WorldWideScience

Sample records for traditional machinery plant

  1. Machinery penile injuries associated with traditional trousers of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Comment on: “Machinery penile injuries associated with traditional trousers of the Yorubas of south-western Nigeria: A consideration for proper work clothes”. Dirk Schultheiss, MD. Professor of Urology, Department of Urology, Protestant Hospital, Giessen, Germany. Received 11 January 2012. This article nicely ...

  2. MACHINERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study investigated the use of pattern recognition techniques in intelligent diagnosis ofroiating machinery. Existing literature on machine fault diagnosis suggested many approaches to nutchine diagnosis: notable among them are pattern recognition technique, data mining and Hidden. Markov Modelling.

  3. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  4. RNA editing machinery in plant organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junjie; Zhang, Qunxia; Yin, Ping

    2018-02-01

    RNA editing is a type of post-transcriptional modification that includes nucleotide insertion/deletion or conversion. Different categories of RNA editing have been widely observed in distinct RNAs from divergent organisms. In flowering plants, RNA editing usually alters cytidine to uridine in plastids and mitochondria, playing important roles in various plant developmental processes, including organelle biogenesis, adaptation to environmental changes, and signal transduction. Numerous studies have demonstrated that a number of factors are involved in plant RNA editing, such as pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, multiple organelle RNA editing factors (MORF, also known as RIP), organelle RNA recognition motif (ORRM) containing proteins, protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase 1 (PPO1) and organelle zinc finger 1 (OZ1). These factors play diverse roles in plant RNA editing due to their distinct characteristics. In this review, we discuss the functional roles of the individual editing factors and their associations in plant RNA editing.

  5. DNA methylation and imprinting in plants: machinery and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaki, P R V; Gehring, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in which genes are expressed selectively from either the maternal or paternal alleles. In plants, imprinted gene expression is found in a tissue called the endosperm. Imprinting is often set by a unique epigenomic configuration in which the maternal chromosomes are less DNA methylated than their paternal counterparts. In this review, we synthesize studies that paint a detailed molecular portrait of the distinctive endosperm methylome. We will also discuss the molecular machinery that shapes and modifies this methylome, and the role of DNA methylation in imprinting.

  6. Transportation of part supply improvement in agricultural machinery assembly plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saysaman, Anusit; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    This research focused on the problem caused by the transportation of part supply in agricultural machinery assembly plant in Thailand, which is one of the processes that are critical to the whole production process. If poorly managed, it will affect transportation of part supply, the emergence of sink cost, quality problems, and the ability to respond to the needs of the customers in time. Since the competition in the agricultural machinery market is more intense, the efficiency of part transportation process has to be improved. In this study, the process of transporting parts of the plant was studied and it was found that the efficiency of the process of transporting parts from the sub assembly line to its main assembly line was 83%. The approach to the performance improvement is done by using the Lean tool to limit wastes based on the ECRS principle and applying pull production system by changing the transportation method to operate as milkrun for transportation of parts to synchronize with the part demands of the main assembly line. After the transportation of parts from sub-assembly line to the main assembly line was improved, the efficiency raised to 98% and transportation process cost was saved to 540,000 Baht per year.

  7. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  8. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  9. Plant Reproduction: Autocrine Machinery for the Long Journey of the Pollen Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2018-03-19

    Many receptor-like kinases localized at the pollen tube tip precisely control tube functions in flowering plants. Two recent reports have identified autocrine peptide ligands and receptor systems, providing insight into the molecular machinery that controls pollen tube growth and termination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants. 62.50-20 Section 62.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Automated Self-propelled Vessel Manning § 62.50-20 Additional requirements for minimally attended...

  11. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan.

  13. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam O. Elansary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  14. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Elshikh, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M.; El-Ansary, Diaa O.

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases. PMID:29636772

  15. Application of the international guidelines for machinery breakdown prevention at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    For more than forty years as a specialized branch of the worldwide insurance industry, the nuclear insurance pools have underwritten property damage protection for nuclear facilities throughout the world. At power plants insured by the pools, an enviable record of operational safety has been attained. Nevertheless, electrical and mechanical equipment does break down occasionally. Although these failures do not necessarily compromise nuclear safety, they can cause significant damage to equipment, leading to a considerable loss of generating revenue and causing sizeable insurance losses. Since insurance companies have a large financial stake in nuclear power plants, their goal is to minimize insurance losses, including the failure of systems and equipment and ensuing consequential damages. To ensure that the insurance risk is properly underwritten, insurance companies analyze loss information, develop loss prevention guidelines and focus loss control activities on those areas where insurance risk is most significant. This paper provides a chronology of the development of the ''International Guidelines for Machinery Breakdown Prevention at Nuclear Power Plants'' and describes the results of insurance inspections conducted using these guidelines. Included is a summary of guideline content and of insurance loss experience between 1962 and 1999. (author)

  16. In high-light-acclimated coffee plants the metabolic machinery is adjusted to avoid oxidative stress rather than to benefit from extra light enhancement in photosynthetic yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C V Martins

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea arabica L. has been traditionally considered as shade-demanding, although it performs well without shade and even out-yields shaded coffee. Here we investigated how coffee plants adjust their metabolic machinery to varying light supply and whether these adjustments are supported by a reprogramming of the primary and secondary metabolism. We demonstrate that coffee plants are able to adjust its metabolic machinery to high light conditions through marked increases in its antioxidant capacity associated with enhanced consumption of reducing equivalents. Photorespiration and alternative pathways are suggested to be key players in reductant-consumption under high light conditions. We also demonstrate that both primary and secondary metabolism undergo extensive reprogramming under high light supply, including depression of the levels of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that were accompanied by an up-regulation of a range of amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, polyamines and flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. When taken together, the entire dataset is consistent with these metabolic alterations being primarily associated with oxidative stress avoidance rather than representing adjustments in order to facilitate the plants from utilizing the additional light to improve their photosynthetic performance.

  17. In high-light-acclimated coffee plants the metabolic machinery is adjusted to avoid oxidative stress rather than to benefit from extra light enhancement in photosynthetic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Samuel C V; Araújo, Wagner L; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2014-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) has been traditionally considered as shade-demanding, although it performs well without shade and even out-yields shaded coffee. Here we investigated how coffee plants adjust their metabolic machinery to varying light supply and whether these adjustments are supported by a reprogramming of the primary and secondary metabolism. We demonstrate that coffee plants are able to adjust its metabolic machinery to high light conditions through marked increases in its antioxidant capacity associated with enhanced consumption of reducing equivalents. Photorespiration and alternative pathways are suggested to be key players in reductant-consumption under high light conditions. We also demonstrate that both primary and secondary metabolism undergo extensive reprogramming under high light supply, including depression of the levels of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that were accompanied by an up-regulation of a range of amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, polyamines and flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. When taken together, the entire dataset is consistent with these metabolic alterations being primarily associated with oxidative stress avoidance rather than representing adjustments in order to facilitate the plants from utilizing the additional light to improve their photosynthetic performance.

  18. Antibacterial activity of some selected plants traditionally used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of some selected plants traditionally used as medicine in Manipur. ... Hence these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of the new pharmaceuticals. Keywords: Antibacterial, human pathogens, methanolic extract, traditional medicine

  19. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  20. A comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoisser, C. M.; Audebert, S.

    2008-05-01

    In order to describe the state-of-the-art on cracked rotor related problems, the current work presents the comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach adopted by EDF for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery. The work mainly focuses on the theoretical cracked beam model developed in the past years by S. Andrieux and C. Varé and associates both numerical and experimental aspects related to the crack detection problem in either turboset or turbo pump units. The theoretical part consists of the derivation of a lumped cracked beam model from the three-dimensional formulation of the general problem of elasticity with unilateral contact conditions on the crack lips, valid for any shape and number of cracks in the beam section and extended to cracks not located in a cross-section. This leads to the assessment of the cracked beam rigidity as a function of the rotation angle, in case of pure bending load or bending plus shear load. In this way the function can be implemented in a 1D rotordynamics code. An extension of the cracked beam model taking into account the torsion behaviour is also proposed. It is based on the assumption of full adherence between crack lips, when the crack closes, and on an incremental formulation of deformation energy. An experimental validation has been carried out using different cracked samples, both in static and dynamic configurations, considering one or three elliptic cracks in the same cross-section and helix-shaped cracks. Concerning the static configuration, a good agreement between numerical and experimental results is found. It is shown to be equal to 1% maximal gap of the beam deflection. Concerning the dynamical analysis, the main well-known indicator 2× rev. bending vibration component at half critical speed is approximated at maximum by 18% near the crack position. Our experiments also allowed for the observation of the bending and torsion resonance frequency shifts determined by the extra

  1. Nutrient composition of selected traditional native American plant foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten wild plants (cattail narrow leaf shoots, chokecherries, beaked hazelnuts, lambsquarters, plains pricklypear, prairie turnips, stinging nettles, wild plums, raspberries, rose hips) from three Native American reservations in North Dakota were analyzed to expand composition information of tradition...

  2. In Vivo Antimalarial Activities of Plants Used in Ethiopian Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vivo Antimalarial Activities of Plants Used in Ethiopian Traditional Medicine, Delomenna, Southeast Ethiopia. Ashenafi Asefa, Kelbassa Urga, Mulugeta Guta, Waleleng Mekonene, Daniel Melaku, Kise Mudie, Tesgayae Kidanemariam ...

  3. Traditional plant aphrodisiacs and male sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Anthony J; Shamloul, Rany

    2014-06-01

    There has been a long history of man’s fascination with better and stronger sex drive and performance across different cultures. Several literature texts from the Hindu, Egyptian, Chinese and Roman civilizations document the human endless search for substances that can enhance sexual experiences and/or treat erectile dysfunction. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular plant aphrodisiacs and provide evidence to support or discourage the use of any of them to enhance sexual desire and/or function in men. We review the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. We found very little evidence to support the use of plant aphrodisiacs in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction. The vast majority of studies were conducted on animals with very few clinical studies. Available data suggest a beneficial effect of ginseng as a pro-sexual supplement and not an independent treatment for male sexual dysfunction. Trans-culturally, many herbal therapies show some potential benefits in improving men’s sexual function; however, adequate studies on the specific benefits and health risks associated with their use are needed. We strongly recommend the design and execution of well-controlled clinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of plant aphrodisiacs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnomedical survey of the Manzini region of Swaziland was carried out. Traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed in their homesteads where they practiced traditional medicine. Ethnomedical uses of plants used were collected from the wild with the assistance of the TMPs who gave information on them.

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay Of Plants Used In Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the probable therapeutic basis of these traditional plants based on their secondary metabolite profiles and for the first time draws research attention to Bukoba Rural district as a source for plants with potential pharmaceutical applications. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Secondary metabolites, ...

  6. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  7. Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used In Mali for Dysmenorrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of ...

  8. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-eastern Spain. ... This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in ...

  9. Some wild growing plants in traditional foods of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olim K. Khojimatov

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The collected data represents less than 10% of the plants which are used as a food in Uzbekistan. Analysis of the indigenous plants revealed a number of them which are also used in traditional food in China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries.

  10. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  11. Wild food plants used in traditional vegetable mixtures in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2016-06-05

    Mixtures of wild food plants, part of the Mediterranean diet, have potential benefits for their content in bioactive compounds, minerals and fibers. In Italy, wild plants are still consumed in various ways, for their taste, effects on health and nutritional value. In this paper, we provide a list of wild plants used in vegetable mixtures, indicating their phytochemical and nutritional profile, highlighting those not yet studied. We provide a first complete review of traditional uses of wild food plants used as vegetables and their preparations (e.g., salads, soups, rustic pies). We also highlight their phytochemical constituents. We carried out an extensive literature review of ethnobotanical publications from 1894 to date for finding plants used in traditional vegetable mixtures. We also performed an online search for scientific papers providing the phytochemical profile of plants that were cited at least twice in recipes found in the literature. We list a total of 276 wild taxa used in traditional vegetable mixtures, belonging to 40 families. Among these, the most represented are Asteraceae (88), Brassicaceae (33), Apiaceae (21), Amaranthaceae (12). Many plants are cited in many recipes across several Italian regions. Among the most cited plant we note: Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth, Sanguisorba minor Scop., Taraxacum campylodes G. E. Haglund, Urtica dioica L. Tuscany is the region with the highest number of food recipes that incorporate wild plants used as vegetables. We also list the phytochemical constituents and some pharmacological activities of the plants cited at least twice. Finally, we discuss topics such as the taste of plants used in the recipes. Nineteen edible wild plants, such as Asparagus albus L., Campanula trachelium L., Hypochaeris laevigata (L.) Benth. & Hook f., Phyteuma spicatum L., Scolymus grandiflorus Desf., are not yet studied as regards their phytochemical and nutritional profile. Some plants should be avoided due to the presence of

  12. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  13. Machinery Question

    OpenAIRE

    Meacci, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    The “machinery question” was developed by the economist David Ricardo (1772–1823) in the chapter “On Machinery” added to the third edition of his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821). This question related, in his words, to the “influence of machinery on the interests of the different classes of society” and particularly to the “opinion entertained by the labouring class, that the employment of machinery is frequently detrimental to their interests”. Ricardo’s argument was pres...

  14. Ethnobotanical perspective of antimalarial plants: traditional knowledge based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayum, Abdul; Arya, Rakesh; Lynn, Andrew M

    2016-02-04

    Considering the demand of antimalarial plants it has become essential to find and locate them for their optimal extraction. The work aims to find plants with antimalarial activities which were used by the local people; to raise the value of traditional knowledge system (TKS) prevalent in the study region; to compile characteristics of local plants used in malaria treatment (referred as antimalarial plants) and to have its spatial distribution analysis to establish a concept of geographical health. Antimalarial plants are listed based on literature survey and field data collected during rainy season, from 85 respondents comprised of different ethnic groups. Ethno-medicinal utilities of plants was extracted; botanical name, family, local name, part used, folklore, geographical location and image of plants were recorded after cross validating with existing literatures. The interview was trifurcated in field, Vaidya/Hakims and house to house. Graphical analysis was done for major plants families, plant part used, response of people and patients and folklore. Mathematical analysis was done for interviewee's response, methods of plant identification and people's preferences of TKS through three plant indices. Fifty-one plants belonging to 27 families were reported with its geographical attributes. It is found plant root (31.75 %) is used mostly for malaria treatment and administration mode is decoction (41.2 %) mainly. The study area has dominance of plants of family Fabaceae (7), Asteraceae (4), Acanthaceae (4) and Amaranthaceae (4). Most popular plants found are Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula and Swertia chirata while  % usage of TKS is 82.0 % for malaria cure. The research findings can be used by both scientific community and common rural people for bio-discovery of these natural resources sustainably. The former can extract the tables to obtain a suitable plant towards finding a suitable lead molecule in a drug discovery project; while the latter can meet their

  15. Antidiarrhoeal activity of different plants used in traditional medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activity of different plants used in traditional medicine. SP Gutiérrez, MAZ Sánchez, CP González, LA García. Abstract. Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children under age of 5 years. In view of this problem, the World Health Organization has a Diarrhoea Disease Control ...

  16. Progress in the chemistry of marketed traditionally used plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress in the chemistry of marketed traditionally used plants of Ethiopia. Berhanu M. Abegaz. Abstract. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1996, 10(1), 57-71. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The root of Meconopsis impedita is one of the most widely used traditional Tibetan medicinal plants. However, it is often confused with Meconopsis racemosa whose roots may be used as a substitute. To establish a DNA polymorphism-based assay for the identification of M. impedita, the chloroplast rps16 intron region of 11 ...

  18. Fluid machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jae Hyeon; Son, Byeong Jin

    2001-04-01

    This book tells of definition and classification of fluid machinery, energy equation of incompressible fluid, principle of momentum, classification and structure of pump, size, safety of centrifugal pump, theory and operation of contraction pump, reciprocating pump, rotary pump, special pump, using of water power, classification of water turbine, impulse water turbine, reaction water turbine, pump water turbine, liquid movement apparatus, fluid type control machinery and solid and gas type pneumatic machine.

  19. Traditional uses of some medicinal plants in Malatya (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Figen; Civelek, Semsettin; Cakilcioglu, Ugur

    2013-03-07

    This study has identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Malatya Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. It tried to provide a source for researchers studying in ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry by comparing the information obtained from traditionally used herbs with previous laboratory studies. In Turkey, use of plants for medical purposes has been a tradition. This study aims to identify wild plants collected for medical purposes by the local people of Malatya Province, located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to establish the uses and local names of these plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2011). A questionnaire was administered to the local people, through face-to-face interviews. During this period, 330 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant species were collected within the scope of the study; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. In the area of research, 132 individuals who had knowledge about plants were interviewed. Mean age of the respondents was 44 years (in 35-73 years range). 108 plants were found to be used for medical purposes before in the literature analysis of the plants used in our study, while 15 plants were found to have no literature records. The most common families are: Asteraceae (21 plants), Lamiaceae (14 plants), and Rosaceae (12 plants). Local people were recorded to use the aerial parts, branches, flowers, fruits, latex, leaves, matured fruits, peduncle, resin, rhizomes, root bark, roots, seeds and style of the

  20. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-10-10

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

  1. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

  2. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of uzumlu district, erzincan, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    A list of medicinal plants used by local people in uzumlu district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica, Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey. For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost. (author)

  3. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  4. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-03-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by the increase in expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as the decrease in the expression and activity of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria--remedies or risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Popoola, T D; Amadi, K C; Coker, H A B; Akintonwa, A

    2013-11-25

    Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases.

  7. Anti-halitosis plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.

  8. North African Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Romane, Abderrahmane; Efferth, Thomas; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment. Despite the popularity and the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of cancer, scientific evidence on their anticancer effects are still scarce for most of the described plants. Objective: Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the aim of this review is to give an overview of studies, namely ethnobotanical surveys and experimental evidence of anticancer effects regarding medicinal plants used in North Africa for cancer therapy. Method: The research was conducted on several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The research focused primarily on English written papers published between the years 2000 and 2016. Results: This review on plants traditionally used by herbalists in North Africa highlights that Morocco and Algeria are the countries with most surveys on the use of medicinal plants in folk medicine. Among the plethora of plants used, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the most referred ones by herbalists for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, a plethora of scientific evidence qualifies them as candidates for further drug development. Furthermore, we report on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of some medicinal plants as anticancer agents. The North African flora offers a rich source of medicinal plants for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. The elucidation of

  9. Development and demonstration of surveillance and diagnostics of rotating machinery for reducing radiation exposure to nuclear power plant personnel: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.; Bohanick, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    This program was designed to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating equipment. The new rotating machinery monitoring system for this program was installed at GGNS during August 1983. This document provides a functional description of the hardware and software that comprise the system and discusses the application of the monitoring system to achieving overall program goals. The analyses of the monitored rotating machinery during the plant startup phase and after the plant's first fuel cycle are presented in addition to the radiation dose reduction which occurred as a direct and indirect result of the RMSS. The dose reduction program at GGNS is reviewed and recommendations made to incorporate this program with the RMSS. 28 refs., 64 figs., 43 tabs

  10. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, ?lvaro; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, wh...

  11. The plant cell wall-decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel C; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O; Baker, Scott E; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hävard; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José L; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José A; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kües, Ursula; Hibbett, David S; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Högberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V; Watkinson, Sarah C

    2011-08-05

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood--residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon--and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the "dry rot" fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota.

  12. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  13. The plant world in Romanian traditions. Symbols and uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Micu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant world has always been a base for the Romanian culture, both for material culture (practical uses and for the spiritual one (myth and symbols. Authors who wrote on ethnographic subjects chose to talk only about a certain side or branch of the vast subject of nature/vegetation. After studying the subject it became obvious that every research on the practical aspects of using plants can not detach itself from the spiritual component, from the myth, which in the popular Romanian tradition is omnipresent, regardless of time and space. Research (in the office and on the field demonstrates that in the Romanian village myth merges with reality. Nevertheless, we still don’t have a complete paper which talks about the plant world in the traditional Romanian culture in a global way, integrating various uses and ways of interpreting its meanings, tracing a clear classification, which comprises all elements. This paper is a trial of „sketching” such classification, taking into consideration main features – for a better understanding of all the sides of this strong and complex relationship between the Romanian peasant and nature.

  14. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Tohge, Takayuki; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-03-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity.

  15. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariv Brotman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated

  16. MACHINERY COSTS AND INFLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Myles J.; Helmers, Glenn A.

    1981-01-01

    This article addresses (1) the differences in machinery cost estimating techniques, particularly for depreciation and opportunity cost, and (2) the necessary modifications in cost estimating techniques to account for the changing monetary base under inflation. The conditions under which capital budgeting and traditional budgeting differ are examined on a before tax and after tax basis, with and without inflation. The variations in cost estimates depending upon techniques, and with and without...

  17. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  18. Uniqueness of Ethiopian traditional alcoholic beverage of plant origin, tella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooha Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4–5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization.

  19. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    SNARE proteins constitute the minimal machinery needed for membrane fusion. SNAREs operate by forming a complex, which pulls the lipid bilayers into close contact and provides the mechanical force needed for lipid bilayer fusion. At the chemical synapse, SNARE-complex formation between...... the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  20. Ethnobotanic study of medicinal plants in Urmia city: identification and traditional using of antiparasites plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the native medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment in Urmia. Methods: This study was conducted among 35 Urmia herbalists to identify medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment. We used direct observation and interviews with collected herbarium specimens by native herbs commonly in the treatment of parasitic diseases. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information and native plants list with information includes plant local name, plant parts used, method of their use and traditional therapies. Herbarium samples listed in the questionnaire collected from the area and were sent to agricultural research centers and Urmia University Faculty of Agriculture for genus and species determination. Results: Thirteen medicinal plants from six families for treatment of diabetes in Urmia were obtained from interviews. Most families have anti diabetic effect was included Asteraceae (36%. The most used was boiling (65%. Conclusions: In view of the findings of this study indicate that plants have the potential to be a parasitic infection so it is necessary ingredients of native plants be studied to demonstrate therapeutic effects and provide field work to evaluate the clinical effects of these herbs and ingredients they claim on parasitic diseases.

  1. Traditional Practices and Medicinal Plants Use during Pregnancy by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivoire, despite modern antenatal medical prescriptions, most pregnant women resort to traditional medicine to ensure foetus development and facilitate childbirth. Yet, there is not enough research on the African traditional medicine concerning this ...

  2. Cisgenesis: an important sub-invention for traditional plant breeding companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Modern plant breeding is highly dependent on new technologies to master future problems. More traits have to be combined, frequently originating from wild species. Traditional breeding is connected with linkage drag problems. The crop plant itself and its crossable species represent the traditional

  3. Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in Jimma Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Locally available and widely used medicinal plants would need to be identified and a list compiled as well as propagated to alleviate the risk of extinction due to accelerated urbanization, recurring drought and deforestation. This study was conducted to document locally available medicinal plants and ...

  4. Antioxidant activities of traditional plants in Sri Lanka by DPPH free radical-scavenging assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of several plants harvested in Sri Lanka through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. These plants have traditionally been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below. (English name, “local name in Sri Lanka,” (scientific name.bougainvillea plant, “bouganvilla,” (Bougainvillea grabla, purple fruited pea eggplant,”welthibbatu,” (Solanum trilobatum [1], country borage plant, “kapparawalliya,” (Plectranthus amboinicus [2], malabar nut plant, “adhatoda,” (Justicia adhatoda [3], long pepper plant,”thippili,” (Piper longum [4], holy basil plant, “maduruthala,” (Ocimum tenuiflorum [5], air plant, “akkapana,” (Kalanchoe pinnata [6], plumed cockscomb plant, “kiri-henda,” (Celosia argentea [7], neem plant,”kohomba,” (Azadirachta indica [8], balipoovu plant, “polpala,” (Aerva lanata [9], balloon-vine plant, “wel penera,” (Cardiospermum halicacabum [10], emblic myrobalan plant, “nelli,” (Phyllanthus emblica [11], indian copperleaf plant, “kuppameniya,” (Acalypha indica [12], spreading hogweed plant, “pita sudu sarana,” (Boerhavia diffusa [13], curry leaf plant, “karapincha,” (Murraya koenigii [14], indian pennywort plant, “gotukola,” (Centera asiatica [15], jewish plum plant, “ambarella,”(Spondias dulcis [16]. Keywords: Antioxidative activity, DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Traditional plant, Medical herb

  5. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Winijchaiyanan, Piyawan; Sukkho, Treetip; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Pongamornkul, Wittaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-10-28

    We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Flores-Vallejo, Rosario Del Carmen; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2017-08-17

    We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species. We carried out a bibliographic investigation by analyzing local and international peer-reviewed papers selected by consulting internationally accepted scientific databases from 1995 to 2014. We provide specific information about the evaluated plant parts, the type of extracts, the tested bacterial strains, and the inhibitory concentrations for each one of the species. We recorded the ethnomedical information for the active species, as well as their popular names and local distribution. Information about the plant compounds that has been identified is included in the manuscript. This review also incorporates an extensive summary of the available toxicological reports on the recorded species, as well as the worldwide registries of plant patents used for treating bacterial infections. In addition, we provide a list with the top plant species with antibacterial activities in this review RESULTS: We documented the in vitro antibacterial activities of 343 plant species pertaining to 92 botanical families against 72 bacterial species, focusing particularly on Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plant families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae included the largest number of active species. Information related to popular uses reveals that the majority of the plants, in addition to treating infections, are used to treat other conditions. The distribution of Mexican plants extended from those that were reported to grow in just one state to those that grow in all 32 Mexican states. From 75 plant species, 225 compounds were identified. Out of the total plant species, only 140 (40.57%) had at least one report about their toxic effects. From 1994 to July 2014 a total of 11

  7. Evaluation of the Bioactivity of Some Traditional Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the bioactivity of extracts of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis Albizia antihelmintica A. Brogn, Maerua edulis (Gilg) De Wolf, Maerua subcordata (Gilg & Bened) De Wolf and Myrsine Africana L. which are used traditionally as antihelmintic by using brine shrimp lethality test.

  8. Plants of the annonaceae traditionally used as antimalarials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frausin, G.; Lima, R.B.S.; Hidalgo, A.D.; Maas, P.J.M.; Pohlit, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Species of the Annonaceae family are used all over the tropics in traditional medicine in tropical regions for the treatment of malaria and other illnesses. Phytochemical studies of this family have revealed chemical components which could offer new alternatives for the treatment and control of

  9. Leveraging traditional knowledge on the medicinal uses of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such misappropriations of TK are aided by the fact that the global intellectual property (IP) regime as presently structured is based entirely on the traditionally western or conventional description of knowledge, as are its conceptions of individual intellectual property ownership. In response to the fact that their calls for the ...

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plants used in the traditional medicine of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) can be hazardous to the health of humans and animals. Although their toxicity has been known for a long time, PA containing plants are still in use in many traditional medicines. Traditional healing systems have become of increasing interest as many people believe that they can be used without any risk and side effects. This also applies to the traditional medicine of Madagascar and the Mascarene island (Mauritius, Reunion, Rodriguez). Recent literature reports have recommended this traditional medicine because of its good efficacy and pharmacological properties. However, several plants are listed there which have already been described to contain toxic PAs or are suspected of containing them.

  11. CONFIGURATION OF CULTURAL NORMS IN TRADITIONAL RICE PLANTING RITUAL DISCOURSE THE TRADITIONAL FARMING COMMUNITY OF BAYAN, NORTH LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Netra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the study of traditional rice planting ritual discourse of the traditional farming community of Bayan, North Lombok in an ethno-pragmatic perspective.  It is specifically aimed at describing the cultural norms and their meaning configurations.  The theory used in the study is the cultural scripts developed by Wierzbicka (2002a considering that cultural norms constitute rules and regulations in social interaction practices. They can be investigated from the use of grammatical aspects of language and linguistic routines which are context-bound. They can be configured by paraphrasing in simple and mini language using single space. The results of the study showed that there were some cultural norms found on the traditional rice planting ritual discourse of the traditional farming community of Bayan, North Lombok. They included: (1 asserting thought and hope, (2 respecting other entities, (3 apologizing, (4 promising, and (5 giving advice. The configuration of these cultural norms was in accordance with the understanding of local cultural scripts and wisdom in terms of rituals of the local farming system. The configuration is constructed in low-level script with components of “when” and “if”. It contains the aspects of thinking, speaking, and doing. It is derived from the semantic primes of both evaluation and perception.

  12. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Uprety, Y.; Poudel, R. C.; Timsina, B.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, H.; Tiwari, A.; Shrestha, S. S.; Sidgel, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 158, Part A (2014), s. 221-229 ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-10850P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : principal component analysis * medicinal plants * randomization test * ethnomedicine * drug development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.998, year: 2014

  13. Pharmaceutically important plants used in traditional system of Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the pharmaceutical importance of some medicinal pants used for the treatment of livestock ailments was conducted during summer 2010 in different parts of Saudi Arabia, where no such study has been conducted so far. The aim of the study was to identify and document the medicinal plants used for the treatment ...

  14. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Uprety, Y.; Poudel, R. C.; Timsina, Binu; Munzbergová, Z.; Asselin, H.; Tiwari, A.; Shrestha, S. S.; Sidgel, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 158, Part A (2014), s. 221-229 ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : medicinal plants * principal component analysis * randomization test * ethnomedicine * drug development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.998, year: 2014

  15. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among traditional herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon plants and household remedies for curing veterinary ailments. ... The paper deals with 34 ailments commonly found in nine different categories of livestock/animals (i e. buffalo, cow, oxen, sheep, goat, horse, mule, dog and cat) and their treatment with 73 ...

  16. Traditional Use of Plants against Snakebite in Indian Subcontinent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snakebite has been a major cause of mortality across the tropical countries including Indian subcontinent. The present review deals with the enormous amount of ethnobotanical work performed in the last few years involving use of different plants against snakebite in Indian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and ...

  17. Effects of traditional plant preservatives on the microbial load and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and yeast identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterotrophic count and pH were observed to decrease with increased fermentation days. It was proved that the effect of the preservatives on the sensory properties of palm wine was dependent on the type of plant preservation used. Palm wine preserved with Vernonia ...

  18. Antibacterial spectrum of traditionally used medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mentha longifolia is significantly active against Proteus, while negligibly active against other tested microorganisms. Escherichia coli is however, resistant to M longifolia. Keywords: Biological activity, medicinal plants, Incarvillea emodi, Vernonia anthelmintica, Adiantum capilus-veneries, Mentha longifolia, Hazara, Pakistan ...

  19. use of traditional medicinal plants by people of 'boosat'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    preserved and made available for immediate application. Some of the major species used in this method are Senna occidentalis, Bidens pilosa and Andrachne aspera(Table1). Table 1. Families of medicinal plants and number of species used for humans ailments by. People of Boosat sub district, Central East Ethiopia.

  20. Antibiotic activity of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a Traditional Medicinal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fernanda R; Albuquerque, Kamylla R S; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pizziolo, Virginia R; Brasileiro, Beatriz G; Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa A N

    2017-01-01

    The dichloromethane extract of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a tradicional medicinal plant, showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent of biofilm inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Based on these antibacterial activities, in addition to ethnopharmacological reports from healing men and farmers in Brazil, an herbal soap was produced from this active extract and was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo assays conducted on these herbal soaps led to results similar to those previously conducted with the active extract. These results indicated the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient by preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections on small Brazilian farms.

  1. Antibiotic activity of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a Traditional Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA R. NASCIMENTO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The dichloromethane extract of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a tradicional medicinal plant, showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent of biofilm inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Based on these antibacterial activities, in addition to ethnopharmacological reports from healing men and farmers in Brazil, an herbal soap was produced from this active extract and was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo assays conducted on these herbal soaps led to results similar to those previously conducted with the active extract. These results indicated the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient by preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections on small Brazilian farms.

  2. An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh; Sarabjeet Singh; G. Jeyabalan; Ashraf Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of Ma...

  3. Anticancer bioactivity of compounds from medicinal plants used in European medieval traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiten, Marie-Hélène; Gaascht, François; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Since centuries, natural compounds from plants, animals and microorganisms were used in medicinal traditions to treat various diseases without a solid scientific basis. Recent studies have shown that plants that were used or are still used in the medieval European medicine are able to provide relieve for many diseases including cancer. Here we summarize impact and effect of selected purified active natural compounds from plants used in European medieval medicinal traditions on cancer hallmarks and enabling characteristics identified by Hanahan and Weinberg. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the pharmacological effect of pure compounds originally discovered in plants with therapeutic medieval use. Whereas many reviews deal with Ayurvedic traditions and traditional Chinese medicine, to our knowledge, the molecular basis of European medieval medicinal approaches are much less documented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.; Zahir, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  5. Overview on 1st and 2nd generation coal-fired membrane power plants (with and without turbo machinery in the membrane environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Blum; E. Riensche; J. Nazarko; R. Menzer; D. Stolten [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Institute of Energy Research - Fuel Cells (IEF-3), Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A systematic classification of the capture concepts with conventional separation as well as membrane separation is discussed in a 2-dimensional matrix: The 4 capture principles (post-combustion, oxyfuel, pre-combustion-capture of CO{sub 2} and pre-combustion-capture of H{sub 2}), characterized by the 4 separation tasks CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}, have to be applied to the 3 different coal power plant (PP) routes: SPP (steam PP), IGCC/standard and IGCC/CO-shift/H{sub 2}-turbine. In case of membrane separation a further dimension of PP concepts is created by the fact, that different measures exist for realization of positive driving forces for permeation. For example the O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separating membranes in oxyfuel SPPs can be operated with feed gas compression, permeate vacuum, application of a sweep gas at the permeate side or combinations of these 3 measures. An overview is given on the actually developed membrane PP concepts (post-combustion and oxyfuel in SPPs, pre-combustion in IGCC). In all cases energy consuming turbo machinery is required for membrane operation or for CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2} recompression in case of pre-combustion (1st generation of membrane coal PPs). Calculated efficiency losses are not significantly below 10 %-points. An outlook is given to a new IGCC concept, where a suitable sweep gas (N{sub 2} with low O{sub 2} content) of sufficient high flow rate is produced (related to the permeated H{sub 2}). Now the swept H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} membrane operates without turbo machinery (2nd generation of membrane coal PPs). Lower efficiency losses (between 5 and 10 %-points) seem to be possible now. 10 refs., 18 figs.

  6. Antioxidant activities of traditional plants in Sri Lanka by DPPH free radical-scavenging assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kotaro; Someya, Takao; Sano, Katsura; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Wijesekara, R G S

    2018-04-01

    This article describes free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of several plants harvested in Sri Lanka through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. These plants have traditionally been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below. (English name, "local name in Sri Lanka," (scientific name)). bougainvillea plant, "bouganvilla," ( Bougainvillea grabla ), purple fruited pea eggplant,"welthibbatu," ( Solanum trilobatum ) [1], country borage plant, "kapparawalliya," ( Plectranthus amboinicus ) [2], malabar nut plant, "adhatoda," ( Justicia adhatoda ) [3], long pepper plant,"thippili," ( Piper longum ) [4], holy basil plant, "maduruthala," ( Ocimum tenuiflorum ) [5], air plant, "akkapana," ( Kalanchoe pinnata ) [6], plumed cockscomb plant, "kiri-henda," ( Celosia argentea ) [7], neem plant,"kohomba," ( Azadirachta indica ) [8], balipoovu plant, "polpala," ( Aerva lanata ) [9], balloon-vine plant, "wel penera," ( Cardiospermum halicacabum ) [10], emblic myrobalan plant, "nelli," ( Phyllanthus emblica ) [11], indian copperleaf plant, "kuppameniya," ( Acalypha indica ) [12], spreading hogweed plant, "pita sudu sarana," ( Boerhavia diffusa ) [13], curry leaf plant, "karapincha," ( Murraya koenigii ) [14], indian pennywort plant, "gotukola," ( Centera asiatica ) [15], jewish plum plant, "ambarella,"( Spondias dulcis ) [16].

  7. Unravelling chemical priming machinery in plants: the role of reactive oxygen-nitrogen-sulfur species in abiotic stress tolerance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Savvides, Andreas; Christou, Anastasis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-10-01

    Abiotic stresses severely limit crop yield and their detrimental effects are aggravated by climate change. Chemical priming is an emerging field in crop stress management. The exogenous application of specific chemical agents before stress events results in tolerance enhancement and reduction of stress impacts on plant physiology and growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of chemical priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species (RONSS) are molecules playing a vital role in the stress acclimation of plants. When applied as priming agents, RONSS improve stress tolerance. This review summarizes the recent knowledge on the role of RONSS in cell signalling and gene regulation contributing to abiotic stress tolerance enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Health State Monitoring of Bladed Machinery with Crack Growth Detection in BFG Power Plant Using an Active Frequency Shift Spectral Correction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using waste-gas is an effective and green way to reduce the emission of the harmful blast furnace gas (BFG in pig-iron producing industry. Condition monitoring of mechanical structures in the BFG power plant is of vital importance to guarantee their safety and efficient operations. In this paper, we describe the detection of crack growth of bladed machinery in the BFG power plant via vibration measurement combined with an enhanced spectral correction technique. This technique enables high-precision identification of amplitude, frequency, and phase information (the harmonic information belonging to deterministic harmonic components within the vibration signals. Rather than deriving all harmonic information using neighboring spectral bins in the fast Fourier transform spectrum, this proposed active frequency shift spectral correction method makes use of some interpolated Fourier spectral bins and has a better noise-resisting capacity. We demonstrate that the identified harmonic information via the proposed method is of suppressed numerical error when the same level of noises is presented in the vibration signal, even in comparison with a Hanning-window-based correction method. With the proposed method, we investigated vibration signals collected from a centrifugal compressor. Spectral information of harmonic tones, related to the fundamental working frequency of the centrifugal compressor, is corrected. The extracted spectral information indicates the ongoing development of an impeller blade crack that occurred in the centrifugal compressor. This method proves to be a promising alternative to identify blade cracks at early stages.

  9. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Diego; Schlautman, Brandon; Steffan, Shawn; Polashock, James; Vorsa, Nicholi; Zalapa, Juan

    2014-02-25

    This is the first de novo assembly and annotation of a complete mitochondrial genome in the Ericales order from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Moreover, only four complete Asterid mitochondrial genomes have been made publicly available. The cranberry mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with relatively little repetitive sequences and DNA of plastid origin. The complete mitochondrial genome of cranberry was annotated obtaining a total of 34 genes classified based on their putative function, plus three ribosomal RNAs, and 17 transfer RNAs. Maternal organellar cranberry inheritance was inferred by analyzing gene variation in the cranberry mitochondria and plastid genomes. The annotation of cranberry mitochondrial genome revealed the presence of two copies of tRNA-Sec and a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element which were lost in plants during evolution. This is the first report of a land plant possessing selenocysteine insertion machinery at the sequence level. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Health State Monitoring of Bladed Machinery with Crack Growth Detection in BFG Power Plant Using an Active Frequency Shift Spectral Correction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weifang; Yao, Bin; He, Yuchao; Chen, Binqiang; Zeng, Nianyin; He, Wangpeng

    2017-08-09

    Power generation using waste-gas is an effective and green way to reduce the emission of the harmful blast furnace gas (BFG) in pig-iron producing industry. Condition monitoring of mechanical structures in the BFG power plant is of vital importance to guarantee their safety and efficient operations. In this paper, we describe the detection of crack growth of bladed machinery in the BFG power plant via vibration measurement combined with an enhanced spectral correction technique. This technique enables high-precision identification of amplitude, frequency, and phase information (the harmonic information) belonging to deterministic harmonic components within the vibration signals. Rather than deriving all harmonic information using neighboring spectral bins in the fast Fourier transform spectrum, this proposed active frequency shift spectral correction method makes use of some interpolated Fourier spectral bins and has a better noise-resisting capacity. We demonstrate that the identified harmonic information via the proposed method is of suppressed numerical error when the same level of noises is presented in the vibration signal, even in comparison with a Hanning-window-based correction method. With the proposed method, we investigated vibration signals collected from a centrifugal compressor. Spectral information of harmonic tones, related to the fundamental working frequency of the centrifugal compressor, is corrected. The extracted spectral information indicates the ongoing development of an impeller blade crack that occurred in the centrifugal compressor. This method proves to be a promising alternative to identify blade cracks at early stages.

  11. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources. PMID:26461812

  12. Ethnomedicinal plants traditionally used in health care practices by inhabitants of Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Zubair A; Bhat, Jahangeer A; Ballabha, Radha; Bussmann, Rainer W; Bhatt, A B

    2015-08-22

    Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medicine, herbal practice still plays an important role in management and curing various ailments in remote and rural areas of India. However, traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants is eroding day by day and there is a need to document such knowledge, before it is lost forever. The aim of the present study was to document the indigenous and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by local inhabitants in and around Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Indian Himalaya for the advancement of biomedical research and development. The intensive field survey was carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) and its adjoining areas. The inhabitants were interviewed about the local name of plants having ethno-medicinal values, plant parts used, mode of processing/application and preparation and dosage through discussions and semi structured questionnaires. A total of 97 medicinal plant species belonging to 52 families and 83 genera were reported for curing various ailments like fever, cough, cold, digestive disorders, constipation, menstrual disorders etc. Out of 97 plant species reported, 21 are rare or threatened. Literature review revealed that 11 out of the 97 plant species are reported with new therapeutic uses. The most frequently utilized plant part was the root/rhizome (33%) followed by leaf (27%). In some cases whole plant was utilized. A few medicinal plants had some veterinary uses also. The study provides comprehensive information about the eroding indigenous and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by local inhabitants in a part of Western Himalaya, India. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the local people may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs and such new approaches of traditional knowledge regarding medicinal plants and laboratory analysis might help pharmaceutical industry in new chapters for

  13. Food plants used during traditional wrestling in Kabyè land of Togo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In the traditional sports like the fight, natural products from minerals, animals and plants are used to increase physical resistance and performance. For a better understanding of this practice, an ethnopharmacological survey was carried out in kabyè land, North of Togo, to identify current plants used as foods ...

  14. Anti-Bacillus Activity Of Some Plants Used In Traditional Medicine Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on collected information about traditional use of plants, anti-bacillus activity of methanol extracts of 180 plant species belonging to 72 families were investigated by in vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. Seventy eight species ...

  15. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Asselin, Hugo; Dhakal, Archana; Julien, Nancy

    2012-01-30

    The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several

  16. Traditional use of medicinal plants as febrifuge by the tribals of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ethnobotanical excursions were carried out among the tribals of Purulia district, West Bengal, India to explore the traditional use of medicinal plants against fever. Methods: With the help of a semi structured questionnaire, informants were interviewed and their indigenous knowledge regarding antipyretic use of plants was documented. Results: A total number of 22 plants used as febrifuge were recorded along with their vernacular names, part(s used, method of preparation and route of administration. Conclusions: Different tribal communities residing in the area were found to possess traditional knowledge of using phytotherapy in the treatment of fevers.

  17. Plant species used in traditional smallholder dairy processing in East Shoa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Hailemariam; Lemma, A

    2011-04-01

    Plant species used in traditional dairy processing were studied in three districts (Bosset, Ada, and Gimbichu) in Eastern Shoa, Ethiopia, from October 2007 to March 2008. A total of 300 smallholders were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires, and three focus group discussions were conducted, followed by plants specimen collection and identification. A total of 36 plant species, falling under 24 plant families, were identified. Nearly half of the identified plant species had more than one use types. Eleven plant species were/are used for washing (scrubbing) dairy utensils, ten plant species for smoking dairy utensils, 12 plant species in butter making, 15 plant species in ghee making, and five plant species for packaging (wrapping) butter and cheese. The plant species that had the highest overall citations from each use category were Ocimum hardiense, Olea europaea subspecies africana, Trachyspermum copticum, Curcuma longa, and Croton macrostachyus. The plant species used in the three study districts, representing different agro ecologies, showed some similarities, but levels of uses differed significantly (P < 0.05). Higher informant citations might indicate their better efficacy, however need to be further investigated to determine their effects on milk and milk product quality and to make sure that they are innocuous to human and animal health. Finally, as the present study tried to document natural products used in traditional dairy processing, it could be considered as part of the global efforts aimed at promoting organic food production.

  18. Modeling cognitive behavior in nuclear power plants: An overview of contributing theoretical traditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the major theoretical literatures that are relevant to modeling human cognitive activities important to nuclear power plant safety. The traditions considered include control theory, communication theory, statistical decision theory, information processing models and symbolic processing models. The review reveals a gradual convergence towards models that incorporate elements from multiple traditions. Models from the control theory tradition have gradually evolved to include rich knowledge representations borrowed from the symbolic processing work. At the same time theorists in the symbolic processing tradition are beginning to grapple with some of the critical issues involved in modeling complex real world domain

  19. Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Yuahua

    2016-09-12

    Since 2009, millions of people have been forced to live under food shortage by the continuous drought in Southwestern China. The market was the primary source of aid grains, and fears that the market will be unable to provide sufficient food make safeguarding food security in the face of climate change crucial. Traditional adaptive strategies of pre-market indigenous people are a potential source of innovation. We studied three questions among the Naxi people: 1) What edible plants did they consume during droughts? 2) How did they produce enough food? 3) How did they consume these plants? This study investigates and documents traditional Naxi food knowledge to safeguard food security during drought and facilitate Chinese policy decisions. Ethnobotanical investigation was conducted through literature review, semi-structured interviews, collaborative fieldwork and group discussions in three Naxi villages. 89 informants (including 35 key informants) were surveyed from 2012 to 2013. Significant Index (SI) was adopted to evaluate each edible plant's food supply significance. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. 1) In total, 141 edible plants (38 cultivated and 103 wild) were consumed-primarily landrace crops, supplementary edible plants and famine plants. 2) Naxi people produced sufficient food through widespread food production systems, strong landrace crop resilience, and diversity in wild edible plants. 3) Through a diverse diet and consuming almost all edible parts of the plant, the Naxi used edible plants fully to meet food and nutrition needs during drought. Edible plant diversity is a cornerstone of drought food security. Cultivated crops (especially landrace plants) and wild edible plants were both important. Naxi people protect edible plant diversity through ecological morality and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). National inventories of edible plant diversity and studies of the TEK of other Chinese indigenous peoples should be

  20. Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

  1. Analysis of traditional knowledge in medicinal plants used by Yuan in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Angkhana; Trisonthi, Paritat; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-08-26

    We studied traditional knowledge of medicinal plants use of the Yuan in northern Thailand, documenting and analysing traditional medical practices and its trend in the younger generations. To providing useful information for appropriate and sustainable management under the urbanization and other developments and use of natural resources in their communities. In addition, traditional medicinal plant used, and knowledge that leads to discovery of new medicines can be promoted. Traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Yuan in Lamphun province was studied from October 2009 through September 2011 in order to determine the important medicinal plant species and dominant use-categories in 5 villages. In each village, questionnaire interviews about medicinal plants uses were applied to 30 informants (5 informants per each of six stratified age groups). The relative importance of plant species was captured by calculation of use value (UV). Likewise, the dominant use-categories were determined by calculation of the informant agreement ratio (IAR). Correlations between informants' age and number of medicinal plants known by them were determined with the coefficient of determination (R(2)). A total of 93 medicinal plant species in 82 genera and 49 families were recorded in the five villages. The most important species of medicinal plants were Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Andrographis paniculata Ness, Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King and H.Rob., Jatropha podagrica Hook., and Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. which had UVs of 1.02, 1.01, 0.75, 0.71, and 0.65, respectively. Likewise, the most dominant use-categories were injuries, which accounted for 0.91 of the IAR. The age of informants and medicinal plants reported by each of them were positively correlated (R(2)=0.96, ptraditional medicinal plant knowledge is used for treating basic ailments. However we should be concerned that there is an imminent danger that it will be lost in the near future because their lifestyle was changing

  2. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Jordan, the Tafila Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Abeer; Aburjai, Talal; Hanrahan, Jane; Abdel-Halim, Heba

    2017-01-01

    The reporting of the medicinal plants and their traditional uses is important in order to prevent this knowledge from being lost. The aims of this study were to collect information concerning the traditional use of medicinal plants in the region of Tafila; identify the most important medicinal plants; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed; and calculate the informant consensus factor ( F ic ) in relation to medicinal plant use. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants were collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor ( F ic ) for the category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. The survey revealed that 41 plant species are still in use in Tafila for the treatments of various diseases. Problems of the digestive system had the highest F ic values, while Allium cepa L. and Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip. scored the highest UV. The medicinal plants used by local people of the Tafila area of Jordan their traditional uses were investigated. forty one plant species are still in use in Tafila for the traditional treatment of various diseases. The preservation of this knowledge is important not only for maintaining cultural and traditional resources but also as a resource for the future identification of leads for drug development. The use of Fic and the UV to identify plant species that are consistently used in the treatment of specific ailments assists in narrowing down the search for new effective plant-derived medicines and in validating the use of traditional medicines. Data on the traditional medicinal uses of local plants was collected using qualitative tools. The informant consensus factor (Fic) for category of aliments and the use value (UV) of the plant species were calculated. in the Tafila region, the Fic values are relatively low, indicating a low level of shared knowledge and that a number of different species are used to treat similar disorders. This may be a

  3. Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in Somalia. IV. Plants of the families Passifloraceae-Zygophyllaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, G; Farah, M H; Claeson, P; Hagos, M; Thulin, M; Hedberg, O; Warfa, A M; Hassan, A O; Elmi, A H; Abdurahman, A D

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-seven plants are listed, which are used by traditional healers in the central and southern parts of Somalia. For each species are listed: the botanical name with synonyms, collection number, vernacular name, medicinal use, preparation of remedy and dosage. Results of a literature survey are also reported including medicinal use, substances isolated and pharmacological effects. Three plants which should have been included in Part I of the series have been added and some corrections to that paper have been made. With these additions the series comprises 180 different plant species, distributed in 59 plant families.

  4. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa

  5. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Frank M; Meyers, Ryan

    2010-11-06

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Our data

  6. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of three plants used in the traditional medicine of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, G P; Surolia, N

    2001-10-01

    In an attempt to search for new antimalarial drugs, we studied plants used by traditional healers of southwest India to treat malaria. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts obtained from specific parts of the plants Swertia chirata, Carica papaya, and Citrus sinensis were tested on malaria strain Plasmodium falciparum FCK 2 in vitro. The temperatures of extraction were the same as that used by the traditional healers in their plant preparations. Visual evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the plant extracts on thin blood smears was followed by quantification of the activity by use of [35S]-methionine incorporation into parasite proteins to determine the value that inhibits 50% (IC50). Among the 3 plants tested, 2 had significant inhibitory effect on P. falciparum in vitro.

  7. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  8. Insight into the Presence of Stilbenes in Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Croatian Folk Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Višnja

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years, great interest has arisen concerning plant stilbenes, especially resveratrol, which has a whole spectrum of positive biological activities. In this study, we investigated the presence of resveratrol monomers (trans- and cis- form) and naturally occurring derivatives of trans-resveratrol (piceid, astringin and isorhapontin) in phenolic extracts of twenty medicinal plants traditionally used in Croatian folk medicine. The investigated compounds were present in the samples, in free form or as glucosides, and the highest share was found in immortelle, common yarrow and Lamiaceae plants. The obtained results indicate that biological activity of selected medicinal plants can be related to the presence of this valuable group of phytochemicals.

  9. Ethnobotanical survey and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, S; Ollivier, E; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Gasquet, M; Ouattara, C T; Nebie, I; Traore, A S; Esposito, F; Balansard, G; Timon-David, P; Fumoux, F

    2003-06-01

    In Burkina Faso, most people in particular, in rural areas, use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat usual diseases. In the course of new antimalarial compounds, an ethnobotanical survey has been conducted in different regions. Seven plants, often cited by traditional practitioners and not chemically investigated, have been selected for an antiplasmodial screening: Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum), Acanthospermum hispidum (DC), Terminalia macroptera (Guill. et Perr), Cassia siamea (Lam), Ficus sycomorus (L), Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (AFZ. Ex G. Don) Benth. Basic, chloroform, methanol, water-methanol and aqueous crude extracts have been prepared and tested on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant W2 strain. A significant activity has been observed with alkaloid extract of P. crassipes (IC(50)macroptera with an IC(50)=1 microg/ml. These results confirm the traditional use of these plants.

  10. Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Madani Sarri; Fatima Zahra Mouyet; Meriem Benziane; Amina Cheriet

    2014-01-01

    Context: M’sila city occupies a privileged position in the central part of northern Algeria. The climate of this area is continental, subject in part to the Saharan influences of which vegetation is steppic. Aims: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey in the city of M’sila was conducted during the period 2011-2012 in collaboration with traditional practitioners, herbalists and healers. A total of 85 adults were abl...

  11. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Wang, Chun Yun [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadak, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Todreas, Neil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mirick, Bradley [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Demetri, Eli [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Koronowski, Martin [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2004-08-30

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R&D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the

  12. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, Ronald G.; Chunyun Wang; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil

    2004-01-01

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R and D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the

  13. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  14. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  15. Various Plants of Traditional Rituals: Ethnobotanical Research Among The Baduy Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Iskandar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of recent studies in many places of developing countries it has been revealed that the practices of conservation of biodiversity has strongly determined by traditional ecological knowledge, and beliefs or cosmos. The aim of the study namely to elucidate; (1 some traditional rituals in the swidden management system of the Baduy community; (2 various plants that have been  used for performing some rituals in the swidden management system of the Baduy community; and (3 some functions of various plants that have been used in the rituals of the swidden management system of the Baduy community. A qualitative method with ethnobotanical approach was applied in this study. The result of study shows that 9 kinds of the traditional rituals that have been predominantly undertaken by the Baduy community in the management of swidden farming system. At least 50 plant species representing 28 families have been used for those performing traditional rituals. The main function of plants in the rituals is considered as the symbolic meaning and rational function. The result of study has been considered very important that the traditional ecological knowledge and beliefs must be considered to conserve biological diversity.   

  16. Diversity of wetland plants used traditionally in China: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Xu, Hualin; Chen, Hui; Wang, Fei; Huai, Huyin

    2014-10-15

    In comparison with terrestrial plants, those growing in wetlands have been rarely studied ethnobotanically, including in China, yet people living in or near wetlands can accumulate much knowledge of the uses of local wetland plants. A characteristic of wetlands, cutting across climatic zones, is that many species are widely distributed, providing opportunities for studying general patterns of knowledge of the uses of plants across extensive areas, in the present case China. There is urgency in undertaking such studies, given the rapid rates of loss of traditional knowledge of wetland plants as is now occurring. There have been very few studies specifically on the traditional knowledge of wetland plants in China. However, much information on such knowledge does exist, but dispersed through a wide body of literature that is not specifically ethnobotanical, such as regional Floras. We have undertaken an extensive study of such literature to determine which species of wetland plants have been used traditionally and the main factors influencing patterns shown by such knowledge. Quantitative techniques have been used to evaluate the relative usefulness of different types of wetland plants and regression analyses to determine the extent to which different quantitative indices give similar results. 350 wetland plant species, belonging to 66 families and 187 genera, were found to have been used traditionally in China for a wide range of purposes. The top ten families used, in terms of numbers of species, were Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Potamogetonaceae, Fabaceae, and Brassicaceae, in total accounting for 58.6% of all species used. These families often dominate wetland vegetation in China. The three most widely used genera were Polygonum, Potamogeton and Cyperus. The main uses of wetlands plants, in terms of numbers of species, were for medicine, food, and forage. Three different ways of assigning an importance

  17. Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Sangurur, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigen, Gabriel; Kipkore, Wilson; Wanjohi, Bernard; Haruki, Boniface; Kemboi, Jemutai

    2017-01-01

    Although herbal medical products are still widely used in Kenya, many of the medicinal plants used by traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) have not been documented, despite several challenges that are now threatening the sustainability of the practice. To document the medicinal plants and healing methods used by TMPs in a region of Kenya with several recognized herbalists for potential research. Semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and direct observations were used to collect ethnopharmacological information. The participant's bio-data, clinical conditions treated, methods of treatment, medicinal plants used, methods of preparation and administration, and dosage forms were recorded. A total of 99 medicinal plants and 12 complementary preparations employed in the treatment of 64 medical conditions were identified. The most widely used plant was Rotala tenella which was used to treat nine medicinal conditions; seven each for Aloe tweediae and Dovyalis abyssinica ; and six each for Basella alba and Euclea divinorum . The plants belonged to 55 families with Fabaceae family being the most frequently used (10), followed by Apocynaceae and Solanaceae, each with six species, respectively. We identified plants used to determine the sex of an unborn baby and those used to treat several conditions including anthrax and cerebral malaria and herbs used to detoxify meat from an animal that has died from anthrax. Of special interest was R. tenella which is used to prevent muscle injury. We have documented several plants with potential therapeutic effects. Further research may be conducted to determine their efficacy. The medicinal plants used by traditional healers in a community which still practices herbal medicine in Kenya were documented. A total of 99 medicinal plants and 12 complementary preparations employed in the treatment of 64 medical conditions were identified. Further research may be carried out in order to determine their therapeutic efficacies

  18. FUNCTION REGULATION OF CUSTOMER’S PLANT THAT BURN TRADITIONAL TYPES OF FUEL

    OpenAIRE

    T. G. Zoryna

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the issue of function regulation of customer’s plants that burn traditional types of fuel. Its aim was to develop certain measures for reducing customer’s plants influence on the Belarusian power supply system as their activity has unfavorable economic consequences. The following methods were used in the present research: the system analysis, the method of analogies and expenses calculation. The article presents the comparative characteristics of the power production d...

  19. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

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    Eliana Martínez

    Full Text Available The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity.

  20. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity. PMID:26197473

  1. Medicinal plants of genus Curculigo: traditional uses and a phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yan; Dong, Xin; He, Yongjing; Yuan, Tingting; Han, Ting; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2013-06-03

    In the genus Curculigo, Curculigo orchioides Gaertn, Curculigo capitulata (Lour) O. Ktze and Curculigo pilosa (Schumach. & Thonn.) Engl are often used in traditional medicine. Curculigo orchioides is used for the treatment of impotence, limb limpness, arthritis of the lumbar and knee joints, and watery diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicine, and also used as a potent immunomodulator and aphrodisiac in the Ayurvedic medical system. Curculigo capitulata is used for the treatment of consumptive cough, kidney asthenia, impotence and spermatorrhea, hemorrhoids, asthma, jaundice, diarrhea, colic and gonorrhea in traditional Chinese and India medicine, and to treat urinary tract infection, acute renal pelvis and nephritis, nephritis-edema, cystitis, nephrolithiasis, hypertension and rheumatic arthritis in traditional Dai medicine. Curculigo pilosa are applied to treat gastrointestinal and heart diseases in Africa. This review aims to exhibit up-to-date and comprehensive information about traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of medicinal plants in the genus Curculigo, and has an insight into the opportunities for the future research and development of Curculigo plant. A bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing the information available on Curculigo plant from worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Yahoo). Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local and foreign books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicines. Curculigo orchioides, Curculigo capitulata and Curculigo pilosa have been used as traditional medicine to treat kinds of diseases such as impotence, limb limpness, gastrointestinal and heart diseases, etc. Phytochemical investigation of eight species of the genus Curculigo has resulted in identification of more than 110 compounds. The content of curculigoside is used as an indicator to evaluate the quality of rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. The medicinal

  2. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ashu Agbor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4±14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0% practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0% were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6% treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases.

  3. Traditional uses of medicinal plants at Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro

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    Douglas S.A. Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This work had as outcome to deal with the part of the population of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro those who use the public health system and use alternative medicinal plants for the treatment of illness. Aims: To evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants traditionally used in curing/treatment different diseases and illnesses, and contribute as a therapeutic option in the public health system of municipality. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to measure independent variables and issues related to the consumption of medicinal plants, based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. It was calculated the relative importance index (RI of the medicinal plants used in the community as the number of users that mentioned them and the agreement use. Results: Seventy-three plants (44 families were cited by the population. Species with the highest number of citations (50% were boldo, lemon grass, gorse, lemon balm, breaks stone and air plant, and the leaves over part used in medicinal preparations; it was the tea as the main form of use from the fresh plant. Conclusions: The data suggest that the use of medicinal plants remains an important therapy and wanted by the population, and this would be integrating the knowledge of the practices of traditional medicine to scientific knowledge of these species, replacing the empirical use to the correct use, ensuring secure access to the population. This study is the first ethnopharmacological report in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of medicinal plants traditionally used in the village of Kiohima, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Damien; Prado, Soizic; Kamoga, Dennis; Kasenene, John; Namukobe, Jane; Krief, Sabrina; Dumontet, Vincent; Mouray, Elisabeth; Bodo, Bernard; Brunois, Florence

    2011-01-27

    In Uganda, malaria is the most common disease and Ugandan people largely rely on traditional medicine. In this context, we carried out an ethnobotanical study on the Kiohima village, located close to the Kibale National Park in South-Western Uganda and investigated in vitro the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants. Seventy-five plants-using adults (men and women) were interviewed to find out their plant use. From these information, 48 plants used in traditional medicine were identified and according to their reported uses and to bibliographic data, several parts of 28 plants (leaves, barks, roots), were selected and collected for biological evaluations. These samples were dried, extracted with ethyl acetate and the crude extracts were assayed for in vitro antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities at 10 μg/mL. One third of the screened plants showed a significant antiplasmodial activity with inhibition greater than 50% at 10 μg/mL. These results may indicate a possible explanation of the use of some medicinal plant against malaria in the village of Kiohima and have also allowed to highlight a plant with potent antimalarial activity: Citropsis articulata root barks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant Resource Availability of Medicinal Fritillaria Species in Traditional Producing Regions in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

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    Dongdong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fritillaria (Liliaceae comprises of ~140 species of bulbous perennials, which are distributed in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Fritillaria species have attracted much attention because of their commercial value, partly as ornamental plants but principally as a source of material for use in traditional medicine. The use of Fritillaria extracts is well established in some countries in Eastern Europe (e.g., Turkey, and Asia (e.g., China, Japan. In traditional Chinese medicine, the medicinal Fritillaria species is called Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae (BFC, which has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on resource investigation of plants of BFC in the last ten years. In this study, we chose 32 traditional producing regions in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to perform an investigation on resource availability of BFC. In five sites we did not find any plants of BFC. Results show that the average number of the plants of BFC per quadrat in 26 sites was less than 7, and the average resource density was <22 mg/m2. Habitat types and plant morphology of BFC plants were recorded. Our investigation shows that the area for artificial cultivation of BFC is larger than 400 hm2 and productivity was higher than 180 t. In addition, the total alkaloid contents of samples from cultivated bases and plantations are higher than that from wild fields. This study suggests that the wild populations of BFC are still at the risk of depletion. Artificial cultivation of BFC might be an important way to resolve the current contradiction between resource protection and resource utilization. In addition, identifying the closest European relatives of the Fritillaria species used in traditional medicine may resolve this contradiction.

  6. Traditional knowledge on wild and cultivated plants in the Kilombero Valley (Morogoro Region, Tanzania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinitro, Mirko; Vicentini, Renzo; Bonomi, Costantino; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-03-09

    This research was performed in four villages adjacent the boundary of Udzungwa Mountains National Park in the Kilombero River plain of Tanzania. The area adjacent the villages is characterized by self-consumption agriculture, with a population that is on average poor, still very tied to traditions and almost entirely unaffected by modernization and technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate and record local knowledge regarding the use of wild and traditionally cultivated plants used for traditional medicine and for other everyday purposes (e.g., food, fibers and timber). Ten traditional local healers, with solid botanical knowledge, were interviewed between June and August 2014 by means of semi-structured questionnaires. For each mentioned plant species, the Swahili folk name and, when possible, the classification by family, genus and species was recorded as well as the part of the plant used, the preparation method and the main uses (medicine, food or others). In total 196 species were mentioned of which 118 could be botanically classified. The identified species belong to 44 different botanical families, with that of the Leguminosae being the most representative (24 species). The plants were mostly used as medical treatments (33.3% of the species) and foods (36.8%), and to produce wood and fibers (19.4%). The present study revealed that numerous plant species are still essential in the everyday life of the tribes living in Kilombero Valley. Most of the plants were usually harvested in the wild, however, after the creation of the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, the harvesting pressure has become concentrated on a few unprotected forest patches. Consequently, many useful species are becoming increasingly rare with the risk of losing the connected botanical and traditional knowledge. The present study may, therefore, contribute to record the ethnobotanical knowledge held by these populations, in order to preserve this valuable richness for future

  7. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

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    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  8. Plants traditionally prescribed to treat tazo (malaria in the eastern region of Madagascar

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    Mulholland Dulcie A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is known as tazo or tazomoka in local terminology in Madagascar. Within the context of traditional practice, malaria (and/or malaria symptoms is commonly treated by decoctions or infusions from bitter plants. One possible approach to the identification of new antimalarial drug candidates is to search for compounds that cure or prevent malaria in plants empirically used to treat malaria. Thus, it is worth documenting the ethnobotanical data, and testing the antiplasmodial activity of the extractive from plants. Methods We interviewed traditional healers, known locally as ombiasy, at Andasibe in the eastern, rainy part of Madagascar. We recorded details of the preparation and use of plants for medicinal purposes. We extracted five alkaloids from Z. tsihanimposa stem bark, and tested them in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum FCM29. Results We found that traditional healers treat malaria with herbal remedies consisting of one to eight different plants. We identified and listed the medicinal plants commonly used to treat malaria. The plants used included a large number of species from different families. Zanthoxylum sp (Rutaceae was frequently cited, and plants from this genus are also used to treat malaria in other parts of Madagascar. From the plant list, Zanthoxylum tsihanimposa, bitter plant endemic to Madagascar, was selected and examined. Five alkaloids were isolates from the stem bark of this plant, and tested in vitro against malaria parasite. The geometric mean IC50 values ranged from 98.4 to 332.1 micromolar. The quinoline alkaloid gamma-fagarine exhibited the strongest antiplasmodial activity. Conclusions The current use of plants for medicinal purposes reflects the attachment of the Malagasy people to their culture, and also a lack of access to modern medicine. The possible extrapolation of these in vitro findings, obtained with plant extracts, to the treatment of malaria and/or the signs evoking malaria is

  9. Traditional plant-based therapies for respiratory diseases found in North Jeolla Province, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to record and conserve orally transmitted traditional plant-based therapies for respiratory diseases in North Jeolla Province, Korea. Data were collected with semistructured questionnaires through the participatory rural appraisal method. This study reveals that overall, 14 respiratory diseases have been treated with a total of 43 species of medicinal plants belonging to 40 genera in 26 families. This study also reports 149 different modes of plant-based therapeutic application of medicinal material. The informant consensus factor for the common cold is 0.84, the highest among 14 different respiratory ailments, followed by whooping cough, asthma, nosebleed, bronchitis, cough, and so on. Medicinal plants used to treat seven respiratory ailments had a 100% fidelity level. This study can help to preserve the traditional knowledge and local health traditions of North Jeolla Province amid rapid industrialization and urbanization. The findings of this study warrant follow-up clinical research to determine the most effective traditional remedies toward development of herbal medicinal products for integration into the Korean health care system.

  10. Antifungal activity of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Beukel, C.J.P. van den; Matee, M.I.N.; Moshi, M.J.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Selemani, H.O.; Mbwambo, Z.H.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Using the ethnobotanical approach, some Tanzanian plants reported to be used by traditional healers for the treatment of oral candidiasis and fungal infections of the skin were collected and screened for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis,

  11. A Review Of Traditional Plants Used In The Treatment Of Epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family ...

  12. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Jahangeer A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-01-02

    Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.

  13. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource. PMID:23281594

  14. Traditional Lebanese recipes based on wild plants: an answer to diet simplification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, Malek; Hunter, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    The challenge posed by the nutrition transition occurring throughout the world is enormous: rates of chronic disease, particularly overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease, have reached alarming levels-often occurring in parallel with high levels of micronutrient deficiencies. Lebanon is no exception. And yet this Mediterranean country enjoys a rich biodiversity, with thousands of endemic species and an equally rich culinary history, largely based on its local biodiversity, including wild edible plants. To record traditional Lebanese recipes based on wild edible plants and to investigate their potential to contribute to a more diversified diet. A series of nine focus group meetings was conducted with key informants knowledgeable in wild edible plant identification, harvesting, and use. Common recipes based on wild edible plants were collected and standardized from rural communities where collection of wild edible plants is common. Nutrient analysis and food-composition analysis were performed, including comparisons with processed dishes that are increasingly common in the Lebanese diet, revealing that the wild edible plant-based dishes offered a healthier alternative. Since traditional recipes often use items from several food groups in one dish, they can be a good model for diet diversification. The promotion of the collection and use of wild edible plants and their derived products can lead to improved nutrition.

  15. Prospecting for bioactive constituents from traditional medicinal plants through ethnobotanical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ronghui; Wang, Yuehu; Long, Bo; Kennelly, Edward; Wu, Shibiao; Liu, Bo; Li, Ping; Long, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologically active constituents from traditional medicinal plants have received great attention as sources of novel agents, pharmaceutical intermediates, and chemical entities for synthetic or semisynthetic drugs due to their potent pharmacological activities, low toxicity, and economic viability. Numerous components have been isolated from traditional medicinal plants, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, and clinical and experimental studies suggested that these components have useful pharmacological properties such as antiinfectious, antioxidative, and antiinflammatory effects. In this review, modern ethnobotanical approaches to explore folk medicinal plants as candidates for drug discovery with the greatest possibility of success are discussed. Determining the bioactive mechanisms and tracing structure-activity relationships will promote the discovery of new drugs and pharmacological agents.

  16. Methods for the study of endophytic microorganisms from traditional Chinese medicine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Plant endophytes are very numerous and widely distributed in nature, their relationships being described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism during a long period of coevolution. Traditional Chinese medicines have played a very important role in disease treatment in China and other Asian countries. Investigations show that these medicinal plants harbor endophytes with different kinds of ecological functions, and some of them have potential to produce bioactive small-molecule compounds. This chapter will focus on the selective isolation methods, the diversity of some endophytes (actinobacteria and fungi) isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plants, and the bioactive compounds from selected endophytic actinobacteria reported in the past 3 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Traditional Uses of Plants from the Genus Trachelospermum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zefeng; He, Xirui; Zhao, Yuhui; Sun, Ying; Chen, Xufei; Cun, Ye; Huang, Linhong; Bai, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2017-08-24

    This paper is intended to review advances in the botanical, phytochemical, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of the genus Trachelospermum . Until now, 138 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants, particularly from T. asiaticum and T. jasminoides . Among these compounds, lignans, triterpenoids, and flavonoids are the major bioactive constituents. Studies have shown that plants from the genus Trachelospermum exhibit an extensive range of pharmacological properties both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) culture, drugs that include T. jasminoides stems have been used to cure rheumatism, gonarthritis, backache and pharyngitis, although there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Further attention should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the active compounds from genus Trachelospermum .

  18. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Traditional Uses of Plants from the Genus Trachelospermum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefeng Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to review advances in the botanical, phytochemical, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of the genus Trachelospermum. Until now, 138 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants, particularly from T. asiaticum and T. jasminoides. Among these compounds, lignans, triterpenoids, and flavonoids are the major bioactive constituents. Studies have shown that plants from the genus Trachelospermum exhibit an extensive range of pharmacological properties both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM culture, drugs that include T. jasminoides stems have been used to cure rheumatism, gonarthritis, backache and pharyngitis, although there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Further attention should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the active compounds from genus Trachelospermum.

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Romha Eshetu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%, followed by whole roots (20.4%. Calpurnia aurea (Ait. Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68. Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective

  20. Leishmaniosis phytotherapy: Review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine on leishmaniasis

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many native plants in traditional medicine have been used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the recent clinical trials have proven the efficacy of some of them. Researches conducted on these plants have shown that garlic, shallots, wormwood, yarrow, walnuts, thyme, henna plant, mimosa, aloe, wood betony, medlar, periwinkle, yeah, savory, black beans, etc. are effective on cutaneous leishmania. Synthetic agents in Iranian market have some disadvantages such as high cost and side effects and are painful in injections. Given the effectiveness of these plants, they can be a source of natural and safe compounds for the treatment of Leishmania. Therefore, more clinical researches should be done to determine the effectiveness and safety of these medicinal plants, their active ingredients and their possible toxic substances which can lead to the production of effective and safe drugs for leishmaniasis. It also might be an effective way to prepare herbal ointment on wound healing.

  1. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in herbal drinks among the traditional communities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Mukhtar, Anam; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Jahan, Sarwat

    2016-05-26

    There is very limited information regarding medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Pakistan, for treating wide-ranging diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in Pakistan and the pharmacological importance of herbal drinks, especially in the discovery of new drugs. The current ethnomedicinal field study was conducted from various traditional communities of Pakistan to document usage of medicinal plants as herbal drinks. Data was collected through field interviews from local people and using semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using quantitative indices such as UV (use value), RFC (Relative frequency of citation), and FL (Fidelity level). The present study recorded 217 plant species belonging to 174 genera and 69 families used in herbal drinks preparations. Major herbal preparations include decoctions, infusions and juice. According to use reports, significant species were Aloe vera, Artemisia fragrans, Allium cepa, Senegalia catechu, Alternanthera sessilis, Malva ludwigii, Arnebia benthamii, Cichorium intybus, Coccinia grandis, Dalbergia sissoo. Major ailment treated with herbal drinks include heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, and others. Use value (UV) varies from 0.23 to 0.02, with Mentha arvensis (0.23) having the highest value of UV followed by Mentha longifolia (0.22), Plantago lanceolate (0.19), Achillea millefolium (0.18), Coriandrum sativum (0.18), Justicia adhatoda and Malva sylvestris (0.17). Values of RFC varies from 0.28 to 0.09 while Fidelity level (FL) among plants varies from 37.5 to 100. Alternanthera sessilis, Oxytropis lapponica, Millettia pinnata and Salvia bucharica had the highest FL value (100). The use of medicinal plants is prevalent in traditional communities of Pakistan. Different herbal preparations are in common practice including various herbal drinks a common tradition and much favoured herbal preparation in terms

  2. Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.

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    Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y

    2008-02-01

    Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents.

  3. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

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    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  5. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  6. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

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    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH. Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities,  a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Safaa; Chalak, Lamis; Dalleh, Helena; Arnold, Nelly

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plant species in Lebanon are experiencing severe threats because of various environmental conditions, human expansion footprints and recent growing global demand. Organized research and information on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge have been very limited and little efforts have been invested to develop a complete inventory for native medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge in the country. Recognized as a key biodiversity area of the Mediterranean Basin, Mount Hermon hosts important richness of medicinal plants that has been traditionally used in treatment of many illnesses since generations. Novel knowledge gathered by the present investigation is important in preserving indigenous knowledge of Mount Hermon community and revitalizing traditional herbal medicines. Ethnopharmacological information was collected by semi-structured interviews with 53 native informants (herbalists, traditional healers, midwives and local adult villagers) in 13 towns and villages surrounding Mount Hermon. The interviews were conducted through guided field visits and discussion groups whilst collecting plants specimens. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on the determination keys of the "New Flora of Lebanon and Syria" and specimens were deposited at the herbarium of the Research Center for Environment and Development at Beirut Arab University. The results obtained indicate that 124 plant species of Mount flora are still used in traditional medicine by the local communities as an important source of primary health care and treatment of a wide range of different illnesses. These species belonged to 42 families and 102 genera. Compositae (19 species), Labiatae (18 species), Rosaceae (11) and Umbelliferae (11) formed the dominant families. Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis revealed that among the 14 illness categories used, respiratory (0.94), gastrointestinal and renal (0.93), genital systems (0.92) had the highest FIC values

  8. An ethno botanical perspective of traditional medicinal plants from the Khattak tribe of Chonthra Karak, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khalid; Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Mubark Ali; Ullah, Zahid; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-05-13

    The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria

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    Madani Sarri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: M’sila city occupies a privileged position in the central part of northern Algeria. The climate of this area is continental, subject in part to the Saharan influences of which vegetation is steppic. Aims: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey in the city of M’sila was conducted during the period 2011-2012 in collaboration with traditional practitioners, herbalists and healers. A total of 85 adults were able to determine the species and answer questions about the traditional use of plants in artisanal processing, nutritional and medicinal domains. Results: Medicinal plants recorded in the city of M’sila were 36 divided into 16 families and 31 genera. Lamiaceae family predominates (27.8%, followed by Asteraceae (13.9%. Leaves are the most frequently used (27.4%, the aerial parts (18.5% and thus the seeds (16.3%. It appears that the population is highly dependent on these plants that allow them to treat different pathologies (digestive, stomach, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting with a percentage (18.6%, carminative (5.7% and antidiabetic (12.2%. In general, the remedies are administered orally. Indeed, therapeutic use forms are: the tisane or decoction (44.7%, infusion (27.1% and powder (12.2%. Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey conducted among traditional healers, herbalists and healers in the M’sila city has created an inventory of 36 species and a database that collected all the information on local and traditional therapeutic applications as well as all the diseases treated.

  10. Analysis of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from residents in Gayasan National Park (Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Byoung-Yoon; Brian, Heldenbrand; Park, Chan-Ho; Hyun, Chang-Woo

    2014-10-21

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by residents in Gayasan National Park in order to obtain basic data regarding the sustainable conservation of its natural plant ecosystem. Data was collected using participatory observations and in-depth interviews, as the informants also become investigators themselves through attending informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative analyses were accomplished through the informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level, and inter-network analysis (INA). In total, 200 species of vascular plants belonging to 168 genera and 87 families were utilized traditionally in 1,682 ethnomedicianal practices. The representative families were Rosaceae (6.5%) followed by Asteraceae (5.5%), Poaceae (4.5%), and Fabaceae (4.0%). On the whole, 27 kinds of plant-parts were used and prepared in 51 various ways by the residents for medicinal purposes. The ICF values in the ailment categories were muscular-skeletal disorders (0.98), pains (0.97), respiratory system disorders (0.97), liver complaints (0.97), and cuts and wounds (0.96). In terms of fidelity levels, 57 plant species showed fidelities levels of 100%. Regarding the inter-network analysis (INA) between ailments and medicinal plants within all communities of this study, the position of ailments is distributed into four main groups. The results of the inter-network analysis will provide a suitable plan for sustainable preservation of the national park through a continued study of the data. Particular species of medicinal plants need to be protected for a balanced plant ecosystem within the park. Consequently, through further studies using these results, proper steps need to be established for preparing a wise alternative to create a sustainable natural plant ecosystem for Gayasan National Park and other national parks.

  11. FUNCTION REGULATION OF CUSTOMER’S PLANT THAT BURN TRADITIONAL TYPES OF FUEL

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    T. G. Zoryna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the issue of function regulation of customer’s plants that burn traditional types of fuel. Its aim was to develop certain measures for reducing customer’s plants influence on the Belarusian power supply system as their activity has unfavorable economic consequences. The following methods were used in the present research: the system analysis, the method of analogies and expenses calculation. The article presents the comparative characteristics of the power production during the typical working day of the heating period in the years 2013 and 2014 in terms of condensation power plants, central heating and power plants and customer’s plants. The potential damage caused by the customer’s plants to the power supply system has been calculated, the restrictions for the customer’s plants activity existing in the Republic of Belarus nowadays has been analyzed. The author has developed a number of measures within the framework of regulation policy of the activity of customer’s plants that burn traditional types of fuel: the fee for the spinning reserve necessary for the power supply system in case of the customer’s plants breakdown; the fee for the supervisory control; the fee for the service of transfer and distribution. The introduction of the proposed measures is supposed to bring the following advantages: high-quality growth of energy efficiency of the power industry; prime cost reduction of power energy in the power supply system as a whole; stimulation of market elements implementation in the power industry; the ability to react fairly fast to the alterations of economic conditions.

  12. Traditional plant use in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Novella, Riccardo; Di Novella, Nicola; De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-09

    This paper reports an ethobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, Campania, Southern Italy. This study conducted between 2009 and 2011, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in Southern Italy (Campania Region). In all, we interviewed 70 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 85 years. This people belonged to families which had strong links with traditional activities of the area. The research resulted to the identification of 192 plants belonging to 64 families. Among the species reported, 86 are used in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 69 as human foods, 18 as animal feed, 61 for domestic and 8 for agricultural uses. A survey of the available literature on Southern Italy ethnobotany reveals that some species have been never reported and about 10% of cited uses are new. Data obtained show that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The evolution of traditional knowledge: environment shapes medicinal plant use in Nepal.

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    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Hawkins, Julie A; Greenhill, Simon J; Pendry, Colin A; Watson, Mark F; Tuladhar-Douglas, Will; Baral, Sushim R; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-04-07

    Traditional knowledge is influenced by ancestry, inter-cultural diffusion and interaction with the natural environment. It is problematic to assess the contributions of these influences independently because closely related ethnic groups may also be geographically close, exposed to similar environments and able to exchange knowledge readily. Medicinal plant use is one of the most important components of traditional knowledge, since plants provide healthcare for up to 80% of the world's population. Here, we assess the significance of ancestry, geographical proximity of cultures and the environment in determining medicinal plant use for 12 ethnic groups in Nepal. Incorporating phylogenetic information to account for plant evolutionary relatedness, we calculate pairwise distances that describe differences in the ethnic groups' medicinal floras and floristic environments. We also determine linguistic relatedness and geographical separation for all pairs of ethnic groups. We show that medicinal uses are most similar when cultures are found in similar floristic environments. The correlation between medicinal flora and floristic environment was positive and strongly significant, in contrast to the effects of shared ancestry and geographical proximity. These findings demonstrate the importance of adaptation to local environments, even at small spatial scale, in shaping traditional knowledge during human cultural evolution.

  14. Traditional ecological knowledge among Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden about vascular plants grazed by reindeer

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    Berit Inga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge about how reindeer utilize forage resources was expected to be crucial to reindeer herders. Seventeen Sami reindeer herders in four reindeer herding communities in Sweden (“samebyar” in Swedish were interviewed about plants species considered to be important reindeer food plants in scientific literature. Among 40 plant species, which the informants were asked to identify and indicate whether and when they were grazed by reindeer, they identified a total of 21 plant taxa and five plant groups. They especially recognised species that were used as human food by the Sami themselves, but certain specific forage plants were also identified. Detailed knowledge of vascular plants at the species level was surprisingly general, which may indicate that knowledge of pasture resources in a detailed species level is not of vital importance. This fact is in sharp contradiction to the detailed knowledge that Sami people express for example about reindeer (as an animal or snow (as physical element. The plausible explanation is that observations of individual plant species are unnecessarily detailed information in large-scale reindeer pastoralism, because the animals graze freely under loose herding and border surveillance.

  15. Medicinal plants traditionally used in the northwest of the Basque Country (Biscay and Alava), Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Molina, María; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2014-02-27

    Many ethnobotanical studies show that people in industrial countries still rely on their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants for self-treatment, although the trend might not be as common as some decades ago. Given the social and public health implications of ethnopharmacological practices, this survey aims at recording and analysing the medicinal plants used in the folk medicine of the Northwest of the Basque Country focusing on how medicinal plants knowledge and practices evolve. Fieldwork consisted of 265 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 207 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted between September 2008 and January 2011. Informants were on average 76 years old (minimum 45, maximum 95), being more than half of them (112) men. Data collected were structured in use-reports (UR). Following informants' comments, medicinal use-reports were classified as abandoned-UR, when the informants reported that the use was only practiced in the past, and prevalent-UR, when the informants reported to continue the practice. A total of 2067 UR for 139 species that belong to 58 botanical families were recorded, being the most important families Asteraceae, Liliaceae sensu latu and Urticaceae. Some of the most important species are commonly used in other European areas (e.g., Chamaemelum nobile, Urtica dioica and Chelidonium majus). However, there are also plants commonly used in the area such as Helleborus viridis or Coronopus didymus, that are scarcely used in other areas, and whose record is an original contribution of the local pharmacopeia. It is also the case of remedies such as the use of Plantago leaves against strains in a local remedy called zantiritu. Overall, and for all variables analysed (total UR, medicinal use-categories, drug preparation and administration), the percentage of UR being currently practiced (prevalence ratio) was very low (near 30%) suggesting a strong decay in the use of traditional medicinal plants

  16. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  17. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management

  18. Anti-enteric bacterial activity of the traditional medicinal plants of Kanyakumari coast, Tamilnadu, India

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    Suyambu Rajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potentials of 6 traditionally used medicinal plants to treat gastrointestinal infection against pathogenic bacteria, as most of the pathogens develop drug resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Methods: Crude extracts from different parts of different plants were tested against bacterial strains of clinical significance. Extraction of bioactive principles was done with water and ethanol. Evaluation of antibacterial activity was done by disc diffusion assay against selected bacterial stains. Results: Of the 6 different plant materials tested, extracts prepared from Psidium guajava leaves showed significantly higher efficacy. Extracts prepared using alcohol exhibited higher antibacterial activity when compared to their corresponding aqueous extracts. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggested that phytochemical extracts of the presently studied plant materials possess significant anti-enteric bacterial activity, and thus lend pharmacological credibility to the suggested traditional use of the plant as a natural remedy for the treatment, management and/or control of gastrointestinal diseases in the coastal tracts of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India.

  19. Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of some nigerian medicinal plants used bini traditional folk medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuekwe, I.F.

    2008-01-01

    Four medicinal plants namely; Vernonia amygdalina, Psidium guajava, Chromolaena odorata and Anarcadium occidentale, commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Bini traditional folk medicine in Nigeria were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella aerogenes. The leaf extracts of P guajava and A occidentale completely inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested, while V amygdalina inhibited the growth of K. aerogenes only. Metronidazole was used as the standard antidiarrhoeal drug. Glycosides were found in all the plant extracts. This study, Favours the use of the leaf extracts of A occidentale, P guajava and V amygdalina for the treatment of diarrhoea in Nigeria. (author)

  20. Traditional knowledge of wild food plants in a few Tibetan communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesi, Alessandro

    2014-11-03

    This paper aims to present the author's field research data on wild food plant use in Tibetan regions. It provides a general perspective on their significance in past and present Tibet, and examines the concept of wild edible plants as medicinal plants. The fieldwork was conducted in Dhorpatan (Nepal, May-August 1998), Lithang town and surroundings (Sichuan, China, April-September 1999, May-August 2000); Southern Mustang District (Nepal, July-August 2001); and Sapi (Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India, July 1995, August 2005). The research was conducted with 176 informants. The methodology included ethnographic research techniques: participant observation, open-ended conversations, semi-structured interviews, and studies of Tibetan medical texts. The author worked in the field with Tibetan colloquial and written language. The 75 total wild food plants and mushrooms belong to 36 genera and 60 species. 44 specimens are used as vegetables, 10 as spices\\condiments, 15 as fruits, 3 as ferments to prepare yoghurt and beer, 5 as substitutes for tsampa (roasted barley flour, the traditional staple food of Tibetan people), 4 as substitutes for tea, and 3 to prepare other beverages. Data from Lithang, which are more representative, show that among 30 wild food plant species exploited, 21 are consumed as vegetables, 5 as spices, 4 as fruits, 3 represent substitutes for roasted barley flour, 2 substitutes for tea, and 1 is used as fermentation agent. Tibetans have traditionally exploited few wild food plants. These mainly compensate for the lack of vegetables and fruit in traditional Tibetan diet, notably among pastoralists, and are far more important during famines as substitutes for roasted barley flour. Today few wild food plants are regularly consumed, less in the main towns and villages and moreso in remote areas and among pastoralists. Younger generations from towns have almost lost traditional botanical knowledge. Owing to modernisation and globalisation processes, many

  1. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R W; Malca, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Nilsen, B; Parris, B; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D; Saleda, J; Martinez, M; Carillo, L; Walker, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A

    2011-09-01

    The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a brine-shrimp assay. Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnobotanical survey on medicinal plants used by Guinean traditional healers in the treatment of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, M S; Baldé, M A; Diallo, M S T; Baldé, E S; Diané, S; Camara, A; Diallo, A; Balde, A; Keïta, A; Keita, S M; Oularé, K; Magassouba, F B; Diakité, I; Diallo, A; Pieters, L; Baldé, A M

    2013-12-12

    The objective of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of malaria in Guinea. The survey was carried out from May 2008 to September 2010 and targeted traditional medical practitioners and herbalists. The questionnaire and oral interviews were based on the standardized model which was prepared by the "Centre de Recherche et de Valorisation des Plantes Médicinales (CRVPM) - Dubréka". A total of 258 people (141 males and 117 females) from which 150 traditional healers and 108 herbalists were interviewed. The age of informants ranged from 28 to 82 years old. 57% (149/258) of the interviewees were more than 50 years old. The respondents had good knowledge of the symptoms of malaria, and a fairly good understanding of the causes. One hundred thirteen plant species were recorded, out of which 109 were identified. They belonged to 84 genera and 46 families. The most frequently cited plants were Vismia guineensis, Parkia biglobosa, Nauclea latifolia, Harungana madagascariensis, Terminalia macroptera, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Terminalia albida, Annona senegalensis, and Nauclea pobeguinii. The leaves were most frequently used (80/113 species), followed by stem bark (38/113 species) and roots (4/113 species). The remedies were mostly prepared by decoction (111 species), followed by maceration (seven species). Only one species was prepared by infusion. The present study showed that traditional healers in Guinea have a consistent knowledge of antimalarial plants. Further research should be carried out to compare the anti-malarial activity of the different species, and to check if their use against malaria can be scientifically validated. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Molecular DNA identification of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N A A; Ahmad, M I; Naim, D M

    2015-12-07

    Plants have been used throughout human history for food and medicine. However, many plants are toxic, and cannot easily be morphologically distinguished from non-toxic plants. DNA identification solves this problem and is widely used. Nonetheless, plant DNA barcode identification faces a number of challenges, and many studies have been conducted to find suitable barcodes. The present study was conducted to test the efficiency of commonly used primers, namely ITS2, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA, in order to find the best DNA barcode markers for the identification of medicinal plants in Malaysia. Fresh leaves from 12 medicinal plants that are commonly used by Malay traditional healers were collected from the Tropical Spice Garden, Pulau Pinang, and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using ITS2, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA DNA markers. We found that trnH-psbA is the best DNA marker for the species-level identification of medicinal plants in Malaysia.

  4. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants and traditional therapies on Batan Island, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Reika; Ohtani, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-30

    We studied the local knowledge and uses of medicinal plants among the Ivatan people of Batan Island by documenting their traditional practices. To identify the types of medicinal plants used in self-care by the indigenous people of Batan Island, the Philippines and to investigate the extent to which the plants are used. Conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important; thus, this research aims to collect information from local people concerning the use of medicinal plants on Batan Island. A total of 116 informants were interviewed, allowing for calculated informant consensus factors (ICF), use value (UV), and fidelity levels (FL) for each medicinal plant species used to cure various ailments. This helped to establish a consensus on which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species' relative importance, and enabled us to understand the extent of the potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 112 plant species used medicinally against 13 categories of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.00) was cited for diseases of the ear and respiratory system and for use during pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. The maximum FL of 100% was found for Carica papaya, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Musa sapientum, and Pedilanthus tithymaloides, used for the treatment of constipation, cuts and wounds, diarrhea, and dislocations and fractures, respectively. The highest UV was for Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (0.67). All plants with high UV were used for exogenous diseases, certain infectious and parasitic diseases, injuries, poisonings and other consequences of external factors, and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. In addition to its use for endogenous disease and lifestyle-related diseases and illnesses, Moringa oleifera is also used for diseases of the circulatory system, with a UV of 0.57 and Cocos nucifera is used for diseases of the genitourinary system, with a UV

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse

  6. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Asthma: A Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multidatabase electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. Then, the antiasthmatic effectiveness of TPM-recommended plants was verified in view of the findings from modern pharmacological investigations. According to the main TPM texts, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Boswellia oleogumresin, Crocus sativus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis and Ruta graveolens were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma. This finding was confirmed by pharmacological studies which showed counterbalancing effects of the above-mentioned plants on inflammation, oxidative stress, allergic response, tracheal smooth muscle cell constriction and airway remodeling. The strong ethnobotanical background of plants used in TPM could be a valuable tool to find new anti-asthmatic medications. In this review, TPM-suggested anti-asthmatic plants were found to possess several mechanisms relevant to the treatment of respiratory diseases according to the information retrieved from modern pharmacological studies. This high degree of conformity suggested further proof-of-concept trials to ascertain the role of these plants in the routine management of asthmatic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TRIBES OF TRIPURA IN NORTHEAST, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbarma, Maria; Pala, Nazir A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Mandwi area and its outskirts of Tripura district of tribal areas Autonomous district council to document the available ethno-medicinal plants and their traditional application among Mandwi tribes. Field explorations were carried out during the months of March-June 2013. The ethno-medicinal survey was conducted particularly with Tripuri tribe in Mandai area, with the help of local medicine men, locally known as bhoidho (Tripuri). Data were collected through structure questionnaires and observations during the field visits. In the present study the local population used a total of 51 plant species belonging to 32 families to cure a variety of diseases. Of the 51 plants, 21 were herbs, followed by trees (17) and shrubs (8). Climbers and ferns had reported 2 species for each one grass species was found. Fabaceae was the dominant family with the highest number of species (6) followed by Asteracae (4 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). Seven other families had 2 species each and 22 families were represented by a single species. In case single diseases, the highest number of plants (7 species) was used for dysentery, followed by body pain (6 species), cough (6 species) and toothache (6 species). The present study concluded that, the Tripuri tribes of the study area possess rich knowledge on the medicinal plants and their utilization. Thus the present study focuses on the documentation of the traditional knowledge of these valuable plants, which could enhance the potential of these medicinal plants to other communities as well and by understanding the importance, other communities can also be helpful for conservation of these resources for further use.

  8. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  9. Breastfeeding: A Review of Its Physiology and Galactogogue Plants in View of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Roghayeh; Javadi, Behjat; Feyzabadi, Zohre

    2017-09-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for the infant and mother are well recognized. Many natural products are reputed to be galactogogue agents in major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks. The aim of this study is to review those medicinal plants that are reported to be effective in increasing breast milk in TPM and to compare the data from TPM texts with the findings of modern pharmacological and clinical research. Data on the medicinal plants used to increase breast milk were obtained from major TPM textbooks. A detailed search in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed to confirm the effects of medicinal plants mentioned in TPM on lactation in view of the identified pharmacological actions. Foeniculum vulgare, Anethum graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Vitex agnus-castus are among the most effective galactogogue TPM plants. Many pharmacologically relevant activities have been reported for these herbs. The use of traditional knowledge can pave the way toward finding effective phytopharmaceuticals for increasing breast milk.

  10. Plants of the Genus Zingiber as a Source of Bioactive Phytochemicals: From Tradition to Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sharifi-Rad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In addition, gingerols have been identified as the major active components in the fresh rhizome, whereas shogaols, dehydrated gingerol derivatives, are the predominant pungent constituents in dried rhizome. Zingiber spp. may thus represent a promising and innovative source of natural alternatives to chemical food preservatives. This approach would meet the increasing concern of consumers aware of the potential health risks associated with the conventional antimicrobial agents in food. This narrative review aims at providing a literature overview on Zingiber spp. plants, their cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

  11. Possibilities of Using Wild Plants in the Traditional Culinary Culture of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislava Stoličná

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the existence of humans people were acquiring and evaluating findings about their life space and they were creating knowledge from their findings, which was important in their daily lives and also in their life perspective. One of the sources of this ecological knowledge is ethnographic records. These sources give us an opportunity to get to know often forgotten knowledge about the wild growing plant species, which people used to normally eat. It documents the empirical material, acquired during ground exploration in different regions in Slovakia, which represents these plants and processes of their use in traditional culinary culture of Slovakia. These plants are known as superfoods, which can be as the opposite of modified food, which has almost lost its biologically active substances and is characteristic for the life in globalized community nowadays.

  12. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sureda, Antoni; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Valussi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh; Loizzo, Monica R; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Sharifi-Rad, Razieh; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdulmajid; Iriti, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  13. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsaris, Alexandros S

    2007-05-01

    The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader) and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.

  14. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botsaris Alexandros S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.

  15. Traditional Use of Plants by the Disappearing Czech Diaspora in Romanian Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ethnobotanical research is dedicated to food and medicinal plants, while the other categories, such as plants used as materials, veterinary remedies or fodder remain neglected. This trend dominates in East Europe where linguistic approach prevails, while ethnographical one stays under-explored, though the heritage of the 19th century was impressive. Field data were collected through in-depth individual semi-structured interviews with the last remaining ethnic Czechs living in Romanian Banat and triangulated with extensive participant observation. The aims of this study were to document and preserve local knowledge pertaining to the use of traditional cultivated and wild plants. The study focused on under-documented use categories, hence, food and medicinal plants were excluded. In total, 56 plant species were cited by informants. The paper also highlights vernacular names, phytonyms, and particularly interesting uses of plant resources or related aspects not described previously or under-reported in the literature. The authors conclude that the ethnobotanical knowledge still survives as a part of the cultural heritage of the Czech diaspora. However, several interesting uses are only practiced by elderly people, the knowledge is ageing, and is likely to vanish fairly soon.

  16. Antibacterial constituents of Eremophila alternifolia: An Australian aboriginal traditional medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biva, Israt J; Ndi, Chi P; Griesser, Hans J; Semple, Susan J

    2016-04-22

    For traditional medicinal purposes Aboriginal Australians have utilised numerous plant species, Eremophila alternifolia is among the most prominent. Traditionally, fresh leaves, leaf-infusions and handmade leaf-pastes have been used as both external and internal preparations to provide relief from a variety of conditions. Preparations of the species have been used to treat various infections of skin, eyes and throat including the treatment of septic wounds. These usages suggest that the plant contains antibacterial compounds; however, to date they have not been isolated and identified. The present study aimed to identify antibacterial compounds from this important traditionally recorded medicinal species. Bioassay-guided fractionation was used to isolate compounds from the crude leaf-extract. Antibacterial activity of pure compounds was assessed through broth microdilution method by determining both minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). Structure elucidation was performed using spectroscopic techniques such as 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Four compounds have been isolated from the leaf-extract; they include previously known flavanones [pinobanksin (1), pinobanksin-3-acetate (2) and pinobanksin-3-cinnamate (3)] and a serrulatane diterpene, 8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (4). While compound 4 had been found in other Eremophilas, flavanones 2 and 3 are identified for the first time from the genus Eremophila. The flavanone 3 is the most promising antibacterial compound with significant activity (10-20µM) against strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant and biofilm forming strains. No activity was observed for any isolated compounds against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract of E. alternifolia and of the isolated compounds against Gram

  17. A comparison of traditional plant knowledge between students and herders in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, Brett L; Trimarco, Jonathan; Lemungesi, Saruni

    2016-10-13

    The Samburu region of northern Kenya is undergoing significant change, driven by factors including greater value on formal education, improvements in infrastructure and development, a shift from community to private ownership of land, increased sedentary lifestyles and global climate change. One outcome of these changes are an increasingly greater likelihood for adolescent boys to be enrolled in school rather than herding livestock on behalf of the family in a landscape shared with numerous native vegetation and wildlife species. This study compared identification and knowledge of native plant species between boys enrolled in school with boys of similar age but primary responsibility as herders, called moran. Study participants walked an approximately 100 m path with 10 flagged points in which they were asked to identify any plant species at that point and associated facts of each species, within a 1 m radius. On average, moran identified 38 species compared to 20 for students, including nearly 13 (of a possible 15) species considered to have high cultural significance. Students identified an average of 8.6 culturally-significant plants. Further, moran shared nearly 18 correct facts about the plants, compared with ten for students. In addition, herding frequency was the only significant predictor of plant identification in a linear regression. The results demonstrate that while formal education undoubtedly provides benefits to students, attendance in school in lieu of the traditional role of herders has consequences on young men in Samburu related to ability to identify native and culturally-significant plants. This further shows the importance for communities like those in Samburu undergoing change need to develop alternative options to transmit local traditional knowledge to its younger generations.

  18. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...

  19. Identification of traditional medicinal plant extracts with novel anti-influenza activity.

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    Dhivya Rajasekaran

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination

  20. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Balcha

    2014-05-08

    Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ''rare" for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p institution (14.3 ± 34) and adult age groups (11.6 ± 43). The Ghimbi people possess rich ethno

  1. Traditional knowledge on poisonous plants of Udhampur district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Manhas, R K; Kumar, Kewal; Magotra, Rani

    2014-02-27

    Poisonous plants comprise the third largest category of poisons known around the world. Other than affecting the humans directly, they are the major cause of economic losses in the livestock industry since the advent of civilisation. Aim of the present study was to collect and systematically document the traditional knowledge of poisonous plants of Udhampur District for the benefit of humanity before it is entombed forever. Direct interviews of the informants were conducted and the plants identified as poisonous by them were collected, identified and herbarium sheets were prepared. The data collected through interviews was analysed with two quantitative tools viz. the factor informant consensus and fidelity level. A total of 90 toxic plants were listed from the study site. Most dominant toxic families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Most of the poisonous plants were herbs (57.1%) and the whole plant toxicity was reported to be the highest (32.4%) followed by leaves (23.1%). According to the factor informant consensus, gastrointestinal category had the greatest agreement closely followed by the death category. The most important species on the basis of fidelity level for gastrointestinal category were Cannabis sativa, Cassia occidentalis, Cuscuta reflexa, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia hirta, for death category were Anagalis arvensis, Embelia robusta and Prunus persica, for dermatological category Euphorbia royleana, Leucaena leucocephala, Parthenium hysterophorus and Urtica dioica, and for sexual illness category were Calotropis procera and Carica papaya. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required to ascertain the toxic components of the poisonous plants, so that they may be utilised for the betterment of future generations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biofilm inhibition activity of traditional medicinal plants from Northwestern Argentina against native pathogen and environmental microorganisms

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    Cintia Mariana Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Plants have been commonly used in popular medicine of most cultures for the treatment of disease. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of certain Argentine plants used in traditional medicine has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-cell adherence activities of native plants (Larrea divaricata, Tagetes minuta, Tessaria absinthioides, Lycium chilense, and Schinus fasciculatus collected in northwestern Argentina. METHODS: The activities of the five plant species were evaluated in Bacillus strains and clinical strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from northwestern Argentina and identified by 16S rDNA. RESULT: Lycium chilense and Schinus fasciculatus were the most effective antimicrobial plant extracts (15.62µg/ml and 62.50µg/ml for Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 and Bacillus sp. Mcn4, respectively. The highest (66% anti-biofilm activity against Bacillus sp. Mcn4 was observed with T. absinthioides and L. divaricate extracts. The highest (68% anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 was observed with L. chilense extract. T. minuta, T. absinthioides, and L. divaricata showed percentages of anti-biofilm activity of between 55% and 62%. The anti-adherence effects of T. minuta and L. chilense observed in Bacillus sp. Mcn4 reflected a difference of only 22% and 10%, respectively, between anti-adherence and biofilm inhibition. Thus, the inhibition of biofilm could be related to cell adherence. In Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1, all plant extracts produced low anti-adherence percentages. CONCLUSION: These five species may represent a source of alternative drugs derived from plant extracts, based on ethnobotanical knowledge from northwest Argentina.

  3. IN VITRO ANTIHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THREE PLANT SPECIES TRADITIONALLY USED IN TABASCO, MEXICO.

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    Judith Espinosa-Moreno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus was searched as a new alternative for animal health improvement using three plants (Cydista aequinoctialis L., Heliotropium indicum L. and Momordica charantia L. of traditional usage in the rural area of Tabasco State, Mexico. Aqueous extracts were obtained of dried material. Each extract was diluted in distilled water to obtain a concentration of 20 mg ml-1. The antihelmintic activity was evaluated at 24, 48 y 72 h of exposition with 100 μL of each extract and 50 L3 unsheathed larvaes of H. contortus in a 96 well ELISA plaque.;/span;

  4. Traditionally used plants in diabetes therapy: phytotherapeutics as inhibitors of alpha-amylase activity

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    Ingrid Funke

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. There are many and diverse therapeutic strategies in the management of Type 2 diabetes. The inhibition of alpha-amylase activity is only one possibility to lower postprandial blood glucose levels. In our in-vitro studies we could demonstrate that different plants, mostly traditionally used in common diabetic therapy in Africa or Europe, are able to inhibit alpha-amylase, which is responsible for the breakdown of oligosaccharides into monosaccharides which are absorbed. An inhibition of alpha-amylase activity of 90% was seen with the extract of the leaves of Tamarindus indica. To quantify inhibtion rates, acarbose was used (IC50: 23.2 µM. Highest inhibition level of acarbose in our testmodel was about 85%. Additionally tests with pure polyphenolic compounds might explain the biological activity of the selected plants.

  5. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank: A comparative study

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    Khlaif Rasha B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank, six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI, were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26

  6. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-05-12

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the recorded wild botanicals including the most quoted and with

  7. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-01-01

    Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the

  8. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Tsitsilin, Andrey N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Historically Russia can be regarded as a "herbophilious" society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition) has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called "functional foods", which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and-through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia-showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  9. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia

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    Alexander N. Shikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically Russia can be regarded as a “herbophilious” society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called “functional foods”, which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and—through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia—showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  10. Screening of in vitro antimicrobial activity of plants used in traditional Indonesian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romulo, Andreas; Zuhud, Ervizal A M; Rondevaldova, Johana; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2018-12-01

    In many regions of Indonesia, there are numerous traditional herbal preparations for treatment of infectious diseases. However, their antimicrobial potential has been poorly studied by modern laboratory methods. This study investigates in vitro antimicrobial activity of 49 ethanol extracts from 37 plant species used in Indonesian traditional medicine for treatment against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The plants were collected from the Biopharmaca collection garden, Bogor, Indonesia. The plant material was dried, finely grounded, extracted using ethanol, concentrated, and the dried residue was dissolved in 100% DMSO. Antimicrobial activity was determined in terms of a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a broth microdilution method in 96-well microplates. The extract of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. (Lamiaceae) leaf produced the strongest antimicrobial effect, inhibiting the growth of C. albicans (MIC 128 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/mL), E. faecalis (MIC 256 μg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (MIC 256 μg/mL). The leaf extract of Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. (Lythraceae) also exhibited significant effect against C. albicans (MIC 128 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/mL) and E. faecalis (MIC 256 μg/mL). Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus (MIC 256 µg/mL) and C. albicans (MIC 256 µg/mL). The leaf extract of O. aristatus and W. floribunda exhibited a significant anti-candidal effect. Therefore, both of these plants can serve as prospective source materials for the development of new anti-candidal agents.

  11. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N.; Tsitsilin, Andrey N.; Pozharitskaya, Olga N.; Makarov, Valery G.; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Historically Russia can be regarded as a “herbophilious” society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition) has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called “functional foods”, which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and—through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia—showcases the species' importance in Russia. PMID:29209213

  12. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  13. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-10-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf ( C. pilosula ), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke ( S. lappa ), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. ( I. cylindrical var. major ) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. ( M.toosendan ) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo . These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula , S. lappa , I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants.

  14. Plants from The Genus Daphne: A Review of its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Biological and Pharmacological Activity

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    Sovrlić Miroslav M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have an important role in maintaining people’s health and improving the quality of human life. They are an important component of people’s diet, but they are also used in other spheres of human life as a therapeutic resources, ingredients of cosmetic products, paints and others. The Daphne genus belongs to family Thymeleaceae which includes 44 families with approximately 500 herbal species. The plant species of the genus Daphne are used in the traditional medicine in China and tropical part of Africa for the treatment of various conditions. Previous studies showed significant biological potential of these species as a source of pharmacologically active compounds. This indicates that this genus possess a broad spectrum of biological activity including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-ulcerogenic, abortive, hypocholesterolemic and hemostatic effects. Additionally, Daphne plants are the source of valuable bioactive phytochemicals such as coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and different classes of terpenes. Different parts of the Daphne plants contain specific bioactive metabolites and can represent a source of new, natural, pharmacologically active compounds, which may potentially be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  15. Ethnobotanical survey and testing of plants traditionally used against hematophagous insects in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waka, Maedot; Hopkins, Richard James; Curtis, Chris

    2004-11-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted to find plants traditionally used against nuisance insects in three regions of Eritrea: highland, eastern escarpment and wet lowland. Six plants were collected, two of them were reported to be used against mosquitoes (Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae and Nicotiana glauca, Solanaceae), two others against fleas (Salvia shimperi, Lamiaceae and Otostegia integrifolia, Lamiaceae) and Neorautanenia mitis (Fabaceae) and Calpurnea aurea (Fabaceae) against animal lice. The effect of fresh leaves and shoots of O. forskolei hanging on walls at the head and foot of beds was tested in Eritrea against Anopheles arabiensis and 53% reduction in mean number of mosquitoes per house was achieved. Blood meals of mosquitoes collected from houses and pit shelters were analysed to determine whether biting diversion occurred due to the use of plants in the houses. No diversion of biting was observed to goats, which are abundant in the test area. Hot water distillates of N. glauca, S. schimperi and O. integrifolia were tested against An. gambiae s.s. in the laboratory using a Hemotek membrane blood feeder with pig skin replacing the parafilm membrane. The approximate doses in microl/cm(2) for 50% repellency with the extracts of S. schimperi, N. glauca and O. integrifolia were 0.97, 1.72 and 2.44, respectively. Even though the plants only achieved partial protection, they have a potential for widespread use as a complement to other control methods.

  16. Plants used to treat hyperpigmentation in Iranian traditional medicine: a review

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    S. Ghafari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized as increased production and accumulation of melanin, which could be aesthetically unfavorable and develops serious skin diseases. There is a need to find new depigmenting agents, since many current natural and synthetic products present undesired side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM, plants have been used for the treatment of skin diseases such as hyperpigmentation. In this study, topical herbal medicines, for the treatment of hyperpigmentation were searched in ITM references, and their scientific names were identified, using different comprehensive glossaries. Thereafter, depigmenting mechanisms of these genera were reviewed in recent scientific literatures. Seventy-nine plants were made known as herbal remedies for skin hyperpigmentation. Furthermore, modern literatures have shown depigmenting effect of about 40% of these plants or their isolated compounds, with different melanogenesis inhibitory mechanisms with tyrosinase inhibition as the most revealed method. Regarding the new approach to medicinal plants in recent years, a large number of medicinal herbs that were mentioned in ITM references would be good candidates for exploring new herbal medicines for skin hyperpigmentation disorders.

  17. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the Eastern region of Antioquia, Colombia--the traditional use of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Julieta; Jiménez, Silvia L; Gómez, Isabel C; Rey, Jessica P; Henao, Ana M; Marín, Daniela M; Romero, Jefferson O; Alarcón, Juan C

    2013-03-27

    Every year, over 4000 ophidian accidents take place in Colombia. The poor distribution and limited availability of antivenom have perpetuated the use of traditional medicine especially in rural communities. The medical care starts with the affected people receiving treatment by healers or shamans who use medicinal plants prepared in different ways. This investigation was undertaken by conducting enquiries to the renowned healers or plants connoisseurs about the ethnobotany of the ophidian accident. In addition, this study included their experience and the time they have used plants in curing bites or stings by poisonous animals. Furthermore, it embraced the plant species used and the amount applied, the ways of their preparation (maceration or decoction), some application techniques (beverage, bathing, poultice, vapors), and duration of treatment. 29 species of plants were collected and identified. 82.7% of them were native, 27.5% had not been previously reported as antiophidian, and 38% had been employed for this purpose in other geographical areas. Leaves (43.59%) and stems (23.08%) were the components most frequently used in the medicinal preparation, which is usually done by maceration (51.92%) or decoction (25.00%). Throughout this study related to the treatment of snakebite accident, species have been found without any ethnobotanical reports. Moreover, plants being described as new specie and herbs such as Plantago major (Plantaginaceae) used in the treatment of snakebites by many ethnic groups have been found. In addition, herbaceous such as Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), whose antiophidian activity has been experimentally proven through in vivo and in vitro assays, have been discovered too. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Agricultural Machinery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trabajo, Frances Myra

    1994-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of the Trade Reform Program on the performance and competitiveness of the Philippine agricultural machinery industry. It also attempts to identify non-price factors that may impinge on the industry’s competitiveness and efficiency. Findings have revealed that the TRP has rationalized the protection structure of the industry and its subsectors between 1983-1988. While there have been significant improvements in allocative efficiency and competitiveness d...

  19. Traditional healthy Mediterranean diet: estrogenic activity of plants used as food and flavoring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agradi, Elisabetta; Vegeto, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Andrea; Fico, Gelsomina; Regondi, Simona; Tomè, Franca

    2006-08-01

    The Italian-style Mediterranean diet has been defined as healthy by epidemiologists and nutritionists. Besides being low fat, the Mediterranean diet is rich in biologically active minor compounds. Among these, phytoestrogens seem to have an impact on the prevention of chronic degenerative disease. It is important to understand how this occurs. The in vitro estrogenic activity of crude extracts from typical Mediterranean foods was tested using a yeast estrogen screen (YES), containing human estrogen receptor. Species belonging to Leguminosae, Apiaceae, Graminaceae, Iridaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cruciferae and Solanaceae showed the greatest number of positive responses. These species include some foods which are traditionally widely consumed, such as beans and other legumes, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots and some cereals. The highest activity was found in the more polar extracts (aqueous, methanol and chloroform: methanol) indicating that polar compounds are mainly responsible for the estrogenic activity. This is also supported by the traditional cooking practices. According to data from in vitro tests, the estrogenic activity is present in numerous plants which are commonly used as food in the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable foods rich in phytoestrogens, as in the Mediterranean tradition, may contribute to the maintenance of health status.

  20. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

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    Velusamy Balasubramaniam

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and

  1. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

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    Nabati Farzaneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  2. Plant sugars are crucial players in the oxidative challenge during abiotic stress: extending the traditional concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keunen, Els; Peshev, Darin; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Den Ende, Wim; Cuypers, Ann

    2013-07-01

    Plants suffering from abiotic stress are commonly facing an enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with damaging as well as signalling effects at organellar and cellular levels. The outcome of an environmental challenge highly depends on the delicate balance between ROS production and scavenging by both enzymatic and metabolic antioxidants. However, this traditional classification is in need of renewal and reform, as it is becoming increasingly clear that soluble sugars such as disaccharides, raffinose family oligosaccharides and fructans--next to their associated metabolic enzymes--are strongly related to stress-induced ROS accumulation in plants. Therefore, this review aims at extending the current concept of antioxidants functioning during abiotic stress, with special focus on the emanate role of sugars as true ROS scavengers. Examples are given based on their cellular location, as different organelles seem to exploit distinct mechanisms. Moreover, the vacuole comes into the picture as important player in the ROS signalling network of plants. Elucidating the interplay between the mechanisms controlling ROS signalling during abiotic stress will facilitate the development of strategies to enhance crop tolerance to stressful environmental conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Some Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Bishnu P. Marasini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide increase of multidrug resistance in both community- and health-care associated bacterial infections has impaired the current antimicrobial therapy, warranting the search for other alternatives. We aimed to find the in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of 16 different traditionally used medicinal plants of Nepal against 13 clinical and 2 reference bacterial species using microbroth dilution method. The evaluated plants species were found to exert a range of in vitro growth inhibitory action against the tested bacterial species, and Cynodon dactylon was found to exhibit moderate inhibitory action against 13 bacterial species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi, and S. typhimurium. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of tested ethanolic extracts were found from 31 to >25,000 μg/mL. Notably, ethanolic extracts of Cinnamomum camphora, Curculigo orchioides, and Curcuma longa exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes with a MIC of 49, 49, and 195 μg/mL, respectively; whereas chloroform fraction of Cynodon dactylon exhibited best antibacterial activity against S. aureus with a MIC of 31 μg/mL. Among all, C. dactylon, C. camphora, C. orchioides, and C. longa plant extracts displayed a potential antibacterial activity of MIC < 100 μg/mL.

  4. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuubi Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up till now, nomadic communities in Africa have been the primary focus of ethnoveterinary research. Although mainly arable and/or mixed arable/pastoral farmers, Ameru of central Kenya are known to have a rich history of ethnoveterinary knowledge. Their collective and accumulative ethnoveterinary knowledge (EVK is likely to be just as rich and worth documenting. The aim of the study was to document and analyse the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the Ameru. Methods Non-alienating, dialogic, participatory action research (PAR and participatory rural appraisal (PRA approaches involving 21 women and men aged between 50 and 79 years old were utilized. A combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods were used to select 21 key respondents. The methods comprised a set of triangulation approach needed in EVK for non-experimental validation of ethnoknowledge of the Ameru. Results A total of 48 plant species distributed in 26 families were documented with details of diseases/ill-health conditions, parts of plants used and form of preparation and administration methods applied to different animal groups. Of these families, Fabaceae had the highest number of species (16.67%, followed by Solanaceae (12.5%, Asteraceae and Euphorbiacea (each comprising 8.33%, Lamiaceae (6.25%, Apocynaceae and Boraginaceae (each comprising 4.17%, while the rest of the 19 families, each was represented by a single plant species. About 30 livestock diseases/ill-health conditions were described, each treated by at least one of the 48 plant species. Most prevalent diseases/ill-health conditions included: - anaplasmosis, diarrhea, East Coast fever, pneumonia, helminthiasis, general weakness and skin diseases involving wounds caused by ectoparasites. Conclusion The study showed that there was a rich knowledge and ethnopractices for traditional animal healthcare amongst the Ameru. This study therefore provides some groundwork for elucidating the efficacy of

  5. Phytonutrient and compositional analysis in traditionally-used native american edible plants yucca whipplei from S. California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant derived foods such as fruits and vegetables are rich sources of antioxidants, phenolics and other biologically active components shown to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Traditionally-used Native American edible plants are thought to be rich sources of phytonutrients, antioxidants, and bi...

  6. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    .13). Highest RFC value were calculated for Achillea millefolium (0.19) and least RFC were calculated for Blepharis sindica (0.02). The endemic species with 100% fidelity level was calculated for two plant species i.e. Seriphidium quettense and B. baluchistanica. The Balochistan is rich in endemic and other medicinal plants, still needs more exploration and study. Thus, it is important to document and reconstitute the remainders of the ancient medical practices which exist in Balochistan and other areas of the world, and preserve this knowledge for future generations. The endemic species which are used in traditional medicine in the region lacks phototherapeutic evidence. It is necessary to perform phytochemical or pharmacological studies to explore the potential of plants used for medicinal purposes. Overgrazing, urbanization and unsustainable harvesting of such rare and endemic medicinal plants in this region is facing severe threats of extinction. It is thus recommended that cultivation techniques be formulated, especially for the most important endemic plant medicinal species of the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: Potential application in the management of hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulati Vandana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and (ii ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml, Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml, Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts

  8. Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activity of an Extract from a Saudi Traditional Medicinal Plant Equisetum Arvense

    KAUST Repository

    Aldaas, Salsabil

    2011-05-01

    Background:Many ancient civilizations have used plants for medicinal purposes and indeed research has suggested that plant-derived compounds can be useful for treating many ailments, including cancer and infectious diseases. One such plant, Equisetum arvense, commonly known as horsetail, is a herbal plant that grows in Saudi Arabia and is traditionally used as a diuretic. Objective (s): We sought to determine whether horsetail extract exhibits 1) cytotoxic activity on cell lines and 2) antibacterial activity on the bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods: Using dried aerial part of the horsetail plant, a methanolic extract was prepared for screening. This extract was examined for its cytotoxic effect on the following cell lines: cervical adenocarcinoma and breast adenocarcinoma as a cancer cell model; lung fibroblast as a normal cell model; and human embryonic kidney. After 72 hours of treatment, the cells were assayed to determine the relative percentages of dead and live cells. Microscopical examination was used to give approximate percentages and a general overview of the effect on cell morphology. The LIVE⁄DEAD® Viability⁄Cytotoxicity kit was used to determine viability of cells in the population by using two dyes: the green-fluorescent calcein-AM which stains living cells, and the red-fluorescent ethidium homodimer-1 which stains dead cells. The alamarBlue® assay, based on a fluorometric/colorimetric growth indicator that detects metabolic activity, was used to establish a relative percentage of the living cells in a population treated with the plant extract compared to untreated cells (control). To determine antibacterial activity, the disc diffusion method was used. Results: Preliminary screening suggests that the horsetail extract induces death on the four tested cell lines with the greatest effect on human embryonic kidney cells followed by breast adenocarcinoma. The extract also displayed antibacterial activity at the highest

  9. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  10. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) (http://ayurveda.pharmaexpert.ru). It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts.

  11. Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: studies in streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Bailey, C J; Flatt, P R

    1989-01-01

    Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice. The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes, but bayberry (Cinnamomum tamala), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), senna (Cassia occidentalis) and the herbal mixture did not alter these parameters. Bearberry, mistletoe and tarragon retarded the body weight loss but none of the eight treatments significantly altered plasma glucose or insulin concentrations. These studies suggest that bearberry, golden seal, mistletoe and tarragon may counter some of the symptoms of streptozotocin diabetes without, however, affecting glycemic control.

  12. Diversity, bioactivities, and metabolic potentials of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from traditional medicinal plants in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peng; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Tian, Jie-Wei; Lei, Zu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chu, Yi-Wen; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic activity of the actinomycetes community, including 13 traditional medicinal plants collected in Sichuan province, China, using multiple approaches such as morphological and molecular identification methods, bioactivity assays, and PCR screening for genes involved in antibiotics biosynthesis. 119 endophytic actinomycetes were recovered; 80 representative strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analyses, with 66 of them being affiliated to genus Streptomyces and the remaining 14 strains being rare actinomycetes. Antimicrobial tests showed that 12 (15%) of the 80 endophytic actinomycetes displayed inhibitory effects against at least one indicator pathogens, which were all assigned to the genus Streptomyces. In addition, 87.5% and 58.8% of the isolates showed anticancer and anti-diabetic activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the anticancer activities of the isolates negatively correlated with their anti-diabetic activities. Based on the results of PCR screening, five genes, PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS, ANSA, and oxyB, were detected in 55.0%, 58.8%, 90.0%, 18.8% and 8.8% of the 80 actinomycetes, respectively. In conclusion, the PCR screening method employed in the present study was conducive for screening and selection of potential actinomycetes and predicting potential secondary metabolites, which could overcome the limitations of traditional activity screening models. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  14. Screening of 20 commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Sufi, Hessameddin; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Amanlou, Massoud; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pyloriis the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers. About more than 80 % of people are infected with H. pylori in developing countries. H. pylori uses urease enzyme product "ammonia" in order to neutralize and protect itself from the stomach acidic condition and urease enzyme activity has been shown to be essential to the colonization of H. pylori. Inhibitory activity of 20 traditional medicinal plants were examined and evaluated against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction to obtains natural sources of urease inhibitors. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol, then tested its IC50 value was determined. Eight of the whole 20 studied plants crude extracts were found the most effective with IC50 values of less than 100 μg/mL including Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Angelica archangelica, Acorus calamus, Allium sativum,Curcuma longa, and Citrus aurantium extracts, from which most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Zingiber officinale, Laurus nobilis, and Nigella sativa with IC50 values of 48.54, 48.69 and 59.10 μg/mL, respectively.

  15. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Large Scale Screening of Commonly Used Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants against Urease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Nabati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study:H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease andurease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium.Methods:137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effectiveextracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined.Results:37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studiedplants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotianatabacum.Conclusions:The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  17. Genetic programming based models in plant tissue culture: An addendum to traditional statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, Meenu R; Nair, Ashalatha S; Kumar, K Satheesh

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we compared the efficacy of observation based modeling approach using a genetic algorithm with the regular statistical analysis as an alternative methodology in plant research. Preliminary experimental data on in vitro rooting was taken for this study with an aim to understand the effect of charcoal and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on successful rooting and also to optimize the two variables for maximum result. Observation-based modelling, as well as traditional approach, could identify NAA as a critical factor in rooting of the plantlets under the experimental conditions employed. Symbolic regression analysis using the software deployed here optimised the treatments studied and was successful in identifying the complex non-linear interaction among the variables, with minimalistic preliminary data. The presence of charcoal in the culture medium has a significant impact on root generation by reducing basal callus mass formation. Such an approach is advantageous for establishing in vitro culture protocols as these models will have significant potential for saving time and expenditure in plant tissue culture laboratories, and it further reduces the need for specialised background.

  18. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  19. Plants traditionally used for industrial and artisanal purposes in the Arribes del Duero (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present ethnobotanical study, performed between 2005 and 2009 at the Natural Park of the Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Spain, documents the traditional use for technological purposes of 68 vascular plants belonging to 33 families. We interviewed 80 people of different ages native to the zone (mean 72. For each plant species we provide the vernacular terms, the parts used, and the uses made of them (furniture, the elaboration of household utensils, plant fibres, etc.. The species most frequently cited were Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. and Olea europaea L. The results of this study confirm the persistence of a rich traditional knowledge in Spanish rural communities; a type of knowledge that affords abundant data for improving and adapting modern production activities to a sustainable model of development, above all as regards the rational consumption of raw materials.El presente estudio etnobotánico, llevado a cabo entre 2005 y 2009 en el Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, España, documenta el uso tradicional con fines tecnológicos de 68 plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 33 familias. Se entrevistaron a 80 personas nativas de la zona y de diferentes edades (media de 72 años. Para cada especie de planta se proporcionan sus nombres vernáculos, las partes utilizadas y los usos a que son destinadas (fabricación de muebles, elaboración de utensilios domésticos, fibras vegetales, etc.. Las especies más frecuentemente citadas fueron Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. y Olea europaea L. El presente estudio confirma la permanencia de un rico conocimiento tradicional en las comunidades rurales españolas, conocimiento que proporciona abundantes datos para mejorar y adecuar las actividades modernas de producción al modelo de desarrollo sostenible, sobre todo en relación al consumo racional de materias primas.

  20. Vasoactive effects of different fractions from two Panamanians plants used in Amerindian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Estela I; Morán-Pinzón, Juan A; Ortíz, Luis Gabriel; Olmedo, Dionisio; del Olmo, Esther; López-Pérez, José L; San Feliciano, Arturo; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2010-09-15

    Cecropia obtusifolia (Cecropiaceae) and Psychotria poeppigiana (Synonym: Cephaelis elata, Rubiaceae) are two Latin American plants broadly used in traditional Amerindian medicine. The former, together with many other species of the genus Cecropia, share the folk reputation of curing heart failure, cough, asthma and bronchitis. The latter is used in Panama by Kuna and Ngäbe Buglé (Guaymies) native Indians for the treatment of dyspnea. Based on screening of selected medicinal Panamanian plants by radioligand-binding techniques by Caballero-George et al. (2001), the present study was carried out in order to investigate the vasoactive effects of different fractions from both P. poeppigiana and C. obtusifolia on rat thoracic aorta and identify active fractions and their chemical constituents. Both acid and neutral methanol fractions (P-AMeOH and P-NMeOH) and acid and neutral dichlorometane fractions (P-ADCM and P-NDCM) were obtained from P. poeppigiana crude methanolic and dichlorometane extracts, respectively. Identical fractionation was carried out for C. obtusifolia (C-AMeOH, C-NMeOH, C-ADCM and C-NDCM. Vasorelaxant effect of all fractions, and their inhibition of contractile responses to angiotensin II were evaluated in isolated aortic rings. P-AMeOH, P-NMeOH and P-ADCM fractions induced a concentration-dependent relaxation (43.9+/-1.8%, 35.3+/-4.7% and 52.9+/-3.5%, respectively) in the endothelium-intact aorta precontracted by phenylephrine (PE, 10(-6)M). The relaxation produced by C-AMeOH and C-NMeOH (57.3+/-2.5% and 53.3+/-3.3%, respectively) was greater than the effect produced by C-ADCM and C-NDCM (42.2+/-3.4% and 21.8+/-0.8%, respectively). Only the incubation of the aortic rings with P-AMeOH reduced the maximum contraction induced by angiotensin II at 20.08+/-0.55%. The direct vasorelaxation effect observed could explain in part the ethnomedical use of these plants in Amerindian traditional medicine. The most active fractions contain phenolic and aromatic

  1. Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine PMID:21867554

  2. Valorizing the 'Irulas' traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Newmaster, Steven G

    2009-04-14

    A mounting body of critical research is raising the credibility of Traditional Knowledge (TK) in scientific studies. These studies have gained credibility because their claims are supported by methods that are repeatable and provide data for quantitative analyses that can be used to assess confidence in the results. The theoretical importance of our study is to test consensus (reliability/replicable) of TK within one ancient culture; the Irulas of the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest (KRF), India. We calculated relative frequency (RF) and consensus factor (Fic) of TK from 120 Irulas informants knowledgeable of medicinal plants. Our research indicates a high consensus of the Irulas TK concerning medicinal plants. The Irulas revealed a diversity of plants that have medicinal and nutritional utility in their culture and specific ethnotaxa used to treat a variety of illnesses and promote general good health in their communities. Throughout history aboriginal people have been the custodians of bio-diversity and have sustained healthy life-styles in an environmentally sustainable manner. However this knowledge has not been transferred to modern society. We suggest this may be due to the asymmetry between scientific and TK, which demands a new approach that considers the assemblage of TK and scientific knowledge. A greater understanding of TK is beginning to emerge based on our research with both the Irulas and Malasars; they believe that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment. These aboriginal groups chose to share this knowledge with society-at-large in order to promote a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability.

  3. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant Used in Mestizo Shamanism from the Peruvian Amazon in Case of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). Material and Method: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Results: Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. Conclusion: This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36

  4. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant Used in Mestizo Shamanism from the Peruvian Amazon in Case of Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel

    2015-10-01

    Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed

  5. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. Effects of reforestation and intensified land use on vascular plant species richness in traditionally managed hay meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Myklestad, Åse; Sætersdal, Magne

    2003-01-01

    In this study of 130 sites with different management we investigated whether vascular plant species richness is significantly reduced when traditionally managed hay meadows are abandoned and reforested. We also compared the effects of reforestation with those of intensified land-use to see which have the largest effects on species richness. Finally, we investigated the relative importance of relevant ecological factors for species richness. While the use of artificial fertilizers in tradition...

  7. Quality of medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan as affected by ionizing radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, H. A. A.

    2009-11-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the effect of gamma-radiation doses of 5, 10 and 15 KGy on the microbial and chemical quality as well as antioxidant activity of nine medical plants from 8 plant species grown in Sudan. The plant materials were collected from the country-side of Khartoum State as well as from local markets. Plant parts were selected according to their traditional uses as medicinal plants. Irradiation treatment was carried out or dried ground samples using doses of 5,10, 15 KGy from experimental cobalt-60 gamma source. Plants extracts were prepared using 80% methanol. The control and irradiated samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (cfu/g), secondary compounds, tannin content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. Tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, saponin and phenols were evaluated through major compounds in extracts. The total bacterial count indicated that the non- irradiated samples of Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Cassia senna (pods), Cassia senna (leaves), Acacia nilotica L., Brassica nigra L. Koch, Lepidium sativum L., Cymbopogon citratus and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were highly contaminated with bacteria. The sample of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. showed a lower count of bacteria (9x10'' 3 Cfu/g), which did not exceed the acceptable level. The samples irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 KGy of gamma radiation dose had significantly lower bacterial counts than the non-irradiated control. The highest sensitivity to gamma rays at 5 KGy dose was observed in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Acacia nilotica L. while the lowest sensitivity was in Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. At 15 KGy dose Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Cymbopogon citratus showed complete absence of microorganisms. The highest reduction in tannin content (mg/L catechin) due to irradiation with 15 KGy dose was observed in Cymbopogon citratus, followed by Cymbopogon schoenanthus L., Cassia senna L. leaves Acacia nilotica L. and Hibiscus sabdariffa L.. Irradiation

  8. Healing potential of Iranian traditional medicinal plants on burn wounds in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A. euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Burns were induced in Wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Group-II: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control, Groups-III and -VII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals, Groups VIII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabetic rats received the standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine. The efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001. At the 18th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. At the 9th and 18th days the experiment, the best results were obtained with A. communis and standard drug, when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. It may be concluded that almond leaves (sweet and bitter formulated in the simple ointment base is effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART is the current HIV/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. This need has further manifested by recent clinical trial failures in anti-HIV-1 vaccines and microbicides. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. Methods Crude and fractionated extracts were prepared from various parts of nine traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants in Hainan Island, China. These extracts were first screened for their anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity in human CD4+ Jurkat cells. Then, a single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms of these extracts. Results Two extracts, one from Euphorbiaceae, Trigonostema xyphophylloides (TXE and one from Dipterocarpaceae, Vatica astrotricha (VAD inhibited HIV-1 replication and syncytia formation in CD4+ Jurkat cells, and had little adverse effects on host cell proliferation and survival. TXE and VAD did not show any direct inhibitory effects on the HIV-1 RT enzymatic activity. Treatment of these two extracts during the infection significantly blocked infection of the reporter virus. However, pre-treatment of the reporter virus with the extracts and treatment of the extracts post-infection had little effects on the infectivity or gene expression of the reporter virus. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TXE and VAD inhibit HIV-1 replication likely by blocking

  10. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Kumar, Sanjay; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha) to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines. PMID:29057840

  11. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Kaur Abat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines.

  12. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Kumar, Sanjay; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2017-10-18

    The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha) to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines.

  13. Optimal water allocation in small hydropower plants between traditional and non-traditional water users: merging theory and existing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a

  14. Systematic review on traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia: trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebie, Getachew; Urga, Befikadu; Worku, Amha

    2017-08-01

    Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. However, available research evidence on indigenous anti-malarial plants is highly fragmented in the country. The present systematic review attempted to explore, synthesize and compile ethno-medicinal research evidence on anti-malarial medicinal plants in Ethiopia. A systematic web search analysis and review was conducted on research literature pertaining to medicinal plants used for traditional malaria treatment in Ethiopia. Data were collected from a total of 82 Ethiopian studies meeting specific inclusion criteria including published research articles and unpublished thesis reports. SPSS Version 16 was used to summarize relevant ethno-botanical/medicinal information using descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, tables, and bar graphs. A total of 200 different plant species (from 71 families) used for traditional malaria treatment were identified in different parts of Ethiopia. Distribution and usage pattern of anti-malarial plants showed substantial variability across different geographic settings. A higher diversity of anti-malarial plants was reported from western and southwestern parts of the country. Analysis of ethno-medicinal recipes indicated that mainly fresh leaves were used for preparation of remedies. Decoction, concoction and eating/chewing were found to be the most frequently employed herbal remedy preparation methods. Notably, anti-malarial herbal remedies were administered by oral route. Information on potential side effects of anti-malarial herbal preparations was patchy. However, some anti-malarial plants were reported to have potentially serious side effects using different local antidotes and some specific contra-indications. The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous anti-malarial medicinal plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in key geographic

  15. Survey on medicinal plants traditionally used in Senegal for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and assessment of their antimycobacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, ElHadji Assane; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Kicka, Sébastien; Rudaz, Serge; Diop, Tahir; Soldati, Thierry; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2018-04-24

    In West Africa, populations are used to taking traditional medicine as a first aid against common health problems. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB), which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. The main aim of this study was to identify plants used to treat TB-symptoms by the population of Senegal and to evaluate their possible concomitant use with clinically approved TB-drugs. This approach allowed the selection of plants effectively used in traditional medicine. In order to verify if the usage of some of these plants can be rationalized, the activity of their traditional preparations was assessed with both an intracellular and extracellular antimycobacterial host-pathogen assays. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted on 117 TB-patients and 30 healers in Senegal from March to May 2014. The questionnaires were focused on the use of medicinal plants to treat common TB -symptoms (cough longer than 2 weeks, fever, night sweats, weight loss and bloody sputum). Local plant names, utilized organs (herbal drugs) and traditional formulations of the plants were recorded. Extracts were prepared by mimicking the traditional decoction in boiling water and screened for their antimycobacterial activity using Mycobacterium marinum, as a validated TB surrogate, and an Acanthamoeba castellanii - M. marinum whole-cell based host-pathogen assay, to detect anti-infective activities. By the end of the survey, nearly 30 plants were cited and the 12 most cited herbal drugs were collected and their usage documented by extensive literature search. Extracts of the chosen herbs were screened with the described assays; with a main focus on traditional formulas (mainly herbal decoctions). Two of the water extracts from Combretum aculeatum and Guiera senegalensis showed significant antimycobacterial activities when compared to the positive control drug (rifampin

  16. SPPA-D3000 machinery protection availability versus safety? Combining these conflicting objectives into an advanced machinery protection solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabel, Norbert; Weber, Hans [Siemens Energy Sector, Offenbach/Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With vibration-based machinery protection you not only expect that the operating personnel and plant are protected against the machine, you also expect that the machine itself is protected against damage. Another requirement is to prevent negative effects on availability caused by false shutdowns. With the SPPA-D3000 Machinery Protection solution it is now possible to fulfil these three requirements at once, so that optimum safety and highest availability are guaranteed. (orig.)

  17. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants used as traditional remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita, M L; Grellier, P; Mambu, L; de Paula, J E; Espindola, L S

    2007-03-01

    Twenty-seven species of native Brazilian Cerrado plants commonly used by traditional healers to treat malaria and other diseases were collected and 204 hexanic and ethanolic extracts were obtained by maceration. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was tested in vitro against a chloroquine resistant strain (FcB1) of Plasmodium falciparum, and cytotoxicity against the cell lines L-6 of rats and MRC-5 of human was evaluated. Thirty-two extracts showed significant inhibition rates of Plasmodium falciparum growth and of these six showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines. The strongest antiplasmodial activity was found for the hexanic extracts of Xylopia aromatica root wood (IC(50)=4.7 microg/ml), Xylopia emarginata root bark (IC(50)=4.9 microg/ml), Casearia sylvestris var. lingua leaves, stem wood and stem bark, and root wood and root bark (IC(50) values from 0.9 to 2.3 microg/ml), and Cupania vernalis leaves (IC(50)=0.9 microg/ml); and for the ethanolic extract of Aspidosperma macrocarpon root bark (IC(50)=4.9 microg/ml). However, the best selectivity towards Plasmodium falciparum was observed for the hexanic root bark extract of Matayba guianensis (IC(50) on Plasmodium falciparum=6.1 microg/ml, SI=16.4 for MRC-5) and the ethanolic root bark extract of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (IC(50) on Plasmodium falciparum=4.9 micro/ml, SI=16.2 for MRC-5).

  18. The complete chloroplast genome of traditional Chinese medical plants Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Xu, Jin; Chen, NaiZhong; Li, MingFu

    2017-03-01

    Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a perennial medical plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The genome is 157 675 bp in length including a small single-copy region (SSC, 18 319 bp) and a large single-copy region (LSC, 84 108 bp) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27 624 bp). The genome contained 115 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 2 contained a couple of introns. The overall G + C content of the cpDNA is 37.4%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 35.71%, 31.43%, and 41.87%, respectively. A Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis suggested that genus Trillium, Paris, Fritillaria, and Lilium were strongly supported as monophyletic and the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is closely related to Trillium.

  19. Cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants used in traditional medicine against cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita, Mariana Laundry; de Paula, José Elias; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Grougnet, Raphael; Michel, Sylvie; Tillequin, François; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2009-06-25

    The search for new anti-cancer drugs is one of the most prominent research areas of natural products. Numerous active compounds isolated from Brazilian Cerrado plant species have been studied with promising results. To investigate the cytotoxic potential of 412 extracts from Brazilian Cerrado plants used in traditional medicine belonging to 21 families against tumor cell lines in culture. Maceration of 50 plant species resulted in 412 hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and hydroalcohol extracts. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against human colon carcinoma (HCT-8), melanoma (MDA-MB-435), and brain (SF-295) tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed for one active extract. Twenty-eight of the 412 tested extracts demonstrated a substantial antiproliferative effect, at least 85% inhibition of cell proliferation at 50 microg/mL against one or more cell lines. Those extracts are obtained from different parts of Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Clusiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Simaroubaceae and Zingiberaceae. Complete dose-response curves were generated and IC(50) values were calculated for these active extracts against four cell lines HCT-8, MDA-MB-435, SF-295 and HL-60 (leukemia), and their direct cytotoxic effects were determined. In summary, 14 extracts of 13 species showed toxicity in all tested tumor cell lines, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.1 to 19.1 microg/mL. The strongest cytotoxic activity was found for the hexane extract of Casearia sylvestris var. lingua stem bark, with an IC(50) of 0.1 microg/mL for HCT-8, 0.9 microg/mL for SF-295, 1.2 microg/mL for MDA-MB-435, and 1.3 microg/mL for HL-60, and Simarouba versicolor root bark, with an IC(50) of 0.5 microg/mL for HCT-8, 0.7 microg/mL for SF-295, 1.5 microg/mL for MDA-MB-435, 1.1 microg/mL for HL-60. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the last extract led to the isolation of glaucarubinone, which showed

  20. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosai Kuldip

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59% than the underground plant parts (23.41%. Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species, followed by fruit (4. Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind.

  1. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E.; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging

  2. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  3. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  5. Exploration of the antibacterial and chemical potential of some Beninese pharmacopoiea traditional plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Lègba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial and chemical properties of some medicinal plants used in the fight against enteropathogens in Benin. Methods. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna siamea, Uvaria chamae, Lantana camara and Phyllantus amarus were tested on 10 bacterial strains. Well diffusion technique, coupled with the microdilution determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (CMB was used for antibacterial testing. The larval cytotoxicity was evaluated by using Artemia salina crustacean larvae. flavonoids and polyphenols were also assayed by the method using aluminum trichloride (AlCl3 and the method using the folin-Ciocalteu reagent, respectively. Results. The results of the study revealed that extracts had an effective antibacterial activity at 100 mg/mL, with MIC between 100 and 25 mg/mL and CMB between 100 and 50 mg/mL. The inhibition diameters of the extracts varied between 7.5 and 21 mm. The ethanolic extract of Phyllantus amarus leaves showed the best antibacterial activity. None of the extracts tested was found to be cytotoxic at the dose of 20 mg/mL. The aqueous Uvaria chamae root extract has the highest polyphenol content (231.896552±0.27586207 in μg EAG/100 mg extract, whereas the aqueous leaf extract of Uvaria chamae is the richest in flavonoids (41.061082 0.43180737 in μg ER/100 mg of extract. Conclusions. These interesting results can be used in the development of improved traditional medicines against enteropathogens.

  6. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Lepidium meyenii (maca), a cruciferous plant (Brassicaceae family) which is cultivated exclusively at an altitude of 4,000-4,500 m in the Peruvian Central Andes. Maca is traditionally used for its nutritional and presumed medicinal properties. Over the past 20 years, interest in maca has increased in many parts of the world, and since 2005 maca is considered one of the seven Peruvian flag products. Maca is exported as powder, capsules, pills, flour, liquor, and extracts. There are different types of maca with differ-ent colors ranging from white to black. We have studied the pharmacological effects of 3 types; yellow, black, and red maca. Evidence from experimental studies indicates effects of maca on nutrition, fertility, memory, and mood. Black maca has better effects on sperm production than yellow maca which has only moderate effects. Red maca, however, has no effect on sperm production. However, red maca has been shown to reduce prostate size in rats in which prostate hyperplasia had been induced with testosterone enanthate; yellow maca has shown moderate effects here, whereas black maca has not shown any effects. Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin were not affected. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but so far research clearly indicates that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported.

  7. Mining machinery - bigger and better

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    The article describes the latest mining equipment available to meet the global demand for coal from some major manufacture - Atlas Copco, Caterpillar Global Mining, Joy Mining Machinery, Liebherr Great Britain Ltd., Longwall Associates and Sandvik. 6 photos.

  8. Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants from the Canadian Boreal Forest for the Management of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Lacasse, Anaïs; Asselin, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is more prevalent in indigenous populations who often prefer traditional remedies over allopathic drugs. Our objective was to investigate the traditional uses of medicinal plants from the Canadian boreal forest for the management of chronic pain syndromes. We reviewed the most extensive database on medicinal plants used by aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest to investigate the plants used in the management of 3 of the most common chronic pain syndromes: arthritis/rheumatism; back pain; and headache/migraine. We also reviewed the pharmacology and phytochemistry literature to investigate concordance with indigenous knowledge. A total of 114 medicinal plant species were reported, of which 27 (23.5%) were used to treat more than 1 chronic pain syndrome. Pharmacological or phytochemical evidence to explain plant function as chronic pain remedy was available in the literature for only 38 species (33%), with several species reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties effective in treating chronic pain syndromes. Our study showed the potential of boreal plants as alternative and complementary medicines for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes that could be enhanced by further research on efficacy and safety issues. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Traditional and local use of medicinal plants by local communities in Hezar Jerib summer area, north of Iran

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    Isa Jafari Footami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Some knowledge about medicinal plants is available in old references or books. But important point is the information of traditional usage of medicinal plants from different parts of Iran will be worthwhile and in addition to encouraging people to it provides a good background for future examination about medicinal plants.The objectives of this study is to identify the medicinal plants along with local names, utilized parts, administration route, ailments treated, therapeutic effect and preparation methods. Experimental: So to get this information, we use semi-structured interviews. This research was conducted in the summer and spring of 2016. During this period around 150 individuals (75 men, 75 women; in an age group between 20 and 95 years were interviewed in 6 villages. Number of questions in this survey was 15 questions. Ethno botanical data were analyzed by use-reports. In addition important indices like Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR, Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC and Cultural Importance (CI were calculated. Furthermore, a traditional null hypothesis testing was adopted. These are the most popular indices in quantitative ethno botany. Results: A total of 54 medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were identified. The most common families are Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Rosaceae, with 22, 17, 5 and 4%, respectively. The most common preparations methods were infusion (52%, eaten raw and decoction (13%. Also, between different parts of the plant, the leaves are mostly used. According to RFC and CI indices, the most important plant is Gallium verum. Nervous disease has the highest Informant Consensus Factor value with the rate of 0.80. Recommended applications/industries: Introduction of medicinal plants in each region, along with their use can be a great help to create jobs and Encouraging people to cultivate these plants.

  10. Psiloxylon mauritianum (Bouton ex Hook.f.) Baillon (Myrtaceae): A promising traditional medicinal plant from the Mascarene Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Korumtollee, Housna Nazifah; Chady, Zaynab Zaina Banu Khan

    2014-01-01

    Psiloxylon mauritianum (PM) (Bouton ex Hook.f.) Baillon (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen endemic medicinal plant which has shown promising uses in traditional medicine from the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius and Réunion Islands). Folk use of this endemic plant in Mauritius and Réunion Islands has been geared toward the treatment and management of amenorrhea, dysentery and Type II diabetes mellitus. Recent findings from in vitro studies have led to the discovery of two potent acids namely corosolic acid and asiatic acid which have been shown to bear most inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Such findings tend to appraise the therapeutic potential of this medicinal plant against infectious diseases. The present monograph has tried to establish the botanical description, traditional uses and the main constituents identified from PM (Bouton ex Hook.f.) Baillon. The limited documentation of in vitro assays of this plant demonstrates an urgent need for extensive research in order to validate other traditional uses and hence open new avenues for drug development. PMID:26401372

  11. Contributions of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the area of Medicinal plants/Traditional medicine.

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    Tandon, Neeraj; Yadav, Satyapal Singh

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants belong to the oldest known health care products that have been used by human beings all over the world and are major components of the formulations used in indigenous system of medicine practiced in many countries. Besides, finding place as health supplements, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal tea etc. there has been a global insurgence of interest, including India, leading to enormous research/activities in the area of medicinal plants. The article is aimed to provide the effort and initiatives of ICMR towards research on medicinal plants and its contributions on consolidation of Indian research on medicinal plants that are very relevant and important in the national context. The various initiatives undertaken by ICMR on research on traditional medicines/medicinal plants in the past are reviewed and documented in this article. The multi-disciplinary, multicentric research initiatives of ICMR have resulted in validation of traditional treatment Kshaarasootra (medicated Ayurvedic thread) for anal fistula, Vijayasar (heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) for diabetes mellitus, encouraging micro- and macrofilaricidal activity of Shakotak (stem bark of Streblus asper Lour.) in experimental studies an iridoid glycosides fraction isolated from root/rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (designated as Picroliv) for viral hepatitis. Other developmental and compilation of research works on Indian medicinal plants have resulted in publications of the thirteen volumes of quality standards, comprising of 449 Indian medicinal plants; three volumes of 90 phytochemical reference standards; fifteen volumes of review monographs on 4167 medicinal plant species; and one publication each on perspectives of Indian medicinal plants for management of liver disorders, lymphatic filariasis and diabetes mellitus (details available at http://www.icmr.nic.in/mpsite). The ICMR efforts assume special significance in the light of multifaceted use of medicinal plants

  12. Availability, diversification and versatility explain human selection of introduced plants in Ecuadorian traditional medicine.

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    G Hart

    Full Text Available Globally, a majority of people use plants as a primary source of healthcare and introduced plants are increasingly discussed as medicine. Protecting this resource for human health depends upon understanding which plants are used and how use patterns will change over time. The increasing use of introduced plants in local pharmacopoeia has been explained by their greater abundance or accessibility (availability hypothesis, their ability to cure medical conditions that are not treated by native plants (diversification hypothesis, or as a result of the introduced plants' having many different simultaneous roles (versatility hypothesis. In order to describe the role of introduced plants in Ecuador, and to test these three hypotheses, we asked if introduced plants are over-represented in the Ecuadorian pharmacopoeia, and if their use as medicine is best explained by the introduced plants' greater availability, different therapeutic applications, or greater number of use categories. Drawing on 44,585 plant-use entries, and the checklist of >17,000 species found in Ecuador, we used multi-model inference to test if more introduced plants are used as medicines in Ecuador than expected by chance, and examine the support for each of the three hypotheses above. We find nuanced support for all hypotheses. More introduced plants are utilized than would be expected by chance, which can be explained by geographic distribution, their strong association with cultivation, diversification (except with regard to introduced diseases, and therapeutic versatility, but not versatility of use categories. Introduced plants make a disproportionately high contribution to plant medicine in Ecuador. The strong association of cultivation with introduced medicinal plant use highlights the importance of the maintenance of human-mediated environments such as homegardens and agroforests for the provisioning of healthcare services.

  13. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  14. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: xenophobic tales or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2015-10-05

    In their quest to understand and interpret nature, people have frequently sought religious or divine origins for plant species and their characteristics. Less often, historical events or persons are involved. This study comprises eleven cases of the latter kind, all claiming that plant species have been introduced by foreigners or at least from foreign lands. Based on literature data and a few cases recorded during my own ethnobotanical field work, eleven European examples of pseudo-historical plant origins are presented here, including Cakile maritima, Cicuta virosa, Lathyrus japonicus, Leymus arenarius, Primula vulgaris, and Scopolia carniolica in Norway, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum in Denmark, Phoenix dactylifera and P. theophrastii in Greece, and Jacobaea vulgaris in Scotland. The only common trait in these stories is that foreigner or at least foreign lands are claimed as sources of the plant species. In most cases, the "historical" explanations given in folk tradition are demonstrably at odds with reality. In those cases that involve poisonous or potentially harmful species (Cicuta virosa, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum, Jacobaea vulgaris), or the "useless" Phoenix theophrastii, with its inedible fruits, the stories may be interpreted as xenophobic, blaming foreigners for introducing dangerous or worthless species. The remaining examples merely suggest a search for exotic and seemingly rational, if erroneous, origins for plant species and stands that people considered strange and unusual. The spreading vectors assumed in folk tradition are correct and well documented, e.g. ship cargos (including goods and packing materials), which are responsible for introducing ballast plants and other anthropochores, and wartime activities, introducing a broad range of species (polemochores). They do not, however, apply to the species included in this study, which are either indigenous plants or introduced ornamentals. The foreigners appearing

  15. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region.

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    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-04-20

    Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC(50) 4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC(50) < 10 μg/ml) and hence non-specific activities were noted in Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases.

  16. A metabolomic approach to identify anti-hepatocarcinogenic compounds from plants used traditionally in the treatment of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, François; Haddad, Mohamed; Amiel, Aurélien; Phakeovilay, Chiobouaphong; Manithip, Chanthanom; Bourdy, Geneviève; Deharo, Eric; Marti, Guillaume

    2018-02-23

    Liver cancer is a major health burden in Southeast Asia, and most patients turn towards the use of medicinal plants to alleviate their symptoms. The aim of this work was to apply to Southeast Asian plants traditionally used to treat liver disorders, a successive ranking strategy based on a comprehensive review of the literature and metabolomic data in order to relate ethnopharmacological relevance to chemical entities of interest. We analyzed 45 publications resulting in a list of 378 plant species, and our point system based on the frequency of citation in the literature allowed the selection of 10 top ranked species for further collection and extraction. Extracts of these plants were tested for their in vitro anti-proliferative activities on HepG2 cells. Ethanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Oroxylum indicum, Orthosiphon aristatus and Willughbeia edulis showed the highest anti-proliferative effects (IC 50  = 195.9, 64.1, 71.3 and 66.7 μg/ml, respectively). A metabolomic ranking model was performed to annotate compounds responsible for the anti-proliferative properties of A. paniculata (andrographolactone and dehydroandrographolide), O. indicum (baicalein, chrysin, oroxylin A and scutellarein), O. aristatus (5-desmethylsinensetin) and W. edulis (parabaroside C and procyanidin). Overall, our dereplicative approach combined with a bibliographic scoring system allowed us to rapidly decipher the molecular basis of traditionally used medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region

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    Al-Musayeib Nawal M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 T. brucei and selectivity index of >4. Results Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. Conclusion The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases.

  18. Traditional healers and laypeople: a qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Piero; Morganti, Michela; Mancini, Matteo; Signorini, Maria Adele

    2011-11-18

    Through this study, relevant information was gathered on the knowledge about medicinal remedies in some rural communities of Muda (central Mozambique). The use of 198 different medicinal plants has been recorded and a significant number of medicinal species and uses new for Africa and particularly for Mozambique has been detected. Our investigation appears to be the first comparing knowledge about medicinal plants between laypeople and traditional healers and also between the two kinds of healers (curandeiros and profetas). Ethnobotanical data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 67 informants: 9 curandeiros (traditional healers believed to be guided by spirits), 12 profetas (independent Pentecostal churches "prophets" healing both souls and bodies) and 46 untrained lay villagers. Data were entered in a data base and processed, also by means of suitable quantitative indexes. A total of 546 citations were recorded for 198 different ethnospecies (i.e. basic ethno-taxonomical units). The species with the highest cultural value (estimated with Cultural Importance index) resulted to be Ximenia caffra (CI=0.224), Zanha golungensis (CI=0.194) Vernonia colorata (CI=0.149) and Ozoroa reticulata and Holarrhena pubescens (both with CI=0.134). Eight out of the 162 identified plants mentioned by the informants were not previously recorded as medicinal plants in Africa: Cissus bathyrhakodes, Clematis viridiflora, Combretum goetzei, Dioscorea cochleari-apiculata, Grewia pachycalyx, Indigofera antunesiana, Ipomoea consimilis, Tricliceras longipedunculatum. More than half of the species reported by our informants and already known as medicinal in Africa resulted to be newly documented for Mozambique. Comparing the mean number of species known by each informant group, statistically significant differences were observed both between curandeiros and laypeople and between profetas and laypeople. No significant differences emerged instead between curandeiros and

  19. Availability, diversification and versatility explain human selection of introduced plants in Ecuadorian traditional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoue, Orou G.; de la Torre, Lucía; Navarrete, Hugo; Muriel, Priscilla; Macía, Manuel J.; Balslev, Henrik; León-Yánez, Susana; Jørgensen, Peter; Duffy, David Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Globally, a majority of people use plants as a primary source of healthcare and introduced plants are increasingly discussed as medicine. Protecting this resource for human health depends upon understanding which plants are used and how use patterns will change over time. The increasing use of introduced plants in local pharmacopoeia has been explained by their greater abundance or accessibility (availability hypothesis), their ability to cure medical conditions that are not treated by native plants (diversification hypothesis), or as a result of the introduced plants’ having many different simultaneous roles (versatility hypothesis). In order to describe the role of introduced plants in Ecuador, and to test these three hypotheses, we asked if introduced plants are over-represented in the Ecuadorian pharmacopoeia, and if their use as medicine is best explained by the introduced plants’ greater availability, different therapeutic applications, or greater number of use categories. Drawing on 44,585 plant-use entries, and the checklist of >17,000 species found in Ecuador, we used multi-model inference to test if more introduced plants are used as medicines in Ecuador than expected by chance, and examine the support for each of the three hypotheses above. We find nuanced support for all hypotheses. More introduced plants are utilized than would be expected by chance, which can be explained by geographic distribution, their strong association with cultivation, diversification (except with regard to introduced diseases), and therapeutic versatility, but not versatility of use categories. Introduced plants make a disproportionately high contribution to plant medicine in Ecuador. The strong association of cultivation with introduced medicinal plant use highlights the importance of the maintenance of human-mediated environments such as homegardens and agroforests for the provisioning of healthcare services. PMID:28886104

  20. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

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    Pirker Heidemarie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans – and their descendants – who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study’s findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Methods Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria and the migrants’ countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. Results All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1% were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%, followed by Peru (12.2%, Australia (11.9% and Brazil (11.2%. The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001, Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001 and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001 and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use

  1. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, Heidemarie; Haselmair, Ruth; Kuhn, Elisabeth; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2012-11-16

    In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans - and their descendants - who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study's findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria) and the migrants' countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level) in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1%) were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%), followed by Peru (12.2%), Australia (11.9%) and Brazil (11.2%). The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001), Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use citations according to 744 different uses (Tyrol: 552, Australia

  2. Fertilization-Induced Changes in Growth Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arab Medicine

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    Hassan Azaizeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth and antioxidant activity. Wild seedlings were collected and fertilized with either 100% Hoagland solution, 50% Hoagland solution, 20% Hoagland solution or irrigated with tap water. Plant height was measured and the number of green leaves and branches counted weekly. Thereafter, the aboveground parts of plants were harvested for preparing a water-soluble powder extracts of which antioxidant activity was measured by their ability to suppress the oxidation of β-carotene. Of the fertilization regimes, we found either 20 or 50% Hoagland solution produced the most consistent response of the plant growth parameters. All powders prepared from the four wild growing plants inhibited oxidation of β-carotene. Increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant activity of the cultivated T. polium compared with the wild type. In contrast, increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the antioxidant activity of powders prepared from the cultivated E. creticum when compared with wild plants. Our results showed that cultivation success should not rely solely on parameters of growth but should incorporate assessment related to indices of therapeutic potential.

  3. The unmanaged reproductive ecology of domesticated plants in traditional agroecosystems: An example involving cassavaand a call for data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Marianne; McKey, Doyle

    2000-05-01

    Although cassava is a strictly vegetatively propagated crop, in many traditional Amazonian agroecosystems, Amerindian farmers recognise volunteer seedlings of cassava and allow them to grow. If their properties are deemed desirable, plants originating from seedlings are included in the harvest of tuberous roots, and their stems are used to prepare cuttings for propagation. Incorporation of these products of spontaneous sexual reproduction appears to be important in origin and maintenance of genetic diversity in this clonally propagated plant. Our observations conducted in an Amerindian village in Guyana suggest that volunteer seedlings arise from a bank of viable seeds stored in soil, and that dispersal and burial of seeds by ants may be important in its constitution. Future investigations of the dynamics of genetic diversity in this crop in traditional agroecosystems must consider the role of the 'wild' sexual reproduction that occurs in parallel with vegetative propagation. We suggest that unmanaged processes of sexual reproduction play important but neglected roles in the evolutionary ecology of many domesticated plants in traditional agroecosystems.

  4. Elemental profile in some common medicinal plants of India. Its correlation with traditional therapeutic usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, B.; Baruah, M.

    2003-01-01

    Several parts of plants are used in herbal and Ayurvedic medicines of India. The different elemental constituents at trace levels of these plant parts play an effective role in the medicines prepared. Elemental composition of different parts (root, bark, leaf, seed) of some medicinal plants of North Eastern India has been determined by using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A total of 14 elements, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb have been measured. Their concentrations were found to vary in different samples. Medicinal properties of these plant samples and their elemental distribution have been correlated. (author)

  5. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco.

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    Achtak, Hafid; Ater, Mohammed; Oukabli, Ahmed; Santoni, Sylvain; Kjellberg, Finn; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2010-02-18

    Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  6. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

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    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  7. Traditional practices and medicinal plants use during pregnancy by Anyi-Ndenye women (Eastern Côte d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Djah F; Neuba, Danho F R

    2011-03-01

    The use of plants during pregnancy is a common practice in Africa. In Côte d'Ivoire, despite modern antenatal medical prescriptions, most pregnant women resort to traditional medicine to ensure foetus development and facilitate childbirth. Yet, there is not enough research on the African traditional medicine concerning this aspect of health. Therefore, the plants used by pregnant women need to be better known in order to offer integrated antenatal care. This study analyzes the salience of plants used, the associated practices and reasons of such practices by pregnant women in Yakassé-Féyassé, an Anyi-Ndenye town of the Eastern Côte d'Ivoire. Methods include an ethnobotany survey (freelist method, interview with pregnant women during their antenatal consultation and with specialists). The survey led to a list of 75 plants distributed in 3 class of salience. In addition, 90.3 % of pregnant women use these practices which are nevertheless ignored by Midwives during antenatal visits.

  8. An evidence-based approach to medicinal plants for the treatment of sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R

    2016-10-01

    Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Leyssen, Pieter; Liu, Maoxuan; Neyts, Johan; Luyten, Walter

    2017-01-01

    , P. serratum, R. ellipticus , and V. maderaspatana showed anti-enteroviral activity. Most of the plants, whose traditional use as anti-infective agents by the tribals was well supported, show in vitro inhibitory activity against an enterovirus, bacteria ( E. coil, S. aureus ), a fungus ( C. albicans ), or a nematode ( C. elegans ).

  10. The Action of Antidiabetic Plants of the Canadian James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia on Key Enzymes of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis

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    Abir Nachar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase and glycogen synthase (GS activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK, Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines.

  11. Traditional use of medicinal plants among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups in Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Bussmann, Rainer W; Hart, Robbie; de Boer, Hugo J

    2016-07-21

    The traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human and livestock ailments is important to indigenous communities in the northern parts of Pakistan, and considered to be a valuable local biological and sociocultural heritage. The aim of this study was to obtain a detailed inventory of medicinal plant use and preparation among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups. Semi-structured group and individual interviews were carried out with men and women of different age groups that identified themselves as being Kalasha, Ismaeli or Sunni. Interviews were followed up by field visits to collect herbarium vouchers and record in greater detail the exact methods of harvesting, preparation and use on medicinal plants. A total of 76 species were recorded for treatment of various diseases. The Kalasha, Ismaili and Sunni ethnic groups have similar medicinal floras, but show striking differences in plant use. Our comparative survey shows that out of all species reported in this study, only 13 species have been reported previously from Chitral District. Indigenous knowledge of folk medicine is intricately linked to local culture, religion and history. Any short study can only scratch the surface of this intricate system, but provide an insight into the critical importance of medicinal plants for local livelihoods and the important role these play in health care systems. There is a great need to assess and properly manage the production potential of medicinal plants to ensure sustainable supply of these species for local use and subsistence trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

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    Erica C. Larson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG medicinal plants (succus will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs. The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  13. Plant genetic resources and traditional knowledge on medicinal use of wild shrub and herbaceous plant species in the Etna Regional Park (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Licata, Mario; Leto, Claudio; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Venturella, Giuseppe; La Bella, Salvatore

    2014-09-11

    This paper illustrates the results of a study carried out in the Etna Regional Park (Eastern Sicily, Italy) concerning the traditional knowledge on medicinal use of wild plant species. It contains the results of a quantitative analysis carried out for the first time. A total of 71 wild species are used for medicinal purposes. Two species, Astracantha sicula (Biv.) Greuter and Trifolium phleoides Willd., are little known as medicinal in the Mediterranean area. The main aim of the study was to understand to what extent current knowledge on the medicinal use of plants is still an element of the culture within the elderly population of the Etna Regional Park. A further aim was to identify species not previously reported as medicinal in the Mediterranean area with a potential agricultural interest. The information was obtained using a semi-structured interview format performed on a sample of 196 people over the age of 60 who were considered experts in rural traditions. The plant uses were compared with other medical-ethnobotanical studies carried out in other areas of Sicily, Italy and various other Mediterranean countries. A number of quantitative indices were also used in order to verify the incidence of the species cited in the study within the culture and traditional medicine. Local communities currently use a total number of 71 wild species (34 families) as remedies for medicinal purposes. Most of the species were used as treatments against metabolic disorders and for general health. The leaves and the aerial parts of plants are the most-used parts of the plant and the most common preparation methods are decoction and direct application of plant parts. Astracantha sicula and Trifolium phleoides have never been documented as a species with medicinal properties in the Mediterranean literature. Only very few medicinal uses are widely known by all the informants and, on many occasions, a specific medicinal use is cited by only very few people. The quantitative analysis

  14. Plants traditionally used to make Cantonese slow-cooked soup in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujing; Liu, Qi; Li, Ping; Xing, Deke; Hu, Huagang; Li, Lin; Hu, Xuechen; Long, Chunlin

    2018-01-15

    Lǎo huǒ liàng tāng (Cantonese slow-cooked soup, CSCS) is popular in Guangdong, China, and is consumed by Cantonese people worldwide as a delicious appetizer. Because CSCS serves as an important part of family healthcare, medicinal plants and plant-derived products are major components of CSCS. However, a collated record of the diverse plant species and an ethnobotanical investigation of CSCS is lacking. Because of globalization along with a renewed interest in botanical and food therapy, CSCS has attracted a growing attention in soup by industries, scientists, and consumers. This study represents the first attempt to document the plant species used for CSCS in Guangdong, China, and the associated ethnomedical function of plants, including their local names, part(s) used, flavors, nature, preparation before cooking, habitats, and conservation status. In 2014-2017, participatory approaches, open-ended conversations, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 63 local people and 48 soup restaurant owners (111 interviews) to better understand the biocultural context of CSCS, emphasizing ethnobotanical uses of plants in Guangdong Province, China. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Mention Index (QI), frequency of use index (FUI), and economic index (EI) were adopted to evaluate the significance of each plant in the food supply. A total of 97 plant species belonging to 46 families and 90 genera were recorded as having been used in CSCS in the study area. Recorded menus consisted of one or several plant species, with each one used for different purposes. They were classified into 11 functions, with clearing heat being the most common medicinal function. Of the 97 species, 19 grew only in the wild, 8 species were both wild and cultivated, and 70 species were cultivated. Roots and fruits were the most commonly used plant parts in the preparation of CSCS. According to the national evaluation criteria, six of these

  15. Aloe Vera: The Miracle Plant Its Medicinal and Traditional Uses in India

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajeswari; M. Umadevi; C. Sharmila Rahale; R.Pushpa; S. Selvavenkadesh; K. P. Sampath Kumar; Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe Vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe Vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. It is known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles and actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. Aloe is a powerfuldetoxifier, antiseptic an...

  16. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants

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    María-Dolores Lozano-Baena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively. B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant.

  17. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants of Iğdır Province (East Anatolia, Turkey

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    Ernaz Altundağ Çakır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iğdır Province is situated in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Wild edible plants and their utilization methods have not been previously documented there. This study was conducted during an ethnobotanical survey of Iğdır Province from 2007 to 2012, in the period from May to October, when plants were in their flowering and fruiting periods. There were 210 interviews carried out in 78 villages. This study provides information about 154 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families that have been used as foodstuffs, spices, or hot drinks. Seventeen wild edible plants were recorded for the first time during this study. Eight endemic species were reported as used for their edibility, and new local names for plants were also recorded. The cultural importance index was calculated for each taxon. The most culturally important species are Mentha longifolia, Falcaria vulgaris, Polygonum aviculare, Rosa canina, Crataegus azarolus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Malus sylvestris. This study presents the richest heritage in terms of the diversity of wild edible plants ever recorded in Turkey.

  18. Oral traditional knowledge on medicinal plants in jeopardy among Gaddi shepherds in hills of northwestern Himalaya, J&K, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Harish Chander; Bhagat, Nisha; Pandita, Shevita

    2015-06-20

    The Gaddi community has been known for its shepherd profession from time immemorial. At least one family member or 4-5 people from a village adopt a nomadic lifestyle with their sheep flocks in between the hills of north western Himalaya. In Jammu and Kashmir, India, law enforcement has banned the collection of the medicinal plants from the wild except for the Gaddi, Gujjar and Bakerwal tribes who are permitted to collect the species for their personal use only. As a consequence, knowledge of medicinal plants lies with these tribes only. This study has been undertaken to assess the status of Oral Traditional Knowledge (OTK) on medicinal plant usage in one of these tribes, known as the Gaddi. The study has focused specifically on the Gaddi Shepherds as their nomadic lifestyle means that they are closely associated with nature and dependent on natural resources for their livelihood including treatment of various ailments. Data on indigenous knowledge has been collected through direct interviews of 53 shepherds of the Gaddi tribe and analyzed for quantitative parameters such as use-value and factor informant consensus. A total of 190 plant species belonging to 70 families, growing along the migratory route of the Gaddi Shepherds are used to treat more than 80 different ailments and disorders. Leaves are the most common plant parts used by the Gaddi Shepherds. The older shepherds are much more aware about the traditional knowledge on medicinal plant usage than the younger ones. 56 plant species are used to treat a range of gastrointestinal and liver disorders, however, diabetic conditions and stings/bites by snakes/scorpions are treated using only two plant species each. Mentha longifolia with UV = 0.26 is the species most commonly used by the informants for medicinal purposes. The low UV (below 1) and low Fic (near 0) is a common observation in the present study. The UV and Fic, analysis reveals that OTK on the medicinal plants is dwindling among the Gaddi Shepherds

  19. Comparing removal of trace organic compounds and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) at advanced and traditional water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Lin, Chung-Yi; Han, Jia-Yun; Tseng, Wei-Biu; Hsu, Kai-Lin; Chang, Ting-Wei

    2012-06-01

    Stability of drinking water can be indicated by the assimilable organic carbon (AOC). This AOC value represents the regrowth capacity of microorganisms and has large impacts on the quality of drinking water in a distribution system. With respect to the effectiveness of traditional and advanced processing methods in removing trace organic compounds (including TOC, DOC, UV(254), and AOC) from water, experimental results indicate that the removal rate of AOC at the Cheng Ching Lake water treatment plant (which utilizes advanced water treatment processes, and is hereinafter referred to as CCLWTP) is 54%, while the removal rate of AOC at the Gong Yuan water treatment plant (which uses traditional water treatment processes, and is hereinafter referred to as GYWTP) is 36%. In advanced water treatment units, new coagulation-sedimentation processes, rapid filters, and biological activated carbon filters can effectively remove AOC, total organic carbon (TOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In traditional water treatment units, coagulation-sedimentation processes are most effective in removing AOC. Simulation results and calculations made using the AutoNet method indicate that TOC, TDS, NH(3)-N, and NO(3)-N should be regularly monitored in the CCLWTP, and that TOC, temperature, and NH(3)-N should be regularly monitored in the GYWTP.

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants in human therapy of east, north and north-east Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić-Kundalić, Broza; Dobeš, Christoph; Klatte-Asselmeyer, Valerie; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-02-16

    The study aims to provide a systematical revision of the traditional use of wild and cultivated plants in north-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina (Western Balkan Peninsula; Southeast Europe). Thereby, it will extend and complement a recent previous study carried out in middle, southern and western Bosnia and Herzegovina. Information was collected by performing so called open ethnobotanical interviews. The following data were recorded and systematically assembled in a database: name, age and occupation of the interviewed person; the geographic locality and date of the interview; the name of the used plant; plant parts used; prescription background and preparation procedure as well as indication. Plants mentioned to be used by the informants were collected during field trips done together with the informants and taxonomically determined. The corresponding material was finally deposited in the herbarium of the Department of Pharmacognosy of the University of Vienna for the purpose of documentation. In total, 45 places including villages and mountain areas were visited and 84 persons questioned. 254 wild and cultivated species and 1655 different preparations for the use in traditional human therapy were recorded. The most frequently mentioned indications were disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, urogenital tract, skin, blood system, cardiovascular system, nervous system as well as rheumatism. Infusions were the most frequently prepared formulation. Other applied preparations mentioned with decreasing frequency were decocts, sirups, tinctures, collars, direct application of plants without prior preparation, ointments, freshly pressed juices, oils, powders, fluid unctions, macerations and finally suppositories. Special preparations, typical only for the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina were "mehlems" and some kind of sirup called "đulbe šećer" (eng. đulbe sugar). While "mehlems" were already recognized and accordingly discussed for the central

  1. Phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of selected traditional wild edible plants of lower Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swargiary, Ananta; Daimari, Abhijita; Daimari, Manita; Basumatary, Noymi; Narzary, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Clerodendrum viscosum , Eryngium foetidum , Lippia javanica , and Murraya koenigii are one among the common wild edible plants in Northeast India which are also used as antidiabetic, stomach-ache relieving drugs, etc., The present study was aimed to reveal the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of the plants. The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of plants was studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power, TBARS, and total antioxidant activity (TAA). Total phenolics, flavonoids, Vitamin C, carbohydrate, and protein are also estimated following standard protocols. Anthelmintic activity of the extracts has also been studied in vitro against trematode parasites. The result showed that the methanolic extracts of plants possess a substantial quantity of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, and Vitamin C. Phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin C contents were found higher in C. viscosum followed by M. koenigii , L. javanica , and E. foetidum . The in vitro antioxidant assays revealed substantial free radical scavenging property in all the plants. TAA increased in the order C. viscosum > M. koenigii > L. javanica > E. foetidum . Similarly, C. viscosum displayed a better antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values 29.74 ± 3.63 μg and 148.77 ± 18.38 μg for DPPH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species, respectively. In addition, the plant extracts also showed good anthelmintic activity against Paramphistomum sp. Time taken for paralysis and death were 0:56 ± 0:09 h and 1:35 ± 0:07 h for L. javanica at 50 mg/mL concentration. The study therefore suggests the importance of tested plants as a natural source of free radical scavenger and plausible veterinary uses.

  2. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM. PMID:28367491

  3. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

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    Sunday O. Oyedemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM. The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC and flavonoid content (TFC in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO and Ceiba pentandra (CP recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  4. In vitro evaluation of traditionally used Surinamese medicinal plants for their potential anti-leishmanial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, D R A; Beerens, T; Magali, I; Soekhoe, R C; Schoone, G J; Oedairadjsingh, K; Hasrat, J A; van den Bogaart, E; Schallig, H D F H

    2016-03-02

    Plant-based preparations are extensively used in Surinamese folk medicine for treating leishmaniasis, but often without a scientific rationale. To evaluate 25 Surinamese medicinal plants for their potential efficacy against leishmaniasis. Concentrated plant extracts were evaluated for their effect on the viability of L. (V.) guyanensis AMC, L. (L.) major NADIM5, and L. (L.) donovani GEDII promastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes of L. (L.) donovani BHU814 in infected THP-1 cells. Selectivity was assessed by cytotoxicity against THP-1 cells. The only plant extract that showed potentially meaningful anti-leishmanial activity was that from Solanum lycocarpum that displayed mean IC50 values of about 51, 61, and 500 µg/mL against THP-1 cells. The Bryophyllum pinnatum, Inga alba, and Quassia amara extracts displayed moderate to high IC50 values against promastigotes (about 51 to >500 µg/mL) and/or amastigotes (about 224 to >500 µg/mL) but were relatively toxic to THP-1 cells (IC50 values plant extracts exhibited in many cases IC50 values close to, around, or above 500µg/mL against promastigotes, amastigotes, and THP-1 cells. The S. lycocarpum preparation may be useful against leishmaniasis and may have a good safety index, warranting further investigations into its active constituents and mechanism(s) of action. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. From Smokebush to Spinifex: Indigenous traditional knowledge and the commercialisation of plants

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    Terri Janke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, have diverse relationships with plants and their seeds. This cultural knowledge has been passed on through the generations, creating a deep history that has produced sophisticated fields of knowledge intimately linked to both diverse cultural geographies and the natural environment across the country. Western scientific, government and private sector commercial institutions have been collecting Australian plant material for over 200 years. Sometimes, such ‘collectors’ obtain the Indigenous knowledge simultaneously with the plant material. On occasions, the culturally-based Indigenous ownership of that knowledge is acknowledged by collectors. However in the majority of instances that has not been the case. Furthermore, different western institutions take different approaches to the collection, management and use of Australian plant material and associated Indigenous plant knowledge. A particular challenge in this arena is the lack of any shared understanding of Indigenous knowledge and intellectual property issues that are involved, and how those might best be addressed. But there is a gathering momentum, from diverse quarters, to face such challenges. This paper aims to contribute to consideration of the issues involved in order to promote more robust inclusion of Indigenous rights, interests and concerns.

  6. Evaluation of biological activities and chemical constituent of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal

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    Bishnu Prasad Pandey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemicals, antioxidant, antibacterial and chemical constituents of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antibacterial activities, anti-oxidant assay of the crude extract (water, methanol, n-hexane and acetone were carried out to identify the biological activities and phytonutrients present in the different extract. The chemical constituents present in the crude extract were analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with UV detector. Results: Evaluated medicinal plant materials were found to have diverse phytonutrients. Results revealed that methanol extract of Pakhanved and Jethimadhu have highest total flavonoids and polyphenol content. Among the selected medicinal plant materials Jethimadhu extract revealed the highest antioxidant activities. Furthermore, evaluated medicinal plants extract were found to exert a range of in vitro growth inhibition activity against both gram positive and gram negative species. The highest antibacterial activities were observed in the case of methanol extract, whereas, least activity was observed with the hexane extract. HPLC analysis of the acetone extract of Jethimadhu reveals the presence of diosmetin. Conclusions: Our result revealed that among the five evaluated medicinal plant materials, Jethimadhu extract revealed biological activities and exhibits a higher amount of polyphenol and flavonoid content. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 369-377

  7. Potential genotoxicity of traditional chinese medicinal plants and phytochemicals: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jue; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Qu, Fan; Duez, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    In the last decades, cases of poisoning due to herbal medicines have occurred in many countries; Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are occasionally involved. The experience gained from traditional use is efficient to detect immediate or near-immediate relationship between administration and toxic effects but is quite unlikely to detect medium- to long-term toxicities; thorough investigations of herbal medicines (toxicity assessments, active pharmacovigilance) appear then essential for their safe use. Genotoxicity is an especially insidious toxicity that may result in carcinoma development years after exposure; it can arise from multiple compounds, with or without metabolic activation. The present work reviews traditional CHMs and phytochemicals that have been shown to present a genotoxic hazard. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

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    Laura Lúcia Cogo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.

  9. Plants used in traditional medicine in eastern Tanzania. V. Angiosperms (Passifloraceae to Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S C; Mahunnah, R L; Mshiu, E N

    1991-01-01

    Sixty-one Angiosperms (Passifloraceae to Sapindaceae) are listed, which are used by traditional healers in five regions of Eastern Tanzania, namely, Coast, Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro, Morogoro and Tanga. For each species listed, the botanical name, vernacular name, collection number, locality, habit, distribution and medicinal uses are given. Additionally, information from the literature on medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological effects are also provided.

  10. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(...

  11. Korean traditional natural herbs and plants as immune enhancing, antidiabetic, chemopreventive, and antioxidative agents: a narrative review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The world is becoming increasingly interested in Korean food and its ingredients. The attention goes beyond the typical examples, such as kimchi and fermented sauces; peculiar food ingredients that are widely consumed in Korea are now entering the world's functional food markets. This trend was supported by scientific research, and this review seeks to combine and summarize the findings of the past 10 years. The results are organized into four groups depending on whether the ingredient strengthens the immune system, has antidiabetic effects, has chemopreventive effects, or has an antioxidative effects. We would also like to point out that this review only covers the topic of Korean traditional plants and herbs. After the summary of research findings, we discuss challenges and opportunities, exploring the direction of future research and the potential of Korean traditional food ingredients in food industry and markets.

  12. The cost analysis of material handling in Chinese traditional praying paper production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, H.; Budiman, I.; Salim, A.

    2018-02-01

    Chinese traditional praying paper industry is an industry which produced Chinese traditional religion praying paper. This kind of industry is rarely examined since it was only in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME’s- form). This industry produced various kinds of Chinese traditional paper products. The purpose of this research is to increase the amount of production, reduce waiting time and moving time, and reduce material handling cost. The research was conducted at prime production activities, consists of: calculate the capacity of the material handler, the frequency of movement, cost of material handling, and total cost of material handling. This displacement condition leads to an ineffective and inefficient production process. The alternative was developed using production judgment and aisle standard. Based on the observation results, it is possible to reduce displacement in the production. Using alternative which by-passed displacement from a rolled paper in the temporary warehouse to cutting and printing workstation, it can reduce material handling cost from 2.26 million rupiahs to 2.00 million rupiahs only for each batch of production. This result leads to increasing of production quantity, reducing waiting and moving time about 10% from the current condition.

  13. Medicinal plants of the genus Betula--traditional uses and a phytochemical-pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Kumar Singh Rawat, Ajay

    2015-01-15

    Trees and shrubs of the genus Betula (Betulaceae) inhabit various ecosystems in temperate and boreal climate zones of the northern hemisphere. The healing properties of Betula bark and bark extracts have been known for a long time in traditional medicine in different parts of the world. Several species of Betula have traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases including arthritis. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological and toxicological research of Betula species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. All the available information on various species belonging to the genus Betula was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Although over a hundred Betula species are found distributed globally, about 7 different species of Betula have been documented for their traditional uses. Phytochemical research on Betula species has led to the isolation of triterpenoids, diarylheptanoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, phenolics and flavonoids. Crude extracts, fractions and phytochemical constituents isolated from Betula showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, dermatological, gastroprotective and hepatoprotective. Antiarthritic and anticancer are the two major areas of research conducted on these species. The anti-carcinogenic effects of Betula bark, betulin as well as betulinic acid have been extensively studied. Several species belonging to the genus Betula are widely used in traditional medicine. Betula platyphylla and Betula pendula have specifically been found to be potentially useful in the treatment of

  14. Chronic toxicity, genotoxic assay, and phytochemical analysis of four traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Sortibrán, América; Téllez, María Guadalupe Ordaz; Ocotero, Verónica Muñoz; Carballo-Ontiveros, Marco Antonio; García, Angélica Méndez; Valdés, Rocio Jimena Jiménez; Gutiérrez, Elizabeth Romero; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2011-09-01

    Four medicinal plants--Tecoma stans, Ligusticum porteri, Monarda austromontana, and Poliomintha longiflora, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical countries of the American continent--are widely used in folk medicine to treat diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. In addition, T. stans and P. longiflora are extensively used as hypoglycemic agents, and M. austromontana and P. longiflora are used as condiments. The plants were collected, identified, dried, and pulverized. Solvent extraction was prepared by maceration of the plant samples, and the phytochemical composition of the extracts was determined by using standard analysis procedures. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids/steroids, flavonoids, and phenols/tannins and, in L. porteri, traces of alkaloids. After the elimination of solvents in vacuo, the extracts were administrated to Drosophila larvae to test their toxicity and genotoxicity. Third instar larvae were chronically fed with the phytoextracts. The extract from L. porteri was toxic, whereas those from T. stans, P. longiflora, and M. austromontana were not. Genotoxic activities of the 4 plants were investigated by using the wing-spot assay of D. melanogaster. Mitomycin C was used as a positive control. No statistically significant increase was observed between treated sample series and a concurrent negative (water) or solvent control sample series.

  15. Phytochemical screening and antimalarial activity of some plants traditionally used in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Abdillah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate ethanolic extracts of phytochemical screening, in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of 15 plants used as antimalarial in Sei Kepayang, North Sumatra. Methods: Extraction was done through maceration with 70% ethanol and screened against chemical content, in vitro test anti-plasmodium against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain and in vivo test in mice infected Plasmodium berghei. Results: The results showed that the plant extract contained a group of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinone, sterols, triterpene, tannins and cumarine. However, extract of Momordica charantia, Carica papaya, Garcinia atroviridis, Alstonia scholaris, Smallanthus sonchifolia and Cassia siamea had strong anti-plasmodium activity both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of 15 plants are used as antimalarial in Sei Kepayang, North Sumatra. All the plants have in vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodium activity except Orthosiphon stamineus and Luffa cylindrica (ED50 > 1 000 mg/kg body weight and IC50 > 100 μg/mL, respectively.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magassouba, F B; Diallo, A; Kouyaté, M; Mara, F; Mara, O; Bangoura, O; Camara, A; Traoré, S; Diallo, A K; Zaoro, M; Lamah, K; Diallo, S; Camara, G; Traoré, S; Kéita, A; Camara, M K; Barry, R; Kéita, S; Oularé, K; Barry, M S; Donzo, M; Camara, K; Toté, K; Berghe, D Vanden; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J; Baldé, A M

    2007-10-08

    A total of 418 healers have been interviewed in Guinea, a coastal country of West Africa, ranging between 7 degrees 30 and 12 degrees 30 of northern latitude and 8 degrees and 15 degrees of western longitude. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat infectious diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. During these investigations, 218 plants were registered, of which the following were the most frequently used: Erythrina senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Ximenia americana, Annona senegalensis, Cochlospermum tinctorium, Cochlospermum planchonii, Lantana camara, Costus afer, Psidium guajava, Terminalia glaucescens, Uapaca somon and Swartzia madagascariensis. Most plants, and especially the leaves, were essentially used as a decoction. In order to assess antibacterial activity, 190 recipes were prepared and biologically tested, among which six showed activity (minimal inhibitory concentration<125 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans, i.e., Entada africana, Chlorophora regia, Erythrina senegalensis, Harrisonia abyssinica, Uvaria tomentosa, and a mixture of six plants consisting of Swartzia madagascariensis, Isoberlinia doka, Annona senegalensis, Gardenia ternifolia, Terminalia glaucescens and Erythrina senegalensis.

  17. Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Plants from the Genus Sanguisorba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zefeng; He, Xirui; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaoyang; Huang, Linhong; Fang, Jia Cheng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Meimei; Bai, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the genus Sanguisorba have been treated as medicinal ingredients for over 2000 years. This paper reviews advances in the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the genus. To date, more than 120 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from these plants, especially from S. officinalis and S. minor. Among these compounds, triterpenoids, phenols and flavonoids are the primary biologically active constituents. Triterpenoids can be used as quality control markers to determine the quality of medicinal materials and their preparations. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that plants from the genus Sanguisorba exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties, including hemostatic, antibacterial, antitumor, neuroprotective and hypoglycemic activities. In Chinese medical practice, many drugs (e.g., tablets and powders) that contain S. officinalis roots have been used to treat leukopenia, hemorrhaging and burns. However, there is still a multitude of Sanguisorba species that have garnered little or no attention. Indeed, there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxic effects of these plants. Further attention should be focused on the study of these species in order to gather information on their respective toxicology data, any relevant quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the crude extracts, active compounds, and bioactive metabolites from Genus Sanguisorba.

  18. Use of Traditional Medicinal Plants by People of 'Boosat' Sub District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Indigenous knowledge develops by indigenous people in the processes of their interaction with their environment and the science Ethinomedicine developed gradually having its origin in the indigenous medicinal practices. The main purpose of the study was to make survey of plants that have ethnomedicinal ...

  19. Value of traditional foods in meeting macro- and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivetti, L E; Ogle, B M

    2000-06-01

    The importance of edible wild plants may be traced to antiquity but systematic studies are recent. Anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, food scientists, geographers, nutritionists, physicians and sociologists have investigated cultural aspects and nutrient composition of edible species. Important contributions to the diet from edible wild plants are well documented and numerous studies reveal roles played by 'lesser-known' species when meeting macro- and micronutrient needs of groups at risk, whether infants and children, pregnant and/or lactating women, or the elderly. The literature is vast and scattered but information on the macro- and micronutrient content of wild plants and their importance to the human diet appear in five kinds of publications: cultural works by social scientists, descriptions and inventories by botanists, dietary assessment studies by nutritionists, intervention programmes managed by epidemiologists and physicians, and composition data generally conducted by food scientists and chemists. Many macro- and micronutrient-dense wild species deserve greater attention but lack of adequate nutrient databases, whether by region or nation, limit educational efforts to improve diets in many Third World areas. Limited and uneven compositional data generally reflect factors of cost and personal interest in key nutrients. Whilst edible wild plants are regularly deprecated by policy makers and considered to be the 'weeds of agriculture', it would be tragic if this led to loss of ability to identify and consume these important available species.

  20. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamani T. Gondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly. The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58±7.20 to 113±15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2>0.9900 in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs ranging from 0.48±0.16 to 1.50±0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants.

  1. Review on plants with CNS-effects used in traditional South African medicine against mental diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Gary Ivan; Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; van Staden, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    inhibitory activity from Boophone disticha and Crinum species. Extracts of Mentha aquatica, Gasteria croucheri, Ruta graveolens and Scotia brachypetala inhibited MAO-B. Naringenin was isolated from Mentha aquatica as a MAO inhibitor. Only a small number of the more than 300 southern African plant species...

  2. Anti-infective potential of a medicinal plant pimpenella stewartii used traditionally in hazara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, F.; Hassan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used since long as folk medicines and also in Ayuvedic and Unani systems of treatment. They have importance to save human and animal lives because of their utilization in the herbal medicines. In all over the word plants are in constant use for curing of various kinds of diseases. The herbal medicines are effective due to presence of bioactive compounds along with vitamins and minerals in them. Moreover, plants produce photo-chemicals mainly secondary metabolites which have significant pharmaceutical activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, pesticidal and anti-tumour activity. They are very effective and have little or no side effects. Methods: Five microbial strains including three fungal and two bacterial species were tested for the efficacy of plant materials by Agar diffusion method. The fungal species were Aspergilus flavus, Aspergilus niger and Alternaria alternata while bacterial species included Arvenia caratovora and Xanthomans spp. Results: Results obtained for methanolic extracts of Pimpenella stewartii against Aspergilus flavus, Aspergilus niger and Alternaria alternata showed significant antifungal activity. The antibacterial screening of Methanolic extracts of Pimpenella stewartii were evaluated against Arvenia caratovora and Xanthomans spp. The best zone of inhibition was found against Xanthomans spp (97.33 ± 2 mm) at 250 ppm concentration followed by Arvenia caratovora (49.7 ± 14 mm) at same concentration. (author)

  3. Evaluation of trace elements in some northern-Nigeria traditional medicinal plants using INAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladipo, M.O.A., E-mail: oaoladipo2004@yahoo.com [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Njinga, R.L., E-mail: njingaraymond@yahoo.co.uk [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Baba, A. [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Muhammad, H.L. [Chemistry Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria)

    2012-06-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants: Boerhavia diffusa, Euphoria hirta, Senna occidentalis, Senna obtusofolia, Cyprus dilatatus and Mitracarpus villosu. These plants were irradiated in the Nigeria Research reactor-1, at flux levels of 2.25E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the outer channel and 5.0E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the inner channel. A total of the twenty one elemental concentrations were evaluated highlighted the similarity between the elements obtained for the six plants. It was found that Euphoria hirta and Senna occidentalis have similar concentrations of elements. Boerhavia difusa, Mitracarpus villosus, Cyprus dilatalus and Senna obttusifolia were also similar in elemental content to each other, while Boerhavia difusa was the only exceptional outlier. The accuracy of measurements was evaluated by analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage references standard materials and the results show good agreement with certified or literature values within {+-}0.01% to {+-}0.87%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants in northern Nigeria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy of the measurements was based on analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage, a standard reference material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results showed good agreement with certified values within {+-}0.01 % to {+-}0.87%.

  4. Evaluation of trace elements in some northern-Nigeria traditional medicinal plants using INAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladipo, M.O.A.; Njinga, R.L.; Baba, A.; Muhammad, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants: Boerhavia diffusa, Euphoria hirta, Senna occidentalis, Senna obtusofolia, Cyprus dilatatus and Mitracarpus villosu. These plants were irradiated in the Nigeria Research reactor-1, at flux levels of 2.25E+11 ncm −2 s −1 in the outer channel and 5.0E+11 ncm −2 s −1 in the inner channel. A total of the twenty one elemental concentrations were evaluated highlighted the similarity between the elements obtained for the six plants. It was found that Euphoria hirta and Senna occidentalis have similar concentrations of elements. Boerhavia difusa, Mitracarpus villosus, Cyprus dilatalus and Senna obttusifolia were also similar in elemental content to each other, while Boerhavia difusa was the only exceptional outlier. The accuracy of measurements was evaluated by analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage references standard materials and the results show good agreement with certified or literature values within ±0.01% to ±0.87%. - Highlights: ► Application of neutron activation analysis. ► Multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants in northern Nigeria. ► Accuracy of the measurements was based on analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage, a standard reference material. ► Results showed good agreement with certified values within ±0.01 % to ±0.87%.

  5. Traditional Mediterranean plants: characterization and use of an essential oils mixture to treat Malassezia otitis externa in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Baronti, Ilenia; Najar, Basma; Pisseri, Francesca; Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Papini, Roberto; Perrucci, Stefania; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Several plants extracts from Mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. Five mixtures of essential oils obtained from Mediterranean plants (Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Citrus limon, Anthemis nobilis, Lavandula hybrida and Thymus vulgaris) provided with antifungal and/or anti-inflammatory action assayed in vitro, were tested in vivo versus M. pachydermatis to treat once daily for 2 weeks 25 atopic dogs with Malassezia otitis externa. Mixture composed by C. limon 1%, S. sclarea 0,5%, R. officinalis 1%, A. nobilis 0,5% yielded excellent results in all treated dogs. Despite of clinical resolution after all treatments the number of blastospores did not decrease. This study confirms recent findings suggesting a multifactorial alternative approach for the management of canine Malassezia otitis.

  6. Saponins and phenolic content in plant dietary additives of a traditional subsistence community, the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, T; Mahunnah, R L; Sanaya, P; Chapman, L; Ticktin, T

    1999-07-01

    Reports of plants added to milk and meat-based soups by the Maasai and Batemi in East Africa support a role for phenolic antioxidants and hypocholesterolemic agents in the diet, and provide explanation of the low incidence of cardiovascular disease of populations that traditionally consume high levels of dietary fat and cholesterol. Plant food additives used by the Batemi of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania, were tabulated, based on interviews with 22 informants, while 17 specimens were collected in the field and analyzed for saponin and phenolic content. A total of 81% of the Batemi additives and 82% of those known to be used by the Maasai contain potentially hypocholesterolemic saponins and/or phenolics.

  7. Fault size classification of rotating machinery using support vector machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Studies on fault diagnosis of rotating machinery have been carried out to obtain a machinery condition in two ways. First is a classical approach based on signal processing and analysis using vibration and acoustic signals. Second is to use artificial intelligence techniques to classify machinery conditions into normal or one of the pre-determined fault conditions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is well known as intelligent classifier with robust generalization ability. In this study, a two-step approach is proposed to predict fault types and fault sizes of rotating machinery in nuclear power plants using multi-class SVM technique. The model firstly classifies normal and 12 fault types and then identifies their sizes in case of predicting any faults. The time and frequency domain features are extracted from the measured vibration signals and used as input to SVM. A test rig is used to simulate normal and the well-know 12 artificial fault conditions with three to six fault sizes of rotating machinery. The application results to the test data show that the present method can estimate fault types as well as fault sizes with high accuracy for bearing an shaft-related faults and misalignment. Further research, however, is required to identify fault size in case of unbalance, rubbing, looseness, and coupling-related faults.

  8. Fault size classification of rotating machinery using support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on fault diagnosis of rotating machinery have been carried out to obtain a machinery condition in two ways. First is a classical approach based on signal processing and analysis using vibration and acoustic signals. Second is to use artificial intelligence techniques to classify machinery conditions into normal or one of the pre-determined fault conditions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is well known as intelligent classifier with robust generalization ability. In this study, a two-step approach is proposed to predict fault types and fault sizes of rotating machinery in nuclear power plants using multi-class SVM technique. The model firstly classifies normal and 12 fault types and then identifies their sizes in case of predicting any faults. The time and frequency domain features are extracted from the measured vibration signals and used as input to SVM. A test rig is used to simulate normal and the well-know 12 artificial fault conditions with three to six fault sizes of rotating machinery. The application results to the test data show that the present method can estimate fault types as well as fault sizes with high accuracy for bearing an shaft-related faults and misalignment. Further research, however, is required to identify fault size in case of unbalance, rubbing, looseness, and coupling-related faults

  9. Preliminary investigation of naturally occurring radionuclides in some traditional medicinal plants used in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Njinga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary investigation of the activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs in seven different medicinal plants; Anacardium occidentale, Azadirachta indica, Daniella oliveri, Moringa oleifera, Psidium guajava, Terminalia catappa and Vitellaria paradoxa by means of gamma spectroscopic analysis using a NaI[Tl] detector shows that the activity concentration of 40K in the medicinal plants ranges from 74.59 ± 2.19 Bq/Kg to 324.18 ± 8.69 Bq/Kg with an average of 171.72 ± 6.09 Bq/Kg. The highest activity concentration of 40K was recorded for A. indica while A. occidentale had the lowest activity concentration. 226Ra activity concentration varies from 10.79 ± 4.24 Bq/Kg to 42.47 ± 2.76 Bq/Kg with an average of 25.02 ± 3.18 Bq/Kg. The lowest activity was recorded for P. guajava while the highest activity was recorded for V. paradoxa. For the activity concentration of 232Th, it ranges from 27.76 ± 1.02 Bq/Kg to 41.05 ± 1.05 Bq/Kg, with an average of 35.09 ± 0.71 Bq/Kg. The lowest activity was recorded for V. paradoxa while the highest activity was recorded for T. catappa. The average annual committed effective doses due to ingestion of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the plants ranges from 0.00426 ± 0.00050 mSv/yr to 0.00686 ± 0.00044 mSv/yr with an average of 0.00538 ± 0.00035 mSv/yr, the highest value was recorded for A. occidentale while P. guajava has the lowest, the results determined for all the plants are far below the worldwide average annual committed effective dose of 0.3 mSv/yr for an individual provided in UNSCEAR 2000 report indicating that the associated radiological health risk resulting from the intake of radionuclides in the medicinal plants is insignificant. Consequently, the medicinal plants of this study are considered safe in terms of the radiological health hazards.

  10. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans – and their descendants – who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study’s findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Methods Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria) and the migrants’ countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. Results All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level) in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1%) were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%), followed by Peru (12.2%), Australia (11.9%) and Brazil (11.2%). The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001), Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use citations

  11. Antibacterial screening of traditional herbal plants and standard antibiotics against some human bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Uzma Azeem; Andleeb, Saiqa; Kiyani, Ayesha; Zafar, Atiya; Shafique, Irsa; Riaz, Nazia; Azhar, Muhammad Tehseen; Uddin, Hafeez

    2013-11-01

    Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aurues, Serratia marcesnces, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin showed highly significant action against K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis while Ampicillin and Amoxicillin indicated lowest antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among the plants chloroform and isoamyl alcohol extracts of C. cyminum, S. aromaticum and C. long Linn had significant effect against P. aeruginosa, S. marcesnces and S. pyogenes. Comparison of antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs and standard antibiotics was also recorded via activity index. Used medicinal plants have various phytochemicals which reasonably justify their use as antibacterial agent.

  12. ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF FIVE TRADITIONALLY USED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikarimayum Haripyaree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, Methanol and Distilled water extracts of five Indian Medicinal plants viz., Mimosa pudica L, Vitex trifolia Linn, Leucas aspera Spreng, Centella asiatica (L Urban and Plantago major Linn belonging to different families were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial screening against six standard organisms viz., Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Macrophomina phaseoli, Trichoderma viride and Rhizopus nigricans. To evaluate antifungal activity agar well diffusion method was used. In addition LD50 of the same plant extracts were determined by using Range test on Mus musculus for cytotoxic activity. Methanolic extract of M. pudica showed the highest and significant inhibitory effect against some fungal species. Again, methanolic extract of M. pudica displayed the greatest cytotoxic activity.

  13. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

  14. Traditional medicine in north Côte-d'Ivoire: screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, W M; Atindehou, K Kamanzi; Terreaux, C; Hostettmann, K; Traoré, D; Dosso, M

    2004-07-01

    Sixty-seven crude ethanol extracts from 50 plants (31 families), which are used in North Côte-d'Ivoire as traditional remedies for bacterial diseases, were screened for in vitro activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Thirty-one extracts showed antibacterial activity only on Gram positive bacteria. Of these, 10 extracts from 10 plant species had a promising level of activity against bacteria including strains resistant to antibiotics such as aminosides, penicillin M, macrolides, lincosamide and streptrogramin B. The most active was Erythrina senegalensis DC (Fabaceae) followed by Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. & Wiersema (Caesalpinaceae), Waltheria lanceolata R. Br. ex Mast. (Sterculiaceae), Uapaca togoensis Pax. (Euphorbiaceae), Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae), Khaya senegalensis (Ders.) A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Lannea acida A. Rich. (Anacardiaceae), Cissus populnea Guill. & Perr. (Vitaceae), Keetia hispida (Benth.) Bridson (Rubiaceae) and Ficus thonningii (Miq.) A. Rich. (Moraceae). This is the first report of the antibacterial potency of these 10 plant species on a range of bacteria. The results provided evidence that some of the studied plants might indeed be potential sources of new antibacterial agents, also against some antibiotic-resistant strains.

  15. Ethnobotanical Documentation of Traditional Knowledge about Medicinal Plants used by Indigenous People in Talash Valley of Dir Lower, Northern Pakistan

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    Muhammad Tariq Khan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Background: The indigenous communities of the Talash Valley district Dir Lower, in Northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan depends on ethnomedicine for their basic health care. The aim of this survey was to identify, collect, and document significantly distinguishable ethnomedicinal plants and their ethnopharmacological application among the indigenous communities of the Talash Valley, Dir Lower, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Open-ended and semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, inquiries and group discussion were conducted from March 2014 to September 2015 to obtain ethnobotanical data from the local herbalist and elder villagers. Quantitatively, the ethnobotanical data were analyzed by using indices, Use Value (UV, Relative frequency of citation (RFC, and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR. Results: The study identified a total of 50 medicinal plant species belonging to 33 botanical families and 46 genera in the seventeen villages. Lamiaceae with 6 species is the dominant family, and herbs (68% the main sources of herbal formulations. Leaves (41% are the main parts for ethnomedicine, and 32% of drug orally administrated in the form of decoction. Conclusion: The Talash Valley is rich in its medicinal plant's flora and the associated traditional knowledge. Ethnomedicine plays an important role in the local healthcare system. The finding of new medicinal uses, recipes; vernacular plant names, using new morphological parts, and harvesting method in the current study show the importance of the documentation of plant resources and ethnobotanical knowledge. We suggest and recommend that documented plants to be screen for further ethnopharmacological studies. [J Complement Med Res 2018; 7(1.000: 8-24

  16. Evaluation of phenolic content variability, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of selected traditional medicinal plants from India

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    Garima eSingh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics, antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma cancer cell lines and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 µg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW and 3.17 to 102.2 µg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 µg/mL, ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 µg/mL and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2 cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09 and 29.66 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  17. The Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oils from Some Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in Iran

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    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is the most common type of leishmaniasis affecting 1.5 million people through the world annually. Treatment of CL by pentavalent antimony compounds remains a challenge because of adverse side effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial properties of six essential oils from selected spices and herbs ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Leishmania tropica and L. major promastigotes. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antileishmanial effects of selected medicinal plants against L. tropica and L. major promastigotes were evaluated by colorimetric cell viability (MTT assay. The IC50 values were also calculated by probit test using SPSS software. Results: The findings demonstrated that all the tested essential oils had inhibitory effects on promastigote growth of L. tropica with IC50 values ranging from 3.2µg/mL to 19.3µg/mL and 2.7µg/mL to 18.8µg/mL for L. tropica and L. major, respectively. Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil significantly (P<0.05 was much more effective than essential oils of the other tested plants and control drugs once they demonstrated lower IC50 values promastigote form. Conclusions: The findings of present study indicated antileishmanial effects of some Iranian medicinal plants particularly Z. multiflora Boiss. However, further studies, on the animal models as well as volunteer human, are needed to confirm these results.

  18. Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities

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    Rafidah Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  19. Bitter plants used as substitute of Cinchona spp. (quina) in Brazilian traditional medicine.

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    Cosenza, Gustavo P; Somavilla, Nádia S; Fagg, Christopher W; Brandão, Maria G L

    2013-10-07

    Bitter tasting plant species are used as tonics and have been previously used to treat intermittent fevers in Brazil, the principal symptom of malaria. Many of these species were named quina and were used as substitutes of Cinchona spp., the source of quinine. To present data on these bitter species named quina and to discuss their potential as sources of bioactive substances. Data about the plants were obtained from a survey of the literature and documents written by early naturalists and clinical doctors living in the 18th and 19th centuries in Brazil. Correlated pharmacological studies were obtained from different scientific databases. A total of 29 species were recorded. The largest number of species belonged to the Rubiaceae family (14), being Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil) DC. the most representative. Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae), Hortia brasiliana Vand. ex DC. (Rutaceae) and Solanum pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Solanaceae) were also frequently mentioned in the historical bibliography. Pharmacological studies have shown the presence of bitter bioactive substances useful to treat digestive disorders and/or with antimalarial activities, in all of the recorded botanic families. This study shows that several bitter species named quina were used in the past as substitute of Cinchona spp. and studying these plants can lead to the development of new products. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Traditional food uses of wild plants among the Gorani of South Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2017-01-01

    A food ethnobotanical field study was conducted among the Gorani of South Kosovo, a small ethnic minority group that speaks a South-Slavic language and lives in the south of the country. We conducted forty-one semi-structured interviews in ten villages of the Kosovar Gora mountainous area and found that seventy-nine wild botanical and mycological taxa represent the complex mosaic of the food cultural heritage in this population. A large portion of the wild food plant reports refer to fermented wild fruit-based beverages and herbal teas, while the role of wild vegetables is restricted. A comparison of these data with those previously collected among the Gorani living in nearby villages within the territory of Albania, who were separated in 1925 from their relatives living in present-day Kosovo, shows that approximately one third of the wild food plant reports are the same. This finding demonstrates the complex nature of Kosovar Gorani ethnobotany, which could indicate the permanence of possible "original" Gorani wild plant uses (mainly including wild fruits-based beverages), as well as elements of cultural adaptation to Serbian and Bosniak ethnobotanies (mainly including a few herbal teas and mushrooms). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Volatile profiling of aromatic traditional medicinal plant, Polygonum minus in different tissues and its biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafidah; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Bunawan, Hamidun; Lee, Minki; Mohd Noor, Normah; Rohani, Emelda Roseleena; Ilias, Norashikin; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2014-11-20

    The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol) extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane) showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  2. Ethnopharmacological review of plants traditionally used in Darab (south of Iran

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    Mahmoodreza Moein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical information have been known as effective tools for drug discovery. Iran is a location with long medical history. Darab is one of the cities in Iran which can be important in regard of ethnopharmacological aspects. Current paper documented the folk medical information by Darab inhabitants. Therefore, field studies on this area were conducted from March to July 2012 and May to July 2013 under supervision of one local person. A questionnaire was utilized in this study and was filled by local inhabitants. In total, 58 species belonging to 27 plant families were documented in management of 53 ailments. The most cited plant family was Asteraceae which was followed by Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Papilionaceae. Herbs were applied for gynecologic and genitourinary, respiratory, central nervous system, infectious and cardiovascular ailments as well as musculoskeletal and skin disorders, respectively. This study can indicate the folk knowledge of a region in south of Iran. Moreover, the effectiveness of unexamined plants can be evaluated according to informants’ claims. Therefore, such investigations may be indeed, a useful way to search for drug discovery as well as keeping ethnopharmacological information alive.

  3. In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2014-04-01

    In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, while most had no effect on α-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway.

  4. Evaluation of trace elements in some northern-Nigeria traditional medicinal plants using INAA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, M O A; Njinga, R L; Baba, A; Muhammad, H L

    2012-06-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants: Boerhavia diffusa, Euphoria hirta, Senna occidentalis, Senna obtusofolia, Cyprus dilatatus and Mitracarpus villosu. These plants were irradiated in the Nigeria Research reactor-1, at flux levels of 2.25E+11 ncm(-2)s(-1) in the outer channel and 5.0E+11 ncm(-2)s(-1) in the inner channel. A total of the twenty one elemental concentrations were evaluated highlighted the similarity between the elements obtained for the six plants. It was found that Euphoria hirta and Senna occidentalis have similar concentrations of elements. Boerhavia difusa, Mitracarpus villosus, Cyprus dilatalus and Senna obttusifolia were also similar in elemental content to each other, while Boerhavia difusa was the only exceptional outlier. The accuracy of measurements was evaluated by analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage references standard materials and the results show good agreement with certified or literature values within ±0.01% to ±0.87%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Traditional uses of plants in a rural community of Mozambique and possible links with Miombo degradation and harvesting sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Piero; Mancini, Matteo; Mattioli, Elisabetta; Morganti, Michela; Signorini, Maria Adele

    2014-07-23

    Miombo woodlands play an important role in the livelihood of people living in sub-equatorial African countries, contributing to satisfy basic human needs such as food, medicine, fuelwood and building materials. However, over-exploitation of plant resources and unsustainable harvest practices can potentially degrade forests. The aim of this study was to document the use of Miombo plant products, other than medicinal plants, in local communities, within a wider framework in which we discussed possible links between traditional uses and conservation status of the used species and of the whole Miombo environment. Fieldwork took place in four communities of Muda-Serração, central Mozambique. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 52 informants about their knowledge, use and harvesting practices of useful plants. A survey on local Miombo vegetation was also carried out in order to assess abundance and distribution of useful woody plants cited in the interviews in areas exposed to different exploitation rates. A Conservation Priority index was also applied to rank conservation values of each used woody species. Ninety-eight plants cited by the informants were botanically identified. The most relevant general category was represented by food plants (45 species), followed by handicraft plants (38 species) and domestic plants (37 species). Among the 54 woody species observed in vegetation plots, 52% were cited as useful in the interviews. Twenty-six woody species found in 'natural' Miombo areas were not found in 'degraded' ones: of these, 46% were cited in the interviews (58% in the food category, 50% in the handicraft category, 25% in the domestic category and 8% in the fishing category). Results of conservation ranking showed that 7 woody species deserve conservation priority in the investigated area. This study shows that the communities investigated rely heavily on local forest products for their daily subsistence requirements in food, firewood/charcoal and

  6. Traditional uses of plants in a rural community of Mozambique and possible links with Miombo degradation and harvesting sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Miombo woodlands play an important role in the livelihood of people living in sub-equatorial African countries, contributing to satisfy basic human needs such as food, medicine, fuelwood and building materials. However, over-exploitation of plant resources and unsustainable harvest practices can potentially degrade forests. The aim of this study was to document the use of Miombo plant products, other than medicinal plants, in local communities, within a wider framework in which we discussed possible links between traditional uses and conservation status of the used species and of the whole Miombo environment. Methods Fieldwork took place in four communities of Muda-Serração, central Mozambique. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 52 informants about their knowledge, use and harvesting practices of useful plants. A survey on local Miombo vegetation was also carried out in order to assess abundance and distribution of useful woody plants cited in the interviews in areas exposed to different exploitation rates. A Conservation Priority index was also applied to rank conservation values of each used woody species. Results Ninety-eight plants cited by the informants were botanically identified. The most relevant general category was represented by food plants (45 species), followed by handicraft plants (38 species) and domestic plants (37 species). Among the 54 woody species observed in vegetation plots, 52% were cited as useful in the interviews. Twenty-six woody species found in ‘natural’ Miombo areas were not found in ‘degraded’ ones: of these, 46% were cited in the interviews (58% in the food category, 50% in the handicraft category, 25% in the domestic category and 8% in the fishing category). Results of conservation ranking showed that 7 woody species deserve conservation priority in the investigated area. Conclusions This study shows that the communities investigated rely heavily on local forest products for their daily subsistence

  7. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae): A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of This Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; da Silva-Jr, Arnóbio Antonio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products. PMID:25002902

  8. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae: A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of This Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Félix-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae, widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products.

  9. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Blanco, Emilio; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Lastra, Juan José; San Miguel, Elia; Morales, Ramón

    2007-06-07

    We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca) and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile). The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  10. Do ferns and lycophytes function as medicinal plants? A study of their low representation in traditional pharmacopoeias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaldo, Rafael Corrêa Prota dos Santos; Santiago, Augusto César Pessôa; Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-12-04

    Ethnobotany is becoming an important tool for understanding how traditional medical systems are organized and which variables affect their structure and dynamics. However, some phenomena observed in ethnobotanical studies led us to question whether such phenomena are real or methodological artifacts. The small proportion of ferns and lycophytes in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants is one such phenomenon, and its causes should be identified using different approach levels. The present study aimed to clarify the reasons for a low representation of these two groups in studies of medicinal plants. The present study considered the following hypotheses: 1) ferns and lycophytes are little represented in different ethnobotanical studies because of inadequate data collection methods to record these species; 2) ferns and lycophytes are little represented because of the local perception of their low therapeutic efficacy; and 3) species of ferns and lycophytes are represented in local pharmacopoeias in proportion to the size of their families. We chose rural communities from Chapada do Araripe, Northeast Brazil to test our hypotheses. Data on the medicinal plant repertoires of the communities and on the perceived therapeutic efficacy of ferns were obtained using two different methods, semi-structured interviews associated with free lists and a checklist interview, both applied to local specialists. The resulting data were analyzed differently for each test. In addition, data regarding the total flora x medicinal flora ratio were obtained with a floristic survey and accessing data banks from previous studies performed by our research team. All hypotheses were confirmed, showing that all three factors contributed to the low representation of these plant groups as medicinal resources. The present study showed that free-list interviews are not a good method to access traditional knowledge of medicinal ferns and lycophytes and that the use of visual stimuli can help the

  11. Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Sausage tree): Phytochemistry and pharmacological review of a quintessential African traditional medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Idris; Shehu, Mustapha W; Musa, Mustapha; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd; Mahmud, Roziahanim

    2016-08-02

    Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care. The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant. The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books. Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market. The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated

  12. Do not fear the supernatural! : the relevance of ritual plant use for traditional culture, nature conservation, and human health in western Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Plants still play an overriding role in African traditional medicine, as large sectors of the continent’s population prefer or considerably rely on herbal treatments as their primary source of health care. Traditional medicine, which is defined as the sum of

  13. Characterization and evaluation of bioactive polyphenolic constituents from Zanthoxylum armatum DC., a traditionally used plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooreen, Zulfa; Singh, Shilpi; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Tandon, Sudeep; Ahmad, Ateeque; Luqman, Suaib

    2017-05-01

    Zanthoxylum armatum or Timoor has been used in different traditional system of medicine due to its aromatic properties and also in the treatment of cancer, diarrhea and cholera. In the present investigation, four chemically distinct compounds namely Tambulin (6), Prudomestin (7), Ombuin (8) and 3, 4, 5, 3', 4', 5'-hexahydroxydiphenyl ether (9) have been isolated and quantified from the fruits. To explore the biological activities, we have further studied the antiproliferative, antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy. Tambulin which was also found in maximum amount (0.125%) in fruits revealed significant antiproliferative activity (IC 50 37.96±0.36 to 48.7±0.21μg/mL) against breast, liver, colon and skin cancer cell lines corroborated by resilient binding interaction with SDH (-6.76Kcal/mol) and inhibition constant (Ki: 11.02μM). Hexane and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited moderate antibacterial efficacy (MIC: 250-1000μg/mL) against selected pathogenic microbes while Ombuin displayed broad spectrum antibacterial effect with MIC ranges from 125 to 500μg/mL. Total phenolic content (5.27±0.06 to 46.12±0.40mg/g of gallic acid equivalents), total flavonoids content (6.05±0.24 to 14.46±0.73mg/g of quercetin equivalents), ferric reducing power (42.35±0.85 to 62.52±0.66mg/g of ferrous sulfate equivalents) and percent free radical scavenging activity (59.56±0.38 to 64.85±1.78) were also estimated. Our findings infer that Tambulin exhibited significant antiproliferative activity whereas Ombuin was found to display broad spectrum antibacterial activity which adds one more positive attribute to its traditional usage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Machinery Options for Green Ship

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    Salma Sherbaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is critical to global economy being means of transportation for 90 % of world trade goods. Shipping continues to remain the most environmental friendly transportation option compared to other available means due to lowest gCO2/ton.km emissions. It can however not be overlooked that shipping is responsible for 3 % of global CO2 emissions, 14-15 % of global NOX emissions and 16 % of global SOX emissions. International Maritime Organization (IMO is committed to reducing shipping emissions through policy and regulatory measures. Marine Pollution (MARPOL regulations have been increasingly demanding to tackle aggravating environmental concerns. IMO has been introducing measures for better energy-effectiveness (i.e. SEEMP in addition to better environmental performance (i.e. EEDI. Green ship concepts require exploring and implementing technologies and practices on ships to reduce emissions and increase energy-efficiency. Ship machinery is an important area with large potential to reduce emissions and increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the machinery options for green ship. The author will discuss basic concepts, principles and potential of machinery options for green ship in detail.

  15. RUDERAL PLANTS: TEMPORARY HOSTS OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ramos-Zapata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruderal plants may serve as temporary hosts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, by maintaining the availability of active propagules in the soil, which in turn favors rapid colonization of roots of cultivated species during the agricultural cycle. The goals of this study were to: 1 estimate the richness of ruderal plant species in an agricultural plot and determine their mycorrhizal status, 2 quantify the number of live AMF spores in soil samples, and 3 estimate the infection potential and number of active propagules in soil samples from the agricultural site. The agricultural site used was located in Yucatan, Mexico, and consisted of a monoculture of corn subjected to low-impact agricultural practices during the last five years. A total of 20 species of ruderal plants were found at the experimental site, belonging to 11 families. All the sampled species exhibited associations with AMF, and colonization percentages ranged from 11.7±0.07 to 79.6±0.01 among species. The rhizosphere presented an average of 565±324 spores in 50 g of dry soil, of which 58.76% of the spores were alive. The inoculum potential of the soil was 50.4±0.05%, while the number of infective propagules was 193.37 (both in 50 mL of soil. Results from this study show that the presence of ruderal species in agricultural sites may promote the maintenance of AMF communities by acting as temporary hosts of these fungal species. In doing so, ruderal species can favor a higher production of infective AMF propagules and thus stronger mycorrhizal interactions with cultivated species.

  16. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-12-18

    Abstract : Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species : Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana , and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  17. Antimicrobial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Jordanian Plants Used in Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Mahasneh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of fifty one extracts of different parts of 14 plants were studied. Ethanol, methanol, aqueous, butanol, and n-hexane extracts were tested against three Gram negative, two Gram positive bacteria, and two fungi. Cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening were determined using MTT and TLC assays, respectively. Of the fifty one extracts, twenty two showed activities against different microorganisms with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL. The highest activity (100% inhibition was for a butanol extract of Rosa damascena receptacles against Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus cereus (MIC of 62.5 and 250 µg/mL respectively. Butanol extract of Narcissus tazetta aerial parts and aqueous extract of Rosa damascena receptacles were both active against Candida albicans (MIC of 125 µg/mL. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by butanol, aqueous extracts of Rosa damascena receptacles and butanol extract of Inula viscosa flowers (MIC of 500, 500, and 250 µg/mL respectively. Rosa damascena receptacles and Verbascum sinaiticum flowers ethanol extract showed lowest cytoxicity against Vero cell line (IC50 of 454.11and 367.11. Most toxic was the ethanol extract of Ononis hirta aerial parts (IC50 72.50 µg/mL. Flavonoids and terpenoids were present in all plants. Ononis hirta and Narcissus tazetta contained alkaloids. The results validate the use of these plants and report for the first time bioactivity of Rosa damascena receptacles and further justifies the use of such screening programs in the quest for new drugs.

  18. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mostacero León

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5, Anacardiaceae (2, Annonaceae (2, Asteraceae (2, Berberidaceae (2, Rosaceae (2, and Solanaceae (2. Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam. Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  19. Antioxidant activity and peroxidase inhibition of Amazonian plants extracts traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vargas, Fabiano S; Almeida, Patricia D O; de Boleti, Ana Paula A; Pereira, Maria M; de Souza, Tatiane P; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica; Pohlit, Adrian M; Lima, Emerson S

    2016-02-27

    The Amazon is the largest rainforest in the world and is home to a rich biodiversity of medicinal plants. Several of these plants are used by the local population for the treatment of diseases, many of those with probable anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-peroxidases potential of the ethanol extracts of five plants from the Brazilian Amazon (Byrsonima japurensis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Maytenus guyanensis, Passiflora nitida and Ptychopetalum olacoides). DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical, singlet oxygen and the β-carotene bleaching methods were employed for characterization of free radical scavenging activity. Also, total polyphenols were determined. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cell. Inhibition of HRP and MPO were evaluated using amplex red® as susbtract. The stem bark extracts of C. spruceanum and M. guyanensis provided the highest free radical scavenging activities. C. spruceanum exhibited IC50 = 7.5 ± 0.9, 5.0 ± 0.1, 18.2 ± 3.0 and 92.4 ± 24.8 μg/mL for DPPH(•), ABTS(+•), O2 (-•) and (1)O2 assays, respectively. P. olacoides and C. spruceanum extracts also inhibited free radicals formation in the cell-based assay. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the extracts of C. spruceanum, B. japurensis inhibited horseradish peroxidase by 62 and 50 %, respectively. C. spruceanum, M. guyanensis, B. japurensis also inhibited myeloperoxidase in 72, 67 and 56 %, respectively. This work supports the folk use these species that inhibited peroxidases and exhibited significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities what can be related to treatment of inflammation.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negero Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P=0.00 when compared to 10 μg/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57 μL/mL, ≥3 μL/mL, and ≥12.7 μL/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P=0.00 at a concentration of ≥0.78 μL/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked.

  1. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10  μ g/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57  μ L/mL, ≥3  μ L/mL, and ≥12.7  μ L/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ≥0.78  μ L/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked.

  2. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh – an ethnobotanical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. Methods In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. Results In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Conclusion Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23800215

  3. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    OpenAIRE

    Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of e...

  4. In vitro screening on amyloid precursor protein modulation of plants used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine for memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Feng; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Lu, Jia-Hong; Koo, Irene; Li, Min

    2012-06-01

    The 15 herbs for the screening have been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine or in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cognitive disorders clinically. Fifteen plant species were investigated for the inhibition of amyloid peptide (Aβ) production and modulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. The selected plants were extracted successively with 70% ethyl alcohol and absolute alcohol concentrated with rotary evaporation then lyophilized. Using a mouse neuroblastoma cells expressing Swedish APP (N2a-SweAPP), MTT assay was performed to determine the toxicity concentration of each herbal extract. In order to evaluate the activity of ethanol extracts on Aβ inhibition, the N2a-SweAPP cells were treated with a high and low dosage of different extracts for 24h, Aβs levels in the supernatant of conditioned media were assessed by ELISA. The most active extracts were then subjected to test the effect on APP modulation in N2a-SweAPP cells by determining their effect on sAPPα and sAPPβ through western blot analysis. Among the screened herbal extracts, only Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) and Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. (leaves) showed profound inhibition of Aβ production. MTT assay demonstrated that the anti-Aβ effect of these extracts was not a sequential consequence of their cytotoxicity. The extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) could reduce Aβ production only through APP modulation, which was exhibited together with the up-regulation of sAPPα and down-regulation of sAPPβ. The results show that extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) can lower Aβ generation by modulating APP processing in the N2a-SwedAPP cell line. These results corroborate the traditional use of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (root) for the treatment of cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Edwards, Sarah E

    2016-05-26

    Globally 387 million people currently have diabetes and it is projected that this condition will be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. As of 2012, its total prevalence in Central America (8.5%) was greater than the prevalence in most Latin American countries and the population of this region widely use herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used to treat diabetes and its sequelae in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. We conducted a literature review and extracted from primary sources the plant use reports in traditional remedies that matched one of the following disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunctions, visual loss, and nerve damage. Use reports were entered in a database and data were analysed in terms of the highest number of use reports for diabetes management and for the different sequelae. We also examined the scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most reported species. Out of 535 identified species used to manage diabetes and its sequelae, 104 species are used to manage diabetes and we found in vitro and in vivo preclinical experimental evidence of hypoglycaemic effect for 16 of the 20 species reported by at least two sources. However, only seven of these species are reported in more than 3 studies: Momordica charantia L., Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth, Persea americana Mill., Psidium guajava L., Anacardium occidentale L. and Hamelia patens Jacq. Several of the species that are used to manage diabetes in Central America are also used to treat conditions that may arise as its consequence such as kidney disease, urinary problems and skin conditions. This review provides an overview of the medicinal plants used to manage diabetes and its sequelae in Central America and of

  6. Utility machinery vibration monitoring guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.T.; Thomas, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Section I of this guide presents a methodology for developing machinery vibration monitoring programs specifically designed for application within the utility industry. The methodology is designed to enhance a monitoring program and can be used at the outset of program development or as a reference after programs have been started. Section I evaluates all aspects of the monitoring program, including Objectives and Goals, Information Type, Timing and Format, Data Analysis, Data Acquisition, Measurement and Transducer Selection, Personnel and Organization, Program Instrumentation, Program Costs, Program Justification, and Implementation of a Monitoring Program. The methodology is then applied to two host utility plants in Section II, which contains the monitoring programs developed by Gulf States Utilities and Philadelphia Electric Company using this guide. Section III contains the histories of several different types of existing utility monitoring programs. Some of the lessons learned, including the recommendations of these ''mature'' programs for persons starting new programs, are included

  7. Strategy for Migration of Traditional to Hybrid Control Boards in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This strategy document describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of new digital control room elements in a legacy analog main control room (MCR). Information from previous planning and analysis work serves as the foundation for creating a human-machine interface (HMI) specification for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be implemented as part of nuclear power plant (NPP) modernization. This document reviews ways to take the HMSI specification and use it when migrating legacy displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then an integrated system validation (ISV) in the full-scope control room training simulator. Following successful demonstration of operator performance using the systems during the ISV, the new DCS is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the MCR. This document concludes with a sample project plan, including a 15-month timeline from DCS design through implementation. Included is a discussion of how the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) can be used to support design and V&V activities. This report completes a Level 4 (M4) milestone under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program.

  8. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  9. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C.; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p= 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. PMID:22133295

  10. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C; Ma, Jun; Kavalier, Adam; He, Kan; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B; Kennelly, Edward J

    2011-12-15

    The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p=0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghedira Kamel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans, facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.

  13. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  14. Screening of plants used in the European traditional medicine to treat memory disorders for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and anti amyloidogenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobbens, Eva S B; Vissing, Karina J.; Jorgensen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Plants used in the traditional medicine of Europe to treat memory dysfunction and/or to enhance memory were investigated for activity against the underlying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Aim of the study To investigate 35 ethanolic extracts of plants, selected...

  15. Pikuni-Blackfeet traditional medicine: Neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants used to treat Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rus Jacquet, Aurélie; Tambe, Mitali Arun; Ma, Sin Ying; McCabe, George P; Vest, Jay Hansford C; Rochet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5% of the population over the age of 85 years. Current treatments primarily involve dopamine replacement therapy, which leads to temporary relief of motor symptoms but fails to slow the underlying neurodegeneration. Thus, there is a need for safe PD therapies with neuroprotective activity. In this study, we analyzed contemporary herbal medicinal practices used by members of the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe from Western Montana to treat PD-related symptoms, in an effort to identify medicinal plants that are affordable to traditional communities and accessible to larger populations. The aims of this study were to (i) identify medicinal plants used by the Pikuni-Blackfeet tribe to treat individuals with symptoms related to PD or other CNS disorders, and (ii) characterize a subset of the identified plants in terms of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities in cellular models of PD. Interviews of healers and local people were carried out on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. Plant samples were collected, and water extracts were produced for subsequent analysis. A subset of botanical extracts was tested for the ability to induce activation of the Nrf2-mediated transcriptional response and to protect against neurotoxicity elicited by the PD-related toxins rotenone and paraquat. The ethnopharmacological interviews resulted in the documentation of 26 medicinal plants used to treat various ailments and diseases, including symptoms related to PD. Seven botanical extracts (out of a total of 10 extracts tested) showed activation of Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity in primary cortical astrocytes. Extracts prepared from Allium sativum cloves, Trifolium pratense flowers, and Amelanchier arborea berries exhibited neuroprotective activity against toxicity elicited by rotenone, whereas only the extracts prepared from Allium sativum and Amelanchier arborea alleviated PQ-induced dopaminergic cell death

  16. A stream-scale model to optimize the water allocation for Small Hydropower Plants and the application to traditional systems

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    Razurel, Pierre; Niayifar, Amin; Perona, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Hydropower plays an important role in supplying worldwide energy demand where it contributes to approximately 16% of global electricity production. Although hydropower, as an emission-free renewable energy, is a reliable source of energy to mitigate climate change, its development will increase river exploitation. The environmental impacts associated with both small hydropower plants (SHP) and traditional dammed systems have been found to the consequence of changing natural flow regime with other release policies, e.g. the minimal flow. Nowadays, in some countries, proportional allocation rules are also applied aiming to mimic the natural flow variability. For example, these dynamic rules are part of the environmental guidance in the United Kingdom and constitute an improvement in comparison to static rules. In a context in which the full hydropower potential might be reached in a close future, a solution to optimize the water allocation seems essential. In this work, we present a model that enables to simulate a wide range of water allocation rules (static and dynamic) for a specific hydropower plant and to evaluate their associated economic and ecological benefits. It is developed in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI) where, depending on the specific type of hydropower plant (i.e., SHP or traditional dammed system), the user is able to specify the different characteristics (e.g., hydrological data and turbine characteristics) of the studied system. As an alternative to commonly used policies, a new class of dynamic allocation functions (non-proportional repartition rules) is introduced (e.g., Razurel et al., 2016). The efficiency plot resulting from the simulations shows the environmental indicator and the energy produced for each allocation policies. The optimal water distribution rules can be identified on the Pareto's frontier, which is obtained by stochastic optimization in the case of storage systems (e.g., Niayifar and Perona, submitted) and by

  17. Anti-Candida zeylanoides activity of some Iranian plants used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, H; Sharifzadeh, A; Ashrafi Tamai, I

    2012-09-01

    To assess anti-Candida zeylanoides activity of the essential oils (EOs) of five Iranian medicinal plants and to determine the different components of the EOs. Anti-C. zeylanoides effects of the EOs and reference drugs were determined by disc diffusion method. The EOs from Trachyspermum copticum, Zataria multiflora, Nigella sativa, Ziziphora clinopodiodes and Heracleum persicum were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The mean values of inhibition zones were found to be more than 60mm for T. copticum, 56.7 mm for Z. multiflora, 40.8mm for N. sativa, 33.7 mm for Z. clinopodiodes and 18.7 mm for H. persicum. In GC/MS analysis, thymol (63.4%), carvacrol (61%), trans anthol (39%), pulegone (37%) and hexyl butyrate (30.2%) were found to be the major components of T. copticum, Z. multiflora, N. sativa, Z. clinopodiodes and H. persicum, respectively. The EOs showed strong anti-C. zeylanoides activities, which strengthen the potential use of these substances for the treatment of candidiasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants on Colon, Colorectal and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

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    Leila Mohammad Taghizadeh Kashani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many natural products from plants have been recognized to exert anticancer activity. In this study, ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal herbs from Iranian flora including Alyssum homolocarpum Fisch. (from seeds, Urtica dioica L. (from aerial parts, Cichorium intybus L. (from roots and Solanum nigrum L. (from fruits, were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect on different cell lines.Methods: Cytotoxic effect of these extracts was studied on three different cancer cell lines; colon carcinoma (HT-29, colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 and breast ductal carcinoma (T47D. In addition, Swiss mouse embryo fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 were used as normal nonmalignant cells. MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was utilized for calculating the cytotoxicity of extracts on cell lines.Results: Results showed the potent cytotoxic activity of U. dioica ethanolic extract against T47D cell line with IC50 value of 46.14±4.55 µg/ml. Other extracts showed poor activity with IC50>100 µg/ml.Conclusions: Cytotoxic activity recorded in the present study revealed high potential antiproliferative activity of U. dioica ethanolic extract against T47D cell line. The real IC50 values of this extract may be considerably lower than the IC50 measured in our study if its pharmacological active compounds become pure. The results emphasize the importance of studies on U. dioica ethanolic extract to characterize potential components as cytotoxic natural medicines.

  19. In vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Four Plants Used in Persian Traditional Medicine

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    Fatemeh Zare Shahneh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxic activity of four methanolic crude plant extracts against panel cell lines. Methods: Methanolic extracts were tested for their possible antitumor activity and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on six cancer cell lines; non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji, human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937, human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A, human breast carcinoma (MCF-7 cells, human Prostate Cancer (PC3 and mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI-164 cell lines and one normal cell line; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC. Results: All species showed dose dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. IC50 values ranging from 25.66±1.2 to 205.11±1.3 μg/ml. The highest cytotoxic activity Chelidonium majus L> Ferulago Angulata DC> Echinophora platyloba DC> Salvia officinalis L, respectively. Conclusion: all extracts demonstrate promising cytotoxicity activity as a natural resource for future bio-guided fractionation and isolation of potential antitumor agents.

  20. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  1. A R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates the Flavonol Biosynthetic Pathway in a Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plant, Epimedium sagittatum

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenjun; Khaldun, A. B. M.; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lv, Haiyan; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from E. sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally charac...

  2. Evaluation of Anticancer, Antioxidant, and Possible Anti-inflammatory Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Indian Traditional Medication

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    Rafik Shaikh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer, antioxidant, and possible anti-inflammatory properties of diverse medicinal plants frequently used in Indian traditional medication. The selected botanicals such as Soymida fembrifuga (Roxb. A. Juss. (Miliaceae, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers. (Menispermaceae, Lavandula bipinnata (L. O. Ktze. (Lamiaceae, and Helicteres isora L. (Sterculiaceae extracted in different solvents were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that H. isora has potent cytotoxic activity toward the selected cancer cells such as HeLa-B75 (34.21±0.24%, HL-60 (30.25±1.36%, HEP-3B (25.36±1.78%, and PN-15 (29.21±0.52%. Interestingly, the selected botanicals selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 more than (COX-1, which are the key enzymes implicated in inflammation. COX-2 inhibition was observed to be in the range of 19.66-49.52% as compared to COX-1 inhibition (3.93-19.61%. The results of the antioxidant study revealed that the selected plants were found to be effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydroxyl (OH, and superoxide radical (SOR scavenging agents. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprint of flavonoids was used as a measure of quality control of the selected plant samples. The results of the present findings strengthen the potential of the selected plants as a resource for the discovery of novel anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agents.

  3. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.

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    Megan L Coghlan

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica. Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety

  4. Role of human gut microbiota metabolism in the anti-inflammatory effect of traditionally used ellagitannin-rich plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Zwierzyńska, Marta; Stefańska, Joanna; Schopohl, Patrick; Melzig, Matthias F; Kiss, Anna K

    2014-08-08

    Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are widely used in traditional medicine as effective, internally used anti-inflammatory agents. Due to the not well-established bioavailability of ellagitannins, the mechanisms of observed therapeutic effects following oral administration still remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate if selected ellagitannin-rich plant materials could be the source of bioavailable gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, together with determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of the metabolites produced on the THP-1 cell line derived macrophages model. The formation of urolithins was determined by ex vivo incubation of human fecal samples with aqueous extracts from selected plant materials. The anti-inflammatory activity study of metabolites was determined on PMA differentiated, IFN-γ and LPS stimulated, human THP-1 cell line-derived macrophages. The formation of urolithin A, B and C by human gut microbiota was established for aqueous extracts from Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. herb (Ph. Eur.), Geranium pratense L. herb, Geranium robertianum L. herb, Geum urbanum L. root and rhizome, Lythrum salicaria L. herb (Ph. Eur.), Potentilla anserina L. herb, Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch rhizome (Ph. Eur.), Quercus robur L. bark (Ph. Eur.), Rubus idaeus L. leaf, Rubus fruticosus L. and pure ellagitannin vescalagin. Significant inhibition of TNF-α production was determined for all urolithins, while for the most potent urolithin A inhibition was observed at nanomolar concentrations (at 0.625 μM 29.2±6.4% of inhibition). Urolithin C was the only compound inhibiting IL-6 production (at 0.625 μM 13.9±2.2% of inhibition). The data obtained clearly indicate that in the case of peroral use of the examined ellagitannin-rich plant materials the bioactivity of gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, has to be taken under consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proliferative effects of five traditional Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on human breast and bone cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, N; Oppermann, C; Falodun, A; Kragl, U

    2011-09-02

    The medicinal plants Hunteria umbellata (HUL), Cola lepidota (CCL), Persea americana leaf (PAL), Root bark of Persea americana (RPA) and Plukenetia conophora (PCL) are used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and cancer related diseases. To scientifically evaluate the cell proliferative and apoptotic effects of the plants extracts using breast and osteocarcinoma cell lines, and also to identify the possible components via LC-MS to have a kind of chemical fingerprint. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of methanolic extracts (10 μg/ml) of the five medicinal plants were subjected to in vitro evaluation using four cancer cell lines (breast-MCF-7 and BT-20; Osteocarcinoma-MG-63 and Saos-2) measured by flow cytometry. Non-tumorigenic controls MCF-12A and primary isolated osteoblasts (POB) were chosen to eliminate negative influence on healthy tissue. Of the five extracts RPA demonstrated a significant (Pcancer cell lines (MCF-7). The proliferative phase was decreased by 18%, whereas, a significant increase in cell proliferation (about 27%) was observed for RPA at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. PCL, CCL, HUL and PAL did not show marked inhibition of the proliferation of cell line MCF-7. These results give suggestive evidence that the plant extracts exhibit some correlation between the claimed ethnomedicinal uses and the cell proliferative activity. RPA extract includes chemical compounds with estrogen-like activity and validates its potential use as anticancer agent, particularly against breast carcinoma; provided important information potentially helpful in drug designing and discovery. Further studies will involve the isolation of anti tumour compounds in RPA by LC-MS and detailed mechanism of anticancer activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of some traditionally used medicinal plants affected by the extraction time and hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Horžić, Dunja; Rusak, Gordana; Likić, Saša; Berendika, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenolic phytochemicals in traditionally used medicinal plants act as powerful antioxidants, which aroused an increasing interest in their application in functional food development. The effect of extraction time (5 and 15 min) and hydrolysis on the qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of six traditionally used medicinal plants (Melissa officinalis L., Thymus serpyllum L., Lavandula officinalis Miller, Rubus fruticosus L., Urtica dioica L., and Olea europea L.) were investigated. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and tannins was determined using UV/Vis spectrophotometric methods, while individual phenolic acids, flavones and flavonols were separated and detected using HPLC analysis. Also, to obtain relevant data on the antioxidant capacity, two different assays, (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used. The extraction efficiency of phenolics, as well as the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts, was affected by both prolonged extraction and hydrolysis. The overall highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in hydrolyzed extract of blackberry leaves (2160 mg GAE/L), followed by the non-hydrolyzed extract of lemon balm obtained after 15 min of extraction (929.33 mg GAE/L). The above extracts also exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, while extracts of olive leaves were characterized with the lowest content of phenolic compounds, as well as the lowest antioxidant capacity. The highest content of rosmarinic acid, as the most abundant phenolic compound, was determined in non-hydrolyzed extract of lemon balm, obtained after 15 min of extraction. Although the hydrolysis provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds, longer extraction time (15 min) was more efficient to extract these bioactives than shorter extraction duration (5 min). The distribution of

  7. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

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    Sudha Ponnusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL-1, Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL-1, isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL-1 and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL-1. The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL-1, isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL-1, acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL-1 and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL-1. Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.

  8. Effects of natural plant extracts and gamma rays on lactobacillus isolated from Korean traditional raw rice wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Recently, Korean traditional raw rice wines (RRW) have received attention because they are a nutritious food with health properties. But the rapid deterioration of fermented RRW is one of the serious problems for brewing and marketing in the world beyond Korea. The goal of this study was to develop a way to enhance the quality and to lengthen the period of circulation of the RRW. A lactic acid bacterium was isolated from RRW. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (98%) based on its biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA sequence. Treatments of RRW with gamma radiation and green tea extracts reduced the bacterial population except for yeasts and Lactobacillus in the RRW. This result suggested that the natural plant extracts and catechin products can be used as an effective natural storage agent.

  9. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: a comparative study

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    Lastra Juan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile. The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  10. Evaluation for antidiabetic activity in selected medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii Khamis; Siti Harjieh Ibrahim; Noorul Azliana Jamaludin; Muhammad Hanafi Mohamad Mokhtar; Nor Azizah Marsiddi

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes were investigated. The nuts of Areca cathecu, leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa and Ficus deltoidea were each extracted by boiling in distilled water. The aqueous extracts were filtered and the filtrates were then spray dried. Their biological evaluation was conducted to determine their blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Commercially available antidiabetic drug, glybenclamide was used as positive control. Toxicity of the extracts was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality assay and in vivo acute toxicity test in rats. Aqueous extracts of all the plants studied showed significant reduction in blood glucose level up to 50% in rats over a period of 3 to 4 weeks. The largest reduction in blood glucose levels was exhibited by the aqueous extracts of the Lagestroemia speciosa, followed by the Ficus deltoidea and Areca cathecu. There was no evidence of toxicity of the extracts against the brine shrimp (up to 4,000 μg/ml) and in rats (up to 0.2% body weight). (Author)

  11. Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants

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    Geetha Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as R.gveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in Vṛkṣāyurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management.

  12. Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Geetha; Haridasan, K; Krishnamurthy, Kulithala Viswanathan

    2013-07-01

    Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in Vṛkṣāyurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management.

  13. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

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    Wycliffe Wanzala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita, were initially screened (at two doses for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg. Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%, dihydrotagetone (16.71%, piperitenone (10.15%, trans-tagetone (8.67%, 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10diene (6.47%, β-ocimene (3.25%, and cis-tagetone (1.95%, whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α-pinene (63.64%, β-pinene (15.00%, isocaryophyllene (7.62%, nerolidol (3.70%, 1-tridecanol (1.75%, limonene (1.52%, and sabinene (1.00%. The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus.

  14. Traditional use and management of medicinal and magical plants in the Sibundoy Valley, High Putumayo, and their relationship with local processes of environmental construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Echeverry, John James

    2010-01-01

    This study generated ethno-botanical knowledge and community experience that contribute to local processes of environmental construction processes from the recognition, evaluation and strengthening of traditional forms of use and handling of medicinal and magical plants among Inga, kamentza and quillacinga ethnics that live in the Valle de Sibundoy, high Putumayo, Colombia. It was referenced the Environmental Building Model used by the three ethnic groups, from traditional use and management of medicinal and magical plants in the Chagra agro-ecosystem, model based on the traditional medical system and everyday practices involving environmental assessment, practices that facilitate the preservation and dynamics of flora and indigenous traditional knowledge. Finally, this important environmental information contributes to the quality of the actions of regional planning.

  15. Hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in Mali, DR Congo and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marianne Molander; Nielsen, Line Hagner; Søgaard, Søren Vinter

    2014-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Snakebite envenomation, every year, causes estimated 5-10,000 mortalities and results in more than 5-15,000 amputations in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Antiserum is not easily accessible in these regions or doctors are simply not available, thus more than 80% of all...... patients seek traditional practitioners as first-choice. Therefore it is important to investigate whether the plants used in traditional medicine systems contain compounds against the necrosis-inducing enzymes of snake venom....

  16. Oils degradation in agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.

  17. Traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of Sierra Madre Del Sur, Oaxaca. Does it represent a base for plant resources management and conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Traditional classification systems represent cognitive processes of human cultures in the world. It synthesizes specific conceptions of nature, as well as cumulative learning, beliefs and customs that are part of a particular human community or society. Traditional knowledge has been analyzed from different viewpoints, one of which corresponds to the analysis of ethnoclassifications. In this work, a brief analysis of the botanical traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of the municipality of San Agustin Loxicha, Oaxaca was conducted. The purposes of this study were: a) to analyze the traditional ecological knowledge of local plant resources through the folk classification of both landscapes and plants and b) to determine the role that this knowledge has played in plant resource management and conservation. The study was developed in five communities of San Agustín Loxicha. From field trips, plant specimens were collected and showed to local people in order to get the Spanish or Zapotec names; through interviews with local people, we obtained names and identified classification categories of plants, vegetation units, and soil types. We found a logic structure in Zapotec plant names, based on linguistic terms, as well as morphological and ecological caracteristics. We followed the classification principles proposed by Berlin [6] in order to build a hierarchical structure of life forms, names and other characteristics mentioned by people. We recorded 757 plant names. Most of them (67%) have an equivalent Zapotec name and the remaining 33% had mixed names with Zapotec and Spanish terms. Plants were categorized as native plants, plants introduced in pre-Hispanic times, or plants introduced later. All of them are grouped in a hierarchical classification, which include life form, generic, specific, and varietal categories. Monotypic and polytypic names are used to further classify plants. This holistic classification system plays an important role for local people in many

  18. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in traditional municipal wastewater treatment plants with low-strength ammonium loading: Widespread but overlooked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanyun; Peng, Yongzhen; Ma, Bin; Wang, Shuying; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-11-01

    Occurrence of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in marine and freshwater systems has greatly changed our understanding of global nitrogen (N) cycle and promoted the investigation of the role and ecological features of anammox in anthropogenic ecosystems. This study focused on the spatio-temporal abundance, activity, and biodiversity of anammox bacteria in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via traditional nitrification/denitrification route with low-strength ammonium loading. The anammox bacteria were detected in all the treatment units at the five WWTPs tested, even in aerobic zones (dissolved oxygen >2 mg L(-1)) with abundance of 10(5)-10(7) hydrazine synthase (hzs) gene copies g(-1). The (15)N-isotope tracing technology revealed that the anammox rates in WWTPs ranged from 0.08 to 0.36 μmol N g(-1) h(-1) in winter and 0.12-1.20 μmol N g(-1) h(-1) in summer with contributions of 2.05-6.86% and 1.71-7.26% to N2 production, respectively. The diversity of anammox bacteria in WWTPs was distributed over only two genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia. Additionally, the exploration of potential interspecies relationships indicated that ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) was the major nitrite-substrate producer for anammox during nitrification, while Nitrospira, a nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB), was the potential major competitor for nitrite. These results suggested the contribution of N-removal by the widespread of anammox has been overlooked in traditional municipal WWTPs, and the ecological habitats of anammox bacteria in anthropogenic ecosystems are much more abundant than previously assumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit (Western Anti-Atlas), Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, M; Katiri, A; Boubaker, H; Msanda, F

    2017-02-23

    In Morocco, diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with more than 1.5 million cases in 2014. Medicinal plants are widely used by the Moroccan population to treat the illness. The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit provinces. The survey was carried out by means of semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 380 interviews were conducted with traditional health practitioners and knowledgeable villagers. The data were analyzed through use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and relative frequency of citation (RFC). In total, 48 plant species belonging to 25 families were reported. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae were reported as the most represented families. Six plants are reported for the first time as used in traditional treatment of diabetes and one plant species was previously unknown for its medicinal use to treat diabetes in Morocco. The most frequently cited plant species are Allium sativum L., Salvia officinalis L., Marrubium vulgare L. and Lavandula dentata L. Leaves were the most cited plant part used, decoction is the preferred mode of preparation. This study showed the importance of folk medicine in the healthcare system for the local people living in the study area. The current study represents a useful documentation, which can contribute to preserving knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in this region and to explore the phytochemical and pharmacological potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  1. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  2. Antimicrobial activity of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz. Sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandiyan Veeramuthu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz. Sm (Costaceae is an Indian ornamental plant which has long been used medicinally in traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse pharmacological activities. Rhizomes are used to treat pneumonia, rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases, jaundice, skin diseases and leaves are usedto treat mental disorders. Method Antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested using Disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from hexane extract. X-ray crystallography technique and GC-MS analysis were used to identify the compounds Results Antibacterial and antifungal activities were observed in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Hexane extract of C.speciosus showed good activity against tested fungi also. Two sesquiterpenoid compounds were isolated (costunolide and eremanthin from the hexane extract. Both the compounds did not inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. But, both the compounds inhibited the tested fungi. The compound costunolide showed significant antifungal activity. The MIC values of costunolide were; 62.5 μg/ml against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 62. μg/ml against T. simii, 31.25 μg/ml against T. rubrum 296, 62.5 μg/ml against T. rubrum 57, 125 μg/ml against Epidermophyton floccosum, 250 μg/ml against Scopulariopsis sp, 250 μg/ml against Aspergillus niger, 125 μg/ml against Curvulari lunata, 250 μg/ml against Magnaporthe grisea. Conclusion Hexane extract showed promising antibacterial and antifungal activity. The isolated compound costunolide showed good antifungal activity.

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM.

  4. 46 CFR 115.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 115.804 Section 115.804 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 115.804 Machinery. At each initia...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures...

  6. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the marine inspector will examine an...

  7. 46 CFR 176.804 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 176.804 Section 176.804 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.804 Machinery. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57.14204 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational...

  9. Botanical repellents and pesticides traditionally used against hematophagous invertebrates in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a comparative study of plants used in 66 villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo; Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2010-05-01

    Hematophagous parasites such as leeches, ticks, mites, lice, bedbugs, mosquitoes, and myiasis-producing fly larvae are common health problems in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Several arthropod-borne infections, e.g., malaria, dengue fever, and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic there. Effective vector control methods including the use of pesticides, insecticide-treated bed nets, and synthetic and plant-based repellents are important means of control against such invertebrates and the pathogens they may transmit or directly cause. In this study, we documented traditional knowledge on plants that are used to repel or kill hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, bedbugs, human lice, mites and ticks, fly larvae, and blood-sucking leeches. Structured interviews were carried out in 66 villages comprising 17 ethnic groups, covering a range of cultures, throughout Lao People's Democratic Republic. A total of 92 plant species was recorded as traditional repellents (including plants for pesticidal usages) in 123 different plant-ectoparasite combinations. The number and species of plants, and animal taxa repelled (or killed) per plant species differed per region, village, and ethnic group. Traditional use was confirmed in the scientific literature for 74 of these plant species, and for an additional 13 species using literature on closely related species. The use of botanical repellents and pesticides from many plant species is common and widespread in the Lao countryside. In the future, the identification of the active components in certain plants to develop more optimal, inexpensive repellents, insecticides, acaricides, or antileech compounds as alternatives to synthetic repellents/pesticides against blood-feeding insects, ticks, mites, and leeches is warranted.

  10. The use of crude extracts from traditional medicinal plants to eliminate Trichodina sp. in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for ectoparasitic diseases in freshwater fish with formalin seems at present to be ineffective. For this reason it is evidently a useless cost. In addition, formalin possibly leaves toxic residues in fish flesh and in the environment which are eventually harmful to consumers. The alternative way to solve this problem is to use traditional medicinal plants instead. The purpose of this research is to determine the possibility of using garlic (Allium sativum and Indian almond (Terminalia catappa as optional chemicals to treat fish ectoparasites, Trichodina sp. The results showed that crude extracts of either garlic or Indian almond at 800 mg/l significantly (P < 0.05 eliminated Trichodina sp. infections in tilapia (average weight 3.62±0.06 g each. To evaluate the acute toxicity of these products to the host fish, groups of 20 tilapia (same size as abovewere exposed to 3 concentrations of each product for 96 h. Mortality was then determined. The 2 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to crude extract of garlic was 2,259.44 mg/L while the 16 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to Indian almond extract was 46,665.94 mg/L. This information is the beneficial and fundamental knowledge to develop guidelines to reduce the use of chemicals and antibiotics in freshwater fish culture businesses. The research is underway to determine the long-term effect of Indian almond and garlic to tilapia, if any.

  11. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Cytotoxic Cycloartane Triterpenoid Glycosides from the Traditionally Used Medicinal Plant Leea indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Hsiung Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leea indica is a medicinal plant used traditionally to cure cancer. In this study, the cytotoxic compounds of L. indica were isolated using bioassay-guided approach. Two cycloartane triterpenoid glycosides, mollic acid arabinoside (MAA and mollic acid xyloside (MAX, were firstly isolated from L. indica. They inhibited the growth of Ca Ski cervical cancer cells with IC50 of 19.21 μM (MAA and 33.33 μM (MAX. MRC5 normal cell line was used to calculate selectivity index. MAA and MAX were about 8 and 4 times more cytotoxic to Ca Ski cells compared to MRC5. The cytotoxicity of MAA was characterized by both cytostatic and cytocidal effects. MAA decreased the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen, increased sub-G1 cells, and arrested cells in S and G2/M phases. This study provides the evidence for the ethnomedicinal use of L. indica and paves the way for future mechanism studies on the anticancer effects of MAA.

  12. Indigenous and traditional plants: South African parents’ knowledge, perceptions and uses and their children’s sensory acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The dietary shift from indigenous and traditional plants (ITPs) to cash crops and exotic plant food sources increases the risk of malnutrition and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, especially in poor rural communities. Farm communities in South Africa have been associated with poor nutritional status and extreme poverty. ITPs have been found to be affordable sources of several micronutrients. However, knowledge of and the use of these plants are declining, and little is known about the child’s acceptance of dishes prepared with ITPs. This knowledge can be used to improve the general acceptance of ITPs. This study aimed to gain insight into parents’ knowledge and perceptions and their use of ITPs in a farming community in the North West Province and to assess children’s acceptance of and preference for dishes made with African leafy vegetables (ALVs) and Swiss chard. Methods Parents (n = 29) responsible for food preparation for children in grade 2 to 4 in two schools were purposively selected for four focus group discussions. A sensory evaluation assessed the children’s (n = 98) acceptance of, preference for and intended consumption of dishes made with leafy vegetables. The dishes were made of Amaranthus spp., Cleome gynandra, Cucurbita maxima, Vigna unguiculata and Beta vulgaris. Results Parents mentioned 30 edible ITPs during the focus group discussions. Parents had knowledge of available ITPs and their use as food. Location, seasonal variation and rainfall affected the availability of and access to ITPs. Sun-dried ITPs were stored in sacks for later use. ITPs were perceived as healthy, affordable and delicious, hence acceptable to the parents. The children also evaluated the dishes made with ALVs as acceptable in terms of colour, smell and taste. Swiss chard was preferred, most likely because of the children’s exposure to this vegetable. Children indicated that they would like to eat these leafy vegetables twice a

  13. Assessment of traditional ecological knowledge and beliefs in the utilisation of important plant species: The case of Buhanga sacred forest, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyambo Irakiza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional ecological knowledge is an integrated part of the African people and indeed the Rwandese for cultural purpose. Buhanga sacred forest is a relict forest of tremendous ecological importance to Rwandan society located in Musanze District. The aim of this study was to assess the traditional ecological knowledge and belief in the utilisation of some important plant species for the conservation of Buhanga sacred forest. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal and traditional practices were collected following structured questionnaire through interview involving eight traditional healers and three focus group discussions. Data were collected from the natural habitats, home gardens, farmlands and roadsides of Buhanga sacred forest. A total of 45 botanical taxa belonging to 28 families were reported to be used by the local community. Species such as Brillantaisia cicatricosa and Senna septemtrionalis were the popular species cited by traditional healers to treat human and animal diseases and ailments, respectively. The results of the study indicated that because of the cultural norms and values associated with the sacred forest, this has led to non-exploitation. The study presents key sites and plant species in which their use and belief can lead to their conservation. However, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge for biocultural conservation motives but there is also need to train traditional healers on how to domesticate indigenous species as conservation measure because some species have become susceptible to extinction. Conservation implications: Highlighting indigenous species investigated in this research will provide a powerful tool for ensuring biodiversity conservation through community participation in a country of high population density in Africa. Some plant species that provided satisfactory Local Health Traditions among communities surrounding Buhanga can contribute as good material for further

  14. "Keeping it Living": applications and relevance of traditional plant management in British Columbia to sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2001-01-01

    There has been increasing concern about sustainability in harvesting and marketing of non-timber forest products in North America. This paper examines traditional approaches and practices for use of plant resources by Aboriginal peoples and discusses their applications in a contemporary context. Philosophies and attitudes of caring and respect are embodied in many...

  15. Comprehensive Evidence-Based Assessment and Prioritization of Potential Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants: A Case Study from Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre S. Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian Aboriginals, like others globally, suffer from disproportionately high rates of diabetes. A comprehensive evidence-based approach was therefore developed to study potential antidiabetic medicinal plants stemming from Canadian Aboriginal Traditional Medicine to provide culturally adapted complementary and alternative treatment options. Key elements of pathophysiology of diabetes and of related contemporary drug therapy are presented to highlight relevant cellular and molecular targets for medicinal plants. Potential antidiabetic plants were identified using a novel ethnobotanical method based on a set of diabetes symptoms. The most promising species were screened for primary (glucose-lowering and secondary (toxicity, drug interactions, complications antidiabetic activity by using a comprehensive platform of in vitro cell-based and cell-free bioassays. The most active species were studied further for their mechanism of action and their active principles identified though bioassay-guided fractionation. Biological activity of key species was confirmed in animal models of diabetes. These in vitro and in vivo findings are the basis for evidence-based prioritization of antidiabetic plants. In parallel, plants were also prioritized by Cree Elders and healers according to their Traditional Medicine paradigm. This case study highlights the convergence of modern science and Traditional Medicine while providing a model that can be adapted to other Aboriginal realities worldwide.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used medicinal plants for infections of skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract and the oral cavity in Borabu sub-county, Nyamira county, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwenga, E O; Hensel, A; Shitandi, A; Goycoolea, F M

    2015-12-24

    Different communities throughout the world have specialized and profound knowledge on the use medicinal plants for various diseases. However, the detailed information on the respective use may extinct in near future as this knowledge is passed only orally among generations in most of the communities. The present survey aimed to document the use of medicinal plants by traditional healers from the Kisii community, Borabu sub-county in Nyamira county, Kenya, to treat infections of the urinary tract, oral cavity, gastrointestinal system and the skin and to evaluate the social context in which the healers work and practice. Validated questionnaires were applied to 50 traditional healers in the study region, followed by interviews and structured conversations. Information on the relevant traditionally used medicinal plants and their use were documented, including sampling and identification of voucher specimens. The ethnopharmacological survey revealed 25 medicinal plant species belonging to 19 families. It got evident that most of these species will be extinct in the near future unless appropriate measures are taken, as it turned out difficult to collect some of the wild growing species. Elaeodendron buchananii Loes, Erlangea marginata S. Moore, Acacia gerrardii Benth., Balanites orbicularis Sprague, Solanum renschii Vatke and Orthosiphon hildebrandtii Vatke have not been described before for its medicinal use. Among the 25 species collected from the various regions of Borabu sub-county Urtica dioica L. was the only medicinal plant that was collected from all regions. In contrast Erythrina abyssinica and Rhus natalensis were found in only two regions of the study area. The traditional medicinal use of the reported plants for infections should be documented and a great need of awareness from scientists and local government for improved preservation or field cultivation of some species is obvious. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  18. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g −1 , chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g −1 , lead 0.12–0.23 μg g −1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g −1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  19. The use of plants in traditional veterinarian medicine in sub-saharan Africa. Yesterday, today and tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    Baerts, Martine; Lehmann, Jean; Ansay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIn literature concerning Africa there are few indications concerning veterinarian traditional medicine and they often report only local inquiries of short duration and imply a small number of advisers. Therefore it is difficult to distinguish the medicine issued from a tradition lived by a whole people from the medicine practised by only some individuals.We shall try to summarize the knowledge we have of the traditional veterinarian medicine used in the past in some zones of sub-sahar...

  20. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayou, Shewit; Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Gebre-Egziabher, Gebremedhin; Tiku'e, Tsegay; Sahle, Samson; Taddele, Habtamu; Ghezu, Mussie

    2012-07-01

    To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70% methanol macerated leaf extracts. With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  1. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledile Mankga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species, either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health.

  2. Beninese Medicinal Plants as a Source of Antimycobacterial Agents: Bioguided Fractionation and In Vitro Activity of Alkaloids Isolated from Holarrhena floribunda Used in Traditional Treatment of Buruli Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemoa, Achille; Gbenou, Joachim; Affolabi, Dissou; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Bigot, André; Anagonou, Séverin; Portaels, Françoise; Martin, Anandi; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) imposes a serious economic burden on affected households and on health systems that are involved in diagnosing the disease and treating patients. Research is needed to find cost-effective therapies for this costly disease. Plants have always been an important source of new pharmacologically active molecules. Consequently we decided to undertake the study of plants used in traditional treatment of BU in Benin and investigate their antimycobacterial activity as well as their chemical composition. Extracts from forty-four (44) plant species were selected on account of reported traditional uses for the treatment of BU in Benin and were assayed for antimycobacterial activities. Crude hydroethanolic extract from aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) T. Durand and Schinz was found to have significant antimycobacterial activity against M. ulcerans (MIC = 125 µg/mL). We describe here the identification of four steroidal alkaloids from Mycobacterium ulcerans growth-inhibiting fractions of the alkaloidal extract of the aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda. Holadysamine was purified in sufficient amount to allow the determination of its MCI (=50 µg/mL). These results give some support to the use of this plant in traditional medicine.

  3. Beninese Medicinal Plants as a Source of Antimycobacterial Agents: Bioguided Fractionation and In Vitro Activity of Alkaloids Isolated from Holarrhena floribunda Used in Traditional Treatment of Buruli Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille Yemoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU imposes a serious economic burden on affected households and on health systems that are involved in diagnosing the disease and treating patients. Research is needed to find cost-effective therapies for this costly disease. Plants have always been an important source of new pharmacologically active molecules. Consequently we decided to undertake the study of plants used in traditional treatment of BU in Benin and investigate their antimycobacterial activity as well as their chemical composition. Extracts from forty-four (44 plant species were selected on account of reported traditional uses for the treatment of BU in Benin and were assayed for antimycobacterial activities. Crude hydroethanolic extract from aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don T. Durand and Schinz was found to have significant antimycobacterial activity against M. ulcerans (MIC = 125 µg/mL. We describe here the identification of four steroidal alkaloids from Mycobacterium ulcerans growth-inhibiting fractions of the alkaloidal extract of the aerial parts of Holarrhena floribunda. Holadysamine was purified in sufficient amount to allow the determination of its MCI (=50 µg/mL. These results give some support to the use of this plant in traditional medicine.

  4. Plants used in the traditional medicine of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America) and the Caribbean for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy

    2015-12-04

    Obesity is a worldwide medical concern. New ethnobotanical information regarding the antiobesity effect of medicinal plants has been obtained in the last 30 years in response to socio-demographic changes and high-fat diets became common. This review provides a summary of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean for the empirical treatment of obesity in terms of ethnobotany, toxicity, pharmacology, conservation status, trade and chemistry. Bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing recognized books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses and peer-reviewed scientific articles, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last four decades. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of obesity were classified in two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological evidence and (2) plants without pharmacological evidence. A total of 139 plant species, belonging to 61 families, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean that are used for the empirical treatment of obesity were recorded. From these plants, 33 were investigated in scientific studies, and 106 plants lacked scientific investigation. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (21 plants) and in vivo (16 plants). A total of 4 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used for the empirical treatment of obesity have been tested in vitro (2 compounds) and in vivo (4 compounds) studies. No clinical trials on obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) have been performed using the medicinal plants cited in this review. There are no herbal-based products approved in Mexico for the treatment of obesity. There are a limited number of scientific studies published on medicinal plants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean used for the treatment of obesity. This review highlights the need to perform pharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and ethnobotanical studies with medicinal flora to obtain new antiobesity agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  5. Ethnopharmacologic survey of medicinal plants used to treat human diseases by traditional medical practitioners in Dega Damot district, Amhara, Northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubetu, Muluken; Abula, Tefera; Dejenu, Getye

    2017-04-18

    One of the services that plants provide for human beings is their wider medicinal application. Although it is not fully assessed, the practice and wider use of traditional medicine is frequent in Ethiopia. Studies conducted previously are confined to the perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. A total of 45 informants were selected purposefully from the study area. For collecting the data, semi-structured interviewees, observation and field walks were employed from August 10 to September 30/2014. To summarize the information, descriptive statistical methods were applied. Sixty species of medicinal plants distributed in 42 families were collected and identified applied locally for the treatment of 55 human disorders. The most commonly treated ones were evil eye, malaria, wound, peptic ulcer disease and rabies. According to this study, leaves were the commonly used plant parts (36.5%) and 39% of the preparations were decoctions. Oral route, 43 (44%) was the commonly used route of application whereas most (54.8%) remedies were administered only once. Fourteen percent of preparations caused vomiting in addition most (40.4%) of the formulations was contraindicated for pregnant patients. Only seventeen percent of the formulations possessed drug food interactions. Most preparations were stored within clothes, 31 (29.8%). There exists a high (ICF = 0.8) evenness of plant use among healers for treating respiratory problems. Alliumsativum (FI = 0.75) for evil eye, Phytolacca dodecandra (FI = 0.8) for rabies and Croton macrostachyus (FI = 0.78) for treating malaria were medicinal plants with highest fidelity levels showing consistency of knowledge on species best treating power. This study also documented that drought, overgrazing and firewood collection are major threats. Dega Damot district is loaded in its medicinal plant diversity and indigenous knowledge though plants are highly affected by drought, overgrazing and

  6. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be...

  7. 46 CFR 58.20-15 - Installation of refrigerating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of refrigerating machinery. 58.20-15 Section 58.20-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Refrigeration Machinery § 58.20-15 Installation of refrigerating machinery. (a) Where refrigerating...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-20 - Machinery guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery guards. 58.01-20 Section 58.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-20 Machinery guards. Gears, couplings, flywheels and all machinery capable of injuring personnel...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery driving forced-draft and induced-draft fans,...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-35 - Main propulsion auxiliary machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. 58.01-35 Section 58.01-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-35 Main propulsion auxiliary machinery. Auxiliary machinery vital to the main...

  11. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary...

  12. 46 CFR 58.01-45 - Machinery space, ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, ventilation. 58.01-45 Section 58.01-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-45 Machinery space, ventilation. Each machinery space must be ventilated to ensure tha...

  13. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO A.468(XII...

  14. Application of LightCycler polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis to the authentication of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Cimicifuga foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chun-Ying; Li, De-Zhu; Wang, Qing-Zhong

    2009-06-01

    DNA sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and fluorescence melting curve analysis of LightCycler real-time polymerase chain reaction products were exploited for their applications in the authentication of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Cimicifuga foetida from four substitutes: C. heracleifolia, C. dahurica, C. acerina, and C. simplex. According to the melting temperature--which is a function of the GC/AT ratio, length, and nucleotide sequences of the amplified product--C. foetida was differentiated from C. heracleifolia, C. dahurica, C. acerina, and C. simplex. Melting curve analysis offers a rapid and reliable method for the authentication of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant C. foetida.

  15. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  16. A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inta, A.; Shengji, P.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study : The survey aims to study the effect of geographic separation of ethnic groups on local knowledge of medicinal plants used by Akha people in Thailand and China, who were separated 100-120 years ago, to see how different the two geographically distinct but culturally similar groups...... were in this respect. Materials and methods : Interviewing 10 villagers in each of five Akha villages, three in Thailand and two in China, about which plants they used and how they used them. Results : A total of 95 medicinal plants registered in the five villages only 16 were shared between China...... and Thailand. Otherwise the use patterns were quite similar with respect to which plant families and plant growth forms were used and also in terms of in which habitats the Akha found their medicinal plants. Conclusions : The moving to a different site has forced the Akha to find a new set of species...

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Alqub, Malik A; Hussein, Fatima; Hamdan, Zakaria; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Qneibi, Mohammad; Ali, Iyad

    2017-05-08

    Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants. The study included a survey part, plant identification and a review study. The first part was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Face to face questionnaires were distributed to 150 traditional healers and herbalist in all regions of the West Bank of Palestine. The literature review part was to assess the most cited plants for their efficacy and toxicity. One hundred forty four herbalists and traditional healers accepted to participate in this study which was conducted between March and April, 2016. The results showed that 57 plant species belonging to 30 families were used by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urinary tract diseases in Palestine. Of these, Apiaceae family was the most prevalent. Paronychia argentea, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Taraxacum syriacum, Morus alba and Foeniculum vulgare were the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of kidney stones, while Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus were the most recommended species for treatment of urinary tract infections and Portulaca oleracea used for renal failure. In addition Curcuma longa and Crocus sativus were used for enuresis while Juglans regia, Quercus infectoria, Sambucus ebulus and Zea mays were used for treatment symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Fruits were the most common parts used, and a decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Through literature

  18. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  19. Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Matsui, Mariko; Reybier, Karine; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2009-06-25

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), issued from Gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. We have recently demonstrated that a Pacific CTX (P-CTX-1B) strongly modulated iNOS expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Many traditional remedies are commonly used in the Pacific against CFP. In this context, bioassay-guided screening was carried out to study NO inhibiting capacity of 28 selected plant extracts. We prepared aqueous extracts of plants used in New Caledonia in the treatment of CFP and screened their NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among 28 plants tested, Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Schinus terebenthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Cerbera manghas (Apocynaceae), Vitex trifolia (Labiateae) and Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) showed inhibitory activity, validating their use as traditional remedies in CFP, and the potential for use in the treatment of conditions accompanied by NO overproduction. These plants are promising candidates for further screening of their active compounds through activity-guided fractionation.

  20. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-06-12

    The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 μg g(-1), chromium 0.15-1.27 μg g(-1), lead 0.12-0.23 μg g(-1) and nickel 0.09-0.21 μg g(-1) of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  2. Traditional uses of medicinal plants reported by the indigenous communities and local herbal practitioners of Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Izatullah, Izatullah

    2017-02-23

    In the study area, knowledge related to the traditional uses of medicinal plants is totally in the custody of elder community members and local herbalists. The younger generation is unaware of the traditional knowledge, however with only few exceptions. Therefore, this study was planned with objective to document the medicinal importance of plants, conserve this precious indigenous knowledge, and share it among other communities through published literature. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from the community members and local herbalists. The reported plants were collected post interviews and later on pressed on herbarium vouchers for reference. Afterwards, the data was analyzed through Use value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). In total, 79 medicinal plant species were used for the treatment of different ailments in the study region. Out of the total plant species, 28 species were not reported from any other mountainous communities across the country. In this study, the ethno-medicinal value of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell and Viola indica W.Becker was reported for the first time, which have moderate confidential level in terms of their medicinal uses in the study area. Important medicinal plants of the region with high UV are Berberis lycium Royle (0.94), V. indica (0.90), Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd (0.88), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (0.87), Peganum harmala L (0.86), Solanum virginianum L. (0.85), and Cassia fistula L. (0.79). Medicinal plants with higher RFC values are Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (0.86), Cannabis sativa L. (0.82), Mentha piperita L. (0.82), Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (0.76), Allium sativum L. (0.73), Coriandrum sativum L. (0.73), and F. vulgare (0.72). Traditional knowledge on folk medicines is directly linked to the local culture, faith and perception. This knowledge is gaining high threat of extinction because of its limitation to a small portion of the society in the region

  3. Medicinal plants and traditional healing practices in Ehotile people, around the Aby Lagoon (eastern littoral of Côte d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Djah F; Neuba, Danho F R; Kouakou, Kouakou L

    2015-03-14

    Access to useful plants is a growing problem in Africa, increased by the loss of natural vegetation and the erosion of traditional knowledge. Ethnobotany contributes to promote these indigenous knowledge. Despite the large diversity of ethnic groups in Côte d'Ivoire, few ethnomedicine researches have targeted these groups. Among the great Akan group, the Ehotile people are one of the smallest and oldest ethnic group around the Aby Lagoon. The goal of this study was to analyze the level of knowledge and use of medicinal plants by the Ehotile people, and moreover, contribute to build a database about useful plants of first Ivorian people. Two sets of surveys were conducted in four Ehotile villages: a house-to-house freelist interview and an individual walk-in-the woods interview with some key informants identified by the community. Frequency of citation, Smith's index, Use value and Informant Consensus Factor were used to estimate the local knowledge of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants are widely used by Ehotile people. Some were used in addition to modern prescriptions while for some disorders commonly called "African diseases" only plants are used. 123 species employed in the treatment of 57 diseases were listed. Specifically, the most common indications included malaria, sexual asthenia, troubles linked to pregnancy, dysmenorrhoea and haemorrhoids. Analysis of freelists suggested that Ehotile people has a good knowledge of medicinal plants and the most salient included Harungana madagascariensis, Alstonia boonei, Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia acutiflora. Regarding the consensus among key informants, ICF values were low (land, medicinal plants are important in the Ehotile health system. Medicinal plants are known and used alone or in addition to medical prescriptions to treat several ailments. However, some of them are becoming rare, and it is feared that this scarcity will result in the inevitable loss of associated knowledge and practices.

  4. Traditional plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Sursagar constituency, Jodhpur, Rajasthan - An ethnomedicinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manoj

    2015-11-04

    In Jodhpur, large number of people suffering with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes). They are using medicinal plants along with modern medicine for the management of diabetes. The aim of this work is to document the anti-diabetic plants and determine the most relevant anti-diabetic plant species using the Disease Consensus Index. Ethnomedicinal survey was conducted for selection of anti-diabetic plant. Structured questionnaire was developed for calculation of Disease Consensus Index and administered to fifty Type 2 diabetic patients for recording their response. Twenty-one species of anti-diabetic plants were recorded, Momordica charantia (score: 0.71), Azadirachta indica (score: 0.64), Trigonella foenum-graecum (score: 0.63), Capparis decidua (score: 0.60), Withania coagulans (score: 0.54), Gymnema sylvestre (score: 0.52) and Syzygium cumini (score: 0.51) were the most significant anti-diabetic plants of the area of study, having DCI more than 0.5. Use of anti-diabetic plants is prevalent diabetic patients of the area. C. decidua, W. coagulans and G. sylvestre are recommend the further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation due to high DCI score and relatively unexplored status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutralizing activities of ethanolic extracts of six plants traditionally used in Guatemala as antidotes for the envenomation caused by the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Saravia-Otten

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants are reported to be used in Guatemalan traditional medicine as antidotes against various effects of the snakebite; however, very few attempts have been made to evaluate their neutralizing capacity in controlled experiments. Six plants (Acacia hindsii, Cissampelos pareira; Hamelia patens, Piper peltatum, Sansevieria hyacinthoides and Aristolochia maxima were evaluated in vitro for their ability to neutralize phospholipase A2(PLA2 and proteolytic effects of the venom of Bothrops asper, the snake responsible for approximately half of the snakebite envenomations in Central America. These effects are indicatives of the ability of B. asper venom to produce myotoxicity, hemorrhage and inflammation. Plants were collected, dried and extracted by maceration with ethanol. After pre-incubation of several amounts of each extract with a challenge dose of venom, S. hyacinthoides demonstrated a low neutralizing capacity (< DE 50 of the PLA2 effect (13.90 ± 6.41%; C. pareira (32.98 ± 5.51% and P. peltatum (24.52 ± 7.45% neutralized less than 50% of the proteolytic effect. The results suggest that neither of the tested plants should be used individually to treat the main effects of B. asper envenomation. However, the three low-active extracts might be potentiated when used in mixtures composed of several plants, as prepared by traditional healers. Given the complexity of the venom components and the multiple pathologic effects produced by B. asper envenomation, more tests are required to fully investigate the ability of this plants to neutralize the coagulant, fibrin(ogenolytic, edematizing and myotoxic effects of the venom.

  6. Current use of wild plants with edible underground storage organs in a rural population of Patagonia: between tradition and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydee

    2015-09-25

    Edible plants with underground storage organs (USOs) are neglected resources. We studied the local ecological knowledge edible plants with (USOs) in rural populations of North-Patagonia in order to establish how people are utilizing these plants. Some aspect of corpus-praxis-cosmos complex associated to the local ecological knowledge was documented and discussed. In addition, variation in this ecological knowledge due to age, gender, family structure, ethnic self-determination was also evaluated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 inhabitants in order to study the relationship between the current use of plants with USOs and the age, sex, family group composition and ethnic self-identification of interviewees. In addition, the Cultural Importance Index for each species was calculated. The current richness of known species in these populations is a total of 9 plants. Plants with USOs tend to be used more frequently as the age of the interviewee increases. Women and men showed no differences in the average richness of species cited. The interviewees who share their homes with other generations use these plants more frequently than those who live alone. Our results indicate that the interviewees who identified themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people use these plants more frequently. For the Mapuche people, wild plants have constituted material and symbolic resources of great importance in their historical subsistence. In addition, they are currently being redefined as elements which present a connection with ancestral practices, produce a strong relationship with the 'land', and become markers which identify the 'natural' (historical) ways of their people; these are key elements in the current political processes of identity revaluation. This research is valuable to stimulate cultural revival and health promotion programs in the communities with their own local, cultural food.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of twelve plants used traditionally to alleviate pain and inflammation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, J P; Eloff, J N

    2015-02-03

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions are among the pathological features associated with the central nervous system in Alzheimer׳s disease. Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used to alleviate inflammation, pains and also other symptoms possibly associated with Alzheimer׳s disease. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of twelve South African medicinal plants traditionally used to alleviate pain and inflammation. Nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory assay were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was assessed by using a modification of the Ellman׳s method. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents were determined using standard in vitro methods. The extract of Burkea africana had the highest anti-15-lipoxygenase activity with 85.92% inhibition at 100µg/mL. All the extracts tested inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose dependant manner in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, extracts from Leucaena leucocephala, Lippia javanica inhibited the production of NO by 97% at a concentration of 25µg/mL. In addition, both Leucaena leucocephala and Englerophytum magaliesmontanum had strong activity against acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 118µg/mL and 160µg/mL respectively. Hight levels of phenolics and flavonoids were found in Leucaena leucocephala, Lippia javanica and Burkea africana. The correlation with antioxidant activities was not strong indicating that other metabolites may also be involved in antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study validate the use of leaf extracts of these plants in South African traditional medicine against inflammation. Extracts of these plants species might be of value in the management of various diseases emerging from oxidative stress and related

  8. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  9. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.; Hassanali, A.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia

  10. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. Objective: The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. Materials and Methods: The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Results: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. SUMMARY In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis

  11. Ethnobotany of the Alt Empordà region (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): plants used in human traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Montse; Carrió, Esperança; Bonet, Maria Angels; Vallès, Joan

    2009-07-30

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses from a tourist and industrialised region, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. To collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in a north-eastern Iberian region (Alt Empordà, 1358 km(2), 129,160 inhabitants). We performed 101 semi-structured interviews with 178 informants (mean age 69; 71% women, 29% men), identified the plant taxa reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 518 species. Of these, 335, belonging to 80 botanical families, were claimed as medicinal. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (3581 out of 3643 use reports). Around 800 medicinal uses, concerning 200 species, have not, or have very rarely been cited as medicinal; of these, 32 uses of 30 species have been reported by three or more independent informants. The folk knowledge about medicinal plant use is still alive in the studied region, and a number of scarcely reported plant uses has been detected, some of them with promising phytotherapeutical applications.

  12. Traditional medicine applied by the Saraguro yachakkuna: a preliminary approach to the use of sacred and psychoactive plant species in the southern region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Chabaco; Cota, Iuliana; González, Silvia

    2014-02-24

    During the colonial period, the indigenous saraguros maintained their traditions, knowledge, and practices to restore and preserve the health of their members. Unfortunately, many of their practices and medicinal resources have not been documented. In this study, we sought to document the traditional healers' (yachakkuna saraguros) knowledge about medicinal and psychoactive plants used in the mesas and in magical-religious rituals. The study was conducted under a technical and scientific cooperation agreement between the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), the Dirección Provincial de Salud de Loja (DPSL), and the Saraguro Healers Council (Consejo de Sanadores de Saraguro). For the present study, the DPSL and Saraguro Healers Council selected the 10 yachakkuna most recognized for their knowledge and their use of sacred and psychoactive species. Ten interviews with the selected yachakkuna were conducted between 2010 and 2011 to ascertain how the Saraguro traditional healing system is structured and to obtain a record of the sacred and medicinal plant species used to treat supernatural diseases and for psychoactive purposes. The present study describes the traditional health system in the Saraguro indigenous community located in southern Ecuador. It also describes the main empirical methods used to diagnose diseases: direct physical examination of the patient, observation of the patient's urine, documentation of the patient's pulse, limpia, palpation and visionary methods, including supernatural diseases (susto, vaho de agua, mal aire, mal hecho, shuka) and reports of the use of sacred and medicinal psychoactive plants, such as the San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi), wandug (Brugmansia spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.). This study also describes the rituals (limpia, soplada) employed by the Saraguro yachakkuna to treat supernatural diseases. Finally, we report on the main plants used during limpia in the Saraguro community. The current traditional

  13. Machinery for Forest Chip Production in Finland in 2007 and in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Metsaeteho Oy's study consisted of a survey of the production machinery for forest chips used by energy plants in 2007. The major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. In addition, the machinery and equipment stocked by the manufacturers and vendors of energy wood harvester heads, stump lifting devices, and chippers were also surveyed. The study provided also an estimate of future machinery requirements for forest chip production in Finland. The study estimated that a total of 1,100 machine and truck units were employed in the production of forest chips for energy plants in 2007. A total of 770 machine and truck units were contracted for the major forest chip suppliers in 2007. Increasing forest chip consumption will considerable increase the demand for additional forest chip production resources in the future. If the consumption of forest chips by energy plants in 2015 reaches 15 TWh, i.e. about 7.5 mill. m3, then the forest machine and truck requirement will be over 1,700 units. The corresponding machinery requirement at an energy plant with a forest chip consumption of 25 TWh (approx. 12.5 mill. m3), will be close to 2,300 machine and truck units

  14. Vibration analysis for trending ageing in rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Rama Rao, A.

    2006-01-01

    The need for condition monitoring system for important equipment and machinery is a growing requirement in every industry and more so in the nuclear power plants because of stringent safety requirements. This is largely because of the inherent benefit of being able to promote predictive maintenance practice rather than uneconomical preventive maintenance practice in the plant. Forerunner among the condition monitoring parameter is vibration signatures measured on a rotating machine. It is known that every moving element in a rotating machine generates vibration signal that is uniquely its own. Detection of such signals and monitoring the changing conditions in a machine through vibration analysis is a technique involving the knowledge of engineering art and the mathematical theory. This blend of sound engineering judgement and vibration data interpretation skill is in fact the basis of vibration diagnostic techniques. (author)

  15. Traditional knowledge on ethno-veterinary and fodder plants in South Angola: an ethnobotanic field survey in Mopane woodlands in Bibala, Namibe province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bruschi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is a critical resource to improve income and household livelihoods in many rural areas. To date, very few studies have investigated farmers’ local knowledge on plants used in managing animal health and welfare in Angolan Mopane woodland. This is a very dry ecosystem where animal husbandry (mostly cattle and goats breeding is highly widespread and is often the main form of subsidence, greatly contributing to local communities food security, especially in periods of resources shortage. An ethnobotanical research project was carried out in Bibala (Namibe province – Angola in 2010 – 2012, in order to collect information on different traditional uses of plants, involving an interviewed sample of 66 informants. Fifty-eight of them (87.9% listed a total of 39 species used as ethno-veterinary and/or fodder plants. Ten ethno-veterinary species (28 citations were reported by 20 informants as used to treat diseases commonly affecting animals in the studied area, namely respiratory tract problems (Laphangium luteoalbum, Gyrocarpus americanus, Craibia brevicaudata subsp. baptistarum, Lepisanthes senegalensis, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Ximenia americana and skin diseases and wounds (Aloe littoralis, Blepharis sp., Ficus thonningii, or acting as a general tonic (Faidherbia albida. Thirty-four plants (235 citations were cited by 58 informants as fodder. In this category of use, the most cited species were Terminalia prunioides (30 citations, Faidherbia albida (28 citations and Spirostachys africana (21 citations. Our study shows that communities living in South Angola Mopane woodlands still retain a valuable traditional knowledge about plants used to maintain animal health and welfare. This body of knowledge and related skills can play a crucial role in the resilience of livestock systems facing present environmental and socioeconomic changes.

  16. Simulation and experimental studies of operators' decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators' individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators' individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators' decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface

  17. Antimalarial efficacy of nine medicinal plants traditionally used by the Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Punnam Chander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antimalarial activity of nine medicinal plants used by Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and in vitro antimalarial activity was assessed using M-III method. The results indicated that out of nine plant species tested, four plants, viz., Z. spectabilis, S. wallichiana, C. pulcherrima and Amomum sp. demonstrated significant antimalarial activity (50% inhibitory concentration values were 5.5 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 2.5, 14.6 ± 1.3 and 37.3 ± 2.5 μg/mL respectively with no toxicity effect on erythrocytes.

  18. Rotating machinery vibration: from analysis to troubleshooting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Maurice L

    2001-01-01

    .... Elemer Makay shortly after his arrival at the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (FIRL) in 1969, at which time he was starting a new section called Rotating Machinery. I had been at FIRL (Philadelphia) for only two years, so we both had at least one thing in common- we were both recent "intruders" into this high-pressure dog-eat-dog organiza...

  19. Evolution of Genome Organization and Epigenetic Machineries ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    specifically appears at the stationary phase when the genome should be organized into a compact structure to ensure that most of the genes are shut down whereas the DNA bending proteins are predominant in the early and late exponential phase to facilitate the recruitment of transcription machineries to complete the life ...

  20. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, a possible evolutionary pathway to peptide bond formation machinery (proto-ribosome) will be discussed, with a special focus on the RNA minihelix (primordial form of modern tRNA) as a starting molecule. Combining the present data with recent experimental data, we can infer that the peptidyl transferase ...

  1. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  2. A study of antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and in vitro toxicity of selected traditional sudanese plants with anti-diabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes. Methods Extraction was carried out according to method described by Sukhdev et. al. and the extracts were tested for their glycogen phosphorylase inhibition, Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity using (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves of Ambrosia maritima, fruits of Foeniculum vulgare and Ammi visnaga, exudates of Acacia Senegal, and seeds of Sesamum indicum and Nigella sativa. Results Nigella sativa ethanolic extract showed no toxicity on Brine shrimp Lethality Test, while its aqueous extract was toxic. All other extracts were highly toxic and ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited the highest toxicity. All plant extracts with exception of Acacia senegal revealed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions These results highly agree with the ethnobotanical uses of these plants as antidiabetic. This study endorses further studies on plants investigated, to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Moreover isolation and identification of active compounds are highly recommended. PMID:24885334

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Evaluations of Myrtle Extract, a Plant Traditionally Used for Treatment of Parasitic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Naghibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the collected ethnobotanical data from the Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center (TMRC, Iran, Myrtus communis L. (myrtle was selected for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. Methanolic extract of myrtle was prepared from the aerial parts and assessed for antiplasmodial activity, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay against chloroquine-resistant (K1 and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The 4-day suppressive test was employed to determine the parasitemia suppression of the myrtle extract against P. berghei  in vivo. The IC50 values of myrtle extract were 35.44 µg/ml against K1 and 0.87 µg/ml against 3D7. Myrtle extract showed a significant suppression of parasitaemia (84.8 ± 1.1% at 10 mg/kg/day in mice infected with P. berghei after 4 days of treatment. Cytotoxic activity was carried out against mammalian cell lines using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay. No cytotoxic effect on mammalian cell lines up to 100 µg/mL was shown. The results support the traditional use of myrtle in malaria. Phytochemical investigation and understanding the mechanism of action would be in our upcoming project.

  4. Alpine ethnobotany in Italy: traditional knowledge of gastronomic and medicinal plants among the Occitans of the upper Varaita valley, Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Giusti, Maria Elena

    2009-11-06

    A gastronomic and medical ethnobotanical study was conducted among the Occitan communities living in Blins/Bellino and Chianale, in the upper Val Varaita, in the Piedmontese Alps, North-Western Italy, and the traditional uses of 88 botanical taxa were recorded. Comparisons with and analysis of other ethnobotanical studies previously carried out in other Piemontese and surrounding areas, show that approximately one fourth of the botanical taxa quoted in this survey are also known in other surrounding Occitan valleys. It is also evident that traditional knowledge in the Varaita valley has been heavily eroded. This study also examined the local legal framework for the gathering of botanical taxa, and the potential utilization of the most quoted medicinal and food wild herbs in the local market, and suggests that the continuing widespread local collection from the wild of the aerial parts of Alpine wormwood for preparing liquors (Artemisia genipi, A. glacialis, and A. umbelliformis) should be seriously reconsidered in terms of sustainability, given the limited availability of these species, even though their collection is culturally salient in the entire study area.

  5. Validation of Antimycobacterial Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Three Districts of the Limpopo Province (South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Masoko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to scientifically evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of selected indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province used for the treatment of humans with symptoms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The leaves of five plant species (Apodytes dimidiata, Artemisia, Combretum hereroense, Lippia javanica, and Zanthoxylum capense were collected from the Lowveld National Botanical Garden in Nelspruit, South Africa. The dried leaves were powdered and extracted using hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol. Antimycobacterial activity was evaluated using microdilution assay and bioautography and ρ-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT as indicator. Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Phytochemical content of extracts was further evaluated. The acetone extracts of L. javanica displayed antioxidant activity on BEA chromatogram. T Acetone extracts of A. afra had MIC value of 0.39 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 1441. Acetone extracts of C. hereroense and L. javanica had MIC value of 0.47 mg/mL. Four bands that inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis were observed at Rf values of 0.12, 0.63, and 0.87 on BEA and 0.73 on EMW. The plant species A. dimidiata, A. afra, C. hereroense, and L. javanica in this study demonstrated their potential as sources of anti-TB drug leads.

  6. Evaluation of phenolic content and antioxidant potency in various parts of Cassia auriculata L.: a traditionally valued plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, K N; Annegowda, H V; Sathish, N K; Ramesh, B; Mansor, S M

    2014-01-01

    Presence of polyphenolic content in various part of the plant exhibit wide pharmacological activities including antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoid and tannins) and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of flower, leaf, pod, bark and root obtained from Cassia auriculata. Ethanolic extracts of various parts of C. auriculata obtained by sonication extraction techniques are studied for their phenolic contents and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay as well as total antioxidant assays using UV visible spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant studied, bark showed significant content of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins followed by the root, leaf, flower and pod. Even bark extract exhibited highest antioxidant capacity in DPPH assay followed by root, leaf, flower and pod with a value of 766.7, 679.3, 644.9, 572.5 and 474.7 mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (mg VCEAC)/sample, respectively. In addition, mg VCEAC values obtained from the total antioxidant assay was in the increasing order of bark > root > leaf > flower > pod. Moreover, a strong correlation was also found between phenolic contents and antioxidant values indicating their influence in the found antioxidant activity, hence the bark extract can be employed as an ideal candidate for herbal based pharmaceutical product. Results of the present study also emphasize variation in the chemical composition as well as biological activity ensuring the importance of proper selection of particular part of the plant to evaluate their therapeutic potency.

  7. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  8. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed and enclosed by steel casings, and...

  9. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.214 - Cooperage machinery. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperage machinery. [Reserved] 1910.214 Section 1910.214 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.214 Cooperage machinery. [Reserved...

  11. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesmo B. Balemba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to find the most appropriate and effective treatment options for a variety of painful syndromes, including conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, for treating both veterinary and human patients. The most successful regimen may come through integrated therapies including combining current and novel western drugs with acupuncture and botanical therapies or their derivatives. There is an extensive history and use of plants in African traditional medicine. In this review, we have highlighted botanical remedies used for treatment of pain, diarrheas and inflammation in traditional veterinary and human health care in Africa. These preparations are promising sources of new compounds comprised of flavonoids, bioflavanones, xanthones, terpenoids, sterols and glycosides as well as compound formulas and supplements for future use in multimodal treatment approaches to chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. The advancement of plant therapies and their derivative compounds will require the identification and validation of compounds having specific anti-nociceptive neuromodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, there is need for the identification of the presence of compounds that affect purinergic, GABA, glutamate, TRP, opioid and cannabinoid receptors, serotonergic and chloride channel systems through bioactivity-guided, high-throughput screening and biotesting. This will create new frontiers for obtaining novel compounds and herbal supplements to relieve pain and gastrointestinal disorders, and suppress inflammation.

  12. Tradições populares de uso de plantas medicinais na Amazônia Folk traditions in the use of medicinal plants in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sergio Dumas dos Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, busco enfocar as tradições de uso de plantas medicinais na Amazônia, desde o ponto de vista dos processos históricos que marcaram a construção da sociedade amazônica. Ele está baseado nas informações relativas, notadamente, às regiões dos rios Negro/Branco e Acre/Purus, onde vem se realizando um estudo a partir de informações etnográficas. Neste contexto, as técnicas de uso de plantas medicinais, normalmente vinculadas às medicinas tradicionais, representam um importante ponto de encontro entre permanências e rupturas culturais, permitindo a observação de diferentes tradições de uso que para ali têm convergido.The article explores traditional uses of medicinal plants in the Amazon from the perspective of the historical processes that have marked the construction of Amazon society. The study centers principally on information gathered in the regions of the Negro/Branco and Acre/Purus rivers, where research is being conducted based on ethnographic information. Within this context, techniques for using medicinal plants, usually linked to traditional medical practices, represent an important intersection between enduring and changing cultural elements.

  13. Chemogeography and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Geijera parviflora and Geijera salicifolia (Rutaceae): two traditional Australian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas J; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Jones, Graham L

    2014-08-01

    Essential oils were hydrodistilled from 27 specimens of Geijera parviflora Lindl., (Rutaceae) and nine specimens of Geijera salicifolia Schott, collected over a wide geographic range in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. Essential oils were produced by traditional hydrodistillation and characterised using GC-MS. From one specimen a serendipitous discovery was made of bioactive coumarins dissolved in the hydrosol, which were the coumarins isopsoralen, xanthyletine and osthole. These coumarins were not present in the essential oil from that specimen. Using essential oil composition from all specimens, principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated nine clusters for G. parviflora and three for G. salicifolia. Some clusters are representative of previously described chemotypes and some are reflective of possible chemotypes requiring more comprehensive sampling for confirmation. Thus, another three or four possible chemotypes of G. parviflora and one of G. salicifolia have been tentatively identified. Using micro-titre plate broth dilution assays, antibacterial and antifungal activity of all chemotypes was investigated. In this regard, the 'green oil' chemotype, restricted to G. parviflora, with major components linalool, geijerene/pregeijerene, 1,8-cineol and bicyclogermacrene, demonstrated the highest antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity. Thus, in the light of traditional use reports of local analgaesia and bioactivity demonstrated in the current study, oils from select chemotypes of G. parviflora may be useful in suitably compounded lotions and creams designed for topical antimicrobial applications and local pain relief. In addition, because major components are known for insecticidal activities, such lotions may also be useful as topically applied insect repellents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  15. The participation of Wajãpi women from the State of Amapá (Brazil) in the traditional use of medicinal plants--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mata, Nely Dayse Santos; de Sousa, Rosinaldo Silva; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2012-12-19

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of traditional medicinal plants use to Wajãpi women in the State of Amapá, Brazil, as well as their practices in the local common illnesses of treatment considering the prevailing practice by non-Indians. This study was conducted in the Community of the Wajãpi Indigenous People, a Brazilian territory located in the central western State of Amapá. Wajãpi women were selected for the interview since they have the responsibility to harvest, collect and prepare the preparations. The studied women were residents of four villages. The number of women within these four villages is 24. The findings fell into the following three categories: 1) The daily use of medicinal plants by women and main methods of application. In this category, the botanical families found included Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, Anacardiaceae, Meliaceae, and Rubiaceae. The main forms of use found were teas, baths, maceration, in natura, and juices; 2) Through analysis of illness and treatment records, a lack of knowledge integration in the health system was shown to be due to a variety of gaps and the need of health professionals to be more aware about the local culture which they intend to work with, what could decrease the prevailing barriers between the social groups involved; 3) Traditional knowledge and possible sustainability can be fostered by stimulating the transmission of traditional knowledge from generation to generation, therefore reducing the dependence on industrialized medicines and also by maintaining an appreciation of those practices among youngsters, who tend to question them.

  16. Ethnobotany of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., an invasive species in Norway, or how plant names, uses, and other traditions evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2013-06-24

    Heracleum persicum was introduced to Norway as an ornamental in the 1830's. Towards the end of the 19th century, it started spreading outside gardens, later to become a frequent sight in the major towns and settlements of North Norway - and a veritable pest plant. During the last 100 years or so, a substantial ethnobotanical tradition related to the species has evolved, demonstrating that folk knowledge is not only forgotten and lost, but also charting new terrain. This survey is based on data extracted from all relevant publications, including botanical literature, travel accounts, newspaper notes, etc., as far as they have come to my attention. In addition, information on vernacular names and various uses of the H. persicum in Norway has been extracted from my own, substantial archive of interviews, questionnaires, and correspondence related to the ethnobotany of Norway. Where extant, H. persicum tends to be known to everyone, even by city dwellers who otherwise generally neglect plants. People tend to love or hate it, and in Tromsø, the largest town of northern Norway, the species has become more or less emblematic of the city. Both here and in other areas of northern Norway, it is referred to by a variety of vernacular names, partly borrowed from other species, partly derived from the Latin genus name, and partly coined for this species only. In the latter group, tromsøpalme ('the palm of Tromsø') has proved by far the most popular invention. It was seemingly first used (and coined) by German soldiers during the World War II occupation of Norway, but now largely replaces other vernacular names. The plant is still popular with children, who frequently play in and with it, whereas adults have been more prone to speculate on its origins - and how to get rid of it. Salt is the most popular "herbicide" for this purpose. Over the years, H. persicum has accumulated at least twenty different vernacular names in Norway, and a variety of other traditions. By necessity

  17. Remarkable Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis Activity of Plants Traditionally Used by the Mbyá-Guarani Indigenous Group in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents.

  18. Remarkable anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity of plants traditionally used by the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language) and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language) showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents.

  19. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  20. Macro and Micro-Nutrient Contents of 18 Medicinal Plants used Traditionally to Alleviate Diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H. G.; Kumari, C. A.; Sarkar, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Although several medicinal plants has been documented to alleviate diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico, no systematic study has been undertaken to determine the efficacy of these plant species. The present study was undertaken to determine micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Zn) and macro-nutrients (K, Mg and P), C, N and C/N and to select plants with high macro and micronutrient contents for high efficacy in 18 medicinal plants collected from botanical gardens of Forest Science Faculty, UANL, Mexico used in Nuevo Leon in Northeast of Mexico, at the experimental station of Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Following standard protocols, carbon and nitrogen were determined using a CHN analyzer (Perkin Elmer, model 2400). Mineral contents were using the wet digestion technique (Cherney, 2000). The present study indicated the presence of large variation in the contents of several macro and micronutrients among these 18 species of medicinal plants utilized traditionally to control diabetes and other diseases in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Among these species containing high nitrogen content (%) are Moringa oleifera (6.25), Melia azadirachta (5.85), Marrubium vulgare (4.56) and Phoradendron villosum (4.9). The C/N values ranged from 8 to 30. The species having high C/N were Agave macroculmis (30), Arbutus xalapensis (26) and Rhus virens (22). The species Melia azadirachta, Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Arbutus xalapensis exhibited large variations in the contents of macro and micronutrients which, could be considered to be used effectively for the control of diabetes. Few species viz. Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Arbutus xalapensis on the basis of high nutrient content with respect to C, N, C/N, Cu, Fe, Zn, K, P and Mg are selected and recommended to control diabetes. (author)

  1. Interactions between the Translation Machinery and Microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinova, E M; Nadezhdina, E S

    2018-01-01

    Microtubules are components of eukaryotic cytoskeleton that are involved in the transport of various components from the nucleus to the cell periphery and back. They also act as a platform for assembly of complex molecular ensembles. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, such as ribosomes and mRNPs, are transported over significant distances (e.g. to neuronal processes) along microtubules. The association of RNPs with microtubules and their transport along these structures are essential for compartmentalization of protein biosynthesis in cells. Microtubules greatly facilitate assembly of stress RNP granules formed by accumulation of translation machinery components during cell stress response. Microtubules are necessary for the cytoplasm-to-nucleus transport of proteins, including ribosomal proteins. At the same time, ribosomal proteins and RNA-binding proteins can influence cell mobility and cytoplasm organization by regulating microtubule dynamics. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association between the translation machinery components and microtubules have not been studied systematically; the results of such studies are mostly fragmentary. In this review, we attempt to fill this gap by summarizing and discussing the data on protein and RNA components of the translation machinery that directly interact with microtubules or microtubule motor proteins.

  2. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    Full Text Available Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for

  3. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery.

  4. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potvin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program (MVMP) plays an essential role in ensuring the safe operation of the three Production Reactors at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WRSC) Savannah River Site (SRS). This program has increased machinery availability and reduced maintenance cost by the early detection and determination of machinery problems. This paper presents the Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program, which has been documented based on Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) NP-5311, Utility Machinery Monitoring Guide, and some examples of the successes that it has enjoyed

  5. Skoda Concern's cooperation with State Machinery Design Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchar, J.; Kuhn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The main areas are presented of cooperation between the Skoda Plzen Concern and the State Machinery Design Research Institute in Prague-Bechovice. This is mainly the development of steam turbines, from 50 MW turbines to the present 1000 MW saturated steam turbines designed for nuclear power plants. Main attention is centred on conditions of the boiling crisis in the steam turbine circuit, and its consequences. This study is served by the experimental equipment of the institute and its computer. The cooperation of the two institutions in the field of testing and diagnostic equipment is centred on measuring natural oscillations of turbine blades, the diagnostics of vibrations of steam turbines, the measurement of the humidity of saturated steam, optical measurements of the parameters of saturated steam, ultrasound diagnostics and the measurement of turbine blade deformation caused by hydraulic effects. (Z.M.). 8 figs

  6. Extracts from the Mongolian traditional medicinal plants Dianthus versicolorFisch. and Lilium pumilum Delile stimulate bile flow in an isolated perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Tsendayush, Damba; Thalhammer, Theresia; Zehl, Martin; Vo, Thanh Phuong Nha; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Natsagdorj, Damdinsuren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2010-10-05

    Dianthus versicolor (Caryophyllaceae) and Lilium pumilum (Liliaceae) are two medicinal plants used in traditional Mongolian medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study aqueous (AE) and methanolic (ME) extracts of Dianthus versicolor and Lilium pumilum were investigated for their influence on the bile flow. The aqueous extracts of both plants were tested in absence and presence of 10 μM taurocholic acid at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The aqueous extract of Dianthus versicolor was further purified in order to locate the active principles. Two resulting fractions, one enriched in flavonoids and the other in sugars, were investigated for their influence on the bile flow in absence of taurocholic acid at 10, 20, and 40 mg/L. The aqueous extracts of both plants were analysed qualitatively by LC-MS(n) and quantitatively by UV-spectrophotometry. The bile flow experiments were performed in the isolated perfused rat liver. The compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS(n) and TLC using references. The UV-spectrophotometric analysis was based on the monograph "Passiflorae herba" of the European Pharmacopoeia, and the total flavonoid contents were calculated and expressed as vitexin. AE and ME of both plants increased the bile flow dose-dependently (between 9% and 30%), and no hepatotoxic effect was seen even during longer perfusions. Stimulation of bile secretion was comparable in the presence and in the absence of taurocholic acid. The flavonoid fraction of Dianthus versicolor increased the bile flow by 18% (pLilium pumilum (total flavonoid content 1.04%) the flavonoids rutoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were detected. The results show that choleresis under extract application is due to a stimulation of the bile-salt-independent bile flow which might be caused by the osmotic power of the extracts (hydrocholeresis). The flavonoids seem to contribute to the bile-flow-stimulating effect of