this study. The students with disorders in mathematics (N= 67, 37 male and 30 female age range 8 – 12 years M= 10.15 SD=1.10 had a statement of dyscalculia after assessment at a Centre of Diagnosis, Assessment and Support, as it is required by Greek Law. A comparison group without any learning disabilities was individually matched with the dyscalculic group according to age, sex and grade (N=67, 37 male and 30 female, age range 8 – 12 years old, M=10.24 SD=1.12. Statistical analysis revealed that children with dyscalculia had statistically significant lower mean scores of correct answers and larger time latencies in all tasks compared to their average peers that participated in the comparison group.`

  15. An Integrated Monitoring System Through 3d Laser Scanner and Traditional Instruments for Load Test on Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, D.; Ferrando, I.

    2017-05-01

    The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  16. AN INTEGRATED MONITORING SYSTEM THROUGH 3D LASER SCANNER AND TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENTS FOR LOAD TEST ON ARCH BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  17. Comparison of Student Test Scores in a Coordinate Plane Unit Using Traditional Classroom Techniques Versus Traditional Techniques Coupled with an Ethnomathematics Software at Torch Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallanes, Adriana Moreno

    In response to low achievement in mathematics at a middle school, an ethnomathematic approach was used to teach coordinate planes. Whether there were achievement differences between students taught by the culturally sensitive approach and those taught by a traditional method was studied. Data were collected from the coordinate planes unit…

  18. Virtual-reality-based attention assessment of ADHD: ClinicaVR: Classroom-CPT versus a traditional continuous performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neguț, Alexandra; Jurma, Anda Maria; David, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Virtual-reality-based assessment may be a good alternative to classical or computerized neuropsychological assessment due to increased ecological validity. ClinicaVR: Classroom-CPT (VC) is a neuropsychological test embedded in virtual reality that is designed to assess attention deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other conditions associated with impaired attention. The present study aimed to (1) investigate the diagnostic validity of VC in comparison to a traditional continuous performance test (CPT), (2) explore the task difficulty of VC, (3) address the effect of distractors on the performance of ADHD participants and typically-developing (TD) controls, and (4) compare the two measures on cognitive absorption. A total of 33 children diagnosed with ADHD and 42 TD children, aged between 7 and 13 years, participated in the study and were tested with a traditional CPT or with VC, along with several cognitive measures and an adapted version of the Cognitive Absorption Scale. A mixed multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that the children with ADHD performed worse on correct responses had more commissions and omissions errors than the TD children, as well as slower target reaction times . The results showed significant differences between performance in the virtual environment and the traditional computerized one, with longer reaction times in virtual reality. The data analysis highlighted the negative influence of auditory distractors on attention performance in the case of the children with ADHD, but not for the TD children. Finally, the two measures did not differ on the cognitive absorption perceived by the children.

  19. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  20. Statistical power analysis a simple and general model for traditional and modern hypothesis tests

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin R; Wolach, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Noted for its accessible approach, this text applies the latest approaches of power analysis to both null hypothesis and minimum-effect testing using the same basic unified model. Through the use of a few simple procedures and examples, the authors show readers with little expertise in statistical analysis how to obtain the values needed to carry out the power analysis for their research. Illustrations of how these analyses work and how they can be used to choose the appropriate criterion for defining statistically significant outcomes are sprinkled throughout. The book presents a simple and g

  1. Beyond the tradition: test of an integrative conceptual model on nurse turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, A; Portoghese, I; Galletta, M; Pohl, S

    2013-03-01

    This paper aimed to extend research on nurse turnover by developing and testing a theoretical model of turnover intention that includes two emergent key off-the-job constructs, work-family conflict (WFC) and community embeddedness (CE). Nurse turnover is considered one of the most significant issues in health care. There is a considerable body of knowledge that has focused on the study of the on-the-job factors of nurse turnover, showing the important role of job attitudes. Recently, WFC and job embeddedness (JE) have been identified as variables that could help explain levels of nurse turnover. Using structural equation modelling from a cross-sectional survey, the relationships between the variables were explored in a sample of 440 nurses from an Italian public hospital. The questionnaire measures demographic data and psychosocial factors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, WFC, CE and turnover intentions. The findings supported the importance of non-work dimensions in turnover models. The results suggest that when studying turnover phenomena in health organizations, the extra-work domains (WFC and JE) can contribute to a decrease in the intention to leave, in addition to the more typically emphasized attitude dimension. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Testing a potential alternative to traditional identification procedures: Reaction time-based concealed information test does not work for lineups with cooperative witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Wolfs, Andrea C F; Crans, Samantha; Verschuere, Bruno

    2017-11-27

    Direct eyewitness identification is widely used, but prone to error. We tested the validity of indirect eyewitness identification decisions using the reaction time-based concealed information test (CIT) for assessing cooperative eyewitnesses' face memory as an alternative to traditional lineup procedures. In a series of five experiments, a total of 401 mock eyewitnesses watched one of 11 different stimulus events that depicted a breach of law. Eyewitness identifications in the CIT were derived from longer reaction times as compared to well-matched foil faces not encountered before. Across the five experiments, the weighted mean effect size d was 0.14 (95% CI 0.08-0.19). The reaction time-based CIT seems unsuited for testing cooperative eyewitnesses' memory for faces. The careful matching of the faces required for a fair lineup or the lack of intent to deceive may have hampered the diagnosticity of the reaction time-based CIT.

  3. Field test comparison of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size using a digital 'beachball' camera versus traditional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Rubin, D.M.; Harney, J.; Mustain, N.

    2007-01-01

    This extensive field test of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size from digital images was conducted using a digital bed-sediment camera, or 'beachball' camera. Using 205 sediment samples and >1200 images from a variety of beaches on the west coast of the US, grain size ranging from sand to granules was measured from field samples using both the autocorrelation technique developed by Rubin [Rubin, D.M., 2004. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(1): 160-165.] and traditional methods (i.e. settling tube analysis, sieving, and point counts). To test the accuracy of the digital-image grain size algorithm, we compared results with manual point counts of an extensive image data set in the Santa Barbara littoral cell. Grain sizes calculated using the autocorrelation algorithm were highly correlated with the point counts of the same images (r2 = 0.93; n = 79) and had an error of only 1%. Comparisons of calculated grain sizes and grain sizes measured from grab samples demonstrated that the autocorrelation technique works well on high-energy dissipative beaches with well-sorted sediment such as in the Pacific Northwest (r2 ??? 0.92; n = 115). On less dissipative, more poorly sorted beaches such as Ocean Beach in San Francisco, results were not as good (r2 ??? 0.70; n = 67; within 3% accuracy). Because the algorithm works well compared with point counts of the same image, the poorer correlation with grab samples must be a result of actual spatial and vertical variability of sediment in the field; closer agreement between grain size in the images and grain size of grab samples can be achieved by increasing the sampling volume of the images (taking more images, distributed over a volume comparable to that of a grab sample). In all field tests the autocorrelation method was able to predict the mean and median grain size with ???96% accuracy, which is more than

  4. Traditional test administration and proactive interference undermine visual-spatial working memory performance in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Wilkins, Leanne K; Lyons, Kathleen M; Yang, Lixia; Christensen, Bruce K

    2018-05-31

    Introduction Working-memory (WM) is a core cognitive deficit among individuals with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). However, the underlying cognitive mechanisms of this deficit are less known. This study applies a modified version of the Corsi Block Test to investigate the role of proactive interference in visuospatial WM (VSWM) impairment in SSD. Methods Healthy and SSD participants completed a modified version of the Corsi Block Test involving both high (typical ascending set size from 4 to 7 items) and low (descending set size from 7 to 4 items) proactive interference conditions. Results The results confirmed that the SSD group performed worse overall relative to a healthy comparison group. More importantly, the SSD group demonstrated greater VSWM scores under low (Descending) versus high (Ascending) proactive interference; this pattern is opposite to that of healthy participants. Conclusions This differential pattern of performance supports that proactive interference associated with the traditional administration format contributes to VSWM impairment in SSD. Further research investigating associated neurocognitive mechanisms and the contribution of proactive interference across other domains of cognition in SSD is warranted.

  5. Comparison between traditional laboratory tests, permeability measurements and CT-based fluid flow modelling for cultural heritage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boever, Wesley, E-mail: Wesley.deboever@ugent.be [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Bultreys, Tom; Derluyn, Hannelore [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoorebeke, Luc [UGCT/Radiation Physics, Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, Veerle [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the possibility to use on-site permeability measurements for cultural heritage applications as an alternative for traditional laboratory tests such as determination of the capillary absorption coefficient. These on-site measurements, performed with a portable air permeameter, were correlated with the pore network properties of eight sandstones and one granular limestone that are discussed in this paper. The network properties of the 9 materials tested in this study were obtained from micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared to measurements and calculations of permeability and the capillary absorption rate of the stones under investigation, in order to find the correlation between pore network characteristics and fluid management characteristics of these sandstones. Results show a good correlation between capillary absorption, permeability and network properties, opening the possibility of using on-site permeability measurements as a standard method in cultural heritage applications. - Highlights: • Measurements of capillary absorption are compared to in-situ permeability. • We obtain pore size distribution and connectivity by using micro-CT. • These properties explain correlation between permeability and capillarity. • Correlation between both methods is good to excellent. • Permeability measurements could be a good alternative to capillarity measurement.

  6. Security Considerations and Recommendations in Computer-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. Al-Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT. However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee.

  7. Security considerations and recommendations in computer-based testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleem, Saleh M; Ullah, Hanif

    2014-01-01

    Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee.

  8. Impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on HIV prevention practices among traditional birth attendants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-02-10

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.

  9. Evaluation of Legionella real-time PCR against traditional culture for routine and public health testing of water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S; Stevenson, D; Walker, J; Bennett, A

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Legionella qPCR alongside traditional culture for enumeration of Legionella from water samples as part of both routine and public health investigation testing. Routine water samples (n = 2002) and samples from public health investigations (n = 215) were analysed by culture and qPCR for Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila and L. pneumophila sg-1. A negative qPCR result was highly predictive of a negative culture result for all water systems (negative predictive values, NPV from 97·4 to 100%). Positive predictive values (PPV) were lower (0-50%). Results for qPCR were generally larger than culture with average log 10 differences of 1·1 for Legionella spp. and 1·2 for L. pneumophila. Alert and action levels of 1000 and 10 000 GU per litre, respectively, are proposed for Legionella qPCR for hot and cold water systems (HCWS). The use of qPCR significantly reduced the time to results for public health investigations by rapidly identifying potential sources and ruling out others, thus enabling a more rapid and efficient response. The high NPV of qPCR supports its use to rapidly screen out negative samples without culture. Alert and action levels for Legionella qPCR for HCWS are proposed. Quantitative PCR will be a valuable tool for both routine and public health testing. This study generated comparative data of >2000 water samples by qPCR and culture. Action and alert levels have been recommended that could enable duty holders to interpret qPCR results to facilitate timely Legionella control and public health protection. © 2017 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. In-home HIV testing and nevirapine dosing by traditional birth attendants in rural Zambia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alana T; Thea, Donald M; Semrau, Katherine; Goggin, Caitlin; Scott, Nancy; Pilingana, Portipher; Botha, Belinda; Mazimba, Arthur; Hamomba, Leoda; Seidenberg, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Access to lifesaving prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services is problematic in rural Zambia. The simplest intervention used in Zambia has been 2-dose nevirapine (NVP) administration in the peripartum period, a regimen of 1 NVP tablet to the mother at the onset of labor and 1 dose in the form of syrup to the newborn within 4 to 72 hours after birth. This 2-dose regimen has been shown to reduce MTCT by nearly 50%. We set out to demonstrate that in-home HIV testing and NVP dosing by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is feasible and acceptable by women in rural Zambia. This was a pilot program using TBAs to perform rapid saliva-based HIV testing and administer single-dose NVP in tablet form to the mother at the onset of labor and syrup to the infant after birth. A total of 280 pregnant women were consented and enrolled into the program, of whom 124 (44.3%) gave birth at home with the assistance of a trained TBA. Of those, 16 (12.9%) were known to be HIV positive, and 101 of the remaining 108 (93.5%) accepted a rapid HIV test. All these women tested HIV negative. In the subset of 16 mothers who were HIV positive, 13 (81.3%) took single-dose NVP administered by a TBA between 1 and 24 hours prior to birth and 100% of exposed newborns (16 of 16) received NVP syrup within 72 hours after birth, 80% of whom were dosed in the first 24 hours of life. With the substantial shortage of human resources in public health care throughout sub-Saharan Africa, it is extremely valuable to utilize lay health care workers to help extended services beyond the level of the facility. Given the high uptake of PMTCT services we believe that TBAs with proper training and support can successfully provide country-approved PMTCT. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  11. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  12. Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazami, Fariborz; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Azar, Mohammad Reza; Jahedi, Farzad; Moattari, Marzieh

    2014-03-05

    The importance of using technologies such as e-learning in different disciplines is discussed in the literature. Researchers have measured the effectiveness of e-learning in a number of fields.Considering the lack of research on the effectiveness of online learning in dental education particularly in Iran, the advantages of these learning methods and the positive university atmosphere regarding the use of online learning. This study, therefore, aims to compare the effects of two methods of teaching (virtual versus traditional) on student learning. This post-test only design study approached 40, fifth year dental students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. From this group, 35 students agreed to participate. These students were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental (virtual learning) and comparison (traditional learning). To ensure similarity between groups, we compared GPAs of all participants by the Mann-Whitney U test (P > 0.05). The experimental group received a virtual learning environment courseware package specifically designed for this study, whereas the control group received the same module structured in a traditional lecture form. The virtual learning environment consisted of online and offline materials. Two identical valid, reliable post-tests that consisted of 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs) and 4 essay questions were administered immediately (15 min) after the last session and two months later to assess for knowledge retention. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. A comparison of the mean knowledge score of both groups showed that virtual learning was more effective than traditional learning (effect size = 0.69). The newly designed virtual learning package is feasible and will result in more effective learning in comparison with lecture-based training. However further studies are needed to generalize the findings of this study.

  13. Is Blended e-Learning as Measured by an Achievement Test and Self-Assessment Better than Traditional Classroom Learning for Vocational High School Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blended e-learning on electrical machinery performance (achievement test and self-assessment. Participants were two classes of 11th graders majoring in electrical engineering and taking the electrical machinery class at a vocational high school in Taiwan. The participants were randomly selected and assigned to either the experimental group (n = 33 which studied through blended e-learning or the control group (n = 32 which studied through traditional classroom learning. The experiment lasted for five weeks. The results showed that (a there were no significant differences in achievement test scores between blended e-learning and traditional learning; (b students in the experimental group obtained significantly higher scores on self-assessment than students in the control group; (c students’ scores on self-assessment were significantly higher after studying through blended e-learning than before. Overall, blended e-learning did not significantly affect students’ achievement test scores, but significantly affected their self-assessment scores.

  14. TRADITIONAL GAMES RESULTED IN POST-EXERCISE HYPOTENSION AND A LOWER CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO THE COLD PRESSOR TEST IN HEALTHY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliane Beatriz Rauber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify if blood pressure (BP reactivity could be reduced through a previous single session of active playing when compared to sedentary leisure. Sixteen pre-pubertal healthy children participated in this study. After familiarization with procedures and anthropometric evaluation, participants performed three sessions in randomized order: 1 30 min of traditional Brazilian games (PLAY; 2 30 min of video game playing (DDR; and 3 30 min of watching TV (TV. Each session lasted ~80 minutes, being 10 min of rest; 30 min of intervention activity; and 40 min of recovery. After recovery, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used for the assessment of acute cardiovascular reactivity. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded at 30 s and 1 min during the CPT. Analysis of variance showed post-exercise hypotension (PEH only after PLAY, and that systolic and diastolic BP were significantly increased in all conditions during CPT. However, the magnitude of the CPT-induced blood pressure response was significantly less in PLAY compared to DDR and TV. The PEH observed during recovery and the reduced BP response to CPT following playing traditional games may be due its higher cardiovascular and metabolic demand as was indicated by the increased heart rate, oxygen consumption, and blood pressure. It was concluded that BP reactivity to stress may be reduced through a previous single session of traditional games and that PEH was recorded only after this exercise form. This benefit indicates a potential role of playing strategies for cardiovascular health in childhood.

  15. Traditional games resulted in post-exercise hypotension and a lower cardiovascular response to the cold pressor test in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, Suliane B; Boullosa, Daniel A; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; de Moraes, José F V N; de Sousa, Ioranny R C; Simões, Herbert G; Campbell, Carmen S G

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to verify if blood pressure (BP) reactivity could be reduced through a previous single session of active playing when compared to sedentary leisure. Sixteen pre-pubertal healthy children participated in this study. After familiarization with procedures and anthropometric evaluation, participants performed three sessions in randomized order: (1) 30 min of traditional Brazilian games (PLAY); (2) 30 min of video game playing (DDR); and (3) 30 min of watching TV (TV). Each session lasted 80 min, being 10 min of rest; 30 min of intervention activity; and 40 min of recovery. After recovery, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) was used for the assessment of acute cardiovascular reactivity. BP was recorded at 30 s and 1 min during the CPT. Analysis of variance showed post-exercise hypotension (PEH) only after PLAY, and that systolic and diastolic BP were significantly increased in all conditions during CPT. However, the magnitude of the CPT-induced BP response was significantly less in PLAY compared to DDR and TV. The PEH observed during recovery and the reduced BP response to CPT following playing traditional games may be due its higher cardiovascular and metabolic demand as was indicated by the increased heart rate, oxygen consumption, and BP. It was concluded that BP reactivity to stress may be reduced through a previous single session of traditional games and that PEH was recorded only after this exercise form. This benefit indicates a potential role of playing strategies for cardiovascular health in childhood.

  16. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  17. Traditional vs. Sport-Specific Vertical Jump Tests: Reliability, Validity, and Relationship With the Legs Strength and Sprint Performance in Adult and Teen Soccer and Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Yáñez-García, Juan M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Mora-Custodio, R, Franco-Márquez, F, Yáñez-García, JM, González-Badillo, JJ. Traditional vs. sport-specific vertical jump tests: reliability, validity, and relationship with the legs strength and sprint performance in adult and teen soccer and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 196-206, 2017-The vertical jump is considered an essential motor skill in many team sports. Many protocols have been used to assess vertical jump ability. However, controversy regarding test selection still exists based on the reliability and specificity of the tests. The main aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity of 2 standardized (countermovement jump [CMJ] and Abalakov jump [AJ]) and 2 sport-specific (run-up with 2 [2-LEGS] or 1 leg [1-LEG] take-off jump) vertical jump tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint and strength performance for soccer (n = 127) and basketball (n = 59) players in 3 different categories (Under-15, Under-18, and Adults). Three attempts for each of the 4 jump tests were recorded. Twenty-meter sprint time and estimated 1 repetition maximum in full squat were also evaluated. All jump tests showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (0.969-0.995) and low coefficients of variation (1.54-4.82%), although 1-LEG was the jump test with the lowest absolute and relative reliability. All selected jump tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.580-0.983). Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of one principal component, which explained 82.90-95.79% of the variance of all jump tests. The 1-LEG test showed the lowest associations with sprint and strength performance. The results of this study suggest that CMJ and AJ are the most reliable tests for the estimation of explosive force in soccer and basketball players in different age categories.

  18. Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines: Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster interferes with a rapid urine drug screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, M E; Osuch, E; Kahler-Venter, C P

    2017-08-25

    The prevalent use of African traditional medicine by the general public has been reported. With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily available over the counter, most of them promoted as immune boosters. These commercial HMs have not been taken through clinical trials and other tests that would validate their composition and safety, and other properties such as their effect on laboratory diagnostic tests. To investigate the cross-reactivity of selected HMs with commonly tested drugs of abuse (DoA) using a qualitative rapid urinalysis assay. The six HMs selected were bought from local pharmacies. A rapid urinalysis screening test was performed with the Instant View Multi-Drug of Abuse Test kit from Labstix Diagnostics. Drug-free urine (DFU) was pooled from samples donated by healthy volunteers. Urine samples that had tested positive for DoA were obtained from a pharmacology laboratory. Aliquots of the urine samples were spiked with the HMs in neat and diluted form, and tested at various time intervals. The results for the DFU samples spiked with the HMs remained negative. There were no significant changes in pH or specific gravity of the samples. The results of samples that had tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were not altered by five of the HMs when spiked at 40% v/v. The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test. An important finding is that the herbal mixture Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the cannabinoid screening test. It adds to the list of substances that may be potential adulterants of urine for screening tests.

  19. Teste de TBA aplicado a carnes e derivados: métodos tradicionais, modificados e alternativos TBA test applied to meats and their products: traditional, modified and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The TBA test is essential to quality control of fat-containing food, being the test most applied to evaluate lipid peroxidation in fishery, meat and poultry products. It estimates malonaldehyde, a secondary oxidation product, by reacting with 2-thiobarbituric acid, forming a coloured complex, measured spectrophotometrically atlambda = 532 nm. Results are expressed as mg malonaldehyde per kg sample or frequently as "TBA value". There are four ways of quantifying it: by lipid extraction, direct heating, distillation or heat-acid extraction. This review intends to point out traditional, modified and alternative TBA test methods, besides enumerating advantages and drawbacks of each one.

  20. [Traditional nostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.

  1. Comparative evaluation of bivalent malaria rapid diagnostic tests versus traditional methods in field with special reference to heat stability testing in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in areas where both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax are co-endemic. Bivalent Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs showed promise as diagnostic tools for P.falciparum and P.vivax. To assist national malaria control programme in the selection of RDTs, commercially available seven malaria RDTs were evaluated in terms of their performance with special reference to heat stability.This study was undertaken in four forested districts of central India (July, 2011- March, 2012. All RDTs were tested simultaneously in field along with microscopy as gold standard. These RDTs were stored in their original packing at 25°C before transport to the field or they were stored at 35°C and 45°C upto 100 days for testing the performance of RDTs at high temperature. In all 2841 patients with fever were screened for malaria of which 26% were positive for P.falciparum, and 17% for P.vivax. The highest sensitivity of any RDT for P.falciparum was 98% (95% CI; 95.9-98.8 and lowest sensitivity was 76% (95% CI; 71.7-79.6. For P.vivax highest and lowest sensitivity for any RDT was 80% (95% CI; 94.9 - 83.9 and 20% (95% CI; 15.6-24.5 respectively. Heat stability experiments showed that most RDTs for P.falciparum showed high sensitivity at 45°C upto 90 days. While for P.vivax only two RDTs maintained good sensitivity upto day 90 when compared with RDTs kept at room temperature. Agreement between observers was excellent for positive and negative readings for both P.falciparum and P.vivax (Kappa >0.6-0.9.This is first field evaluation of RDTs regarding their temperature stability. Although RDTs are useful as diagnostic tool for P.falciparum and P.vivax even at high temperature, the quality of RDTs should be regulated and monitored more closely.

  2. BRCA mutation carrier detection. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the traditional family history approach and the testing of all patients with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise

    2018-01-01

    Background Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Patients and methods A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). Results The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result. Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000–€80 000/LYG). PMID:29682331

  3. BRCA mutation carrier detection. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the traditional family history approach and the testing of all patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise

    2018-01-01

    Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result.Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000-€80 000/LYG).

  4. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  5. Control Grouped Pedagogical Experiment to Test the Performance of Second-generation Web Maps and the Traditional Maps at the University of Debrecen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Balla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost every component of the information society is influenced by elements built on communication technology. Learning also tends to be related to the dynamic usage of computers. Nowadays, a number of applications (online or offline are also available that engage large groups of potential users and simultaneously provide a virtual environment to facilitate learning. This study introduces the self-developed interactive blind map teaching-examining e-learning system of the University of Debrecen. Results of testing the system with a control group are also presented.Both experimental and control groups of students were required to sita test of topographic knowledge following a semester of study. The pass mark for the test was 80%. The experimental group used the new digital environment to study, while the control group prepared for their exam using paper maps in the traditional way. The key research questions addressed by the study were to determine whether exam results obtained by the group using the ‘digital’ method better than those of the control's; and if there were a difference between the exam performances of the two groups, was this statistically significant and, therefore, likely to occur in other similar scenarios?

  6. Testing the tests--an empirical evaluation of screening tests for the detection of cognitive impairment in aviators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, A F; Banich, M T; Elledge, V C

    1991-08-01

    The FAA has expressed concern that flight safety could be compromised by undetected cognitive impairment in pilots due to conditions such as substance abuse, mental illness, and neuropsychological problems. Interest has been shown in the possibility of adding a brief "mini-mental exam," or a simple automated test-battery to the standard flight medical to screen for such conditions. The research reported here involved the empirical evaluation of two "mini-mental exams," two paper-and-pencil test batteries, and a prototype version of an automated screening battery. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for each sub-task in a discriminant study of 54 pilots and 62 individuals from a heterogeneous clinical population. Results suggest that the "mini-mental exams" are poor candidates for a screening test. The automated battery showed the best discrimination performance, in part because of the incorporation of dual-task tests of divided attention performance. These tests appear to be particularly sensitive to otherwise difficult-to-detect cognitive impairments of a mild or subtle nature. The use of an automated battery of tests as a screening instrument does appear to be feasible in principle, but the practical success of a screening program is heavily dependent upon the actual prevalence of cognitive impairment in the medical applicant population.

  7. A quantitative performance assessment of improved cooking stoves and traditional three-stone-fire stoves using a two-pot test design in Chamwino, Dodoma, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, J.; Uckert, G.; Graef, F.; Hoffmann, H.; Kimaro, A. A.; Sererya, O.; Sieber, S.

    2018-02-01

    In Tanzania, a majority of rural residents cook using firewood-based three-stone-fire stoves. In this study, quantitative performance differences between technologically advanced improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves are analysed. We test the performance of improved cooking stoves and three-stone-fire stoves using local cooks, foods, and fuels, in the semi-arid region of Dodoma in Tanzania. We used the cooking protocol of the Controlled Cooking Test following a two-pot test design. The findings of the study suggest that improved cooking stoves use less firewood and less time than three-stone-fire stoves to conduct a predefined cooking task. In total, 40 households were assessed and ask to complete two different cooking tasks: (1) a fast cooking meal (rice and vegetables) and (2) a slow cooking meal (beans and rice). For cooking task 1, the results show a significant reduction in firewood consumption of 37.1% by improved cooking stoves compared to traditional three-stone-fire stoves; for cooking task 2 a reduction of 15.6% is found. In addition, it was found that the time needed to conduct cooking tasks 1 and 2 was significantly reduced by 26.8% and 22.8% respectively, when improved cooking stoves were used instead of three-stone-fire-stoves. We observed that the villagers altered the initial improved cooking stove design, resulting in the so-called modified improved cooking stove. In an additional Controlled Cooking Test, we conducted cooking task 3: a very fast cooking meal (maize flour and vegetables) within 32 households. Significant changes between the initial and modified improved cooking stoves regarding firewood and time consumption were not detected. However, analyses show that both firewood and time consumption during cooking was reduced when large amounts (for 6-7 household members) of food were prepared instead of small amounts (for 2-3 household members).

  8. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: Traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Mennenga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller’s classic description of human working memory capacity of 7±2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.

  10. Rapid aneuploidy testing (knowing less) versus traditional karyotyping (knowing more) for advanced maternal age: what would be missed, who should decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W C; Lau, E T; Lau, W L; Tang, Rebecca; Wong, Shell Fean; Lau, T K; Tse, K T; Wong, S F; To, W K; Ng, Lucy K L; Lao, T T; Tang, Mary H Y

    2008-02-01

    The application of rapid aneuploidy testing as a stand-alone approach in prenatal diagnosis is much debated. The major criticism of this targeted approach is that it will not detect other chromosomal abnormalities that will be picked up by traditional karyotyping. This study aimed to study the nature of such chromosomal abnormalities and whether parents would choose to terminate affected pregnancies. Retrospective study on a cytogenetic database. Eight public hospitals in Hong Kong. The karyotype results of 19 517 amniotic fluid cultures performed for advanced maternal age (>or=35 years) from 1997 to 2002 were classified according to whether they were detectable by rapid aneuploidy testing. The outcomes of pregnancies with abnormal karyotypes were reviewed from patient records. In all, 333 (1.7%) amniotic fluid cultures yielded abnormal karyotypes; 175 (52.6%) of these were detected by rapid aneuploidy testing, and included trisomy 21 (n=94, 28.2%), trisomy 18 or 13 (n=21, 6.3%), and sex chromosome abnormalities (n=60, 18.0%). The other 158 (47.4%) chromosomal abnormalities were not detectable by rapid aneuploidy testing, of which 63 (18.9%) were regarded to be of potential clinical significance and 95 (28.5%) of no clinical significance. Pregnancy outcomes in 327/333 (98.2%) of these patients were retrieved. In total, 143 (42.9%) of these pregnancies were terminated: 93/94 (98.9%) for trisomy 21, 20/21 (95.2%) for trisomy 18 or 13, 19/60 (31.7%) for sex chromosome abnormalities, and 11/63 (17.5%) for other chromosomal abnormalities with potential clinical significance. There were no terminations in the 95 pregnancies in which karyotyping results were regarded to be of no clinical significance. 'Knowing less' by the rapid aneuploidy stand-alone testing could miss about half of all chromosomal abnormalities detectable by amniocentesis performed for advanced maternal age. Findings from two fifths of the latter were of potential clinical significance, and the parents

  11. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3α-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered.

  12. Long- and short-term retention of traditional instruction vs. previously tested tactual vs. innovative tactual resources on the achievement and attitudes of second-grade students in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sherese A.

    This researcher investigated the long- and short-term retention of information using traditional instruction versus previously tested tactual resources versus innovative tactual resources on the achievement and attitudes of second-grade students in science. The processing of new and difficult knowledge has challenged many young children who tend to be kinesthetic or tactual learners. In compliance with the National Science Education Standards, students should be actively engaged in their own learning. Therefore, to boost student achievement in science, the use of tactual materials was implemented. The sample included 67 second-grade students drawn from three heterogeneously grouped classes in a low socio-economic neighborhood. It consisted of 30 females and 37 males of which 97 percent were African American, 2 percent were Hispanic, and 1 percent Other. Students were unaware of their diagnosed learning-style preference(s) during the instruction and assessment phases of the study. Therefore, students' knowledge of their learning-style preferences could not have had any impact on their achievement or attitudes. A counterbalanced research design was employed. During the first session, Group 1 was taught with previously tested tactual resources (Electroboards, Flip Chutes, Fact Wheels, and Fact Fans), and Group 3 was taught traditionally. During the second session of instruction, Group 1 received instruction with innovative tactual resources, Group 2 received traditional instruction, Group 3 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources. During the final session of instruction, Group 1 received traditional instruction, Group 2 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources, and Group 3 received instruction with innovative tactual resources. The results indicated that the use of tactual materials, regardless of whether they were previously tested or innovative, produced higher achievement gains and more positive attitudes than traditional

  13. A first approach to a neuropsychological screening tool using eye-tracking for bedside cognitive testing based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Krimly, Amon; Bauer, Lisa; Schulenburg, Sarah; Böhm, Sarah; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Abrahams, Sharon; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-08-01

    Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS. Significant correlation between both versions was observed for ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score and in all of its ALS-specific domains (all r > 0.3; all p ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score (p ALS patients who are unable to speak or write.

  14. An empirical test of a mediation model of the impact of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François

    2008-04-01

    Men die by suicide three to four times more often than women in Western countries. The adverse impact of the traditional male gender role as well as men's reluctance to seek help are possible explanations of this gender gap, but these hypotheses have not been well documented empirically. This study compares two groups of men who experienced comparable severely stressful life events during the preceding 12 months: 40 men admitted to hospital emergency following suicide attempts, and 40 men with no history of suicide attempts. Structured interviews were conducted to measure adherence to the traditional male gender role, help seeking behaviour, social support, suicide acceptability and mental health. ANOVAS indicated that attempters are more likely to adhere to the traditional masculine gender role and regression analysis revealed that this relationship persists even when the presence of mental disorders is statistically controlled. Sequential regression analysis support the mediation model and show that the effects of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior are mediated through protective and risk factors for suicide, namely mental state, help seeking and social support. The traditional male gender role appears to increase the risk of suicidal behavior in men by undermining their mental state and by inhibiting the protective factors of help seeking and social support. This study underscores the importance of encouraging men to seek help.

  15. Testing the Association Between Traditional and Novel Indicators of County-Level Structural Racism and Birth Outcomes among Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Brittany D; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Tanner, Amanda E; Nichols, Tracy R; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly

    2017-12-07

    Despite decreases in infants born premature and at low birth weight in the United States (U.S.), racial disparities between Black and White women continue. In response, the purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between both traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among Black and White women. We merged individual-level data from the California Birth Statistical Master Files 2009-2013 with county-level data from the United States (U.S.) Census American Community Survey. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine Black-White differences among 531,170 primiparous women across 33 California counties. Traditional (e.g., dissimilarity index) and novel indicators (e.g., Black to White ratio in elected office) were associated with earlier gestational age and lower birth weight among Black and White women. A traditional indicator was more strongly associated with earlier gestational age for Black women than for White women. This was the first study to empirically demonstrate that structural racism, measured by both traditional and novel indicators, is associated with poor health and wellbeing of infants born to Black and White women. However, findings indicate traditional indicators of structural racism, rather than novel indicators, better explain racial disparities in birth outcomes. Results also suggest the need to develop more innovative approaches to: (1) measure structural racism at the county-level and (2) reform public policies to increase integration and access to resources.

  16. Students Perception on the Use of Computer Based Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, R. A.; Kusumawati, N. S.; Ambarwati, O. C.

    2018-02-01

    Teaching nowadays might use technology in order to disseminate science and knowledge. As part of teaching, the way evaluating study progress and result has also benefited from this IT rapid progress. The computer-based test (CBT) has been introduced to replace the more conventional Paper and Pencil Test (PPT). CBT are considered more advantageous than PPT. It is considered as more efficient, transparent, and has the ability of minimising fraud in cognitive evaluation. Current studies have indicated the debate of CBT vs PPT usage. Most of the current research compares the two methods without exploring the students’ perception about the test. This study will fill the gap in the literature by providing students’ perception on the two tests method. Survey approach is conducted to obtain the data. The sample is collected in two identical classes with similar subject in a public university in Indonesia. Mann-Whitney U test used to analyse the data. The result indicates that there is a significant difference between two groups of students regarding CBT usage. Student with different test method prefers to have test other than what they were having. Further discussion and research implication is discussed in the paper.

  17. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios: improvements over traditional methods for the evaluation and application of veterinary clinical pathology tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Greiner, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves provide a cutoff-independent method for the evaluation of continuous or ordinal tests used in clinical pathology laboratories. The area under the curve is a useful overall measure of test accuracy and can be used to compare different tests (or...... different equipment) used by the same tester, as well as the accuracy of different diagnosticians that use the same test material. To date, ROC analysis has not been widely used in veterinary clinical pathology studies, although it should be considered a useful complement to estimates of sensitivity...... and specificity in test evaluation studies. In addition, calculation of likelihood ratios can potentially improve the clinical utility of such studies because likelihood ratios provide an indication of how the post-test probability changes as a function of the magnitude of the test results. For ordinal test...

  18. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  19. Development of a computerized adaptive test for Schizotypy assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT to evaluate schizotypy through "The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment" (ESQUIZO-Q, in non-clinical adolescents. METHODS: The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD=1.2. RESULTS: The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤ 0.30 was of 34 items. CONCLUSION: The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.

  20. Comparative clinical study testing the effectiveness of school based oral health education using experiential learning or traditional lecturing in 10 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kavvadia, Katerina; Taoufik, Konstantina; Oulis, Constantine J

    2015-04-28

    School based oral health education through traditional lecturing has been found successful only in improving oral health knowledge, while has low effectiveness in oral hygiene and gingival health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of experiential learning (EL) oral health education to traditional lecturing (TL), on enhancing oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior as well as oral hygiene, gingival health and caries of 10-year-old children. Eighty-four children were recruited for the EL and 100 for the TL group from 3 locations in Greece. Data regarding oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior were collected via questionnaires. Data regarding dental plaque, gingivitis and caries were collected by clinical examination. The evaluation using questionnaires and clinical examination was assessed at baseline and 6 and 18 months afterwards. Two calibrated pediatric dentists examined the students using a periodontal probe and artificial light. Modified hygiene index (HI) was used for dental plaque recording, the simplified gingival index (GI-S) was used for gingivitis and DMFT, based on BASCD criteria, for dental caries. Based on a dedicated manual, the teacher applied in the classroom the oral health educational program using EL. EL group had statistically significant better hygiene than the TL at 6 months (p 0.05) and attitude (p > 0.05) at 6 months in comparison to baseline. EL program was found more successful than TL in oral hygiene improvement. Both oral health education programs improved the oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of children. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02320162).

  1. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  2. The standardised copy of pentagons test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzoglou Vassiliki A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'double-diamond copy' task is a simple paper and pencil test part of the Bender-Gestalt Test and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Although it is a widely used test, its method of scoring is crude and its psychometric properties are not adequately known. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and reliable method of administration and scoring. Methods The study sample included 93 normal control subjects (53 women and 40 men aged 35.87 ± 12.62 and 127 patients suffering from schizophrenia (54 women and 73 men aged 34.07 ± 9.83. Results The scoring method was based on the frequencies of responses of healthy controls and proved to be relatively reliable with Cronbach's α equal to 0.61, test-retest correlation coefficient equal to 0.41 and inter-rater reliability equal to 0.52. The factor analysis produced two indices and six subscales of the Standardised Copy of Pentagons Test (SCPT. The total score as well as most of the individual items and subscales distinguished between controls and patients. The discriminant function correctly classified 63.44% of controls and 75.59% of patients. Discussion The SCPT seems to be a satisfactory, reliable and valid instrument, which is easy to administer, suitable for use in non-organic psychiatric patients and demands minimal time. Further research is necessary to test its psychometric properties and its usefulness and applications as a neuropsychological test.

  3. Validation of EncephalApp, Smartphone-Based Stroop Test, for the Diagnosis of Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Heuman, Douglas M; Sterling, Richard K; Sanyal, Arun J; Siddiqui, Muhammad; Matherly, Scott; Luketic, Velimir; Stravitz, R Todd; Fuchs, Michael; Thacker, Leroy R; Gilles, HoChong; White, Melanie B; Unser, Ariel; Hovermale, James; Gavis, Edith; Noble, Nicole A; Wade, James B

    2015-10-01

    Detection of covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is difficult, but point-of-care testing could increase rates of diagnosis. We aimed to validate the ability of the smartphone app EncephalApp, a streamlined version of Stroop App, to detect CHE. We evaluated face validity, test-retest reliability, and external validity. Patients with cirrhosis (n = 167; 38% with overt HE [OHE]; mean age, 55 years; mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, 12) and controls (n = 114) were each given a paper and pencil cognitive battery (standard) along with EncephalApp. EncephalApp has Off and On states; results measured were OffTime, OnTime, OffTime+OnTime, and number of runs required to complete 5 off and on runs. Thirty-six patients with cirrhosis underwent driving simulation tests, and EncephalApp results were correlated with results. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in a subgroup of patients. The test was performed before and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, and before and after correction for hyponatremia, to determine external validity. All patients with cirrhosis performed worse on paper and pencil and EncephalApp tests than controls. Patients with cirrhosis and OHE performed worse than those without OHE. Age-dependent EncephalApp cutoffs (younger or older than 45 years) were set. An OffTime+OnTime value of >190 seconds identified all patients with CHE with an area under the receiver operator characteristic value of 0.91; the area under the receiver operator characteristic value was 0.88 for diagnosis of CHE in those without OHE. EncephalApp times correlated with crashes and illegal turns in driving simulation tests. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass coefficient, 0.83) among 30 patients retested 1-3 months apart. OffTime+OnTime increased significantly (206 vs 255 seconds, P = .007) among 10 patients retested 33 ± 7 days after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. OffTime+OnTime decreased significantly (242 vs

  4. Is Blended e-Learning as Measured by an Achievement Test and Self-Assessment Better than Traditional Classroom Learning for Vocational High School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Shu, Kuen-Ming; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blended e-learning on electrical machinery performance (achievement test and self-assessment). Participants were two classes of 11th graders majoring in electrical engineering and taking the electrical machinery class at a vocational high school in Taiwan. The participants were randomly…

  5. Video game addiction test: validity and psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vermulst, Ad A; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-09-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study used data (n=2,894) from a large-sample paper-and-pencil questionnaire study, conducted in 2009 on secondary schools in Netherlands. Thus, the main source of data was a large sample of schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Measurements included the proposed VAT, the Compulsive Internet Use Scale, weekly hours spent on various game types, and several psychosocial variables. The VAT demonstrated excellent reliability, excellent construct validity, a one-factor model fit, and a high degree of measurement invariance across gender, ethnicity, and learning year, indicating that the scale outcomes can be compared across different subgroups with little bias. In summary, the VAT can be helpful in the further study of video game addiction, and it contributes to the debate on possible inclusion of behavioral addictions in the upcoming DSM-V.

  6. Evaluating tablet computers as a survey tool in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Steve M; Logan, Henrietta L; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G; Shepperd, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida's state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants' usability ratings. Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. A small frog that makes a big difference: brain wave testing of TV advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohme, Rafal; Matukin, Michal

    2012-01-01

    It is important for the marketing industry to better understand the role of the unconscious and emotions in advertising communication and shopping behavior. Yet, traditional consumer research is not enough for such a purpose. Conventional paper-and-pencil or verbal declarations favor conscious pragmatism and functionality as the principles underlying consumer decisions and motives. These approaches should be combined with an emerging discipline (consumer neuroscience or neuromarketing) to examine the brain and its functioning in the context of consumer choices. It has been widely acknowledged that patterns of brain activity are closely related to consumers cognition and behavior. Thus, the analysis of consumers neurophysiology may increase the understanding of how consumers process incoming information and how they use their memory and react emotionally (See "Three Types of Brain Wave Research on TV Advertisements"): Moreover, as the majority of consumer mental processes occur below the level of conscious awareness, observations of the brain reactions enable researchers to reach the very core (which is consciously inaccessible) foundations of consumer decisions, emotions, motivations, and preferences.

  8. VALIDITY IN COMPUTER-BASED TESTING: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPARABILITY ISSUES AND EXAMINEE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available These past years have seen the growing popularity of the Computer-Based Tests (CBTs in various disciplines, for various purposes, although the Paper-and Pencil Based Tests (P&Ps are still in use. However, many question on whether the use of CBTs outperform the effectiveness of the P&Ps or if the CBTs can become a valid measuring tool compared to the PBTs. This paper tries to present the comparison on both the CBTs and the P&Ps and their respective examinee perspectives in order to figure out if doubts should arise to the emergence of the CBTs over the classic P&Ps. Findings showed that the CBTs are advantageous in that they are both efficient (reducing testing time and effective (maintaining the test reliability over the P&P versions. Nevertheless, the CBTs still need to have their variables well-designed (e.g., study design, computer algorithm in order for the scores to be comparable to those in the P&P tests since the score equivalence is one of the validity evidences needed in a CBT.

  9. Testing primary-school children's understanding of the nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Susanne; Osterhaus, Christopher; Sodian, Beate

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS) is a critical aspect of scientific reasoning, yet few studies have investigated its developmental beginnings and initial structure. One contributing reason is the lack of an adequate instrument. Two studies assessed NOS understanding among third graders using a multiple-select (MS) paper-and-pencil test. Study 1 investigated the validity of the MS test by presenting the items to 68 third graders (9-year-olds) and subsequently interviewing them on their underlying NOS conception of the items. All items were significantly related between formats, indicating that the test was valid. Study 2 applied the same instrument to a larger sample of 243 third graders, and their performance was compared to a multiple-choice (MC) version of the test. Although the MC format inflated the guessing probability, there was a significant relation between the two formats. In summary, the MS format was a valid method revealing third graders' NOS understanding, thereby representing an economical test instrument. A latent class analysis identified three groups of children with expertise in qualitatively different aspects of NOS, suggesting that there is not a single common starting point for the development of NOS understanding; instead, multiple developmental pathways may exist. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Shelf life determination of sliced Portuguese traditional blood sausage--Morcela de Arroz de Monchique through microbiological challenge and consumer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge A; Silva, Pedro; Matos, Teresa J S; Patarata, Luís

    2015-03-01

    Morcela de Arroz (MA) is a ready-to-eat blood and rice cooked sausage produced with pork, blood, rice, and seasonings, stuffed in natural casing and cooked above 90 °C/30 min. It is commercialized whole, not packed, with a restricted shelf life (1 wk/0 to 5 °C). The objective of this work was to establish sliced MA shelf life considering both the behavior of L. monocytogenes through a microbiological challenge test (MCT) and the consumer acceptability of MA stored: vacuum packed (VP), modified atmosphere packed (MAP: 80% CO2/20% N2 ), and aerobic packed (AP). The MCT was conducted inoculating ±3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes cell suspension on the MA slices. Packaged samples were stored at 3 ± 1 °C and 7 ± 1 °C until 20 d. At 3 ± 1 °C, L. monocytogenes behavior was not affected by packaging or storage time. At 7 ± 1 °C, the pathogen increased nearly 1 log CFU/g in the first 4 d. L. monocytogenes populations in AP were higher (P < 0.05) than in MAP. The pathogen may grow to hazardous levels in the 1st days if a temperature abuse occurs. Considering the acceptability by the consumers, the shelf life of MA stored at 3 ± 1 °C was 4.4 d for AP, 8.1 d for VP, and 10.4 d for MAP. The sensory shelf life established based on sensory spoilage is shorter than the shelf life to maintain the population of L. monocytogenes in safe levels. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  12. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  13. Smart device-based testing for medical students in Korea: satisfaction, convenience, and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate respondents’ satisfaction with smart device-based testing (SBT, as well as its convenience and advantages, in order to improve its implementation. The survey was conducted among 108 junior medical students at Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Korea, who took a practice licensing examination using SBT in September 2015. The survey contained 28 items scored using a 5-point Likert scale. The items were divided into the following three categories: satisfaction with SBT administration, convenience of SBT features, and advantages of SBT compared to paper-and-pencil testing or computer-based testing. The reliability of the survey was 0.95. Of the three categories, the convenience of the SBT features received the highest mean (M score (M= 3.75, standard deviation [SD]= 0.69, while the category of satisfaction with SBT received the lowest (M= 3.13, SD= 1.07. No statistically significant differences across these categories with respect to sex, age, or experience were observed. These results indicate that SBT was practical and effective to take and to administer.

  14. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  15. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  16. Virtual reality paced serial assessment test for neuropsychological assessment of a military cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher; Rizzo, Albert A; Armstrong, Christina; Edwards, Joseph; Reger, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a difficult challenge for the DoD medical health system. Clinical neuropsychologists are being asked to make statements regarding a soldier's functional skills, ability to return to active duty, and competence in tasks of community living. Given the increasing prevalence of blast injuries to the head, and the fact that many brain injuries may have no external marker of injury, there is need for researching innovative assessment methods in detecting blast-related brain injury. To address these issues, two virtual reality-based Paced Auditory/Visual Serial Addition Tests (PA/VSAT) were developed that involve the participant being immersed in a Virtual Middle Eastern City as serial addition stimuli are presented. This study is an initial validation of the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT as assessments of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil version of the test, as well as the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT appear to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's performance while immersed in a military relevant simulation.

  17. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible.

  18. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  19. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  20. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  1. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid; Kus, Julianne V

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. © Crown copyright 2017.

  2. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R.; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. PMID:28404678

  3. Introducing Computer-Based Testing in High-Stakes Exams in Higher Education: Results of a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevé, Anja J.; Meijer, Rob R.; Albers, Casper J.; Beetsma, Yta; Bosker, Roel J.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of computer-based testing in high-stakes examining in higher education is developing rather slowly due to institutional barriers (the need of extra facilities, ensuring test security) and teacher and student acceptance. From the existing literature it is unclear whether computer-based exams will result in similar results as paper-based exams and whether student acceptance can change as a result of administering computer-based exams. In this study, we compared results from a computer-based and paper-based exam in a sample of psychology students and found no differences in total scores across the two modes. Furthermore, we investigated student acceptance and change in acceptance of computer-based examining. After taking the computer-based exam, fifty percent of the students preferred paper-and-pencil exams over computer-based exams and about a quarter preferred a computer-based exam. We conclude that computer-based exam total scores are similar as paper-based exam scores, but that for the acceptance of high-stakes computer-based exams it is important that students practice and get familiar with this new mode of test administration. PMID:26641632

  4. Introducing Computer-Based Testing in High-Stakes Exams in Higher Education: Results of a Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevé, Anja J; Meijer, Rob R; Albers, Casper J; Beetsma, Yta; Bosker, Roel J

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of computer-based testing in high-stakes examining in higher education is developing rather slowly due to institutional barriers (the need of extra facilities, ensuring test security) and teacher and student acceptance. From the existing literature it is unclear whether computer-based exams will result in similar results as paper-based exams and whether student acceptance can change as a result of administering computer-based exams. In this study, we compared results from a computer-based and paper-based exam in a sample of psychology students and found no differences in total scores across the two modes. Furthermore, we investigated student acceptance and change in acceptance of computer-based examining. After taking the computer-based exam, fifty percent of the students preferred paper-and-pencil exams over computer-based exams and about a quarter preferred a computer-based exam. We conclude that computer-based exam total scores are similar as paper-based exam scores, but that for the acceptance of high-stakes computer-based exams it is important that students practice and get familiar with this new mode of test administration.

  5. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  6. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  7. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  8. Non-Traditional Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  9. Making Tradition Healthy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/10/2007.

  10. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  11. Effectiveness of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine in the 2015/2016 season as assessed in both a test-negative case-control study design and a traditional case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiya, Takahisa; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Anzo, Makoto; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Sugaya, Norio; Takahashi, Takao

    2018-04-21

    Both traditional case-control studies (TCCSs) and test-negative case-control studies (TNCCSs) are commonly used to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). To compensate for the fact that observational studies are susceptible to bias, we combined both methods to assess VE in one geographical area during the 2015/2016 season, when influenza A (H1N1)pdm was dominant. Our TNCCS covered 331 children aged 6 months to 15 years who visited our hospital with fever, including 182 with influenza, and our TCCS covered 812 pediatric outpatients aged 6 months to 15 years, including 214 with influenza. Influenza infection and vaccination history were reviewed, and VE was calculated as (1 - odds ratio) × 100. In the TNCCS, VE against influenza A was 68% (95% CI 47-81) overall, and 70% (48-83) for those given two doses; against influenza B, VE was 37% (- 12-64) overall and 49% (2-74) for two doses. In the TCCS, VE against influenza A was 44% (15-63) overall and 44% (13-64) for two doses, and VE against influenza B was 24% (- 19-52) overall and 41% (3-64) for two doses. Both studies confirmed significant VE against influenza A, significant two-dose VE against influenza B, and better two-dose VE than one-dose VE. What is Known: • Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies from year to year. • Observational studies are conventionally used for VE assessment. However, they are inherently susceptible to bias and confounding. What is New: • This is the first report of influenza VE assessment using more than one observational study and performed in a specific area during the same season. • VE estimates obtained in our traditional case-control study were lower than those in our test-negative case-control study, but both studies found significant VE against influenza.

  12. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  13. The assessment of ultrasonic tests as a tool for qualification and diagnostic study of traditional highly porous and soft stone materials used in the built heritage of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, A.; Sileo, M.; Leucci, G.

    2012-04-01

    qualification of ancient masonries, realised with traditional soft stones, used as building materials in the Southern Italy. This activity is carried out within the AITECH network (Applied Innovation Technologies for Diagnosis and Conservation of Built Heritage), a regional research laboratory infrastructure (Apulian region, Southern Italy) funded within the FSE and FESR programs and realised by the contribution of the Italian CNR and Salento University. In particular, ultrasonic velocity propagation have been measured on different petrographic kinds of calcarenitic materials. The influence of the sample size -the scale effect- has also been investigated. Velocity data have been recorded on the samples in the following conditions: a) dry, wet and different rates of the humidity content b) salt saturation c) after ageing by salt crystallisation cycles. Finally, ultrasonic tests have been performed on some samples treated by inorganic silica consolidant. This experimental laboratory investigation is the preliminary activity to assess the performance potential of the ultrasonic tests as effective tool for the qualification and diagnosis before and after treatments, with reference to the specific critical aspects related to highly porous and soft stone materials, traditionally used in the built heritage of the past.

  14. Sadum: Traditional and Contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Panggabean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.

  15. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  16. In the Dirac tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-04-15

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.

  17. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  18. Health Information in Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Fasting Blood Sugar Test - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) ...

  19. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  20. Academic Medicine Meets Traditional African Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…

  1. CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JMaluleke

    2005-10-18

    Oct 18, 2005 ... CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY .... supremacy (sections 1(c) and 2 of the Constitution), and provides that any law ... protecting polygamy as well as related practices such as 'spouse inheritance', .... This school of thought argues that the practice of virginity testing puts the.

  2. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  3. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en

  4. A comparison of the standard and the computerized versions of the Well-being Questionnaire (WBQ) and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, the equivalence of paper and pencil assessment versus computer assessment of two self-administered questionnaires was investigated by means of a randomized cross-over design. Therefore, 105 out-patients with diabetes were invited to participate; 76 patients completed both...... the computer and the paper and pencil version of the Well-being Questionnaire (WBQ) and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) in a randomized order, with a mean interval of 7 days. The scales showed high test-retest correlations and the means, dispersions, kurtosis and skewness were found...... of a questionnaire was easy. It is concluded that the paper and pencil and the computerized versions of the WBQ and DTSQ can be considered equivalent. Therefore, the norms and cut-off scores obtained from paper and pencil assessments can be used in computerized versions of the WBQ and DTSQ and vice versa....

  5. Reception of the Istrian musical tradition(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Dario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.

  6. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  7. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  8. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  9. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  10. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  11. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...

  13. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  14. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  15. TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamak, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...

  16. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  17. Electronic commerce versus traditional commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...

  18. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  19. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  20. Genotoxicity of extracts of Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo)

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto, Katami; Haruo, Kuboniwa; Shunichi, Maemura; Toshihiko, Yanagisawa; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.

    2002-01-01

    The possible genotoxicity potential of 128 Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) was investigated using a bacterial reverse mutation test (the Ames test), an in vivo micronucleus test (MN test) in mouse bone marrow cells and an unscheduled DNA synthesis test (UDS test) in rat hepatocytes. Of 128 Kampo extracts examined, 98 did not induce mutations in bacteria while 30 induced mutations weakly in Salmonella typhimurium TA1537. Extracts of Scutellariae Radix, a common herbal drug, and i...

  1. Following international trends while subject to past traditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, Jens; Løvstad, Marianne; Norup, Anne

    2016-01-01

    by nationality, competence level, practice profile, and by attitude toward test selection. Participants who chose their tests flexibly used fewer tests than those adhering to the flexible battery approach, but had fewer tests from which to choose. Testing patients with psychiatric disorders was associated......OBJECTIVE: Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses...... with using more tests. IQ, memory, attention, and executive function were the domains with the largest utilization rate, while tests of motor, visual/spatial, and language were used by few. There is a lack of academic achievement tests. Screening tests played a minor role in specialized assessments...

  2. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  3. Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Maluleke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In August 2011 Advocate Joyce Maluleke, Director in the Gender Directorate of the South African Department of Justice and Constitutional Development addressed the Annual General Conference of the South African Chapter of the International Association of Women Judges held in Potchefstroom on the dangers of harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriages, virginity testing, widow's rituals, levirate and sororate unions, female genital mutilation, breast sweeping/ironing, the primogeniture rule, practices such as 'cleansing' after male circumcision, and witch-hunting. Although she considers respect for tradition, culture and customs to be part of the South African identity, she argues that cultural practices should be rooted in respect for human rights, democracy and equality. We publish her paper here as an oratio.

  4. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  5. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...

  6. The Relationship between African Traditional Cosmology and Students' Acquisition of a Science Process Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    1991-01-01

    The supposition that observational skills can be influenced by students' belief in traditional African cosmology, beliefs, and superstitions was investigated. Students with a high level of belief in African traditional cosmology made fewer correct observations on the Traditional Cosmology Test (TCT) and the Test of Observational Skills (TOS) as…

  7. Teaching English as a Language not Subject by Employing Formative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tufail Chandio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available English is a second language (L2 in Sindh, Pakistan. Most of the public sector schools in Sindh teach English as a subject rather than a language. Besides, they do not distinguish between generic pedagogy and distinctive approaches used for teaching English as a first language (L1 and second language (L2. In addition, the erroneous traditional assessment focuses on only writing and reading skills and the listening and speaking skills of L2 remain excluded. There is a great emphasis on summative assessments, which contribute to a qualification; however, formative assessments, which provide timely and continuous appraisal and feedback, remain ignored. Summative assessment employs only paper-and- pencil based test, while the other current means of alternative assessments like self-assessment, peer-assessment, and portfolio assessment have not been incorporated, and explored yet. Teaching English as a subject not as a language, employing summative assessment not formative, depending on paper-and-pencil based test, and not using the alternative modes of assessment are some of the questions this study will deal with. The study under discussion suggests that current approaches employed for teaching English are misplaced as these take a subject teaching approach rather than a language teaching approach. It also argues for the paradigm shift from a product to process approach to assessment by administering modern alternative assessments.

  8. Virtual Reality Stroop Task for neurocognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.

  9. Appraisal of traditional technologies i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jobo

    A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...

  10. Active Learning versus Traditional Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand,  active learning  changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class;  moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections  in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant  difference between active  learning and traditional  teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting  active  learning to  traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.

  11. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  12. Waldorf Education: An Innovative Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…

  13. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    intellectual property rights laws. 5 into traditional knowledge areas, in turn, has ... range of innovations in industrial, agricultural, environment and health ... Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2008 ..... Ghosh 2003 Colum J Asian L 106. 80 ..... Management'" 1998 Mich Law Rev 462-556.

  14. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  15. Japan between tradition and renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    what is still visible in the cityscapes. Furthermore, according to Greve’s publication “Learning from Tokyo urbanism: The urban sanctuaries”, they will figure out how traditions frame interactions between strangers. Thereby, the tea ceremony serves as an example for spaces in-between public and private...

  16. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  17. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  18. Goddess Traditions in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...

  19. Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davyson de L. Moreira

    Full Text Available In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as "acceptably safe, albeit not having a recognized level of efficacy" fit into a special category of drugs ("traditional herbal medicine products" for which requirements of non-clinical and clinical studies are less rigorous. A regulation proposal published by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance (Anvisa defines a similar drug category ("traditional phytotherapeutic products" for registration purposes. Regarding herbal medicines, both agencies seem to be lenient regarding proof of efficacy, and consider long-standing folk use as evidence of safety and a waiver of a thorough toxicological evaluation. Nonetheless, several herbal products and constituents with a long history of folk usage are suspected carcinogenic and/or hepatotoxic. Herbal products have also been shown to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. Since herbal medicines are often used in conjunction with conventional drugs, kinetic and clinical interactions are a cause for concern. A demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes should include at least in vitroand in vivogenotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for > 3 months or intermittently for > 6 months, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies (for drugs used by women of childbearing age, and investigation of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  20. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOME TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOBRINAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the characterization of six traditional meat products: smoked file, smoked bacon, pork sausages, sausage prepared from swine’s entrails, pork pastrami, sheep sausages. Organoleptic tests (the aspect and shape, the aspect of freshly cut in the section, smell, taste and consistency, physico-chemical and microbiological determinations (NTG, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were performed. These analyzes are a part of quality control that must be done in order to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture for a traditional product. After identification of H2S and starch and according to fat oxidation degree it was concluded that analyzed samples didn’t contain counterfeiters and all parameters analyzed are within the maximum limits allowed by law. Considering all the procedures for manufacturing, characteristics of raw and auxiliary materials, organoleptic properties of final products analyzed in this study, it can be concluded that analyzed meat specialties meet the requirements of Ministry Order no. 690/28.09.2004 for the traditional products certification.

  1. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  2. Blending traditional and digital marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.

  3. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  4. [Hygiene between tradition and implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansis, M L

    2004-04-01

    The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.

  5. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  6. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Aila Pullinen

    2015-01-01

    Aila Pullinen. 2015. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embr...

  7. Tablet computers and forensic and correctional psychological assessment: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher M; Heilbrun, Kirk; Kim, Na Young; McWilliams, Kellie; Phillips, Sarah; Barbera, Jessie; Fretz, Ralph

    2017-10-01

    Mobile computing technology presents various possibilities and challenges for psychological assessment. Within forensic and correctional psychology, assessment of justice-involved persons facilitated by such technology has not been empirically examined. Accordingly, this randomized controlled experiment involved administering questionnaires about risk-needs, treatment readiness, and computerized technology opinions to a large (N = 212) and diverse sample of individuals under custodial correctional supervision using either a tablet computer or traditional paper-and-pencil materials. Results revealed that participants in the paper-and-pencil condition completed the packet of questionnaires faster but omitted items more frequently. Older participants and those with lower levels of education tended to take longer to complete the tablet-administrated measures. The tablet format was rated as more usable irrespective of demographic and personal characteristics, and most participants across the 2 conditions indicated that they would prefer to use computerized technology to complete psychological testing. Administration format did not have a clear effect on attitudes toward correctional rehabilitation services. Noteworthy for researchers is the substantial time saved and absence of practical problems with the tablet condition. Implications for practitioners include the general usability of the devices, their appeal to incarcerated persons, and the potential for tablets to facilitate clinical and administrative tasks with corrections clients. Considering the novel nature of this study, its promising results, and its limitations, future research in this area is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786

  9. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

  10. SPECT quality control tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.; Abe, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control tests of tomographic system composed by a rotatory chamber (CGR Gammatomome T-9000) and a microcomputer are presented. Traditional quality control tests for scintilation chambers and specific tests for tomographic systems are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Bipolar leads for use with permanently implantable cardiac pacing systems: a review of limitations of traditional and coaxial configurations and the development and testing of new conductor, insulation, and electrode designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyers, G F; Mills, P; Clark, J; Cheesman, M; Yeung-Lai-Wah, J A; Brownlee, R R

    1997-01-01

    The unacceptable rate of mechanical failures, threshold problems, and recalls experienced with many coaxial bipolar cardiac pacing lead designs are reviewed in detail. To address these problems, redundant insulation coradial atrial and ventricular tined leads (AL and VL, respectively) with iridium oxide electrodes were developed and subjected to extensive accelerated testing. There were no mechanical failures. The new lead body design proved to be much more durable than widely used trifilar MP35N configurations. The data reviewed and early and current test results are strongly supportive of tightly coupled insulation being a major factor in improving lead durability as long as the insulating material is not stressed. In addition to improving flex life, insulation adherence to the conductor may reduce the potential for ionic degradation. Pacing and sensing thresholds in animal studies of the new leads were within the reported range for leads with steroid eluting electrodes. A multicenter Canadian clinical trial was initiated with the first implant in early January 1994. By November 1995, 110 VL and 82 AL had been placed in 124 patients and followed for a mean of 11 +/- 6 months; maximum 21, total 1355. There were 60 males and 64 females with a mean age of 64 +/- 16 years, range 15-88. Primary indications for pacing were AV block in 61 patients, sick sinus syndrome in 53, vasovagal syncope in 4, and congestive heart failure in 7. Many patients had associated or primary tachyarrhythmias, including 111 with supraventricular and 12 with ventricular. Forty-two percent of patients (52/124) had prior cardiac procedures, including 18 open heart surgeries and 20 AV nodal ablations. At implant, 8 lead characteristics were rated good or excellent in 90% (746/829) of evaluations. X-ray visibility was of concern in 10% of patients (12/124). Three perioperative complications occurred, including displacement of one AL (1.2%) and one VL (0.9%). There were no subsequent mechanical

  12. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  13. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  14. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  15. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  16. Tree Ordination as Invented Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Morrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic ordination of trees as monks in Thailand is widely perceived in Western scholarship to be proof of the power of Buddhism to spur ecological thought. However, a closer analysis of tree ordination demonstrates that it is not primarily about Buddhist teaching, but rather is an invented tradition based on the sanctity of Thai Buddhist symbols as well as those of spirit worship and the monarchy. Tree ordinations performed by non-Buddhist minorities in Thailand do not demonstrate a religious commitment but rather a political one.

  17. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  18. Traditional games in primary school curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Popeska, Biljana; Jovanova-Mitkovska, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Traditional games are cultural and national heritage. They, cultural and traditional activities transmitted from one generation to another, sharing different movement and cognitive games used in order to educate, to socialize, to share the experience and to influence toward development of young generation. The people create traditional games, and they represent the habits, culture and tradition of countries, region or even a town or village. There are lot of different traditional games. They ...

  19. The role of self-esteem instability in the development of postnatal depression: A prospective study testing a diathesis-stress account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Goubert, Liesbet; Loeys, Tom; Temmerman, Marleen; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-03-01

    Understanding vulnerability factors involved in the development of postnatal depression has important implications for theory and practice. In this prospective study, we investigated whether self-esteem instability during pregnancy would better predict postnatal depressive symptomatology than level of self-esteem. In addition, going beyond former studies, we tested the possible origin of this instability, examining whether day-to-day fluctuations in self-esteem could be explained by fluctuations in mood state, and whether this day-to-day self-esteem reactivity would predict postnatal depressive symptoms. 114 healthy never-depressed women were tested during the late second or third trimester of their gestation (Time 1) and at 12 weeks after delivery (Time 2). Day-to-day levels of self-esteem and depressed mood state were assessed at Time 1. At Time 2, postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed. The results show that, after controlling for initial depressive symptomatology, age and socio-economic status, postnatal depressive symptomatology at 12 weeks after childbirth could be predicted by self-esteem instability and not level of self-esteem. In addition, multi-level analyses demonstrated that these changes in day-to-day levels of self-esteem are associated with changes in day-to-day levels of depressed mood state and that those subjects with greater prenatal self-esteem reactivity upon depressed mood report higher levels of depressive symptoms post-partum. We used paper and pencil day-to-day measures of state self-esteem, which can be subject to bias. These results provide evidence for a diathesis-stress account of postnatal depression, highlighting the importance of a multi-dimensional view of self-esteem and the predictive role of self-esteem instability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1981-04-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.

  1. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  2. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  3. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years ( M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r -values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  5. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  6. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  7. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  8. Cloud and traditional videoconferencing technology for telemedicine and distance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Kai; Locatis, Craig; Ackerman, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Cloud-based videoconferencing versus traditional systems are described for possible use in telemedicine and distance learning. Differences between traditional and cloud-based videoconferencing systems are examined, and the methods for identifying and testing systems are explained. Findings are presented characterizing the cloud conferencing genre and its attributes versus traditional H.323 conferencing. Because the technology is rapidly evolving and needs to be evaluated in reference to local needs, it is strongly recommended that this or other reviews not be considered substitutes for personal hands-on experience. This review identifies key attributes of the technology that can be used to appraise the relevance of cloud conferencing technology and to determine whether migration from traditional technology to a cloud environment is warranted. An evaluation template is provided for assessing systems appropriateness.

  9. Traditional perception of Greeks in Serbian oral tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjik Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on material on Greeks from Vuk’s corpus of epic poems, we discuss the construction of ethnic stereotype of Greeks in Serbian language. However, the limitation of the paper’s possible conclusion lies in the nature of the corpus: Vuk had deliberately chosen one material over another, therefore, the corpus relating to Greeks cannot be considered as representative of the whole Serbian folk poems. Therefore, the discussion is limited to certain elements of the stereotype. Nevertheless, these Serbian epic folk poems contain many layers: historical, geographical, sociological, mythological and so on, with a strong foundation in traditional culture; thus, they provide an insight into geo-political situation of the time period, viewpoints, perspectives and experiences of other ethnic groups that Serbs have been into contact with. In particular, the relationship toward Greeks was marked with pronounced patriarchal attitude concerning others: we-others, ours-foreign, good-bad. In this sense, Greeks are portrayed as foreign, and as such, as a potential source of danger. On the other hand, Greeks are Christian Orthodox, which associates them with the category ours. In socio-economic sense, they were traders and wealthy, respected gentlemen. In epical-heroic profile, they were not considered as great heroes, but as "lousy army", and frequently, as unfaithful.

  10. Financial products as alternatives to traditional deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lidia MANEA

    2016-05-01

    In this context, increasing the safety of depositors appears as an undisputed necessity, which translates to our approach in the development of a constructive type applied research that takes into account the following stages: short description of risks and uncertainties characterizing the economic environment with emphasis on the importance of the financial instruments; analysis of empirical data on deposits in lei and euro at national level, identifying possible causes which led to one preference or another and finding the causes underlying the different options manifested in the capital, as compared to other counties; identifying the products that offer a dangerous alternative to traditional deposits from the Romanian banking market and describing these products and their related risks; the proposal of a new product, demonstrating its effectiveness by testing and confirmation of two hypotheses.

  11. ORAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN IGBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    control, which exists in all societies that make for near accurate preservation of traditions ... historical sources from written sources and from material objects. ..... traditions were detached very early from the rural to the urban areas, where urban.

  12. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... and Ficus thonningii blume (moraceae), two plants used in traditional medicine in the ... The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats · EMAIL ...

  13. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  14. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Preetam Sarkar; Lohith Kumar DH; Chanda Dhumal; Shubham Subrot Panigrahi; Ruplal Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines ac...

  16. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  17. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  18. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  19. Public Information and African Traditional Communication Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of how African traditional communication and the literature produced about it portray African traditional communication. The analysis premises an interest to ascertain whether the portrayal is in a perspective showing traditional media as capable of playing expected public information role. Drawing ...

  20. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...

  1. Challenges and Prospects of Traditional Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on challenges and prospects of traditional food processing technologies and their products in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to identify the challenges confronting traditional food processing technologies as well as the potentials the traditional food processing technologies has in boosting the ...

  2. Origen and the Platonic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria L.E. Ramelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study situates Origen of Alexandria within the Platonic tradition, presenting Origenas a Christian philosopher who taught and studied philosophy, of which theology was part and parcel. More specifically, Origen can be described as a Christian Platonist. He criticized “false philosophies” as well as “heresies,” but not the philosophy of Plato. Against the background of recent scholarly debates, the thorny issue of the possible identity between Origen the Christian Platonist and Origen the Neoplatonist is partially addressed (although it requires a much more extensive discussion; it is also discussed in the light of Origen’s formation at Ammonius’s school and the reception of his works and ideas in “pagan” Platonism. As a consequence, and against scholarly perspectives that tend to see Christianity as anti-Platonism, the final section of this paper asks the question of what is imperial and late antique Platonism and, on the basis of rich evidence ,suggests that this was not only “pagan” institutional Platonism.

  3. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  4. A New Measure of Traditional Values Across Cultures: China and Russia Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Taormina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new measure of adherence to traditional values was created with the objective of facilitating research within and across cultures and nations. The measure was tested in China (N = 321 and Russia (N = 314 and factor analysis of the data revealed two subscales named Personal Traditional Values (10 items and Public Traditional Values (6 items. Empirical psychometric testing of the overall 16-item measure and the two subscales strongly supported the validity and reliability of all three measures. Means comparisons conducted to assess how well the measures could be used for cross-cultural comparisons revealed the Russians somewhat more than the Chinese living by traditional values overall, both nations about equal on living according to traditional values in their personal lives, and the Russians significantly more inclined to abide by traditional values in public. Also tested were several social and psychological variables as theoretical predictors of living by traditional values, and Life Satisfaction was tested as a possible correlate of living according to traditional values. Regression analyses on the combined data confirmed that Family Emotional Support, Conscientiousness, Collectivism, and Age were all significant positive predictors of living by traditional values. Additional regressions also found some unique predictors for each nation. These findings and the results of the parametric tests support the use of the new scales for measuring traditional values both within and across cultures.

  5. Morality, Values, Traditional Bullying, and Cyberbullying in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Camodeca, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate moral aspects and human values in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, in order to detect differences between the two types of bullying and to test the role of immoral and disengaged behaviours in mediating the relationships between personal values and involvement in bullying. Sample comprised 390…

  6. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  7. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  8. Maternal Scaffolding of Preschoolers' Writing Using Tablet and Paper-Pencil Tasks: Relations with Emergent Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.

    2018-01-01

    Mothers play a key role in scaffolding children's writing using traditional tools, such as paper and pencil. However, little is known about how mothers scaffold young children's writing using touch-screen tablets (e.g., iPads) and the associations between maternal scaffolding and emergent literacy. Mother-child dyads (N = 47; M child…

  9. Assessment of visuospatial neglect in stroke patients using virtual reality: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, M.J.A.; Aznar Alonso, M.A.; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Petrus H.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2009-01-01

    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is

  10. Web-Based versus Paper-Based Data Collection for the Evaluation of Teaching Activity: Empirical Evidence from a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, Michele; Ferrari, Davide

    2011-01-01

    The collection of teaching evaluation questionnaires in the traditional paper-and-pencil format is a costly and time-consuming process and yet it is a common assessment practice in many university systems. Web-based data collection would reduce costs and significantly increase the efficiency of the overall evaluation process in numerous ways.…

  11. Assessing the Disconnect between Grade Expectation and Achievement in a Business Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Mark L.; Ramnarayanan, Renu; Oppenheim, Alan

    2015-01-01

    In an institutional review board--approved study aimed at evaluating differences in learning between a large-sized introductory business statistics course section using courseware assisted examinations compared with small-sized sections using traditional paper-and-pencil examinations, there appeared to be a severe disconnect between the final…

  12. Computer Games Application within Alternative Classroom Goal Structures: Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings on a study of educational computer games used within various classroom situations. Employing an across-stage, mixed method model, the study examined whether educational computer games, in comparison to traditional paper-and-pencil drills, would be more effective in facilitating comprehensive math learning outcomes,…

  13. The Incorporation of Micro-Computer Technology into School Mathematics: Some Suggestions for Middle and Senior Mathematics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Bill

    1987-01-01

    Argues that the use of computer technologies in secondary schools should change the nature of mathematics education. Urges the rethinking of the uses of traditional paper-and-pencil computations. Suggests some computer applications for elementary algebra and for problem solving in arithmetic and calculus. (TW)

  14. Tweets, Texts, and Tablets:The Emergence of Technology-Based Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Waller, LaNeisha; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2016-01-01

    Students with behavior problems often lack the self-regulation skills necessary for success. One strategy shown to improve these skills is self-monitoring. Traditionally, self-monitoring has been done using paper and pencil, with some sort of prompt to complete the procedures. Prompts have involved teacher cues as well as technology. Current…

  15. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Sarkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines according to age and health condition of the consumer, and seasonal considerations are presented for each of the traditional health foods of India. In the era of globalization of the population and international food trading, health conscious citizens around the globe will benefit from the wealth of knowledge on traditional Indian and ayurvedic health foods of Indian origin.

  16. Marketing - tool transformation of traditional societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Shinkarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of marketing on the TRANS­formation of a traditional society with its traditional values in a society of consumption. The de­velopment of capitalism inevitably leads to changes in the socio­political order of the whole modern world. This leads to the fact that the disappearance of the traditional elements of culture, crafts, songs and dances, rites, destroyed traditional norms and values, beliefs, moral and ethical values. Instead of the traditional culture is formed by the mass culture, society develops consumption goods and becoming all that you can sell. Marketing is one tool for the formation of a society of consumption, but it also performs other less prominent function transforms the traditional society into a consumer society with its values, mythology, norms and moral principles.

  17. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Vulgarization of popular music tradition in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Božilović, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    The vulgarization of tradition in this paper implies the alteration, false representation, and adaptation of tradition in line with the interests of certain individuals or groups in power. The author observes popular music in Serbia (jazz, pop, rock) under a sociological magnifying glass, attempting to explain and motivate the thesis which proposes a valid historical foundation of popular culture and music in the social life of Serbia. In his opinion, this kind of tradition is being 'swept un...

  19. Traditional Market Accounting: Management or Financial Accounting?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyarni, Wiyarni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...

  20. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  1. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  2. Using an Online Vocabulary Memorization Tool versus Traditional Vocabulary Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Bakla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to reveal what Memrise, an online vocabulary study tool, can offer to upper-intermediate EFL learners compared to traditional vocabulary exercises in L2 vocabulary learning. Two groups of upper-intermediate learners (N=80 were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group and were given the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale, VKS for short, as the pre-test and post-test. The participants in both groups were exposed to the target vocabulary items in the same reading text. While those in the experimental group created list of target vocabulary items collaboratively in Memrise and then studied the sets individually, the learners in the control group did traditional vocabulary exercises. The results of the post-tests indicated that there was a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group in favor of the experimental group. The researchers discuss possible pedagogical implications of this significant finding for EFL vocabulary instruction.

  3. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

  4. From Test Takers to Test Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kari

    2009-01-01

    As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

  5. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.

  6. Precision medicine and traditional chinese medicine of dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision medicine is more precise individualized medicine, based on the patient’s genes or physiological to formulate the specific treatment plan, for the realization of individualized treatment of various diseases to provide valuable information.But with the progress of modern science and technology, modern medicine dependence on medical instruments are too serious, traditional ways are gradually forgotten.If the machine depends on the instrument test results too serious which don’t combined with the actual diagnosis, the cause of misdiagnosis, so we should pay attention to the overall analysis of diseases and systematic diagnosis and examination, use of the overall treatment concept traced back to find the cause of Traditional Chinese Medicine, finally decide to select a best treatment plan.We should use the dialectical attitude to look at the precise medical. Not blindly requirements according to the road of precision medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine to go, to shine in himself field, form of self characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Can learn some of the advantages of accurate concept, the good and rejecting the bad, hope the Traditional Chinese Medicine in the modern environment more walk more far.

  7. Optimal Stand Management: Traditional and Neotraditional Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Lee Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    The traditional Faustmann (1849) model has served as the foundation of economic theory of the firm for the forestry production process. Since its introduction over 150 years ago, many variations of the Faustmann have been developed which relax certain assumptions of the traditional model, including constant prices, risk neutrality, zero production and management costs...

  8. Traditional Healers' Views On Fertility | Mashamba | Indilinga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is one of the major problems facing families, both in the public and private health sectors. This article reports on findings of a study that investigated the traditional perspectives regarding infertility. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods with five traditional healers who were selected through ...

  9. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops ...

  10. Application of isotopes in traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)

  11. Malawi's Traditional Leadership and Democracy Consolidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is that the tendency to brand traditional leadership as undemocratic masks debate on its great potential for the promotion of democracy. The article contends that efforts towards democracy consolidation require foregoing harmonious power relations and linkages between traditional leaders and elected local governments; ...

  12. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  13. Backpacking with a Prayer: Tradition and Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the phenomenon of Israeli backpacking as a function of traditional, observant, and secular population segments. We explored whether and to what degree backpacking features are related to the affinity of backpackers with the Jewish tradition and faith. Our study was based on a sample of 120 Israeli backpackers who had returned…

  14. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  15. Traditional healers and pulmonary tuberculosis in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J. A.; Boeree, M. J.; Kager, P.; Varkevisser, C. M.; Harries, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Blantyre district, Malawi. To investigate the use that tuberculosis (TB) patients in Malawi make of traditional healers and traditional medicine. A questionnaire study was carried out on 89 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to QECH. Seven

  16. African Traditional Knowledge Systems and Biodiversity Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a link between African Traditional Knowledge Systems and the management of Biodiversity. These have been passed over from one generation to the next through oral tradition. The lack of documentation of these systems of managing biodiversity has led to the existence of a gap between the scientifi cally based ...

  17. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  18. Reduce conflicts in traditional merariq traditions through the long tradition of the tribal people of sasak lombok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Nadiroh, Ulin; Saeun Fahmi, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Marriage is a container for framing the inner-to-heart relationship, the bond of love and affection between a man and woman to nurture a joy of happiness. This study aims to find out how the process and stages in traditional merariq traditions in the Sasak people, conflicts arising from merariq traditions, and reduce conflict through the tradition of selabar. The method used in this research is qualitative analysis method. In the process, merariq tradition is done by kidnapping the bride without the knowledge of the parents or the family of the women. There are several stages that must be passed by the bride and groom in the tradition merariq, namely: besejati, nyelabar, bait wali, sorong serah dan nyongkolang. Conflict that often arises, for internal family, merariq often become a place of coercion against the female family. For society, merariq impact on disruption of harmony of social life. In order to reduce the conflicts done selabar tradition, the tragedy is regarded as an alternative problem solving in the form of negotiations between the bride and groom’s family and the bride-to-be relating to ajikrame and pisuke transactions.

  19. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  20. Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2004-01-01

    From ancient wisdom to modern science and technology, Chinese cuisine has been established from a long history of the country and gained a global reputation of its sophistication. Traditional Chinese foods and cuisine that exhibit Chinese culture, art and reality play an essential role in Chinese people's everyday lives. Recently, traditional Chinese foods have drawn a great degree of attention from food scientists and technologists, the food industry, and health promotion institutions worldwide due to the extensive values they offer beyond being merely another ethnic food. These traditional foods comprise a wide variety of products, such as pickled vegetables, salted fish and jellyfish, tofu and tofu derived products, rice and rice snack foods, fermented sauces, fish balls and thousand-year-old eggs. An overview of selected popular traditional Chinese foods and their processing techniques are included in this paper. Further development of the traditional techniques for formulation and production of these foods is expected to produce economic, social and health benefits.

  1. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad, M.; Merriam, Sh.; Merriam, Sh.; Suhami, N.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities

  2. Effects of a Problem-based Structure of Physics Contents on Conceptual Learning and the Ability to Solve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Martí, Albert; Martínez Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2012-05-01

    A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a 'problem-based structure' of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering undergraduates taking physics. A number of tests and questionnaires were administered to a group of students following a traditional lecture-based instruction, as well as to another group that was following an instruction scheme based on the proposed approach and the teaching materials developed ad hoc. The results show that students following the new method can develop scientific reasoning habits in problem-solving skills, and show gains in conceptual learning, attitudes and interests, and that the effects of this approach on learning are noticeable several months after the course is over.

  3. [Trail walking test for assessment of motor cognitive interference in older adults. Development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Nadja

    2015-12-01

    Activities of daily living (ADL), such as walking, often involve the added complexity of walking while doing other activities (i.e. dual task walking). A complex walking task may require a greater motor and mental capacity, resulting in decrements in gait performance not seen for simple walking tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if the trail walking test (TWT), the mobile adaptation of the trail making test (TMT), could be a reliable and valid early detection tool to discriminate between non-fallers and fallers. This study examined dual task costs of a cognitive and a sensorimotor task (walking) in 94 older adults aged 50-81 years (average age M = 67.4 years, SD ± 7.34). Based on the idea of the paper and pencil TMT, participants walked along a fixed pathway (TWT-1), stepped on targets with increasing sequential numbers (i.e. 1, 2, 3, TWT-2), and increasing sequential numbers and letters (i.e. 1, A, 2, B, 3, C, TWT-3). The dual task costs were calculated for each task. Additionally, the following tests were conducted: TMT, block tapping test (BTT), timed up and go (TUG) test, 30s chair rising test, 10 m walking time test with and without head turns, German physical activity questionnaire (German PAQ-50 +) and the activities-specific balance confidence (ABC-D) scale. The TWT performance times as well as errors increased with increasing age. Reliability coefficients were high (interclass correlation ICC > 0.90). Correlations between the different TWT conditions and potential falls-related predictors were moderate to high (r = -0.430 to 0.699). Of the participants 34 % reported falling in the past year. The stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the dual task costs for the numbers and letters (odds ratio OR 1.162, 95 % confidence interval CI 1.058-1.277, p = 0.002), the ABC-D (OR 0.767, 95 % CI 0.651-0.904, p = 0.002) and exercise (OR 1.027, 95 % CI 1.008-1.046, p = 0.006) were significantly related to

  4. Traditional and non-traditional educational outcomes : Trade-off or complementarity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Marieke; Waslander, Sietske

    2007-01-01

    Recently, schools have increasingly been charged with enhancing non-traditional academic competencies, in addition to traditional academic competencies. This article raises the question whether schools can implement these new educational goals in their curricula and simultaneously realise the

  5. POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Алексеевна Мамина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding.The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity.The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society.The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-25

  6. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.

  7. The Decline of Traditional Banking Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia Piciu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The decline of traditional banking activities raise the issue of efficiency of financial stability, in terms ofquantitative and qualitative aspects – the increasing danger of banking failures as well as of susceptibility due toincreased propensity of banking institutions to assume additional to risks either in the form of riskier loans offer orengaging in other "non-traditional" financial activities which give a promise for greater profitability, but also higherrisks. Non-traditional activities of banking as financial products dealers (financial derivatives, generate an increasingrisks and vulnerabilities in the form of moral hazard issues. That is the reason why and these activities should beregulated as well as are the traditional activities. Challenges posed by the decline of traditional banking activities istwofold: the stability of the banking system must be maintained, while the banking system needs to be restructured toachieve financial stability in the long run. One possible way is an appropriate regulatory framework to encourage atransition period of changing the structure of banking activity(reduction of traditional activities and expanding nontraditional activities to enable banking institutions to perform a deep methodic analysis of non traditional activities,oriented to the financial banking efficiency.

  8. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  9. Staff competence in dealing with traditional approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, M.

    2008-01-01

    backgrounds of patients there is a need for mental health professionals to recognize the existence of traditional approaches and be aware of the parallel systems of care. Competent treatment of such patients requires that mental health professionals are aware of this and exhibit a willingness and ability...... to bridge between the more traditional and the Western approaches to treatment. The delineations and various aspects of the concept cultural competence and its dimensions will be discussed from a clinical perspective. Comparative studies of the various Western and the traditional approaches respectively...

  10. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  11. Chinese Traditional Philosophy and Indigenous Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional...... philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....

  12. Computer-Based Assessment of School Readiness and Early Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Beno; Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Nagy, József

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the potential of using online tests for the assessment of school readiness and for monitoring early reasoning. Four tests of a face-to-face-administered school readiness test battery (speech sound discrimination, relational reasoning, counting and basic numeracy, and deductive reasoning) and a paper-and-pencil inductive…

  13. A critique to Akdemir and Oguz : Methodological and statistical issues to consider when conducting educational experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Casper J.; Boevé, Anja J.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Abstract In the paper “Computer-based testing: An alternative for the assessment of Turkish undergraduate students”, Akdemir and Oguz (2008) discuss an experiment to compare student performance in paper-and-pencil tests with computer-based tests, and conclude that students taking computer-based

  14. Treating gynaecological disorders with traditional Chinese medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has significant advantages in treating gynaecological disorders. The paper has provided a brief introduction on the current progress of treating some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, ...

  15. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  16. MARKETING OF TRADITIONAL PRODUCT IN TRANSYLVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MATIUTI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hundred years and the youth totally ignore them. On the one hand, a large variety of names for different products have appeared on the market, but they are manufactured by big firms and do not have the quality of the traditional products. On the other hand, small producers often have hygiene problems. The reinforcement of traditional products can only occur if people know the quality and the value of the products obtained from the local animal breeds, many of them being endangered species.

  17. African indigenous and traditional vegetables in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous and traditional African vegetables (AITVs) are important sources of ... and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ... size and cost, retailer storage, remainders, processing and less common AITVs.

  18. Fluency First: Reversing the Traditional ESL Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGowan-Gilhooly, Adele

    1991-01-01

    Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)

  19. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anne Horsfall

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teacher's impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women's status, and problems due to overpopulation. (CH)

  20. Fungal decay of traditional fishing craft

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    The artisanal fishermen land major portion of fish caught in India, employing traditional fishing craft and methods. These craft are built of indigenous wood and undergo rapid biodeterioration causing great economic loss. Soft-rot fungi...

  1. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  2. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... based on a descriptive survey from the western black sea region of Turkey · EMAIL ... on volatile oil constituents of Codonopsis radix (dangshen) by GC-MS method ...

  3. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  4. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... extracts of three Togolese medicinal plants against ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae strains ... Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of ...

  5. Protecting traditional knowledge from the grassroots up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arugomedo, Alejandro [ANDES Association (Peru); Pant, Ruchi [Ecoserve (India); Vedavathy, S. [Herbal Folklore Reseach Centre (India); Munyi, Peter [International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (Kenya); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya); Herrera, Heracilo [Dobbo Yala Foundation (Panama); Song, Yinching; Li, Jingsong [Centre of Chinese Agricultural Policy (China); Swiderska, Krystyna

    2009-06-15

    For indigenous peoples round the world, traditional knowledge based on natural resources such as medicinal herbs forms the core of culture and identity. But this wealth of knowledge is under pressure. Indigenous communities are increasingly vulnerable to eviction, environmental degradation and outside interests eager to monopolise control over their traditional resources. Intellectual property rights such as patents, however, sit uneasily with traditional knowledge. Their commercial focus wars with fundamental indigenous principles such as resource access and sharing. Local customary law offers a better fit, and findings in China, India, Kenya, Panama and Peru show how this pairing can work in practice. The research has identified common elements, and key differences, in customary law that should be informing policy on traditional knowledge and genetic resources.

  6. Physicochemical characterization of traditional Ghanaian cooking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional vegetable oils derived from Egusi (Citrullus colocynthis) and Werewere ... the FAO/WHO standards for permissible levels of impurity in edible oils. ... to produce Egusi and Werewere oils that are aligned with industry standards.

  7. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These observations could be explained by some qualitative and /or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied. Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, Essential oil, Chemistry, Analgesic, Comparison, Benin, Congo. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol.

  8. Sustainable architecture in the traditional Iranian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Niloufari, Morteza; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: mortezagharibeh@yahoo.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In Iran, traditional homes have been built in a sustainable manner to withstand the high climate diversity of the country. The aim of this paper is to present the different methods used in Iranian traditional architecture. Among the architectural principles is appropriate orientation of the building to allow the capture of solar energy and at the same time protect against the cold wind. In addition, indigenous materials were used in the constructions to provide the highest degree of comfort possible with minimal damage to the environment. Finally, Iranian traditional architecture took advantage of the soil's constant temperature by building a Shvadan which is an underground space beneath the house. This article highlighted the different Iranian traditional methods which can create a sustainable architecture.

  9. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM), a new broad-based journal, is founded on two key tenets: To publish exciting research in all areas of applied medicinal plants, Traditional medicines, Complementary Alternative Medicines, food and agricultural technologies, and ...

  10. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...... plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour....

  11. MALAYSIAN TRADITIONAL AS A TREATMENT AND COMPLEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... e Management and Business, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, ... traditional medicines are becoming increasingly popular for a .... on the respondents' experiences, views and opinions, open-ended questions were employed.

  12. Traditional uses of indigenous tree species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.

  13. MARKETING OF TRADITIONAL PRODUCT IN TRANSYLVANIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. MATIUTI; A. T. BOGDAN

    2009-01-01

    Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hu...

  14. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Ozcan, Tulay; Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye

    2009-01-01

    Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or ...

  15. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  16. Tao Masters: tradition, experience and ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bizerril Neto

    Full Text Available In this article I analyse the performative dimension that constitutes the transmission of tradition in taoist lineage located in Brazil, from the perspective of the anthropology of experience. The idea of knowing in taoism is based on a practical notion: one knows the legacy of tradition through personal embodied experience. The very possibility of knowing is based upon a personal relation between master and apprentice, inserted on a dialogical and genealogical.

  17. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  18. Spread of Traditional Medicines in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Sugumar, V. Raji

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we have a comprehensive database on usage of AYUSH (acronym for Ayurveda, naturopathy and Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in India at the household level. This article aims at exploring the spread of the traditional medical systems in India and the perceptions of people on the access and effectiveness of these medical systems using this database. The article uses the unit level data purchased from the National Sample Survey Organization, New Delhi. Household is the basic unit of survey and the data are the collective opinion of the household. This survey shows that less than 30% of Indian households use the traditional medical systems. There is also a regional pattern in the usage of particular type of traditional medicine, reflecting the regional aspects of the development of such medical systems. The strong faith in AYUSH is the main reason for its usage; lack of need for AYUSH and lack of awareness about AYUSH are the main reasons for not using it. With regard to source of medicines in the traditional medical systems, home is the main source in the Indian medical system and private sector is the main source in Homeopathy. This shows that there is need for creating awareness and improving access to traditional medical systems in India. By and large, the users of AYUSH are also convinced about the effectiveness of these traditional medicines. PMID:26438717

  19. Morality, values, traditional bullying, and cyberbullying in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Camodeca, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate moral aspects and human values in traditional bullying and cyberbullying, in order to detect differences between the two types of bullying and to test the role of immoral and disengaged behaviours in mediating the relationships between personal values and involvement in bullying. Sample comprised 390 adolescents aged 14-18, balanced for gender, attending different high schools. Traditional and cyberbullying were detected by means of two self-report measures, while the Portrait Values Questionnaire was used to assess 10 values in four dimensions according to the value system model by Schwartz (1992): self-trascendence, self-enhancement, openness to change, and conservation. Finally, immoral and disengaged behaviours were assessed by means of five items about behavioural and personal aspects salient for morality. Results showed that, irrespective of gender, self-enhancement and self-trascendence moderately predicted cyber and traditional bullying, respectively, while immoral and disengaged behaviours predicted both. Indirect effects showed that self-enhancement and openness to change predicted both forms of bullying through immoral behaviour. Results are discussed in terms of similarities and differences between cyber and traditional bullying and with attention to the central role of morality in explaining bullying nature. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The difference between traditional experiments and CFD validation benchmark experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton L., E-mail: barton.smith@usu.edu

    2017-02-15

    Computation Fluid Dynamics provides attractive features for design, and perhaps licensing, of nuclear power plants. The most important of these features is low cost compared to experiments. However, uncertainty of CFD calculations must accompany these calculations in order for the results to be useful for important decision making. In order to properly assess the uncertainty of a CFD calculation, it must be “validated” against experimental data. Unfortunately, traditional “discovery” experiments are normally ill-suited to provide all of the information necessary for the validation exercise. Traditionally, experiments are performed to discover new physics, determine model parameters, or to test designs. This article will describe a new type of experiment; one that is designed and carried out with the specific purpose of providing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation benchmark data. We will demonstrate that the goals of traditional experiments and validation experiments are often in conflict, making use of traditional experimental results problematic and leading directly to larger predictive uncertainty of the CFD model.

  1. The difference between traditional experiments and CFD validation benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Barton L.

    2017-01-01

    Computation Fluid Dynamics provides attractive features for design, and perhaps licensing, of nuclear power plants. The most important of these features is low cost compared to experiments. However, uncertainty of CFD calculations must accompany these calculations in order for the results to be useful for important decision making. In order to properly assess the uncertainty of a CFD calculation, it must be “validated” against experimental data. Unfortunately, traditional “discovery” experiments are normally ill-suited to provide all of the information necessary for the validation exercise. Traditionally, experiments are performed to discover new physics, determine model parameters, or to test designs. This article will describe a new type of experiment; one that is designed and carried out with the specific purpose of providing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation benchmark data. We will demonstrate that the goals of traditional experiments and validation experiments are often in conflict, making use of traditional experimental results problematic and leading directly to larger predictive uncertainty of the CFD model.

  2. The use of handwriting examinations beyond the traditional court purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Anna; Jones, Kylie; Epple, Rochelle; Morelato, Marie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Roux, Claude

    2017-09-01

    Traditionally, forensic science has predominantly focused its resources and objectives on addressing court related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one function and results in lost opportunities as investigative and intelligence roles are often overlooked. A change of perspective and expansion of the contributions of forensic science is required to take advantage of the benefits of abductive and inductive thought processes throughout the investigative and intelligence functions. One forensic discipline that has the potential to broaden its traditional focus is handwriting examination. Typically used in investigations that are focused on both criminal and civil cases, the examination procedure and outcome are time consuming and subjective, requiring a detailed study of the features of the handwriting in question. Traditionally, the major handwriting features exploited are characteristics that are often considered individual (or at least highly polymorphic) and habitual. However, handwriting can be considered as an information vector in an intelligence framework. One such example is the recognition of key elements related to the author's native language. This paper discusses the traditional method generally used around the world and proposes a theoretical approach to expand the application of handwriting examination towards gaining additional information for intelligence purposes. This concept will be designed and tested in a future research project. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark it has been put forward that the introduction of solar heating prepared tanks into the building regulation can cause increased nuisance with respect to bacterial growth in hot water for domestic use. The reason is that solar heating prepared tanks have a larger volume and another form of operation than traditional tanks. In this investigation the difference between bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks was measured by heterotrophic plate counts as a general parameter for microbiological growth. There was no significant difference between the bacterial number in the solar heating prepared tanks and in the traditional tanks, either for bacteria determined at 37 deg. C, 44 deg. C, 55 deg. C or at 65 deg. C. The hot water for domestic use from the solar heating prepared tanks and the traditional tanks had in most cases a bacterial number below 1.000 CFU/ml, and all tests had a bacterial number below 10.000 CFU/ml. The number of bacteria must be considered low seen in relation to the other measurements of bacteria in hot water for domestic use, particularly in larger block of flats. (au)

  4. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  5. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  6. Between tradition and renewal: Some considerations about the use of tradition in reformed theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van Vlastuin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the theology and practice of the Christian church a tension between tradition and renewal exists. This essay focuses on this tension to provide a first step of methodological reflection to deal with it. Firstly, this tension is illustrated from the reformed perspective of sola scripturathat led to criticism of the tradition on the one hand, whilst understanding the reformed movement as part of the tradition on the other hand. A danger of unqualified sola scriptura is subjectivity. Subsequently, the importance of tradition is elaborated from the perspective of the church as the body of Christ across all ages. This implies that Christians should study and love the traditional theology because of the fundamental unity of the church that transcends cultural diversity. Rejecting tradition will cut the church from its historical and spiritual roots. Thirdly, this raises the question whether the church is imprisoned by tradition, as well as the problem of the relation between tradition and renewal. In response, it is argued that the doctrine of incarnation guarantees openness to history. With the help of the philosophical and Christian view on structural contingency, the belief that tradition is principally open to renewal is defended. Some examples are given as illustrations of how classic theological concepts can be reframed in our postmodern context. The last part of this essay concludes with the insight of Cyprian that only the conveyed tradition can be renewed, implying that renewal is in essence not a new theology, but a new application of apostolic theology.

  7. The evaluation of metabolizable energy in traditional Korean food for protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunmi Kim

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The various food ingredients involved in the cooking process of traditional Korean food lead to differences between the energy level attained from chemical analysis and from actual animal testing.

  8. Outcomes for Gestational Carriers Versus Traditional Surrogates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erika L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the obstetric and procedural outcomes of traditional surrogates and gestational carriers. Participants included 222 women living in the United States who completed a brief online survey between November 2015 and February 2016. Differences between gestational carriers (n = 204) and traditional surrogates (n = 18) in demographic characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, and procedural outcomes were examined using chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact tests, and t-tests. Out of 248 eligible respondents, 222 surveys were complete, for a response rate of 89.5%. Overall, obstetric outcomes were similar among gestational carriers and traditional surrogates. Traditional surrogates were more likely than gestational carriers to have a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised score of 16 or higher (37.5% vs. 4.0%). Gestational carriers reported higher mean compensation ($27,162.80 vs. $17,070.07) and were more likely to travel over 400 miles (46.0% vs. 0.0%) than traditional surrogates. Procedural differences, but not differences in obstetric outcomes, emerged between gestational carriers and traditional surrogates. To ensure that both traditional surrogates and gestational carriers receive optimal medical care, it may be necessary to extend practice guidelines to ensure that traditional surrogates are offered the same level of care offered to gestational carriers.

  9. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun

    2010-03-28

    To determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong. Fifteen healthy subjects (8 males and 7 females) volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC value for the glucose. The GL value of each test food was calculated as the GI value of the food multiplied by the amount of the available carbohydrate in a usual portion size, divided by 100. Among all the 23 Chinese traditional foods tested, 6 of them belonged to low GI foods (Tuna Fish Bun, Egg Tart, Green Bean Dessert, Chinese Herbal Jelly, Fried Rice Vermicelli in Singapore-style, and Spring Roll), 10 of them belonged to moderate GI foods (Baked Barbecued Pork Puff, Fried Fritter, "Mai-Lai" Cake, "Pineapple" Bun, Fried Rice Noodles with Sliced Beef, Barbecue Pork Bun, Moon Cakes, Glutinous Rice Ball, Instant Sweet Milky Bun, and Salted Meat Rice Dumpling), the others belonged to high GI foods (Fried Rice in Yangzhou-Style, Sticky Rice Wrapped in Lotus Leaf, Steamed Glutinous Rice Roll, Jam and Peanut Butter Toast, Plain Steamed Vermicelli Roll, Red Bean Dessert, and Frozen Sweet Milky Bun). The GI and GL values for these Chinese traditional foods will provide some valuable information to both researchers and public on their food preference.

  10. Motion Controllers for Learners to Manipulate and Interact with 3D Objects for Mental Rotation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lin, Po-Han; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is an important spatial processing ability and an important element in intelligence tests. However, the majority of past attempts at training mental rotation have used paper-and-pencil tests or digital images. This study proposes an innovative mental rotation training approach using magnetic motion controllers to allow learners to…

  11. Exploring new methods to detect person misfit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting response behavior for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive testing,

  12. Route-Learning and the Mozart Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine S.; Tlauka, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to an increase in spatial reasoning performance following exposure to music composed by Mozart. Empirical tests of the effect have resulted in an inconsistent pattern of findings with some studies producing the effect and others failing to do so. The majority of the investigations have relied on paper-and-pencil tests.…

  13. Web-based versus traditional lecture: are they equally effective as a flexible bronchoscopy teaching method?

    OpenAIRE

    Sterse Mata, Caio Augusto [UNIFESP; Ota, Luiz Hirotoshi [UNIFESP; Suzuki, Iunis [UNIFESP; Telles, Adriana [UNIFESP; Miotto, Andre [UNIFESP; Leao, Luiz Eduardo Villaca [UNIFESP

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the traditional live lecture to a web-based approach in the teaching of bronchoscopy and evaluates the positive and negative aspects of both methods. We developed a web-based bronchoscopy curriculum, which integrates texts, images and animations. It was applied to first-year interns, who were later administered a multiple-choice test. Another group of eight first-year interns received the traditional teaching method and the same test. the two groups were compared using the...

  14. Evolution of Student Knowledge in a Traditional Introductory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2008-10-01

    In the physics education research community, a common format for evaluation is pre- and post-tests. In this study, we collect student test data many times throughout a course, allowing for the measurement of the changes of student knowledge with a time resolution on the order of a few days. The data cover the first two quarters (mechanics, E&M) of a calculus-based introductory sequence populated primarily by first- and second-year engineering majors. To avoid the possibility of test-retest effects, separate and quasi-random subpopulations of students are evaluated every week of the quarter on a variety of tasks. Unsurprisingly for a traditional introductory course, there is little change on many conceptual questions. However, the data suggest that some student ideas peak and decay rapidly during a quarter, a pattern consistent with memory research yet unmeasurable by pre-/post-testing.

  15. Isolation and molecular identification of Lactobacillus brevis from traditional vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Ebrahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vinegar is a popular condiment in the world that different materials and methods have been used to produce it. In Iran natural vinegar is also prepared mostly in a traditional way by using different fruits such as grapes and apples. Natural vinegar has beneficent properties and because of this, it is recommended to be used by traditional and Islamic medicine. Vinegar contains acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Acetic acid bacteria and yeasts are involved in the production of vinegar and lactic acid bacteria improve the flavor of vinegar. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria especially Lactobacillus brevis from traditional vinegar. Materials and methods: After collecting a few traditional vinegars, the vinegar samples cultured for isolation of lactic acid bacteria on MRS broth and agar media contained nystatin as an anti-yeast antibiotic. Then some microbiological tests including catalase, gram staining and fermentation of carbohydrates were performed. Then, they were cultured at different temperatures, pH and different concentrations of salts. Finally, three isolates bacteria with biochemical properties of Lactobacillus brevis were evaluated by16 srDNA gene amplification. Results: Twelve lactobacilli were isolated from three vinegar samples. All isolated bacteria were catalase-negative and gram-positive. They could be able to grow at pH around 4.5 and 5.6, and at 2, 4 and 5.6% of salt concentrations. Most of the bacteria grew at 15oC, whereas one isolated grew at 45oC. Sequencing and Blast results showed that the three strains are Lactobacillus brevis. Discussion and conclusion: Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantrum were found in traditional vinegars. Although isolation of Lactobacillus plantrum from vinegar was reported previously, as far as we could determine, it is for the first time that we could isolate Lactobacillus brevis from vinegar.

  16. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.

  17. CONSUMERS’ BRAND EQUITY PERCEPTIONS OF TRADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Catli, Ozlem; Ermec Sertoglu, Aysegul; Ors, Husniye

    2017-01-01

    Thisstudy aims to compare consumers' brand perception of traditional brands withbrand perceptions of non-traditional brands.  Consumers livingin Ankara constitute the universe of work, and data were gathered in aface-to-face interview using the survey method. the demographic characteristicsof the participants was prepared with the aim of evaluating and comparing onetraditional brand and one non traditional brand of brand equity related to thebrand equity by the participants. According to...

  18. Corrosion evaluation of traditional and new bronzes for artistic castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavari, C.; Colledan, A.; Frignani, A.; Brunoro, G.

    2006-01-01

    By electrochemical and accelerated weathering tests, the corrosion behaviour of a new type of tin-bronze, containing about 3 wt.% silicon (SI3 bronze) was compared to a traditional 5% Sn, 5% Zn, 5% Pb bronze used for artistic castings (G85 bronze) under conditions simulating urban-industrial and marine environments. The aggressive media were: a synthetic pH 3.1 acid rain (AR) solution; a typical moist SO 2 -NO x for a climatic chamber and AR or 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution for salt spray cabinet. In all the environments the corrosion product layers formed on SI3 bronze were more uniform and protective than those formed on the traditional G85 bronze. The nature and morphology of the corrosion products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and scanning electron microscopy with microprobe (SEM-EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  19. Facilities upgrade for natural forces: traditional vs. realistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terkun, V.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional method utilized for upgrading existing buildings and equipment involves the following steps: performs structural study using finite element analysis and some in situ testing; compare predicted member forces/stresses to material code allowables; determine strengthening schemes for those structural members judged to be weak; estimate cost for required upgrades. This approach will result in structural modifications that are not only conservative but very expensive as well. The realistic structural evaluation approach uses traditional data to predict structural weaknesses as a final step. Next, using considerable information now available for buildings and equipment exposed to natural hazards, engineering judgments about structures being evaluated can be made with a great deal of confidence. This approach does not eliminate conservatism entirely, but it does reduce it to a reasonable and realistic level. As a result, the upgrade cost goes down without compromising the low risk necessary for vital facilities

  20. Mechanical Model of Traditional Thai Massage for Integrated Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Rattanaphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mechanical model was developed, aiming to provide standardized and programmable traditional Thai massage (TTM therapy to patients. The TTM was modeled and integrated into a mechanical hand (MH system, and a prototype massage chair was built and tested for user satisfaction. Three fundamental principles of Thai massage were integrated: pull, press, and pin. Based on these principles, the mechanics of Thai massage was studied and a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics and conditions for the design and prototyping of an MH. On average, it was found that users were satisfied with the treatment and felt that the treatment was similar to that performed by human hands. According to the interview results, users indicated that they were likely to utilize the MH as an alternative to traditional massage. Therefore, integrated TTM with an MH may help healthcare providers deliver standardized, programmable massage therapy to patients as opposed to variable, inconsistent human massage.

  1. The ethics of improving African traditional medical practice: scientific or African traditional research methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Aceme

    2009-11-01

    The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.

  2. The traditional knowledge and the intellectual property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle Vasquez, Rosangela

    1999-01-01

    This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme

  3. New rurality, traditional music and tourist experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Vaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Lopes-Graça, a prolific Portuguese composer, joined the French musicologist Michel Giacometti (1929-1990 in the effort of collecting and cataloguing popular songs, culminating in a collection of recordings, unique in Europe, which covered all Portugal. In the context of this paper we intend to show how the work of Lopes-Graça, challenging the traditional music, can allow a touring through traditions, while allowing design a cultural environment for the most demanding tourists. The purpose of this research is to develop a tourism product in the near future based on Lopes-Graça and Giacometti’s (musical and spatial journey through Portuguese traditional music, which portray a rural Portugal in all its dimensions including beliefs, uses and activities.

  4. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  5. Historical tradition in Serbian genre literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two Serbian science-fiction stories with a special emphasis on the motives in their narrative structure; the motive analysis is focused on those motives that represent a transposition of 'historical tradition' elements. The key words connecting images appearing in this context are: fear of losing (national identity and a strategy of resistance towards those, who presumably, want to 'take over' the identity. In this sense, a return to 'the historical tradition', in the analyzed texts, aims to reassess certain past models indicating at the same time those that have successfully served and endured as historical models in this discourse.

  6. Confucianism and the Asian Martial Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alexander Simpkins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Confucianism has been foundational in the political and social life of many Asian countries. Its influence pervades institutions and practices at every level of human activity. Martial arts have also benefited from this philosophy, as the traditional Confucian legacy continues to influence modern practices. This article briefly highlights some key figures and events, describes relevant core concepts of Confucian philosophy, and then shows exemplary applications to martial arts today. Modern martial artists can gain understanding of the traditional Confucian insights that deepen the significance of contemporary martial arts.

  7. Correlating consumer perception and consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-11-01

    Doenjang is a traditional Korean food and is widely used for many Korean foods. Consumer perception and consumer acceptability on the typical sensory characteristics of traditional Doenjang remain unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the consumer perception on traditional Doenjang characteristics and how preexisting consumer perception influenced the consumer liking for traditionally and commercially manufactured Doenjang. A consumer survey was conducted by presenting 26 sensory descriptions to consumers (n = 82) for check-all-that-apply measurement. Then, a consumer acceptance test was conducted over 2 d on 2 Doenjang samples representing commercially produced Doenjang and traditionally produced Doenjang: Day 1 consumers evaluated without any information (n = 182), and day 2 consumers evaluated samples informed that both samples were made by the "traditional" method (n = 109). Two-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses were conducted. Consumers' preexisting perceptions on the typical sensory characteristics of traditionally made Doenjang were similar in that they associate "gu-soo flavor," "dark color," "flavorful," and "well-fermented flavor" regardless of consumer demographics and Doenjang user status. However, these consumer perceptions on sensory attributes of traditional Doenjang did not agree with desirable sensory attributes for consumer liking, in that consumers preferred the commercially made Doenjang regardless of the evaluation condition and consumer user status. Findings from the current study therefore suggested a discrepancy between the preexisting current consumer perception and actual consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The present and future roles of Traditional Health Practitioners within the formal healthcare sector of South Africa, as guided by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 was seen as the long awaited start-up of the traditional healing profession in South Africa. Act No 22 (2007 was strongly politically driven from the late 1960s onward. Many of these political motivators were based upon outdated cultural ideas, customs and traditions, rooted outside the modern day healthcare needs and demands of the particular population that traditional healing intends to serve. An in-depth needs and skills analysis, to test the viability and sustainability of the South African traditional healers as well as their positions and roles as health practitioners inside the formal healthcare sector, as guided and stipulated by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007, was lacking in this early development and start-up process. This resulted in the traditional healers’ present and future roles as specific healthcare practitioners being both undefined and insufficiently formulated. In addition their existing education, training, skills and abilities to compete in the formal healthcare sector were ignored. Therefore, since the promulgation of the Act in 2007, there was limited professional-development for traditional healers, to improve their immediate professionalism and thus to promote effective role-playing and management in the formal healthcare sector. The South African traditional healing professional model is still in the foundational stage of its professional development; a stage which the other registered/regulated healthcare practitioners of the country surpassed long ago, making them well-equipped for role-playing and management as health professionals in the formal healthcare sector. The whole venture of the statutory recognition of the traditional health practitioners in 2007 as new healthcare professionals with the promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 seems to increasingly be a failure. There is

  9. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used In Mali for Dysmenorrhea · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Sanogo. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5SS.4 ...

  10. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey | Lech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  12. A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Kerimov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works and traditional singing of sacred hymns, folk songs and music of different nations. In contrast to the music scholarship, where typically image is a certain regularity, discipline and harmony, beauty of the traditional Indian music in the free improvisation, which is used by the performer. Listening carefully of this music, the man in a new world, a different sounds and explore a different idea of music for himself. The aim of the Indian music, unlike European musical culture define, explore, create and move depths to people's moods. And the Indian instruments is a miracle, that could reflect all these philosophical and aesthetic views. Along with the vocal art, this musical tradition has rich variety of melodic and rhythmic instruments.

  13. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  14. Exploring traditional and cyberbullying among Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Kelly, Colette; Molcho, Michal

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of traditional and cyberbullying victimisation with self-reported health and life satisfaction, and to examine whether involvement in risk behaviours contributes to these health outcomes. We asked questions on involvement in traditional and cyberbullying, risk behaviours, self-reported health and life satisfaction to school children. In total, 318 students aged from 15 to 18 years old in 8 post-primary schools in Ireland completed the survey. Children who were victims of bullying were more likely to report poor health, low life satisfaction and engaging in risky behaviours. Although not statistically significant, we found that cyber victimisation was positively associated with increased reporting of poor health and low life satisfaction. Traditional bullying is the most common type of bullying among school children in Ireland, and overall, seems to have a stronger association with poor health. However, a sizable proportion of children are victims of cyberbullying or of both cyberbullying and traditional bullying. It is, therefore, important to acknowledge, identify and address all types of bullying to improve the health outcomes of children.

  15. Comparative Economic Analysis of Beekeeping Using Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Tabora and Katavi regions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to undertake a comparative economic analysis of beekeeping using improved or traditional beehives. Data were collected from 198 beekeepers that were randomly selected from a sampling ...

  16. Tradition and Renewal in Contemporary Orthodox Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Begzos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This text presents the challenges that the modern world poses for the Orthodox Church. In every historical period, the Church has struggled with internal and external problems. While preserving its traditions and historical foundations, the theology of the Orthodox Church struggles with contemporary problems by showing the current, contemporary teaching about God, man and the world.

  17. Psychotherapeutic Function of the Kazakh Traditional Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerimova, Zere S.; Nussupova, Aizada S.; Burambaeva, Maryam N.; Yermanov, Zhanat R.; Emreyeva, Akmaral E.; Janseitova, Sveta S.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the psychotherapeutic parameters of traditional Kazakh music, best practices that were achieved in practical psychology. From the one hand, it allows us to see the music features in a new light, and from the other hand--to identify the ethnic psychology of the Kazakh nation. An important step in the study of the…

  18. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The papers in this volume were selected from presentations made in a number of special sessions on Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), which were held as ... concepts, provide case studies, and confirm once again the importance and, as yet, unrealized potential of TEK in resource and environmental management.

  19. Harmful traditional practices in a newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... impact of harmful traditional home care practices on ... She was initially on breast milk and water until the tenth day of life ... and zygomatic bone as well as loss of subcutaneous fat. (fig 1). .... ity and protection during the neo-.

  20. Insights: The Myth of the Traditional Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than half of marriages have ended in divorce since the mid-1970s. Nonetheless, schools and community organizations continue to be inclined to act as if nontraditional/neo-traditional families are an anomaly. Despite the reality of new family structures, popular television, movies, and books continue to…

  1. Traditional marriage festivals and tourism development | Oluwatoyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field work, observation and oral interview were the research instruments used to gather information from the tourist, host community, tourist product provider, and the government officials present at the 2012 festival. These are the people who will benefit greatly from the festival, if fully harnessed. The traditional marriage is a ...

  2. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  3. Comparison of Traditional and Constructivist Teaching Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The second section of students had 47 students and was taught using traditional teaching approach. Learning strategy inventory questionnaire which was adapted from strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) L2 students of English, (Oxford, 1990) was employed before and after students were taught using two ...

  4. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  5. 1 ARCHETYPAL SYMBOLS OF 'TRADITION' IN 'MODERNITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Although much of what is known now as modern art of Africa is affected by extraneous .... line of five black soldiers standing at attention also take the traditional African art style of frontal .... Bonding makes parents attentive to the child‟s wide range of ... relationships and foster a sense of security and positive self-esteem.

  6. Moving beyond Traditional Methods of Survey Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In his focus article, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation," published in this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Andrew Maul wrote that it is commonly believed that self-report, survey-based instruments can be used to measure a wide range of psychological attributes, such as…

  7. African Tradition, Philosophy, and Modernization | Ikuenobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine Wiredu's views that (1) ethnophilosophy cannot be considered a legitimate philosophy because it has the feature of authoritarianism, and that (2) this feature of African tradition will not allow modern philosophy to flourish because it prevents individuals from rationally and critically examining beliefs. The ability to ...

  8. A reviewof the pharmacologicalmechanism of traditional Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reviewof the pharmacologicalmechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the intervention of coronary heart disease and stroke. W Zhang, K Gao, K Gao, J Liu, J Liu, H Zhao, H Zhao, J Wang, J Wang, Y Li, Y Li, G Murtaza, G Murtaza, J Chen, J Chen, W Wang, W Wang ...

  9. Demographic characteristics associated with Isinuka Traditional Spa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curortology – the science of natural therapy that combines the effects of climate, water and mud treatment and other forms of traditional healing practices – is enjoying a phenomenal comeback. Behind the re-emergence of curortology lies the current popular revolt against synthetic products and the demand for more natural ...

  10. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traditional media use in Forest Conservation Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, the perception of inhabitants on appropriateness of media for FCSC does not translate to their being relevant for the same purpose. But the relevance of traditional communication to present-day development challenges was found to be very significant in the study sites. Only 2.5% and 7% of inhabitants of Oluwa forest ...

  12. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or to the housewife’s love and affection for her husband and children, since sweets and desserts are important elements of Turkish cuisine. However, the consciousnesses of nutrition and healthy eating, due to rapid change in popular life style and dietary patterns, has contributed to the increased interest in traditional foods with potential health benefits, with increased uncertainty for dessert consumption. Dairy desserts are extensively consumed due to their nutritive and sensoric characteristics. Some of traditional dairy desserts are Mustafakemalpasa, Gullac, Kazandibi, Hosmerim and Tavukgogsu, which are mainly made from milk or fresh cheese, and the current paper discusses their manufacturing processes and composition.

  13. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Errata | Adewunmi | African Journal of Traditional, Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 6 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4S (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potential of Gnidia capitata L.F.: investigations on its ... Lawsone inhibits cell growth and improves the efficacy of cisplatin in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines · EMAIL ... experimental immunesuppression in Wistar rats: biological and molecular ... Mechanisms of action of traditional herbal medicines used in the ...

  17. Colour Blocking: Disregarding Traditional Artistic Colour Harmonies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A development in the world of design – costume, fashion, graphics, architecture and general decor whereby traditional colour harmonies are reengineered to suite the taste of the time engages the attention of the paper. The trending phenomenon popularly referred to as 'colour blocking' involves the use of bright ...

  18. Changing Educational Traditions with the Change Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Louis Royce

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of a form of research intervention known as the Change Laboratory to illustrate how the processes of organisational change initiated at a secondary school can be applied to develop tools and practices to analyse and potentially re-make educational traditions in a bottom-up manner. In this regard it is shown how a…

  19. Enhancing the Lecture: Revitalizing the Traditional Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional lecture format of college courses can be enhanced by including active learning designed to further course goals of learning knowledge, developing skills, or fostering attitudes. Techniques suggested include using pauses, short writing periods, think-pair-share activities, formative quizzes, lecture summaries, and several assessment…

  20. Scrum in the Traditional Development Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Friis Sommer, Anita

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of years, the application of Scrum as a project management framework has been broadened from initially belonging to the software domain. Now companies within the field of traditional product development are starting to implement Scrum in an attempt to improve...

  1. TRADITIONAL REMEDIES IN CHILDREN AROUND EASTERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-08

    Aug 8, 2003 ... remain largely unproven by the scientific method and the concern about adverse effects have led to closer scrutiny of these products (4). Whereas most traditional remedies are safe, the potential for adverse effects or intoxication exists, as does the possibility of interaction with conventional drugs (2, 5-8).

  2. Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum Thonn. ex Hornem and Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl.) of Benin, using flow cytometry and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. K Adéoti, A Rival, A Dansi, S Santoni, S Brown, T Beule, A Nato, Y Henry, R Vodouhe, L Loko, ...

  3. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  4. The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying appears to be on the rise among adolescents due in part to increased access to electronic devices and less online supervision. Less is known about how cyberbullying differs from traditional bullying which occurs in person and the extent to which these two forms overlap. Our first aim was to examine the overlap of traditional bullying (relational, verbal, and physical) with cyberbullying. The second aim examined student- and school-level correlates of cyber victimization as compared to traditional victims. The final aim explored details of the cyberbullying experience (e.g., who sent the message, how was the message sent, and what was the message about). Data came from 28,104 adolescents (grades, 9-12) attending 58 high schools. Approximately 23% of the youth reported being victims of any form of bullying (cyber, relational, physical, and verbal) within the last month, with 25.6% of those victims reporting being cyberbullied. The largest proportion (50.3%) of victims reported they were victimized by all four forms, whereas only 4.6% reported being only cyberbullied. Multilevel analyses indicated that as compared to those who were only traditionally bullied, those who were cyberbullied were more likely to have externalizing (odds ratio = 1.44) and internalizing symptoms (odds ratio = 1.25). Additional analyses examined detailed characteristics of the cyberbullying experiences, indicating a relatively high level of overlap between cyber and traditional bullying. Implications for preventive interventions targeting youth involved with cyberbullying and its overlap with other forms of bullying are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Grasping the Second Law of Thermodynamics at University: The Consistency of Macroscopic and Microscopic Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrates on evaluating the consistency of upper-division students' use of the second law of thermodynamics at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Data were collected by means of a paper and pencil test (N = 48) focusing on the macroscopic and microscopic features of the second law concerned with heat transfer processes. The data…

  6. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness in Gifted Education: Some Challenges and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    States and districts are under increasing pressure to evaluate the effectiveness of their teachers and to ensure that all students receive high-quality instruction. This article describes some of the challenges associated with current effectiveness approaches, including paper-and-pencil tests of pedagogical content knowledge, classroom observation…

  7. The Relationship between Preservice Teachers' Reading Ability and Their Achievement on Teacher Certification Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Martin J.; Wells, Tim J.

    2006-01-01

    Graduates of teacher education programs throughout the nation must pass state-mandated standardized paper-and-pencil exit tests to become certified teachers. This study examines the relationship between the reading levels of preservice teachers enrolled in a south Texas university and their scores on the Texas Examinations of Educator…

  8. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation Tasks: Not Just in the Mental Rotation Process!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Alexander P.; Hegarty, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The paper-and-pencil Mental Rotation Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978) consistently produces large sex differences favoring men (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). In this task, participants select 2 of 4 answer choices that are rotations of a probe stimulus. Incorrect choices (i.e., foils) are either mirror reflections of the probe or…

  9. How did Danish students solve the PISA CBAS items?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helene; Andersen, Annemarie Møller

    2009-01-01

    ’ and boys’ answers. Twelve items were chosen for focus group interviews with two groups of students – three girls and three boys. The analysis shows that the students need other competencies than in the paper-and-pencil test and another problem solving strategy. In the Danish context this may be one...

  10. Probing Pre-and In-Service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these…

  11. Teacher Professional Knowledge and Classroom Management: On the Relation of General Pedagogical Knowledge (GPK) and Classroom Management Expertise (CME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Kramer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Due to the need for measurement instruments that allow an investigation of teachers' situational cognition and thus go beyond the limited scope of classical paper-and-pencil-tests, we ask how a specific video-based measurement of teachers' classroom management expertise can provide additional information when compared with an established…

  12. A blending of computer-based assessment and performance-based assessment: Multimedia-Based Performance Assessment (MBPA). The introduction of a new method of assessment in Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Sebastiaan; Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Innovation in technology drives innovation in assessment. Since the introduction of computer-based assessment (CBA), a few decades ago, many formerly paper-and-pencil tests have transformed in a computer-based equivalent. CBAs are becoming more complex, including multimedia and simulative elements

  13. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  14. A Comparison of Several Outcome Measures Used to Evaluate a Psychiatric Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerdon, Timothy; And Others

    The teaching of interviewing skills is increasingly incorporated into clinical medicine courses in American medical schools, yet the attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts have been woefully inadequate. Typical outcome measures have included paper and pencil tests of knowledge, preceptor evaluations of clinical performance, and…

  15. Antecedents and Outcomes of Workplace Incivility: Implications for Human Resource Development Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Ghosh, Rajashi

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional, correlational study (N = 402) examined the relationships among select demographics, workplace adaptation, employee affect, and incivility and physical health and job satisfaction. The paper-and-pencil survey battery consisted of nine scales. The hypotheses were tested through correlational, factor analytic, and hierarchical…

  16. Piagetian Research as Applied to Teaching Science to Secondary and College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.

    1979-01-01

    Piaget's formal operational stage is related to the teaching of science by focusing on the development of paper and pencil tests for determining students' cognitive level of development and on procedures for helping concrete operational students improve achievement and become more formal in their thinking. (JMF)

  17. Identification and Analysis of Student Conceptions Used To Solve Chemical Equilibrium Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voska, Kirk W.; Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and quantifies the chemistry conceptions used by students when solving chemical equilibrium problems requiring application of LeChatelier's Principle, and explores the feasibility of designing a paper and pencil test to accomplish these purposes. Eleven prevalent incorrect student conceptions about chemical equilibrium were identified…

  18. Study on the irradiation decontamination of traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Shi, S.; Li, B.; Wang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60 Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)

  19. Bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Emami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ice cream is a dairy product that is very popular during warm seasons. Ice cream can be contaminated with various microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria if hygienic procedures are not followed during preparation, distribution and preservation processes. This may put the health of people using ice cream at risk. Our study aimed to examine the bacterial contamination of traditional ice creams in Kermanshah city during 2008. Methods: During summer 2008, 80 samples of traditional ice creams were collected. The samples were examined according to the Iranian National Standard protocols for E. coli, Coliforms,  Salmonella,  Staphylococcus aureus and complete count of microorganisms. Results: Overall, 62 (77.5% samples had microbial contaminations more than the standard limit. Results showed 59 (73.75% and 54 (67.5 % of the samples contained a high number of microorganisms and coliform, respectively. Furthermore 30 (37.5% and 23 (28.75% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. However, Salmonella spp. was not found in any of the ice cream samples. Conclusion: The traditional ice creams tested in Kermanshah were heavily contaminated with bacteria. It could be due to the inappropriate preparation and preservation procedures using unpasteurized milk and other materials.  Contaminations may also be induced by personals. So it is recommended to apply the hygienic procedures for preparation and preservation of ice cream including the use of pasteurized milk and other materials.

  20. ROMANIAN TRADITIONAL MOTIF ELEMENT OF MODERNITY IN CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius Darius

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the phases for improving from an aesthetic point of view a clothing item, the T-shirt for women using software design patterns, computerised graphics and textile different modern technologies including: industrial embroidery, digital printing, sublimation. In the first phase a documentation was prepared in the University of Oradea and traditional motif was selected from a collection comprising a number of Romanian traditional motifs from different parts of the country and were reintepreted and stylized whilst preserving the symbolism and color range specified to the area. For the styling phase was used CorelDraw vector graphics program that allows changing the shape, size and color of the drawings without affecting the identity of the pattern. The embroidery was done using BERNINA Embroidery Software Designer Plus Software. This software allows you to export the model to any domestic or industrial embroidery machine regardless of brand. Finally we observed the resistance of the printed and embroided model to various: elasticity, resistance to abrasion and a sensory analysis on the preservation of color. After testing we noticed the imprint resistance applied to the fabric, resulting in a quality that makes possible to keep the Romanian traditional motif from generation to generation.

  1. Comparative advantage between traditional and smart navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeongkyu; Kim, Pan-Jun; Kim, Seunghwan

    2013-03-01

    The smart navigation system that refers to real-time traffic data is believed to be superior to traditional navigation systems. To verify this belief, we created an agent-based traffic model and examined the effect of changing market share of the traditional shortest-travel-time algorithm based navigation and the smart navigation system. We tested our model on the grid and actual metropolitan road network structures. The result reveals that the traditional navigation system have better performance than the smart one as the market share of the smart navigation system exceeds a critical value, which is contrary to conventional expectation. We suggest that the superiority inversion between agent groups is strongly related to the traffic weight function form, and is general. We also found that the relationship of market share, traffic flow density and travel time is determined by the combination of congestion avoidance behavior of the smartly navigated agents and the inefficiency of shortest-travel-time based navigated agents. Our results can be interpreted with the minority game and extended to the diverse topics of opinion dynamics. This work was supported by the Original Technology Research Program for Brain Science through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(No. 2010-0018847).

  2. Functional dyspepsia: A new approach from traditional Persian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Pasalar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM. Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes, Canon of medicine (by Avicenna, ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani, Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi, and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan. Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID, Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease.

  3. Blended Learning Versus Traditional Lecture in Introductory Nursing Pathophysiology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissitt, Andrea Marie

    2016-04-01

    Currently, many undergraduate nursing courses use blended-learning course formats with success; however, little evidence exists that supports the use of blended formats in introductory pathophysiology courses. The purpose of this study was to compare the scores on pre- and posttests and course satisfaction between traditional and blended course formats in an introductory nursing pathophysiology course. This study used a quantitative, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized control group, pretest-posttest design. Analysis of covariance compared pre- and posttest scores, and a t test for independent samples compared students' reported course satisfaction of the traditional and blended course formats. Results indicated that the differences in posttest scores were not statistically significant between groups. Students in the traditional group reported statistically significantly higher satisfaction ratings than students in the blended group. The results of this study support the need for further research of using blended learning in introductory pathophysiology courses in undergraduate baccalaureate nursing programs. Further investigation into how satisfaction is affected by course formats is needed. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Functional dyspepsia: A new approach from traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, Mehdi; Nimrouzi, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medicine (by Avicenna), ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani), Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi), and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan). Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID), Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease. PMID:27222829

  5. Recognition and respect for African traditional medicine | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... ... where he presented recommendations from traditional healers on how traditional medicine ... Recognizing that traditional medicine is “the most affordable and accessible system of health care for the .... Related articles ...

  6. New Product Development in Traditional Industries: Decision-Making Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mikel Zabala-Iturriagagoitia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether decisions considered as common in new product development literature are also valid in a region characterized by traditional industries. The research is grounded on innovative companies in the Valencian Region (Spain. Using the statistical tool of factor analysis, we test if the groups of decisions identified by the literature can be confirmed in our empirical sample. Therewith, we aim to link the theoretical and empirical fields in the context of new product development and product innovation management.

  7. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Louw; André Duvenhage

    2017-01-01

    Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players...

  8. Grassland communities of traditional orchards in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Zarnovican

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional orchards are a valuable feature of the rural landscape and they are specific for regions with scattered settlement such as the Myjava hilly land and White Carpathians. Here, the permanent species-rich grasslands beneath trees were regularly managed in the traditional manner until some were replaced in the 1970’s and 80’s by intensively managed orchards, some of which were abandoned in the early 1990’s. Our 2011–2015 phytosociological research followed the standard Braun-Blanquet approach. We classified 178 phytosociological relevés recorded in orchard meadows (156 relevés, former intensively managed orchards (16 relevés, and two relevés from a semi-intensively grazed orchard. Traditionally managed orchard meadows were classified in the following five units: (i Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – thermophilous variant, (ii Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – transitional variant to Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iii Ranunculo bulbosi-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iv Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti, and (v Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae. Formerly intensively managed large-scale orchards were classified as Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris association and the semi-intensively grazed orchard as Lolio perennis-Cynosuretum cristati association. The species composition varies considerably due to tree-shading and different management treatments applied in the orchards, so the relevés of the delimited syntaxonomic units are not typical and have transitional character. Moisture, soil nutrients, and soil reaction were identified as the main environmental gradients influencing species composition. We tested four management treatments in direct gradient analysis and found that abandonment has the strongest effect on species composition. Comparison of grassland vegetation in the studied traditional orchards with that described in Germany reveals differences in species

  9. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  10. Peripartum Depression, Traditional Culture, and Israeli Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Stanger, Varda; Georgakopoulos, Emily R; Stuebe, Caren M; Dishy, Gabriella A

    2016-08-01

    Although it is known that culture affects psychopathology, the nature of the relationship between culture and peripartum depression (PPD) is not fully understood. Here we report on 2 cases of Israeli women who are affiliated with traditional cultural groups that emphasize reproduction but developed PPD after childbirth. The first woman is an ultra-Orthodox Israeli Jew and the second is an Israeli Arab. The 2 cases illustrate the effect of cultural beliefs and rituals on the conceptualization, treatment, and trajectory of PPD. The cases suggest a complex relationship between traditional cultures and PPD, including the possibility that cultural factors may have both adaptive and maladaptive consequences. Future qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to further clarify this relationship. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  12. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  13. The Danish free school tradition under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    and students according to their own value base, and were given a large state subsidy. From the late 1990s a number of legislative changes were introduced demanding that non-governmental schools provide civic education and document the academic value of their teaching programs. The rules concerning......The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations, they could recruit teachers...... the monitoring of schools were also changed. This article analyses the political justification for these changes and asks to what extent the changes have altered the Danish free school tradition....

  14. The Fate of Job in Jewish Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    to a few examples of the fate of Job in Jewish tradition and concerned with Scripture's role with respect to religious normativity, this article will be guided by the following question: How can The Book of Job maintain its role within Jewish tradition as a normative text? My reading suggests that The Book......Job's piety in The Book of Job is so ideal that it becomes problematic on two levels. First, it renders God a tyrant. Second, no one can fully identify with Job. Surely, we may suffer just as much as Job does and even feel that God is unjust, but no man can ever claim to be as pious as Job. Limited...... of Job in itself is not normative. Rather, it serves as a counterpoint up against which the reception and transformation of Jewish theology can unfold and as such The Book of Job exerts its function on Jewish religiosity....

  15. Autopsy: Traditional Jewish laws and customs "Halacha".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Norman R; Goodman, Jeffrey L; Hofman, Walter I

    2011-09-01

    Judaism has many traditions, customs, rules, and laws, which relate to the proper and ethical disposition of a decedent when a Medical Examiner/ Coroner is involved. In almost all United States jurisdictions, statutes mandate the need to determine the cause and manner of death (Coroners' Act PA Pl. 323, num. 130, section 1237). This article is a review of some religious writings, legal precedents, and forensic authorities, which may help to assist the Medical Examiner/Coroner when confronted with a Jewish decedent. There can be flexibility as to the extent that such forensic studies can and should be performed. The final consent and interpretation of the rules, laws, traditions, and customs will rest with the courts and local rabbinic authority.

  16. Ketupat as traditional food of Indonesian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Rianti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has very diverse cultures and traditions. The majority of Indonesians are Muslims; therefore, Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world. Cultures are strongly associated with religion; one of them is the Indonesian tradition of eating ketupat during Eid Al-Fitr. Ketupat is a dish made from rice and is wrapped in young coconut leaves woven in a diamond shape. Ketupat was first introduced by an Indonesian theologian named Sunan Kalijaga who was an important figure for Muslims in Java. But, eventually, the culture of consuming ketupat only during the Eid Al-Fitr is no longer prevalent. Every region in Indonesia began to have its own distinctive culture in preparing and serving ketupat. Keywords: Culture, Eid, Indonesian, ketupat, Muslim

  17. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxici...

  18. MAXIMIZING PROFIT - OPTICAL TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES EXCEEDED

    OpenAIRE

    ENEA CONSTANŢA; ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2013-01-01

    Recently concepts of globalized the services the advertising only that and substantial modifications, but that just radicals, in the structure net of touristic states. Is directed to of a new conceive the organic fashions of structures ale net of realized and of casting of guy colaborative, baze on interconexion, the interface and flexible interactions, from which his. I result the competitive advantages popularly the partners of business. The optics traditional agencies of tourings considere...

  19. Mathematics, Science and the Cambridge Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Ornelas Martins

    2012-01-01

    Copyright © 2012 World Economics Association. In this paper the use of mathematics in economics will be discussed, by comparing two approaches to mathematics, a Cartesian approach, and a Newtonian approach. I will argue that while mainstream economics is underpinned by a Cartesian approach which led to a divorce between mathematics and reality, the contributions of key authors of the Cambridge tradition, like Marshall, Keynes and Sraffa, are characterised by a Newtonian approach to mathema...

  20. Aspects of Evil in Traditional Murder Ballads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional, or folk, ballads deal with common themes, often “leaping” over some details of plot and character while “lingering” on others, with the result that songs passed down orally through generations often appear in many variants. This paper will examine several songs from Martin Simpson’s 1976 debut album, Golden Vanity. I will trace their historical origins and argue that even some ancient ballads still speak to audiences today.

  1. Industrial redesign of traditional valencian tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas, F.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea behind this project was to recover a type of Traditional Valencian Ceramics, by adapting its own particular production technology to present-day systems, installations and materials.

    Se ha pretendido recuperar una tipología de Cerámica tradicional Valenciana, adaptando su tecnología productiva a los sistemas , instalaciones y materiales actuales.

  2. The traditional medicine of Inga woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Tafur, Clara

    2000-01-01

    The Inga maintains alive a medical tradition whose therapeutics is based on the use of plants. There is evidence that they have incorporated into their medicine Hispanic medical principles and of other indigenous communities as well as the use of plants from other regions of Colombia, mainly by exchange with communities of the Amazonian jungle.119 plants used by Inga women specialists in medicine are referenced as well as the preparation of 149 remedies used to solve health problems

  3. Nuclear chemistry in the traditional chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppinger, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional undergraduate program for chemistry majors, especially at institutions devoted solely to undergraduate education, has limited space for 'special topics' courses in areas such as nuclear and radiochemistry. A scheme is proposed whereby the basic topics covered in an introductury radiochemistry course are touched upon, and in some cases covered in detail, at some time during the four-year sequence of courses taken by a chemistry major. (author) 6 refs.; 7 tabs

  4. Populism in Lithuania: defining the research tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Aleknonis, Gintaras; Matkevičienė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The research on populism and populist political communication in Lithuania is rather limited, regardless of the fact that populist movements and politicians are influential on national and local political levels; they also receive sufficient support from a significant share of the population. Because the Western European research tradition is concentrated on the challenges of right-wing populism, Lithuanian political scientists distinguish right-wing populism as more significant in comparison...

  5. Changing Educational Traditions with the Change Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Royce Botha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the use of a form of research intervention known as the Change Laboratory to illustrate how the processes of organisational change initiated at a secondary school can be applied to develop tools and practices to analyse and potentially re-make educational traditions in a bottom-up manner. In this regard it is shown how a cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT perspective can be combined with a relational approach to generate the theoretical and practical tools for managing change at a school. Referring to an ongoing research project at a school, the paper describes how teachers and management there, with the aid of the researcher, attempt to re-configure their educational praxis by drawing on past, present and future scenarios from their schooling activity. These are correlated with similarly historically evolving theoretical models and recorded empirical data using the Vygotskyian method of double stimulation employed by the Change Laboratory. A relational conceptualisation of the school’s epistemological, pedagogical and organisational traditions is used to map out the connections between various actors, resources, roles and divisions of labour at the school. In this way the research intervention proposes a model of educational change that graphically represents it as a network of mediated relationships so that its artefacts, practices and traditions can be clearly understood and effectively manipulated according to the shared objectives of the teachers and school management. Such a relationally-oriented activity theory approach has significant implications in terms of challenging conventional processes of educational transformation as well as hegemonic knowledge-making traditions themselves. 

  6. Estimated annual incomes of South African traditional healers as generated by their practices and sales of their pre-modern traditional health products for 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-02-01

    prominent medicines industry has been manufacturing and marketing South African traditional medicines for decades. They do this scientifically as a viable and sustainable enterprise. In comparison, there are the traditional healers’ unscientific practices and the medical products that they manufacture and sell outside of the formal healthcare sector. There is no sound foundation and substantiated evidence in the literature to confirm their primary role as manufacturers, developers and sellers of the modern-day South African traditional medical and health products. They fail the test as scientific, viable and sustainable role players in the field of South African traditional healing and TAM.

  7. The impact of gender ideologies on men's and women's desire for a traditional or non-traditional partner

    OpenAIRE

    Thomae, M.; Houston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examine preferences for a long-term partner who conforms to traditional or non- traditional gender\\ud roles. The studies both demonstrate a link between benevolent sexism and preference for a traditional partner.\\ud However, Study 1 also demonstrates a strong preference among women for a non-traditional partner. We measured\\ud ambivalent sexist ideologies before introducing participants to either a stereotypically traditional or stereotypically non-traditional character of the opp...

  8. Determinants of a traditional agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Borysiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to define the landscape determinants as certificates of natural and cultural heritage which identify the young glacial landscape under traditional agricultural management. These studies were conducted in the upper Parsęta basin (Pomerania, Poland covered by the many annual environmental monitoring programs since 1994. The aim of this monitoring is to observe changes in geoecosystems of the temperate climate zone. The parameters of the abiotic landscape subsystem have been monitored in a wide range of terms, whereas biotic elements and cultural resources only in a very limited way. This was the reason for undertaking complementary studies. The paper presents the so-called “zero-state” for 2014, which will be a reference point from which to track the direction of landscape changes in the future. The abiotic, geobotanical, and cultural determinants of this state chosen have been characterized on the basis of field mapping data and the available literature. They were chosen based on the methodology of landscape audit to define the specificity of the traditional agricultural landscape. They were selected on the basis of assessment criteria for landscape structure: complexity (diversification of land use and cover, naturalness (syngenesis of plant communities, hydrochemical properties of surface waters, coherence of composition with natural conditions, stewardship (intensity of use, crop weeds, ecological succession, fallows, anthropogenic denudation, aesthetic and visual perception, historicity (continuity of natural landscape elements, continuation of traditional agricultural use, architectural objects, and disharmonious elements.

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine information digitalization discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.

  10. Middle Byzantine Historiography: Tradition, Innovation, and Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Wahlgren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of Greek historical writing of the Middle Byzantine period (approx. 800 until 1000 A.D., with a particular focus on the major chronicles, such as Theophanesthe Confessor (early 9th c., George the Monk (probably late 9th c., and Symeon the Logothete (second half of the 10th c.. On the one hand, it is discussed how the chroniclers engage with tradition and either accept it or reject it. Acceptance of tradition is illustrated by many cases where chroniclers keep very close to the narrative modes of their predecessors and in particular where they copy them extensively. Rejection of, or at least deviation from tradition is illustrated by many cases where new narrative techniques and modes of expression are apparent. Particular attention is paid to some aspects of narrative technique which seem to be innovative. In short, there seems to be an increased tendency towards greater logical (and hence, narrative coherence in the chronicles and an increased tendency towards concentration on a small number of settings, issues and persons (in particular, there is an increased concentration on the Capital of Constantinople and the Emperor’s person. Further, reception is discussed, and especially how Middle Byzantine historical texts were read and used in later writings, including the Slavic literatures. The need for further research in order to understand the transmission processes, especially in the form of the philological study of manuscripts, is stressed.

  11. Circle of healing: traditional storytelling, part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Walter

    2003-01-01

    For decades, Bible stories have been a source of both conflict and healing. In earlier days, Christian missionaries often went to considerable lengths to question the accuracy of traditional northern Native stories, especially those with supernatural dimensions, and to discredit traditional Native spiritual leaders, such as medicine men and women, angakoks, and shamans. The missionaries’ efforts often undercut Native culture and sometimes contributed to the intergenerational trauma that creates widespread hurt and pain in northern Native communities today. At the same time, a significant number of northern Native people derive considerable solace and support from their Christian beliefs and church affiliations, and many Christian religious organizations active in the North today no longer oppose traditional Native stories, practices, and values. Many northern Native people recognize that there is great value in both Native stories and the stories found in the Bible, but some still feel a tension in trying to reconcile acceptance of both. In his presentation, Walter Porter provided an interesting perspective on this issue, and his approach has considerable potential for healing.

  12. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.

  13. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  14. Berberis vulgaris: specifications and traditional uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Lorigoini, Zahra; Zamani-gharaghoshi, Hajar; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The medicinal plants from genus Berberis are particularly important in traditional medicine and the food basket of Iranians. Given various plants from genus Berberis and their economic, nutritional, and medicinal status in Iran, this study seeks to investigate the findings of recent studies on the phytochemical characteristics, specifications, and uses of Berberis vulgaris. In this review article, 350 articles were initially retrieved from reliable scientific databases using relevant search terms. Then, 230 articles were selected and 120 were excluded after a primary analysis. Finally, 98 articles related to the subject under study were meticulously examined and the required data were extracted and classified according to the research purposes. The findings were divided into eight separate sections: Introducing Berberidaceae family, different species of Berberis, pharmaceutical organs, B. vulgaris nutrition facts and minerals, the antioxidants and alkaloids compounds in fruit and other organs, action mechanisms of preventing and treating diseases, traditional uses of B. vulgaris, and its properties reported by recent studies. The results briefly indicate that B. vulgaris contains a large number of phytochemical materials including ascorbic acid, vitamin K, several triterpenoids, more than 10 phenolic compounds and more than 30 alkaloids. Therefore B. vulgaris may have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-nociceptive and hepato-protective effects. Regarding the use of different organs of B. vulgaris in traditional medicine and their confirmed effects in the recent studies, it is possible to use different organs of B. vulgaris, especially fruit, to develop new drugs. PMID:28656092

  15. Berberis vulgaris: specifications and traditional uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi-Madiseh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants from genus Berberis are particularly important in traditional medicine and the food basket of Iranians. Given various plants from genus Berberis and their economic, nutritional, and medicinal status in Iran, this study seeks to investigate the findings of recent studies on the phytochemical characteristics, specifications, and uses of Berberis vulgaris. In this review article, 350 articles were initially retrieved from reliable scientific databases using relevant search terms. Then, 230 articles were selected and 120 were excluded after a primary analysis. Finally, 98 articles related to the subject under study were meticulously examined and the required data were extracted and classified according to the research purposes. The findings were divided into eight separate sections: Introducing Berberidaceae family, different species of Berberis, pharmaceutical organs, B. vulgaris nutrition facts and minerals, the antioxidants and alkaloids compounds in fruit and other organs, action mechanisms of preventing and treating diseases, traditional uses of B. vulgaris, and its properties reported by recent studies. The results briefly indicate that B. vulgaris contains a large number of phytochemical materials including ascorbic acid, vitamin K, several triterpenoids, more than 10 phenolic compounds and more than 30 alkaloids. Therefore B. vulgaris may have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, analgesic and anti-nociceptive and hepato-protective effects. Regarding the use of different organs of B. vulgaris in traditional medicine and their confirmed effects in the recent studies, it is possible to use different organs of B. vulgaris, especially fruit, to develop new drugs.

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom.

  17. Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Moller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of traditional ecological knowledge and science to monitor populations can greatly assist co-management for sustainable customary wildlife harvests by indigenous peoples. Case studies from Canada and New Zealand emphasize that, although traditional monitoring methods may often be imprecise and qualitative, they are nevertheless valuable because they are based on observations over long time periods, incorporate large sample sizes, are inexpensive, invite the participation of harvesters as researchers, and sometimes incorporate subtle multivariate cross checks for environmental change. A few simple rules suggested by traditional knowledge may produce good management outcomes consistent with fuzzy logic thinking. Science can sometimes offer better tests of potential causes of population change by research on larger spatial scales, precise quantification, and evaluation of population change where no harvest occurs. However, science is expensive and may not always be trusted or welcomed by customary users of wildlife. Short scientific studies in which traditional monitoring methods are calibrated against population abundance could make it possible to mesh traditional ecological knowledge with scientific inferences of prey population dynamics. This paper analyzes the traditional monitoring techniques of catch per unit effort and body condition. Combining scientific and traditional monitoring methods can not only build partnership and community consensus, but also, and more importantly, allow indigenous wildlife users to critically evaluate scientific predictions on their own terms and test sustainability using their own forms of adaptive management.

  18. Traditional Therapies for Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rúben F; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2016-05-01

    Significance: The regeneration of healthy and functional skin remains a huge challenge due to its multilayer structure and the presence of different cell types within the extracellular matrix in an organized way. Despite recent advances in wound care products, traditional therapies based on natural origin compounds, such as plant extracts, honey, and larvae, are interesting alternatives. These therapies offer new possibilities for the treatment of skin diseases, enhancing the access to the healthcare, and allowing overcoming some limitations associated to the modern products and therapies, such as the high costs, the long manufacturing times, and the increase in the bacterial resistance. This article gives a general overview about the recent advances in traditional therapies for skin wound healing, focusing on the therapeutic activity, action mechanisms, and clinical trials of the most commonly used natural compounds. New insights in the combination of traditional products with modern treatments and future challenges in the field are also highlighted. Recent Advances: Natural compounds have been used in skin wound care for many years due to their therapeutic activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cell-stimulating properties. The clinical efficacy of these compounds has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo trials using both animal models and humans. Besides the important progress regarding the development of novel extraction methods, purification procedures, quality control assessment, and treatment protocols, the exact mechanisms of action, side effects, and safety of these compounds need further research. Critical Issues: The repair of skin lesions is one of the most complex biological processes in humans, occurring throughout an orchestrated cascade of overlapping biochemical and cellular events. To stimulate the regeneration process and prevent the wound to fail the healing, traditional therapies and natural products have been used

  19. Student Evaluation in Higher Education: A Comparison between Computer Assisted Assessment and Traditional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilay, Yaron; Ghilay, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The study examined advantages and disadvantages of computerised assessment compared to traditional evaluation. It was based on two samples of college students (n=54) being examined in computerised tests instead of paper-based exams. Students were asked to answer a questionnaire focused on test effectiveness, experience, flexibility and integrity.…

  20. Practical Skills Training in Agricultural Education--A Comparison between Traditional and Blended Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Donna; Wims, Padraig; Pettit, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article the use of blended learning multimedia materials as an education tool was compared with the traditional approach for skills training. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was conducted in Ireland using a pre-test, post-test experimental design. All students were instructed on how to complete two skills using either a…

  1. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills and Writing Skills through the Variation in Non-Traditional Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, Parlindungan; Feranie, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    The research aims to identify the impacts of embedding non-traditional writing tasks within the course of modern physics conducted to the students of Physics Education and Physics Study Programs. It employed a quasi-experimental method with the pretest-posttest control group design. The used instruments were tests on conceptual mastery, tests on…

  2. Oral tradition in African philosophical discourse: a critique of Sophie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to discuss the place of oral tradition in African philosophical discourse. In doing this, the nature of oral tradition as well as its forms is critically discussed taking into cognizance Sophie Oluwole‟s scholarship on oral tradition in African philosophy. Oluwole defends the thesis that oral tradition almost ...

  3. Why Should One Want to Participate in a Religious Tradition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, I apply the theory of tradition Karl Popper developed in an article on the rationalist tradition to Christianity. Popper helps us to distinguish between four functions of the Christian tradition. (1) The Christian tradition helps people to order their perceptions by suggesting

  4. Protecting traditional knowledge - Does secrecy offer a solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their traditional knowledge. This paper reviews the concerns that may arise when holders of traditional knowledge attempt to rely on claiming unfair competition and contract laws to protect their traditional knowledge. Keywords: Traditional knowledge; TRIPS Agreement; unfair competition; confidential information; secrecy.

  5. Involving Students in Developing Math Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapke, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have claimed that traditional testing actually promotes students' use of superficial approaches to learning. When preparing to take tests, students typically memorize and cram rather than understanding the material and gaining new perspectives. This article describes how the author recast traditional tests by having students take a…

  6. The Fifth Slovene Hamlet: Return to Tradition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Marija Zlatnar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the nearly two centuries that Hamlet has been a fixture of the Slovene cultural firmament, the complete text has been translated five times, mostly by highly esteemed figures of Slovene literature and literary translation. This article focuses on the most recent translation, which was done by the prominent Slovene drama translator Srečko Fišer for a performance at the National Theatre in Ljubljana in 2013. It examines the new translation’s relations to its source text as well as to the previous translations. After the late twentieth century, when Hamlet was regarded as a text to be challenged, this new translation indicates the return to the tradition of reverence both for the source text and its author, and for the older translations. This is demonstrated on all levels, from the choice of source text edition, which seems to bear more similarities with the older translations than with the most recent predecessors, to the style, which echoes the solutions used by the earlier translators. Fišer continues the Slovenian tradition to a far greater extent than the two translators twenty years ago, by using the same strategies as the early translators, not fixing what was not broken, and only adding his own interpretation to the existing ones, instead of challenging or ignoring them. At the same time, however, traces of subversion of the source text can be detected, not in the form of rebellion, but rather as a mild disregard. This latest translation is the first one to frequently reshuffle the text. It is also the first to subordinate meaning to style. This all indicates that despite the apparent return to tradition, the source text is no longer treated with the reverence of the past.

  7. Institutional traditions in teachers' manners of teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Östman, Leif

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this article is to make a close case study of one teacher's teaching in relation to established traditions within science education in Sweden. The teacher's manner of teaching is analysed with the help of an epistemological move analysis. The moves made by the teacher are then compared in a context of educational philosophy and selective tradition. In the analyses the focus is to study the process of teaching and learning in action in institutionalised and socially shared practices. The empirical material consists of video recordings of four lessons with the same group of students and the same teacher. The students are all in Year 7 in a Swedish 9-year compulsory school. During these lessons the students work with a subject area called "Properties of materials". The results show that the teacher makes a number of different moves with regard to how to proceed and come to a conclusion about what the substances are. Many of these moves are special in that they indicate that the students need to be able to handle the procedural level of school science. These moves do not deal directly with the knowledge production process, but with methodological aspects. The function of the moves turns the students' attention from one source of knowledge to another. The moves are aimed at helping the students to help themselves, since it is through their own activity and their own thinking that learning takes place. This is characteristic in the teacher's manner of teaching. When compared in a context of educational philosophy, this manner of teaching has similarities with progressentialism; a mixture of essentialism and progressivism. This educational philosophy is a central aspect of what is called the academic tradition—a selective tradition common in science education in Sweden between 1960 and 1990.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2010-04-12

    The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of

  9. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-07-31

    Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.

  10. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  11. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products.

  12. Multielement analysis of Nigerian traditional (black) soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanni, M.S.; Ogugbuaja, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    The element contents of some Nigerian traditional soap samples were determined using thermal neutron activation analysis. The quality control consists of replicate analyses of standard 1632A bituminous coal for precision and accuracy determination. Potassium is found to be the major element in the soaps. While some elements show fairly constant concentration in all samples analyzed, others have high maximum/minimum ratios. The elemental concentration variation in the soaps may likely have effects on their relative foaming capability and such variation is linked to the physical environment where the starting materials are obtained. (author)

  13. A study of traditional boats of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaikh, Z.A.; Tripati, S.; Shinde, V.

    are joined and sewed with coir or nylon rope. It has been observed that the centre portion of the dugout is ‘U’ shaped and bow and stern is ‘V’ in shape. Except some minor differences in joining of planks such as ‘V’ and ‘L’ groove no major changes has.... and G. V. Rajamanickam 1993. An Analysis of Different Types of Traditional Coastal Vessels along the Kerala Coast, Journal of Marine Archaeology 4: 36-50. Hornell, J. 1920. The Origin and Ethnological Significance of Indian Boat Designs, Memoirs...

  14. Positively essential: traditional birth attendants in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, Shirley

    2011-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges for healthcare professionals working in developing countries is the lack of trained personnel to carry out much needed health care provision. Shirley Stronge worked as a nurse/midwife tutor in a rural area in the north of Malawi. Millennium Development Goals four and five have focused our attention on the care required by mothers and newborns. Shirley has chosen to reflect on the role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the north of Malawi and their positive impact on maternity services in this area.

  15. Tradition and innovation in Danish children's cookbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2017-01-01

    it was not the primary intention with MY Cooking, it is used in teaching home economics at most Danish public schools. The cookbook appeals to students as well as teachers and parents. Conclusion: For more than 150 years cooking has been taught to Danish children through cookbooks and different educational values have...... influenced traditional trends in food and taste education. Today children want to take mental and practical ownership to their own cooking. School teachers express great recognition of a new innovative children's cookbook and involve the book as a teaching tool in Home economics education....

  16. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  17. The Functions of Theology to Christian Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Kakaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Theology has various definitions and meanings in the Christian tradition. In this article, after discussing these definitions and meanings we have tried to illuminate the extended functions of theology in Christianity and we have also explained the meaning of this term which has been entered to our literature by means of translation from European languages into Persian. In this connection, the history of the term, "theology", is discussed rapidly and then some main branches of theology explained according to its functions. Finally, we have concentrated on some equivalents of "theology" in Persian language.

  18. Ngat is Dead. Studying Mortuary Traditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    in mortuary ceremonies, whose form and content are passionately contested by different groups of relatives. Through prolonged negotiations, Ton learns how Baluan people perform and transform their traditions and not least what role he plays himself. The film is part of long-term field research, in which...... insights prompted by filmmaking grounded in long-term familiarity and involvement with a community. It also demonstrates the benefits of an anthropologically trained film crew. … As an ethnographic film that demonstrates the value and developing insights of long-term fieldwork,this is excellent.” — Mike...

  19. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  20. Traditional and emerging materials for optical metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Alexander Y.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising and vibrant research areas in nanotechnology has been the field of metasurfaces. These are two dimensional representations of metaatoms, or artificial interfaces designed to possess specialized electromagnetic properties which do not occur in nature, for specific applications. In this article, we present a brief review of metasurfaces from a materials perspective, and examine how the choice of different materials impact functionalities ranging from operating bandwidth to efficiencies. We place particular emphasis on emerging and non-traditional materials for metasurfaces such as high index dielectrics, topological insulators and digital metamaterials, and the potentially transformative role they could play in shaping further advances in the field.

  1. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaya, Maan B; Uprety, Yadav; Poudel, Ram C; Timsina, Binu; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, Hugo; Tiwari, Achyut; Shrestha, Shyam S; Sigdel, Shalik R

    2014-12-02

    Gastrointestinal disorders cause morbidity and can lead to mortality, especially in the developing world where sanitation is deficient. A large part of the human population relies on medicinal plants for treating various diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. The present review summarizes the traditional uses of medicinal plants of Nepal used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, and evaluates their bio-efficacy based on a review of the available phytochemical and pharmacological literature. We searched different electronic databases and libraries for the literature on medicinal plants used in Nepal to treat gastrointestinal disorders. For each species, we also searched the literature for information on conservation status, as well as for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in support of the ethnobotanical information. We used principal component analysis to explore the relation among disorders and plant families, plant life forms, plant parts and preparation modes. We also performed permutation tests to determine if botanical families were used more often than expected considering their availability in the Nepali flora. We documented a total of 947 species belonging to 158 families and 586 genera used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal. Diarrhea was the disorder treated by the highest number of species (348), followed by stomachache (340) and dysentery (307). Among the reported species, five were endemic to Nepal, whereas 16 orchid species were protected under CITES Appendices II and III. The randomization test showed that species belonging to 14 families were used less often than expected, whereas plants belonging to 25 families were used more often than expected. The PCA scatter plot showed distinct groups of gastrointestinal disorders treated with similar plant life forms, plant parts, and/or preparation modes. We found 763 phytochemical studies on 324 species and 654 pharmacological studies on 269 species. We showed the diversity and

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment of liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment of liver diseases is derived from the regulation of liver function including storing blood and governing the free flow of qi, in which functional systems such as modern digestion, endocrine, and the gut-liver axis are involved, and is established on modern hepatic physiology, pathology, and etiology. To objectively reveal the characteristics and advantages of modern TCM treatment of liver diseases, we analyzed the clinical and research situation of TCM therapy for liver diseases in the last decade and collected major achievements that have been applied in clinical treatment of diseases, published in core journals, and confirmed by major scientific research programs. The results showed TCM combined with antiviral therapy can improve the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B. TCM can help HBV carriers prevent disease progression. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy for acute-on-chronic liver failure can block the deterioration induced by endotoxin. TCM has been widely applied in protecting the liver through nonspecific anti-inflammation, alleviating hepatic fibrosis, and preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver. TCM plays an important role in treating some currently untreatable liver diseases. Therefore, it is our common responsibility to inherit and develop effective principle-method-recipe-medicines and create a better medical care system.

  3. MAXIMIZING PROFIT - OPTICAL TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES EXCEEDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANŢA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently concepts of globalized the services the advertising only that and substantial modifications, but that just radicals, in the structure net of touristic states. Is directed to of a new conceive the organic fashions of structures ale net of realized and of casting of guy colaborative, baze on interconexion, the interface and flexible interactions, from which his. I result the competitive advantages popularly the partners of business. The optics traditional agencies of tourings considered the production and the delivery touristic services except through the of a alone objective major prism scilicet maximizarea of the profits, falls to is exceeded. For the past decades ale the century XX, the impact technological changes in the industry services becomes all determine maul influenced the „traditional sectors” in charge, as for example the education, the trade, the touring, the informatics. Certainly, globalized can be interpretation in different senses. Referenced to the touristic services, the globalized is define as be a form an advanced still more complex maul of which nationalization involves a degrees of functional integration between the touristic activities disperse on plans transfrontalier.

  4. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  5. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  6. THE ROLE OF TRADITION IN CATHOLIC THEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Morerod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The human element is one of the most significant aspects of understanding tradition in the Church. It is true that the Holy Spirit is the principle active person and the guarantee of truth in the process of the handing down of tradition. But on the other hand, God Himself entrusted man with the duty of proclaiming the faith. Still, when man comes into the picture, so emerges the problem of human fallibility and the possibility of distorting the faith which is handed down. It is therefore vital to search for criteria which might help us to separate the truth from its distortion. These criteria are supplied by the authoritative voice of the Church. The problem of authority in the Church is for today one of the most essential questions touched upon in inter-confessional Christian dialogue. It is tightly linked to another problem — that of primacy within the Church — and this is being discussed in the framework of Orthodox-Roman Catholic dialogue

  7. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  8. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; “as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided” Methods: We carried out a review of Avicenna’s Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. Results: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called ‘Manafe al-Aghziyeh’, in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. Conclusion: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies. PMID:27840499

  9. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirbeigi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  10. Massage Therapy in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Jaladat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  12. Commodification of Religious Tradition: Critical Study on Religious Tradition Tourism Haul at Pasar Kliwon Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ferri Setiawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The policy on tourism development program of Surakarta especially on the calendar of the event takes advantage from religious tradition as tourism commodity. The purpose of this study is to describe the religious tradition haul, the programs by the tourism department of Surakarta, and how commodification through a well implemented marketing communications process, messaging, and other media, as well as responses from the audience regarding the marketing of haul tradition in general toward creating a leading tourism object. Haul which is a tradition for commemorating the death of clerics (ulama who are followed by some local communities in Surakarta, especially those in Pasar Kliwon Regency, is utilized in tourism. Through critical study, the cultural values that are supposed to be preserved, changed into marketing values to attract visitors. The used media are the advertisement and the calendar of events. The local community gain advantages economically from this policy, but they object to it socio-culturally. Meanwhile, the tourists are generally interested in haul tradition.

  13. In-flight auscultation during medical air evacuation: comparison between traditional and amplified stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuelle; Coste, Sébastien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Klein, Céline; Lefort, Hugues; Leclerc, Thomas; Dubourdieu, Stéphane; Briche, Frédérique; Jost, Daniel; Maurin, Olga; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a traditional stethoscope versus an electronically amplified one (expected to reduce background and ambient noise) to assess heart and respiratory sounds during medical transport. It was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized performed study. One traditional stethoscope (Littmann Cardiology III; 3M, St Paul, MN) and 1 electronically amplified stethoscope (Littmann 3200, 3M) were used for our tests. Heart and lung auscultation during real medical evacuations aboard a medically configured Falcon 50 aircrafts were studied. The quality of auscultation was ranged using a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10 (0 corresponding to "I hear nothing" and 10 to "I hear perfectly"). Data collected were compared using a t-test for paired values. A total of 40 comparative evaluations were performed. For cardiac auscultation, the value of the rating scale was 4.53 ± 1.91 and 7.18 ± 1.88 for the traditional and amplified stethoscope, respectively (paired t-test: P auscultation was estimated at 3.1 ± 1.95 for a traditional stethoscope and 5.10 ± 2.13 for the amplified one (paired t-test: P < .0001). This study showed that practitioners would be better helped in hearing cardiac and respiratory sounds with an electronically amplified stethoscope than with a traditional one during air medical transport in a medically configured Falcon 50 aircraft. Copyright © 2014 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blended Learning vs. Traditional Instruction as a Predictor of Student Achievement in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the differences in student achievement on New York State standardized tests between blended learning and traditional instructional methodologies. Specifically, the study compared student achievement in iLearnNYC schools, to their peer schools that deliver instruction in a traditional manner. iLearnNYC is a blended learning…

  15. Support for traditional female roles across 32 countries: Female labour market participation, policy models and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, S.C.H.; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this research we study support for traditional female roles. We test individual and contextual explanations for differences in support for traditional female roles within and across 32 countries. Higher educated, employed people and those who do not adhere to a religion are least supportive. The

  16. Support for traditional female roles across 32 countries : Female labour market participation, policy models and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, S.C.H.; Gesthuizen, M.; Schepers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this research we study support for traditional female roles. We test individual and contextual explanations for differences in support for traditional female roles within and across 32 countries. Higher educated, employed people and those who do not adhere to a religion are least supportive. The

  17. How the Future Orientation of Traditional Israeli Palestinian Girls Links Beliefs about Women's Roles and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel; Mahajna, Sami

    2004-01-01

    A model in which future orientation links perceived fathers' and girls' beliefs about traditional women's roles and academic achievement was tested on data collected from traditional Israeli Palestinian girls (N=295) attending a Moslem all-girl senior high school. LISREL analyses estimated two empirical models pertaining to educational and family…

  18. From medical tradition to traditional medicine: A Tibetan formula in the European framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Herbert; Vennos, Cécile

    2015-06-05

    The increasing prevalence of complex multi-factorial chronic diseases and multimorbidity reveals the need for an enlargement of the therapeutic options. Potent multicompound herbal formulations from traditional medicine systems such as Tibetan Medicine might meet the requirements. With its practice over the centuries Tibetan Medicine is one of the important medical heritages of the world. In the 20th century Tibetan formulas came to Switzerland, where the formula Gabur-25 was then registered as medicine in 1977 (Padma 28, Swissmedic No 35872). The new European directive 2004/24/EC opened the avenue for traditional herbal medicinal products and registrations followed in Austria (HERB-00037) and the UK (39568/0001). The aim of this review was to analyse not only the critical points and hazards but also chances that occur in the endeavour of bringing a ethnopharmacological based preparation to the market within a modern Western medical and regulatory framework and to discuss the necessary transformation steps from a traditional herbal formula towards a modern pharmaceutical product with the example of the Tibetan formula Gabur-25. The historic transformation process from the 19th to the 21st century is analysed, using the registration documents and other material from the library of Padma AG, Hinwil, Switzerland. The transformation of a traditional formula into a modern traditional herbal medicinal product according to the present EU regulations is a multi faceted process. The modern indication represents only a small part of the possible traditional indications. Quality and product labelling has to be adopted to modern standards. The formula, once registered, is a fixed combination of herbal and mineral ingredients. Contrary to this the concept of Asian medical tradition allows a certain flexibility in the composition of an herbal formula. The ingredients are constantly adapted to local conditions, availability of raw material and therapeutic situation. The example

  19. Adapted Traditions: The Case of Traditional Palestinian Women Healers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Popper-Giveon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines transformations in the roles and treatment practices of traditional Palestinian women healers in Israel. Comparing narratives of women healers residing in Jewish-Arab mixed cities in central Israel with those of their counterparts in the Bedouin community of the Negev reveals that traditional healing has not disappeared as a result of modernization but rather has transformed. Urban women healers are abandoning treatment of physical problems in favor of addressing life hardships; they distance themselves from problems whose cause and treatment are considered natural and prefer those perceived as derived from supernatural causes and treated through supernatural, magical and religious means. Despite these transformations, traditional Palestinian women healers appear as agents of preservation and conservatism, a role that imbues them with a central position in their community. Hence, their place is currently secured and expected to remain so as processes of modernization and acculturation increase in intensity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902119

  20. Traditional and non-traditional approaches to the prediction of natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin; Glazyrina, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century the number of disasters in the world increased approximately two times. Damage from disasters cost an average of 230 billion dollars per year. Recently, the death toll in the disaster has reached 230,000 - 1 000,000 per year. Along with earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, increased the number of forest and steppe fires. These processes are not fully known global, geophysical and space reasons. Of great importance are perennial not until the end of the study of natural cycles. There is evidence that the state of the planet's surface affect processes in the Earth's core. Understanding the causes and prediction of the tragic events require an integrated effort based on the synthesis of various sciences as well as history which has knowledge about the disasters of the past. Factor that reduces the risk is constant monitoring, including both distant and contact methods. However, its possibility is limited. Firstly, due to the high cost of global, especially space monitoring. Secondly, due to the unpredictability of some processes. In December 2004, the countries of Southeast Asia hit by the tsunami. The death gotten 250 000 people. Animals in this cataclysm appeared to stay safety and advance left the danger zone. Animals are able to predict hazards having no materials predecessors. Participants nuclear tests show - a day before the explosion of the animals escape dangerous zone. This means that animals have the ability to predict the catastrophic events. The most important abiotic factor, the physical nature of which is still not clear is time. One of the scientists, who achieved some success in the study of time, was N.Kozyrev (1908-1983). He devoted his life to the study of the phenomenon of time and attempt to systematize the knowledge of him as a physical substance. Kozyrev in his theoretical calculations and experiments found the new field - the field of time (chrono-information). Through it can instantly and accurately transmit