Morris, Jessica L; Short, Samm; Robson, Laura; Andriatsihosena, Mamy Soafaly
Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health interventions. A research project was therefore conducted to explore practices, beliefs and traditions around pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in southeast Madagascar. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 256 pregnant women, mothers of young children, community members and stakeholders; transcripts were analysed to identify and explore predetermined and emerging themes. A questionnaire was also conducted with 373 women of reproductive age from randomly selected households. Data was analysed using STATA. Results confirmed high local rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and revealed a range of traditional health care practices and beliefs impacting on women's health seeking behaviours. The following socio-cultural barriers to health were identified: 1) lack of knowledge, 2) risky practices, 3) delays seeking biomedical care, and 4) family and community expectations. Recommendations include educational outreach and behaviour change communications targeted for women, their partners and family, increased engagement with traditional midwives and healers, and capacity building of formal health service providers.
Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura
Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.
Full Text Available Background In 2007, a practice directive was issued for the new legal entity traditional health practitioner with the promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22 of 2007 in the Republic of South Africa. Although the Act describes this new pathway in terms of various definitions, the future practice rights and impact on healthcare were left undefined and unwritten. To date the negative legal implications and career consequences that the Act has for the regulated health practitioners, have gone unnoticed. The derogation and degrading of their work domains and rights, seem of no concern.1 Aims The aim of the present study is to determine and describe the unwritten new practice rights of the traditional health practitioner. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study in line with the modern historical approach of investigation by means of a literature review. The emphasis is on using documentation such as articles, books and newspapers as primary resources to reflect on the traditional health practitioner’s new unsaid and unwritten future practice rights. Results The future practice and services of traditional health practitioners seem to incorporate many new unwritten practice rights and activities, which is contrary to the Act’s written intentions. Conclusion The new traditional health practitioner‘s future practice rights are legally comprehensive and masked. It holds serious consequences for the practices of the established healthcare professions.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. W...
Full Text Available As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM, the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.
Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng
As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. With the development of orthodox medicine and science during the last centuries, CHM also seized the opportunity to change from traditional health practice to scientific drug discovery illustrated in the famous story of the herb-derived drug artemisinin. However, hindered by its culture and founding principles, CHM faces the questions of the research paradigm posed by the convention of science. To address these questions, we discussed two essential questions concerning the relationship of CHM and science, and then upheld the paradigm of methodological reductionism in scientific research. Finally, the contemporary narrative of CHM in the 21st century was discussed in the hope to preserve this medical tradition in tandem with scientific research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. Methods The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. Results The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years. Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5 is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50. Conclusions Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care
Agbor, Ashu M; Naidoo, Sudeshni
The majority of Cameroonians depend on traditional medicines for their health care needs and about seven per cent of the average household health budget is spent on traditional medicines irrespective of their incomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the oral care knowledge and practices of Traditional Healers (TH) on oral health delivery in the urban and rural areas of Bui Division of Cameroon and the objectives to determine the cost of treatment and reasons why people visit TH. The present study was cross sectional and utilized semi-structured questionnaires to collect data. The sample consisted of 21 TH and 52 clients of TH. Sixty two percent of the TH's were above 40 years and 90% male. The mean age was 46 years (range 20-77 years). Twenty four percent of the TH practiced as herbalists and the remainder both divination and herbalism. Sixty seven percent of people in the Bui Division, who patronize TH for their oral health needs, fall within the 20-40 year age group. There is little collaboration between the oral health workers and TH and only 6% of all patients seen by TH are referred to the dentist. Socio-cultural and economic factors affect the oral health care seeking behavior of patients in this area and only 6.5% of patients visit dental clinics. Reasons for not attending dental clinics included high cost, poor accessibility, superstition and fear. TH's are not experienced in the treatment of pulpitis - the majority of patients who presented with toothache had temporary or no relief, but despite this 67% reported being satisfied with their treatment. Sixty nine percent of the patients visited TH because of low cost - the average cost of treatment with TH (approximately $5) is very low, as compared to conventional treatment ($50). Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving oral health. Since they have a vital role to play in health care seeking attitudes in this community and barriers affecting the oral
Thatte, N; Mullany, L C; Khatry, S K; Katz, J; Tielsch, J M; Darmstadt, G L
Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs' continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation, but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs, though hand-washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications, such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing, and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival.
Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Waters, William F; Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert
Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents. We found different levels of integration, coexistence, tolerance, and intolerance of traditional health beliefs and practices in health facilities. One parish has undergone dramatic social and cultural transformation, and the role of traditional birth attendants is limited. In the other parish, traditional indigenous norms and values persist, and traditional birth attendants are sought during pregnancy and childbirth. The degree to which traditional birth attendants, indigenous women and their families are included or excluded from public health services depends largely on decisions taken by local health professionals. Formal policies in Ecuador stipulate that health care should be intercultural, but the role of traditional birth attendants is not necessarily incorporated in practice. The integration of culturally-informed beliefs and practices is critical for providing appropriate health services to members of vulnerable populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Background In South Africa, it is an accepted fact that the main role players in the manufacturing and selling of so called traditional medicine (TAM are traditional healers. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 not only strengthened this perception in 2007 by giving statutory recognition to traditional healers as traditional health practitioners, but also with its various definitions as they are reflected in the Act. There is an estimation that South African research on traditional healing that TAM, specifically under the guardianship of the traditional healers, generates in excess of R2 billion (R2,000 million annually. The idea also exists that the traditional healers offer a widespread indispensable medical service, specifically through their medical and health products, which contributes to a further R1 billion (R1,000 million or more in income. Aims The study aims to estimate the annual income generated by South African traditional healers in their practices and with the manufacturing, prescription and selling of their traditional health products for the period 2015/2016. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the South African traditional healers’ estimated annual incomes as generated by their practices and the manufacturing, prescription and selling of their health and medical products for the period 2015/2016. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results Over the years, it seems that a misconception was established in South Africa about what traditional medicines really are and who the specific manufacturers and sellers are. There is no differentiation between the traditional medicines offered and marketed in the South African retail and commercial market, and those prepared by traditional healers
Moving toward holistic wellness, empowerment and self-determination for Indigenous peoples in Canada: Can traditional Indigenous health care practices increase ownership over health and health care decisions?
Auger, Monique; Howell, Teresa; Gomes, Tonya
This study aimed to understand the role that traditional Indigenous health care practices can play in increasing individual-level self-determination over health care and improving health outcomes for urban Indigenous peoples in Canada. This project took place in Vancouver, British Columbia and included the creation and delivery of holistic workshops to engage community members (n = 35) in learning about aspects of traditional health care practices. Short-term and intermediate outcomes were discussed through two gatherings involving focus groups and surveys. Data were transcribed, reviewed, thematically analyzed, and presented to the working group for validation. When participants compared their experiences with traditional health care to western health care, they described barriers to care that they had experienced in accessing medical doctors (e.g., racism, mistrust), as well as the benefits of traditional healing (e.g., based on relationships, holistic approach). All participants also noted that they had increased ownership over their choices around, and access to, health care, inclusive of both western and traditional options. They stressed that increased access to traditional health care is crucial within urban settings. Self-determination within Indigenous urban communities, and on a smaller scale, ownership for individuals, is a key determinant of health for Indigenous individuals and communities; this was made clear through the analysis of the research findings and is also supported within the literature. This research also demonstrates that access to traditional healing can enhance ownership for community members. These findings emphasize that there is a continued and growing need for support to aid urban Indigenous peoples in accessing traditional health care supports.
Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward C M; Chu, Chun-Hung
The aim of the present study was to explore traditional oral health beliefs among the Bulang ethnic minority group in China. Eighteen village leaders, chiefs, elders, and seniors in Yunnan, China were assigned to three focus groups for discussion of traditional oral health beliefs. The discussions were led by a facilitator. Transcripts were made, and data were extracted. The focus group discussions on traditional oral health beliefs addressed three themes: (a) the perception of oral health; (b) the impact of healthy teeth (oral health), in that healthy teeth essentially have an impact on physical health, emotions, and social status; and (c) toothache management, which was regarded as tooth decay (dental caries). Blackening teeth was a pain relief method. Blackened teeth were reported to be part of ethnic identity, and considered esthetically pleasing. It also indicated the marital status of women. Some Bulang people believed that healthy dentition has no spacing, pain, or functioning problems. Well-aligned dentition was associated with higher social status. Toothaches were considered to be caused by tooth worms. Consulting a monk was another way to manage a toothache. Tooth blackening was considered traditional, and effective for caries prevention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Centering Pregnancy is an alternative method of providing prenatal care with increased education and social support with health assessment in a group setting. This study, a cross-sectional, correlational, convenience-sample design, sought to determine the difference between women who receive prenatal care in Centering Pregnancy prenatal care and those in traditional prenatal care in regards to health behaviors. Adult pregnant women (n = 125) were surveyed from at least 28 weeks gestation. The...
Malik, Zubair A; Bhat, Jahangeer A; Ballabha, Radha; Bussmann, Rainer W; Bhatt, A B
Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medicine, herbal practice still plays an important role in management and curing various ailments in remote and rural areas of India. However, traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants is eroding day by day and there is a need to document such knowledge, before it is lost forever. The aim of the present study was to document the indigenous and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by local inhabitants in and around Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Indian Himalaya for the advancement of biomedical research and development. The intensive field survey was carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) and its adjoining areas. The inhabitants were interviewed about the local name of plants having ethno-medicinal values, plant parts used, mode of processing/application and preparation and dosage through discussions and semi structured questionnaires. A total of 97 medicinal plant species belonging to 52 families and 83 genera were reported for curing various ailments like fever, cough, cold, digestive disorders, constipation, menstrual disorders etc. Out of 97 plant species reported, 21 are rare or threatened. Literature review revealed that 11 out of the 97 plant species are reported with new therapeutic uses. The most frequently utilized plant part was the root/rhizome (33%) followed by leaf (27%). In some cases whole plant was utilized. A few medicinal plants had some veterinary uses also. The study provides comprehensive information about the eroding indigenous and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by local inhabitants in a part of Western Himalaya, India. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the local people may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs and such new approaches of traditional knowledge regarding medicinal plants and laboratory analysis might help pharmaceutical industry in new chapters for
Dorwie, Florence M; Pacquiao, Dula F
Describe practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in assisting women in childbirth and the perceptions of TBAs by mothers and health professionals familiar with their work. Qualitative design using focus groups conducted in urban and rural settings in Sierra Leone. Separate audiotaped focus groups conducted for each group of participants lasting between 45 and 90 minutes. Purposive sample of 20 TBAs, 20 mothers, and 10 health professionals who met the following criteria: (a) at least 18 years of age, (b) TBAs currently practicing, (c) mothers who delivered at least one child assisted by a TBA, and (d) health professionals currently practicing in the hospital and familiar with TBA practices. TBAs are valued by mothers, health professionals, and the community because they provide accessible and affordable care to mothers who may otherwise have no access to health services. TBAs need training, supervision, and resources for effective referral of mothers. Systemic problems in the health care system create enormous barriers to effective care for mothers and children independent of TBA practices that contribute to high maternal and infant mortality rates. The study findings have implications on broad public policy in improving maternal and child health in the country.
ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon
Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.
Aim: The study aimed at determining the tooth cleaning devices, reasons influencing the choice of such devices, which tooth cleaning device gave the best oral hygiene and to ascertain the oral health status of the community. Methods: This cross sectional study involved 147 participants resident in Isu Awaa, in Enugu state, ...
J. H. Booyens
Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is a description of the surprising resistance of so-called folk concepts of health and illness to modem scientific medicine. This phenomenon is discussed in a historical as well as a socio cultural context, in order to facilitate understanding. It is indicated that although the methodoloffcal dictum of relativism may be initially useful as a heuristic guide to decipher what may be called the ‘lope of the irrational' cross-culturally, it may not be elevated to a position of ontological relativism. Ill health sets limits to human autonomy everywhere. Health care, however defined, is thus a universal human need. It must be realized that whatever the different cultural conceptions, taken-for-granted societal and professional power structures may prove to be important stumbling blocks in the delivery of more efficacious health care which modem scientific medicine undeniably can deliver. It is argued that knowledge of differences may be important in the facilitation of cross-cultural understanding. Members of the medical profession must, however, be able to tolerate differences, be aware of the unforeseen consequences of their taken-for-granted structural position as a social category and try to relate to people as autonomous human beings and not as members of conventional and thus stereotyped cultural or social categories.
Ashok Kumar Panda
Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.
Fadzil, Fariza; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat
To briefly describe the postpartum practices among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia and to identify commonalities in their traditional postpartum beliefs and practices. This narrative review collated information on traditional postpartum practices among Malaysian mothers through a literature search for published research papers on traditional postpartum practices in Malaysia. This review shows that Malaysian mothers have certain postpartum practices that they considered to be important for preventing future ill health. Despite the perceived differences in intra-ethnic postpartum practices, most Malaysian mothers, although from different ethnicities, share similarities in their postpartum regimens and practices in terms of beliefs and adherence to food taboos, use of traditional postpartum massage and traditional herbs, and acknowledgment of the role of older female family members in postpartum care. Health care providers should be aware of multiethnic traditional postpartum practices and use the commonalities in these practices as part of their postpartum care regimen.
Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom
There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manat? and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this se...
Background: Although traditional medicine plays an important role in Ethiopian society, knowledge about the extent and characteristics of traditional healing practices and practitioners is limited and has frequently been ignored in the national health system. Objective: To review history of practices and policies on traditional ...
Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Jamous, Rania M
In Palestine, medicinal plants have continued to play a vital role in fulfilling animal healthcare needs of rural communities. However, these valuable resources are being depleted mainly due to over-harvesting, inappropriate agricultural practices (e.g., over use of herbicides), agricultural expansion, and over-grazing. Therefore, immediate action is required to conserve these resources and document the associated knowledge. The purpose of this study was, thus, to document and analyze information associated with medicinal plants that are used in managing animal health problems in the West Bank, Palestine. Ethnobotanical data were collected from Apr 2012 to Feb 2014 mainly using semi-structured interviews with informants sampled using purposive sampling technique and through field observations. The study revealed the use of 138 medicinal plant species in the West Bank for the treatment of several livestock diseases, of these 75 species representing 70 genera and 33 families were reported by 3 independent informants or above. Classification of the ethnoveterinary plant species cited by three informants or above used in a rank-order priority (ROP) based on their claimed relative healing potential has demonstrated that the following are the plants with the highest efficacy: Camellia sinenses, Teucrium capitatum, and Salvia fruticosa with ROPs of 97.1, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively, are used primarily to relieve gastric disorders. Gastrointestinal disorders is the disease group in the study area that scored the highest Informant consensus factor (ICF) value (0.90), followed by urinary, and reproductive disorders (0.89). Our study provided evidence that medicinal plants are still playing important role in the management of livestock diseases, and showed that ethnoveterinary plants used in animal health care in Palestine have been also recorded in human Traditional Arabic Palestinian Herbal Medicine (TAPHM), and demonstrated a strong link between human and veterinary
Martínez, Gustavo J
to present information on traditional practices and medicinal uses of plants for treating health diseases related to the reproductive cycle of Criollo women living in the hills of the province of Córdoba; and to interpret these uses in the context of this population's folk medicine. data were collected during several field trips to the study area based on the guidelines of a research project that included ethnographic and ethnobotanical aspects of the study area. a rural community of central Argentina. a total of 62 peasants were interviewed on the basis of a semi-structured system. Repeated open and extensive interviews were also undertaken with seven women who had previously worked as midwives in areas of difficult access. this study found that 12 different female diseases and complaints are treated using a total of 48 plant species belonging to 27 botanical families, with 71 different medicinal uses. The traditional beliefs and practices associated with maternal-baby health care in rural areas highlights the existing combination of principles reformulated from humoral medicine, the use of analogical reasoning, and ontological and functional interpretations of morbid processes. The principle of Hypocratical opposition and hot-cold categorisation are significant criteria that rule over the practices of mother and child health care during birth and puerperium. consequences of traditional knowledge on the health care of peasant women are discussed, based on the analysis of traditional practices from a peasant's point of view.
Solomon, Eric S; Jones, Daniel L
Current and future dental school graduates are increasingly likely to choose a non-traditional dental practice-a group practice managed by a dental service organization or a corporate practice with employed dentists-for their initial practice experience. In addition, the growth of non-traditional practices, which are located primarily in major urban areas, could accelerate the movement of dentists to those areas and contribute to geographic disparities in the distribution of dental services. To help the profession understand the implications of these developments, the aim of this study was to compare the location characteristics of non-traditional practices and traditional dental practices. After identifying non-traditional practices across the United States, the authors located those practices and traditional dental practices geographically by zip code. Non-traditional dental practices were found to represent about 3.1% of all dental practices, but they had a greater impact on the marketplace with almost twice the average number of staff and annual revenue. Virtually all non-traditional dental practices were located in zip codes that also had a traditional dental practice. Zip codes with non-traditional practices had significant differences from zip codes with only a traditional dental practice: the populations in areas with non-traditional practices had higher income levels and higher education and were slightly younger and proportionally more Hispanic; those practices also had a much higher likelihood of being located in a major metropolitan area. Dental educators and leaders need to understand the impact of these trends in the practice environment in order to both prepare graduates for practice and make decisions about planning for the workforce of the future.
Full Text Available Purpose : to develop practical recommendations for extracurricular classes nontraditional kinds of gymnastics to improve the organization of physical education teachers in schools. Material : in the experiment involved 358 students. Analyzed the available literature data. Results : a comparative analysis of physical fitness of students and practical recommendations for the non-traditional occupations gymnastics. Been a significant interest in physical education classes. Found that the main ways of improving physical education students may be the formation of the need for strengthening health facilities fitness aerobics, shaping, pilates. Conclusions : highlights the need to structure the problems they need and develop appropriate solutions.
Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom
There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.
David R Walwyn
Full Text Available Background A large proportion of HIV positive South Africans regularly consult Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs for their healthcare needs, despite some evidence of negative interactions with antiretrovirals (ARVs and no published peer-reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of traditional medicines in the treatment of HIV. In this study, we investigated the dominant practices of THPs towards HIV positive patients and whether these practices have changed following widespread public awareness campaigns covering HIV and its treatment. Method The study used a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire in the home language of the interviewee. A total of 52 THPs from four provinces (Gauteng, Limpopo, Kwazulu Natal and Eastern Cape were interviewed. 38% of the respondents were based in the rural areas, and 69% classified themselves as inyangas, with the remainder being sangomas. Findings All of the THPs in the survey offered treatment for HIV, although only 20% claimed to be able to cure the disease. 88% prepared their own medication, mostly from plant material, and sold their products as aqueous extracts in labelled bottles. None of these products had been systematically evaluated, and there was mostly no record keeping, either of the patient, or of the medicine itself. Quality control practices such as expiry dates, controlled storage conditions and batch records were totally unknown in our sample. Only 38% of the THPs had received training on HIV/AIDS although 75% believed that they were well informed about the disease. Our own assessment was that only 50% had a working knowledge of HIV; more disturbingly 37% believe that only traditional medicines should be used for the treatment of HIV and a further 50% believe that both traditional medicines and ARVs can be taken simultaneously. Interpretation Despite ongoing public educational campaigns on HIV, some of which have specifically targeted THPs, the care of HIV positive
Nov 17, 2014 ... impact of harmful traditional home care practices on ... She was initially on breast milk and water until the tenth day of life ... and zygomatic bone as well as loss of subcutaneous fat. (fig 1). .... ity and protection during the neo-.
Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwahed; Nastasi, Bonnie; Saggurti, Niranjan; Verma, Ravi K
Men's pre- and extra-marital sexual behavior has been identified as the primary factor in the growing HIV/STI epidemic among both males and females in India. One major barrier to reaching men has been their underutilization of public health services, which has severely limited programs geared to prevention and early case identification. A significant number of men in India have strong culturally-based sexual health concerns, much of which are derived from "semen-loss" and deficiencies in sexual performance. This paper reports on an ongoing Indo-US project that has focused on men's concerns about sexual health problems and assesses the services provided by non-allopaths in three low-income communities in Mumbai. Findings indicate that the primary health resources for these men are private, community-based non-allopaths, who identify themselves as ayurvedic, unani and homeopathic providers. The paper suggests that the combination of strong culturally-based sexual health concerns and the presence of private non-allopaths who manage these problems present a window of opportunity for intervention programs to address the challenge of HIV/STI prevention and early case identification in India.
Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments
Haque, Md Imdadul; Chowdhury, A B M Alauddin; Shahjahan, Md; Harun, Md Golam Dostogir
Traditional healing practice is an important and integral part of healthcare systems in almost all countries of the world. Very few studies have addressed the holistic scenario of traditional healing practices in Bangladesh, although these serve around 80% of the ailing people. This study explored distinctive forms of traditional healing practices in rural Bangladesh. During July to October 2007, the study team conducted 64 unstructured interviews, and 18 key informant interviews with traditional healers and patients from Bhabanipur and Jobra, two adjacent villages in Chittagong district, Bangladesh. The study also used participatory observations of traditional healing activities in the treatment centers. Majority of the community members, especially people of low socioeconomic status, first approached the traditional healers with their medical problems. Only after failure of such treatment did they move to qualified physicians for modern treatment. Interestingly, if this failed, they returned to the traditional healers. This study identified both religious and non-religious healing practices. The key religious healing practices reportedly included Kalami, Bhandai, and Spiritual Healing, whereas the non-religious healing practices included Sorcery, Kabiraji, and Home Medicine. Both patients and healers practiced self-medication at home with their indigenous knowledge. Kabiraji was widely practiced based on informal use of local medicinal plants in rural areas. Healers in both Kalami and Bhandari practices resorted to religious rituals, and usually used verses of holy books in healing, which required a firm belief of patients for the treatment to be effective. Sorcerers deliberately used their so-called supernatural power not only to treat a patient but also to cause harm to others upon secret request. The spiritual healing reportedly diagnosed and cured the health problems through communication with sacred spirits. Although the fee for diagnosis was small
Kashyap, C. A.
The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.
Ayaz, S; Efe, S Yaman
Numerous traditional methods are used in the treatment of infertility around the world. To identify the traditional practices of infertile women using one clinic in Ankara, Turkey. The population comprised all women (5700) who attended one infertility outpatient clinic in 2007. The sample was calculated using sample calculation formula and 410 women were included in the study. The survey method was used for data collection. Of the responding women, 27.3% had tried a traditional practice, and 67.8% who tried traditional practices used an herbal mixture. The reason for the women's use of a traditional practice was 'hope' (66.9%), and 15.2% of them had experienced an adverse effect related with traditional practice. Maternal education level, perceived economic status, duration of marriage all significantly affected the use of traditional practices (Pwomen who had received unsuccessful medical treatment for infertility and who had experienced side effects after medical treatment had a higher rate of use of traditional practice (Pwomen who responded to the questionnaire had tried traditional methods, and some experienced adverse effects related to the practice. For couples with infertility problems, educational programmes and consultation services should be organized with respect to their traditional culture. Women should be informed about the hazards of traditional practices and avoidance of harmful practices, and continuous emotional support must be provided for infertile couples. In the future, nursing staff should play a much larger role in these supportive services.
The health and drug policies of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health recognize the important role traditional health systems play in health care. Unfortunately, little has ... Conclusion: The Ethiopian government firmly supports and encourages traditional medicine through its policies as part of the national heritage. Despite these ...
Will Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Be the Predominant Setting for Oral Health Care by 2025? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Large DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be the Setting in Which the Majority of Oral Health Care Is Delivered by 2025 and Viewpoint 2: Increases in DSO-Managed Group Practices Will Be Offset by Models Allowing Dentists to Retain the Independence and Freedom of a Traditional Practice.
Cole, James R; Dodge, William W; Findley, John S; Young, Stephen K; Horn, Bruce D; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Martin, Max M; Winder, Ronald L
This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the transformation of dental practice from the traditional solo/small-group (partnership) model of the 1900s to large Dental Support Organizations (DSO) that support affiliated dental practices by providing nonclinical functions such as, but not limited to, accounting, human resources, marketing, and legal and practice management. Many feel that DSO-managed group practices (DMGPs) with employed providers will become the setting in which the majority of oral health care will be delivered in the future. Viewpoint 1 asserts that the traditional dental practice patterns of the past are shifting as many younger dentists gravitate toward employed positions in large group practices or the public sector. Although educational debt is relevant in predicting graduates' practice choices, other variables such as gender, race, and work-life balance play critical roles as well. Societal characteristics demonstrated by aging Gen Xers and those in the Millennial generation blend seamlessly with the opportunities DMGPs offer their employees. Viewpoint 2 contends the traditional model of dental care delivery-allowing entrepreneurial practitioners to make decisions in an autonomous setting-is changing but not to the degree nor as rapidly as Viewpoint 1 professes. Millennials entering the dental profession, with characteristics universally attributed to their generation, see value in the independence and flexibility that a traditional practice allows. Although DMGPs provide dentists one option for practice, several alternative delivery models offer current dentists and future dental school graduates many of the advantages of DMGPs while allowing them to maintain the independence and freedom a traditional practice provides.
Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices
Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto
Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...
Ana V. Pejcic
Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to summarize available findings from publications that reported expenditure on traditional/complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM within a representative general population sample of a nation or a defined geographical area. A total of 24 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The expenditure on TM/CAM varies worldwide, but direct comparison of the findings of publications included in this review is limited due to the differences in the definitions of TM/CAM, inclusion of various forms of TM/CAM, use of different names and categorization, as well as differences in reported currencies and time periods in which data were collected. Data about the expenditure on TM/CAM in most countries throughout the world are scarce. Further national studies should be conducted in order to provide up-to-date assessment of the TM/CAM related expenditure patterns and use. Uniform nomenclature, definition of TM/CAM and standardized instruments would provide basis for comparability of data of studies conducted in various regions and time periods.
Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T
This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents' modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents' personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn.
The study was conducted to reveal and document ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in selected sites of Eastern Hararghie. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and field observation from 9 traditional healers in 4 study sites of Eastern Hararghie. Data were ...
Raden Sanusi, H R; Werner, R
The practitioners of traditional and indigenous medicine rely mainly upon medicinal plants and herbs for the preparation of therapeutic substances. The therapeutic properties of several medicinal plants and popular traditional medicine remedies are being investigated and validated. Present health care systems place people from developing countries in a dilemma. Countries can either continue providing a type of health care which cannot be extended to all in need or rethink and offer more inclusive types of medical care and delivery systems. Traditional medicine has a clear role to play in society, and even the World Health Organization supports the practice of traditional medicine to complement modern medicine. Traditional Malay medicine is the distillation of vast historical experience dating back more than 1000 years. It is often based upon observation, clinical trials, and experiments. The promotion and development of Malay traditional medicine can both foster dignity and self-confidence in communities through self-reliance, while considerably reducing the country's drug costs. The integrity and dignity of a people stems from self-respect and self-reliance. The practice of traditional medicine practitioners can help promote such conditions in many ways. It serves as an important focus for international technical cooperation and offers the potential for major breakthroughs in therapeutics and health care delivery. Effort should be taken to keep the practice of traditional medicine alive in Malaysia.
Introduction. One of the strategies Ministries of Health and their partners have adopted with the aim of promoting safe motherhood since the 1980's is training unskilled traditional birth attendants (TBAs). However, the assumption that training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) would contribute greatly to reduce maternal ...
: beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....
The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.
Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T
Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A quest...
Altuntuğ, Kamile; Anık, Yeşim; Ege, Emel
In various cultures, the postpartum period is a sensitive time and various traditional practices are applied to protect the health of the mother and the baby. The aim of this study was to determine traditional practices of mother care in the postpartum period in Konya City of Turkey. The research was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out among 291 women at the first 8 weeks of postpartum period who visited to family health centers from June 1 to December 1, 2015. The data were collected using questionnaires. Statistical analysis of the data was done with SSPS version 22.0. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Based on the results, 84.5% of women applied a traditional mother care practice during the postpartum period. The most popular, were practices for increasing of breast milk (97.9%), preventing incubus "albasması" (81.8%), getting rid of incubus (74.9%), and preventing postpartum bleeding (14.1%).The findings of the study show that traditional practices towards mother care in the period after birth are common. In order to provide better health services, it is important for health professionals to understand the traditional beliefs and practices of the individuals, families, and society that they serve.
Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: A preliminary case study of Nangabo sub-county, central Uganda. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... The findings indicated that most (43%) respondents derive their livelihoods from traditional medicine practices.
The current emphasis on skilled attendants as a means to reduce maternal mortality contributes to a discouraging policy environment for traditional birth attendants (TBAs). They continue to attend a significant number of births, however, such that their role and the policies and practices affecting their work remain important to understanding maternity health care and maternal health in the global South. In this article, I examine the policies and practices governing community elders practicing as TBAs in rural northern Uganda. This discussion is relevant to health workers in developing countries and to scholars in fields such as women's studies, sociology, and public health.
Bucher, Sherri; Konana, Olive; Liechty, Edward; Garces, Ana; Gisore, Peter; Marete, Irene; Tenge, Constance; Shipala, Evelyn; Wright, Linda; Esamai, Fabian
The high rate of home deliveries conducted by unskilled birth attendants in resource-limited settings is an important global health issue because it is believed to be a significant contributing factor to maternal and newborn mortality. Given the large number of deliveries that are managed by unskilled or traditional birth attendants outside of health facilities, and the fact that there is on-going discussion regarding the role of traditional birth attendants in the maternal newborn health (MNH) service continuum, we sought to ascertain the practices of traditional birth attendants in our catchment area. The findings of this descriptive study might help inform conversations regarding the roles that traditional birth attendants can play in maternal-newborn health care. A structured questionnaire was used in a survey that included one hundred unskilled birth attendants in western Kenya. Descriptive statistics were employed. Inappropriate or outdated practices were reported in relation to some obstetric complications and newborn care. Encouraging results were reported with regard to positive relationships that traditional birth attendants have with their local health facilities. Furthermore, high rates of referral to health facilities was reported for many common obstetric emergencies and similar rates for reporting of pregnancy outcomes to village elders and chiefs. Potentially harmful or outdated practices with regard to maternal and newborn care among traditional birth attendants in western Kenya were revealed by this study. There were high rates of traditional birth attendant referrals of pregnant mothers with obstetric complications to health facilities. Policy makers may consider re-educating and re-defining the roles and responsibilities of traditional birth attendants in maternal and neonatal health care based on the findings of this survey.
Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...
Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh
The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application of evidence and documents. In this study, criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.
chemistry in life, the role of the adult as teacher, educator, and facilitator of learning, reference book for ... Chemistry was not an abstract idea to me, rather a practice, knowledge about doing certain things ... classroom with a trained teacher. .... indigenous traditional knowledge as well as in modern scientific knowledge.
Predicting referral practices of traditional healers of their patients with a mental illness: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. ... From the TPB application, the following cognitive variables were found to predict intentions: attitudes (ß = 0.612, p< 0.01); perceived behavioural control (ß = 0.355, p< 0.01); and past ...
Full Text Available In 1985 the Australian Government sought to delete circumcision of infants from the benefits payable under its newly established universal health scheme, Medicare. Although the decision had been recommended by the government's health advisers and was welcomed by medical authorities, it was soon reversed after protests from Jewish community leaders. I present a detailed narrative of this affair and explain why a decision based on sound medical knowledge advice was rescinded after quite mild objections. The answer is found to lie partly in contingent factors, such as the details of the policy change, the personalities of the government figures involved, and problems with implementation and communication; and partly in the sensibilities of the ethnic/religious communities most directly affected. I dispel the misconception that the original decision aroused widespread opposition and show, on the contrary, that it was based on good advice, represented sound public policy, and was widely supported. I conclude that the episode may have useful lessons for other governments seeking to implement or resist policy changes that affect the sensitivities of cultural minorities.
Naser, Eliana; Mackey, Sandra; Arthur, David; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Chen, Helen; Creedy, Debra K
to explore the traditional birthing practices of Singaporean women. a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected using individual interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Colaizzi's phenomenological method was used to analyse the data. obstetric outpatient clinics in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. a purposive sample of 30 women, 1-3 months postpartum. two broad themes emerged-following tradition and challenging tradition. Singaporean women experiencing pregnancy and childbirth follow tradition through the influence of their mother and mother-in-law and because of worry over consequences that may result if they do not. Tradition is also challenged through the modification or rejection of traditional practices and changing family roles and expectations. health professionals need to provide accurate information on traditional birthing practices and scientific evidence to support or refute such practices with the aim of preventing women from adhering to practices that are hazardous to them and the baby. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rudi W. de Lange
Full Text Available An earlier paper in this journal reported on the perception and experience of 77 allopathic health practitioners (AHPs and health managers about working together with South African traditional health practitioners (THPs. The paper stated that the abolishment of the Witchcraft Suppression Act of 1957 and the introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No. 22 of 2007 is a milestone in the development of traditional health knowledge, and for the eventual incorporation thereof into modern health care practices. The authors also comment that a decolonisation of mindset and a change of attitude is required to change one’s perception of traditional healer practices and to develop them parallel to allopathic health practice. This opinion paper is a response to the paper, to negate its claims about the Witchcraft Suppression Act of 1957 and to provide clarity on the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No. 22 of 2007 and related policies and regulations. Although this Act recognises THP, the Act and other regulations actually require THP to conform to practices analogous to those of AHP. It is rather a systematic and scientific ‘mindset’ that is required to develop THP parallel to AHP. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act of 2007 and the Draft Policy on African Traditional Medicine (TM for South Africa dictate that a substantial THP sectoral transformation is required before there can be a parallel system. Legislation and regulations have excluded THP and African TM from operating (present and future in the same space as AHP.
Full Text Available Nowadays we can observe complex interactions between the religious and secular spheres. Several different processes take place simultaneously: the traditionally religious elements function in the secular sphere as if they were part of secular culture; elements of the secular sphere build a specific kind of post-secular religiosity; finally, this post-secular religiosity influences traditional religions. This article focuses on the last stage of these changes. The author's purpose is to describe and interpret the practices we can observe. Because of the complexity of this issue, the analyses are limited to examples taken from the Catholic Church in Germany, where this process seems to be as popular as it is paradoxical. Catholicism realises that the post-secular forms of religiosity are very popular and that many people choose them instead of the traditional Church. It could offer them spirituality based on ages of experience. But instead of making its own spiritual tradition competitive on the spiritual market, Catholicism seems to offer Christianised post-secular goods, or its own traditional elements represented in a secularised form. It seems difficult to predict how it will all end. However, we observe an interesting encounter and interaction between an ‘old’ religion and a new religiosity, which will certainly have impact on further presence of the Church in the society.
Abdul Ghani Radiah
Full Text Available Postpartum care is highly important to prevent maternal and infant morbidity. In Malaysia, there are several traditional postpartum care practices by mothers. Different states adopted different ways to perform those practices. In spite of long and established practices in Malaysia, its effect and safety profile is not well understood. This study aims to gain an understanding of the traditional practices that Malay women follow in relation to postpartum care and the rationales underpinning such practices. A cross sectional study (n=100 was conducted using self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic information, practice of postpartum care and knowledge of postpartum care. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package Social Software (2.0. The findings shown that, there was no significant association of socio-demographic data with confinement period (p>0.05. For postpartum dietary practice, there were only association between age and encourage more water intake (p=0.047, p<0.05 and also between number of children and prohibit greasy food (p=0.032, p<0.05. For association between socio-demographic data and postpartum physical practice, there was only association between age and body scrub (p=0.046, p<0.05. The most significant factor that influenced postpartum care practice and its knowledge was family tradition with 83% and 97%, respectively. Traditional postpartum care practice is still significant and dominant among mothers in Kuantan, Pahang. This information is important for health care professional to educate women and provide strategies to help them to integrate their beliefs and the practices recommended in contemporary health care practice.
Aziato, Lydia; Omenyo, Cephas N
Prior to the advent of modern obstetric services, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have rendered services to pregnant women and women in labour for a long time. Although it is anticipated that women in contemporary societies will give birth in hospitals and clinics, some women still patronize the services of TBAs. The study therefore sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the initiation of TBAs and their traditional and spiritual practices employed during pregnancy and childbirth in Ghana. The design was an exploratory qualitative one using in-depth individual interviews. Data saturation was reached with 16 participants who were all of Christian faith. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview guide, audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was employed to generate findings. The findings showed that TBAs were initiated through apprenticeship from family members who were TBAs and other non-family TBAs as well as through dreams and revelations. They practice using both spiritual and physical methods and their work was founded on spiritual directions, use of spiritual artefacts, herbs and physical examination. TBAs delay cutting of the cord and disposal of the placenta was associated with beliefs which indicated that when not properly disposed, it will have negative consequences on the child during adulthood. Although, TBAs like maternal health professionals operate to improve maternal health care, some of their spiritual practices and beliefs may pose threats to their clients. Nonetheless, with appropriate initiation and training, they can become useful.
Patients Consulting Traditional Health Practioners In The Context Of Hiv/Aids In Urban Areas In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. ... A number of HIV positive patients were using traditional medicine and ART concurrently, dropped out of ART because of side effects and were using traditional medicine for HIV. Keywords: Patients ...
Borders, L M; Bingham, P R; Riddle, M C
While complex procedures are usually recommended to prevent infection at insulin injection sites, adherence to these procedures is imperfect and their value incompletely established. Among 254 adult insulin users in two clinic populations, the reported prevalence of complete performance of four traditional insulin-use practices (handwashing, vial prep, skin prep, discarding of plastic syringes after one use) was 29%, and none of the individual practices considered was performed regularly by more than two-thirds of the subjects. Even so, there was no infection at 2828 injection sites, and there was no significant bacterial contamination of insulin or syringes. These findings fail to support the view that traditional practices provide protection to insulin users against infection or bacterial growth in insulin or syringes. The authors suggest that modification of traditional teaching methods would do no harm, and that benefits could include financial savings, improved client success with self-care, and enhanced health care provider credibility.
Conclusions: Cultural practices could not be perceived as protective mechanisms that protect women from PPD in this traditional society. However, health professionals should be familiar with postpartum beliefs and practices that could support mothers in the postpartum period.
Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Thet, May Me; Khaing, Ei Ei; Sudhinaraset, May
Myanmar is witnessing increased access to modern maternity care, along with shifting norms and practices. Past research has documented low rates of facility-based deliveries in the country, along with adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Research has also documented diverse traditional practices in the postpartum period, related to maternity care and maternal food intake. Through 34 qualitative interviews with women who recently gave birth and their mothers-in-law in one township in Myanmar (Laputta), we explore factors influencing decision-making around postpartum care and the practices that women engage in. We find that women use both modern and traditional providers because different types of providers play particular roles in the delivery and postpartum period. Despite knowledge of about healthy foods to eat postpartum, many women restrict the intake of certain foods, and mothers-in-laws' beliefs in these practices are particularly strong. Findings suggest that women and their families are balancing two different sets of practices and beliefs, which at times come in conflict. Educational campaigns and programmes should address both modern and traditional beliefs and practices to help women be better able to access safe care and improve their own and their children's health.
have contributed negatively to the situation. The immediate impact is that this predisposition unfortunately places the traditional health practitioners in situations wherein they cannot always take specific roles at present or in the future as healers in the South African healthcare sector, as intended and guided by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 of 2007. Conclusion To expect the South African traditional health practitionersto function at present and in future fully within the intentions of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007, executing certain roles as independent health practitioners in the formal healthcare sector, seems to a great extent impossible. Wherever they are successfully placed in the healthcare sector, their positions and roles seem to be limited. Furthermore, the traditional healers’ places in the formal healthcare sector were already taken by the allied health professions, by such practitioners as homeopaths, naturopaths and ethno-therapists, etc. Thus they are obliged to compete with the already established nursing practitioners, psychiatrists and psychologists, as well as medical doctors, all established in clearly defined and functioning roles. These work inclinations and reservations further minimize their roles dramatically in the formal healthcare sector. To consider the future of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 and its two outcomes, namely the Traditional Health Practitioners Council as well as the traditional health practitioner, there are at present three urgent issues. The prominent question is: can the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 continue in its present form or must it be recalled? In its present manifestation the Act and the traditional healers seem to be ineffective and aimless. It is time to consider alternatives to assure the continuation of the traditional healers as practitioners in the South African healthcare sector. The most obvious and practical one is to
Raven Joanna H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. Methods We interviewed family members (36 and health workers (8 in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional beliefs and their behaviour postpartum. We used a framework approach to identify main themes. We categorised reported behaviour against their probable effects on health, drawing on Western standards. Results Respondents reported that zuo yuezi was commonly practiced in urban and rural families to help the mother regain her strength and protect her future health. Zuo yuezi included: dietary precautions, such as eating more food and avoiding cold food; behavioural precautions, such as staying inside the home, avoiding housework and limiting visitors; hygiene precautions, such as restricting bathing and dental hygiene; and practices associated with infant feeding, including supplementary feeding and giving honeysuckle herb to the infant. Respondents reported that the main reasons for adhering to these practices were respect for tradition, and following the advice of elders. Categorised against Western medical standards, several zuo yuezi practices are beneficial, including eating more, eating protein rich food, avoiding housework, and daily vulval and perineal hygiene. A few are potentially harmful, including giving honeysuckle herb, and avoiding dental hygiene. Some women reported giving infants supplementary feeds, although zuo yuezi emphasises breast feeding. Conclusion Zuo yuezi is an important ritual in Fujian. In medical terms, most practices are beneficial, and could be used by health staff to promote health in this period. Further research on reported potentially harmful practices, such as supplements to breast feeding, is needed.
India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.
Stanifer, John W; Lunyera, Joseph; Boyd, David; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D
access biomedicine and traditional medicines concurrently. The traditional medicines used for the local treatment of kidney disease have a variety of activities, and people with CKD may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects. Recognizing these traditional medicine practices will be important in shaping CKD treatment programs and public health policies aimed at addressing CKD.
and an implicit relationship with salutations/greetings. Health has been defined as a state of ... Salutation is a sign, act or gesture of greeting exchanges or a way of recognizing somebody. It could also be seen ... is “no generalizable definition of greetings and what greetings do for people in terms of functional relevance to a ...
Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to determine medical and traditional knowledge and practices of emergency contraception among married women after unprotected sexual intercourse.\tMaterials and Methods: The present study was carried out as a descriptive study on 367 married women registered to Primary Health Center number one in Odemis County of Izmir City between the dates 12.05.2005 and 20.06.2005. The data were collected through a questionnaire consisting of characteristic desciriptive, reproductive data and knowledge and use of medical and traditional emergency contraception. For collecting data, face-to-face interview technique was used. Data were evaluated by as number, percentage and chi-square tests on the SPSS version 12.0.\tResults: It was found that 25.1% of the women knew medical methods of emergency contraception and 1.4% of them (n = 5 used morning after pills. It was also found that 50.1% of the women knew at least one traditional practice for contraception and 19.3% of them used traditional practice at least for one time, and the most frequently used traditional practice was vaginal douche with rate of 75.7%. Conclusions: It was concluded that rate of having knowledge on and using medical emergency contraceptive methods was lower for contraception from unintended pregnancies whereas rate of having knowledge on and using traditional contraceptive practice was higher among married women in Odemis. The women should be informed on emergency contraceptive methods and they should be given counselling.
Baştuğ, Osman; Korkmaz, Levent; Korkut, Sabriye; Halis, Hülya; Güneş, Tamer; Kurtoğlu, Selim
Branding refers to a traditional practice of creating 'therapeutic' burns with hot iron rods over the skin in order to treat various diseases. Although branding is a harmful practice for the body, it has been used for various illnesses including physiologic jaundice in newborns, pneumonia, and convulsions. It causes serious morbidity and delays seeking proper medical care in neonates. Innovations of modern medicine and the use of evidence-based medicine should be preferred instead of these traditional practices. We present a branded mature newborn baby who was diagnosed as having adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndrome. This problem is very rare in Turkey; however, it is a very important health issue and has social aspects. Therefore, this case is presented to increase awareness.
Baştuğ, Osman; Korkmaz, Levent; Korkut, Sabriye; Halis, Hülya; Güneş, Tamer; Kurtoğlu, Selim
Branding refers to a traditional practice of creating ‘therapeutic’ burns with hot iron rods over the skin in order to treat various diseases. Although branding is a harmful practice for the body, it has been used for various illnesses including physiologic jaundice in newborns, pneumonia, and convulsions. It causes serious morbidity and delays seeking proper medical care in neonates. Innovations of modern medicine and the use of evidence-based medicine should be preferred instead of these traditional practices. We present a branded mature newborn baby who was diagnosed as having adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndrome. This problem is very rare in Turkey; however, it is a very important health issue and has social aspects. Therefore, this case is presented to increase awareness. PMID:28123337
treatment of, mental health problems.3 This was recognized in ... Keywords: Traditional Healers; Mental illness; Informal settlements; Kenya .... students on their vacation. ..... and treatments in Malaysia, in Blakeney M (Ed) Perspectives on.
Kaingu, Catherine Kaluwa; Oduma, Jemimah Achieng; Kanui, Titus I
The aim of the study was to document TBAs practices as well as the indigenous herbal remedies they use to manage pre, intra and post partum complications in a rural Kenyan community. A cross sectional study was conducted on practicing TBAs and their clients living in the study area. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and interviews. Focused group discussions were held with the TBAs to supplement the interviews and questionnaire survey. Two hundred TBAs and 20 clients were interviewed. The majority of the TBAs were females 75% of them having attended to over 200 pregnant women over a period of 5 years and above compared to only 6% of the males. A total of 10 pregnancy related complications and symptoms including threatened abortion, labor complications, post partum hemorrhage and retained after birth were recorded. Fifty five plant species most of them belonging to Euphorbiaceae family were identified for the management of the complications. Traditional Birth Attendants still have a role to play in assisting pregnant women in rural communities. Their knowledge on herbal medicines is equally important and should be preserved for posterity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barker, Gail P; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Schellenberg, Bonnie; Weinstein, Ronald S
This paper compares the expenses of a telemedicine program to those of a traditional clinical practice using data from two fiscal years (FY) 1998/1999 and 2000/2001. As part of that evaluation, we compared expenses of the University of Arizona's clinical practice group, the University Physicians Incorporated (UPI), to those of the Arizona Telemedicine Program (ATP) practice. For this study, we used the reporting categories published in the year-end UPI financial statement. These categories included clinical services, administration, equipment depreciation, and overhead. Results showed that clinical service expenses and administrative expenses for FY 2000/2001 were higher in the traditional UPI practice, whereas equipment depreciation and overhead expenses are higher in the telemedicine practice. This differs somewhat from FY 1998/1999, where clinical expenses and overhead were higher in the UPI practice and administration and equipment depreciation were higher in the telemedicine practice. We will discuss the relevance of these results and the critical factors that contribute to these differences.
Oleson, Heather E; Chute, Sara; O'Fallon, Ann; Sherwood, Nancy E
To examine the beliefs, attitudes and health-seeking behavior surrounding the use of traditional medicine among the Karen (refugees from Burma). Three focus groups and two key-informant interviews were conducted with the Karen along with observations by researchers. The Karen continue to use elements of their traditional healthcare system after resettling in the U.S. Accessibility and perceived efficacy of treatments influence their health-seeking behavior. The participants discussed beliefs about health and healing, spirituality, and their experience as refugees. Implications for improving the quality of healthcare for the Karen and recommendations for further research are discussed.
Katisi, Masego; Daniel, Marguerite
Botswana has been running Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) since 2009 and has not yet met its target. Donors like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (funded by the Gates Foundation) in collaboration with Botswana's Ministry of Health have invested much to encourage HIV-negative men to circumcise. Demand creation strategies make use of media and celebrities. The objective of this paper is to explore responses to SMC in relation to circumcision as part of traditional initiation practices. More specifically, we present the views of two communities in Botswana on SMC consultation processes, implementation procedures and campaign strategies. The methods used include participant observation, in-depth interviews with key stakeholders (donors, implementers and Ministry officials), community leaders and men in the community. We observe that consultation with traditional leaders was done in a seemingly superficial, non-participatory manner. While SMC implementers reported pressure to deliver numbers to the World Health Organization, traditional leaders promoted circumcision through their routine traditional initiation ceremonies at breaks of two-year intervals. There were conflicting views on public SMC demand creation campaigns in relation to the traditional secrecy of circumcision. In conclusion, initial cooperation of local chiefs and elders turned into resistance.
Medicine in Africa is regarded as possessing its own "life force", not just using a system of prescribing. This is because health problems are not only attributed to pathological explanations alone, but also to other "forces". Hence, traditional healers utter incantations to take care of negative forces which militate against achieving cure. Treatment in African traditional medicine (ATM) is holistic. It seeks to strike a balance between the patients' body, soul and spirit. The problems arise from the infiltration of charlatans into the field, the practice of using mystical explanations for ill-health, and inadequate knowledge of the properties and clinical use of herbal remedies. Despite its problems, ATM can work in parallel with orthodox medicine using its strengths rather than its weaknesses. ATM has to be applied within a uniform ethical system. Practitioners of ATM must follow the principles of autonomy and confidentiality.
Sohl, P; Bassford, H A
The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly emerging national medical associations. After World War II the World Medical Association was established as an international forum where national medical associations could debate the ethical problems presented by modern medicine. The International Code of Medical ethics and the Declaration of Geneva were written as 20th century restatements of the medical profession's commitment to the sovereignty of the patient-care norm. Many ethical statements have been issued by the World Medical Association in the past 35 years; they show the variety and difficulties of contemporary medical practice. The newest revisions were approved by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association in Venice, Italy October 1983. Their content is examined and concern is voiced about the danger of falling into cultural relativism when questions about the methods of financing medical services are the subject of an ethical declaration which is arrived at by consensus in the W.M.A.
Mullany, Luke C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Khatry, Subarna K; Tielsch, James M
Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity.
Objective: This study was aimed at identifying Ghanaian traditional medicines used for the management of prostate diseases and their constituents. Reviews of studies conducted on them are also presented. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Traditional Medicine samples from consecutive patients with either ...
Ebonyi State has an HIV prevalence rate of 11.1%. The state has 2.1 million inhabitants, who are mainly rural dwellers where traditional birth attendants play pivotal role in healthcare delivery. This study assesses the awareness of HIV infection and its route of transmission among the traditional birth attendants in Ebonyi ...
Arc. Usman A. Jalam
interest in their traditional pottery heritage and, avail themselves of the cottage or self- employment, and ..... prior to the local market day. .... communicate with people in Hausa instead of their ... serving food and beverages while some were.
This essay views some of such gender ascribed roles as they concern Igbo traditional .... weaning songs and lullabies are purely women's business due to the type of bond ... Sadiq, M. “Socialization and Gender Stereotyping”. Gender Issues.
Method: One hundred traditional healers were first interviewed to assess the TPB variables and were ... A third perspective might be termed “integrative”. ..... extremely abnormal behaviour and episodes of violence.34,35 ... J Soc Psychology .
changes in social structures, immigration and advent of new religions, adoption of new resource ... reflect social organisation and power structure. ..... reported that traditional leaders over two ... sacrifices to their ancestors when fish was scarce ...
The Council, as a professional body established by Parliament, gives traditional health practitioners registered with it the authority to issue medical certificates in line with the provisions of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act. However, the Council does not seem to be in a position to perform this function yet. Moreover ...
to face in selecting the credible practitioners from the bogus ones for registration ... for registration. It is clear that the definition of a traditional health ... medical certificate and its validity can bring about came sharply to the fore in Kievits Kroon ...
Keri, L; Kaye, D; Sibylle, K
To assess current beliefs, knowledge and practices of Ugandan traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and their pregnant patients regarding referral of obstructed labors and fistula cases. Six focus groups were held in rural areas surrounding Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. While TBAs, particularly those with previous training, appear willing to refer problematic pregnancies and labors, more serious problems exist that could lessen any positive effects of training. These problems include reported abuse by doctors and nurses, and seeing fistula as a disease caused by hospitals. Training of TBAs can be helpful to standardize knowledge about and encourage timely emergency obstetric referrals, as well as increase knowledge about the causes and preventions of obstetric fistula. However, for full efficacy, training must be accompanied by greater collaboration between biomedical and traditional health personnel, and increased infrastructure to prevent mistreatment of pregnant patients by medical staff.
Gusman, Christine Ranier; Viana, Ana Paula de Andrade Lima; Miranda, Margarida Araújo Barbosa; Pedrosa, Mayane Vilela; Villela, Wilza Vieira
The present article describes an experience with traditional birth attendants carried out in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, between 2010 and 2014. The experience was part of a diagnostic project to survey home deliveries in the state of Tocantins and set up a registry of traditional birth attendants for the Health Ministry's Working with Traditional Birth Attendants Program (PTPT). The project aimed to articulate the home deliveries performed by traditional birth attendants to the local health care systems (SUS). Sixty-seven active traditional birth attendants were identified in the state of Tocantins, and 41 (39 indigenous) participated in workshops. During these workshops, they discussed their realities, difficulties, and solutions in the context of daily adversities. Birth attendants were also trained in the use of biomedical tools and neonatal resuscitation. Based on these experiences, the question came up regarding the true effectiveness of the strategy to include traditional birth attendants in the SUS. The present article discusses this theme with support from the relevant literature. The dearth of systematic studies focusing on the impact of PTPT actions on the routine of traditional birth attendants, including perinatal outcomes and remodeling of health practices in rural, riverfront, former slave, forest, and indigenous communities, translates into a major gap in terms of the knowledge regarding the effectiveness of such initiatives.
Watsuji, Tadashi; Shinohara, Shoji; Arita, Seizaburo
The primary prevention of disease related to the lifestyle is an essential theme in medical research. Preventing before it arises is the important concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Since TCM, which emphasizes individual physical condition in medical treatment, has recently attracted considerable attention globally, objective diagnostic methods in TCM have been investigated in this work. Firstly, the fuzzy theory was applied to develop a tongue diagnosis supporting system based on the tongue diagnosis in TCM. Secondly, the usefulness of TCM health questionnaire was examined to identify individual physical condition. Our results suggest that the TCM health questionnaire is useful in the construction of a health supporting system based on TCM.
Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather
The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.
Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.
Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…
Condie, Rae; Livingston, Kay
Considerable claims have been made for the development of e-learning, either as stand-alone programmes or alongside more traditional approaches to teaching and learning, for students across school and tertiary education. National initiatives have improved the position of schools in terms of access to hardware and electronic networking, software…
main business district of Accra, were visited and traditional medicines for the management of prostate diseases ac- ... This was the constituent in four products (Uro 500®, UR-Quick mixture®, Prostacure® ... Herbal medicine, botanical medicine or phytomedicine ... along with quality clinical research supporting the value.
The health and drug policies of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health recognize the ... It is known that many countries in African, Asia and ... medicine due to the cultural acceptability of healers and .... These perceptions are related to the belief that.
Barresi, B; Scott, C
Optometric practice management experts have always recommended that optometrists thoroughly research the communities in which they are considering practicing. Until the Internet came along, demographic research was possible but often daunting. Today, say these authors, it's becoming quite a bit easier ... and they show us how.
Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak
Background: The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. Results: According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Conclusion: Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state. PMID:27840513
Michael, Afieharo I; Iyun, Ayodele O
Methylated spirit burns have been reported following domestic uses such as igniting fondues. It has also been used as an accelerant for self-immolation. We report the first documented case of severe methylated spirit burns sustained during traditional hair dressing. Increased awareness on the dangers of methylated spirit as well as making it less readily available for domestic use is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi
Background: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word “loab” in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. Results: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today’s chronic ailments. Conclusion: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future. PMID:27840507
Vrtilkova, V.; Novotny, L.; Hamouz, V.; Doucha, R.; Tinka, I.; Macek, J.; Lahovsky, F.
Evaluation of LOCA time behaviour is usually based on traditional embrittlement criterion, represented by the equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) limit 17 % (18 %) at the peak cladding temperature below 1204 0 C (1200 0 C). From different existing correlations for evaluation the ECR, the correlations of Baker-Just, Cathcart and VNIINM (Bibilashvili) are discussed here. Results, obtained by these correlations, are illustrated for typical and atypical LOCA courses analysed for the WWER 440 plant. An approach to assess these correlations from the viewpoint of violation of the observed criterion is presented. This approach is based on determination of the temperature vers. time of exposition, when the criterion limit is reached. Reasons leading to necessity of alternative criterion proposal are summarised. This criterion for LOCA events evaluation, including corresponding correlation, is proposed on the basis of the long-term experimental research of cladding materials at UJP Praha. The computational results, obtained according to this alternative criterion, are illustrated for the same courses of LOCA events as for traditional criteria and traditional correlations. Proposed criterion is also confronted with the other discussed criteria in accordance with mentioned approach presented in this paper. The characteristic experimental results and key findings are summarised. They substantiate and support the proposed alternative criterion. An advantage of the criterion is its independence on ECR, on hydrogen and oxygen content and on oxidation history, and its applicability to current Zr-based alloy cladding materials as well. This applicability is kept while preserving the simplicity of the criterion using. (author)
Robyns, Marcus C
In an age of scarcity and the challenge of electronic records, can archivists and records managers continue to rely upon traditional methodology essentially unchanged since the early 1950s? Using Functional Analysis in Archival Appraisal: A Practical and Effective Alternative to Traditional Appraisal Methodologies shows how archivists in other countries are already using functional analysis, which offers a better, more effective, and imminently more practical alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies that rely upon an analysis of the records themselves.
Mowling, Claire M.; Heidorn, Brent
Tennis is a sport that promotes physical activity for a lifetime. Individuals of practically all ages can benefit from recreational and/or competitive play. Although playing tennis provides many wellness opportunities, learning
Fronczak, N; Arifeen, S E; Moran, A C; Caulfield, L E; Baqui, A H
This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993-May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity.
Frank, Erica; Segura, Carolina
To study the health and health practices of Canadian physicians, which can often influence patient health. Mailed survey. Canada. A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians; 7934 were found to be eligible and 3213 responded (40.5% response rate). Factors that influence health, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, amount of exercise and alcohol consumption, smoking status, body mass idex, and participation in preventive health screening measures, as well as work-life balance and emotional stability. Canadian physicians are healthy. More than 90% reported being in good to excellent health, and only 5% reported that poor physical or mental health made it difficult to handle their workload more than half the time in the previous month (although a quarter had reduced work activity because of long-term health conditions). Eight percent were obese, 3% currently smoked cigarettes, and 1% typically consumed 5 drinks or more on days when they drank alcohol. Physicians averaged 4.7 hours of exercise per week and ate fruits and vegetables 4.8 times a day. Their personal screening practices were largely compliant with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommendations. They averaged 38 hours per week on patient care and 11 hours on other professional activities. Fifty-seven percent agreed that they had a good work-life balance, and 11% disagreed with the statement "If I can, I work when I am ill." Compared with self-reports from the general Canadian population, Canadian physicians, like American physicians, seem to be healthy and to have generally healthy behaviour. There is, however, room for improvement in physicians' personal and professional well-being, and improving their personal health practices could be an efficient and beneficent way to improve the health of all Canadians.
In traditional medicine (TM, PHN is mostly due to incomplete heat and damp clearing in liver and spleen meridians, qi and toxic pathogens stagnation, accumulation of yin (blood stagnation in microcapillary, internal fire, and heat and obstruction of meridians. Acupuncture works based on the eradication of wind, clearing of heat, and destroying of damp by regulating qi and blood movement. In clinics, several methods of TM are used to relief PHN, such as simultaneous needling, surrounding needling, acupuncture, electro acupuncture, moxibustion, wet cupping or hijamat, and herbal medicine. In this review, we discussed all these methods and their role in reducing PHN and pain.
Full Text Available Background The scope of practice of the traditional healer in South Africa is not guided or circumscribed by any statutory mandate at present. The traditional healer’s practice and services are currently based on and driven by the supernatural and the afterlife, lacking not only a scientific foundation, but also legal constraint. Aims This study aimed to determine and describe the present-day scope of practice and services of the South African traditional healer. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the scope of practice and services of the South African traditional healer. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results There is no established curriculum and practice culture to serve as an evaluation and descriptive criteria for the present-day traditional healer’s scope of practice. Conclusion The South African traditional healer’s practice and rights are unwritten and legally unregulated, especially when viewed against in comparison with the current practice customs, traditions and rights of the South African statutorily regulated healthcare practitioners.
referral of high risk and complicated pregnancies and deliveries (Afr. J. Reprod. Health 2010 ... proportion of pregnant women are attended at childbirth ... tility; management of threatened abortion; ... refuse referral and whatever is the outcome.
Sorensen, Barbara Ellen
Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…
Stone, Joseph B.
Bereavement beliefs and practices in the modern, American culture have been well documented. However, virtually no research has been conducted on traditional and contemporary death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices among native tribes, such as the Lakota. The present study was conducted with the Lakota, and fulfilled two goals. iii First, the contemporary and traditional death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices of the Lakota were documented and summariz...
Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the potential applicability of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia, including China, Japan, and South Korea. In ancient Northeast Asia, forest policies and practices were based on Fengshui (an old Chinese concept regarding the flow of vital forces, with which forests were managed under community forestry. However, these traditional systems diminished in the twentieth century owing to the decline of traditional livelihood systems and extreme deforestation. Recently, legacies from traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry have been revisited and incorporated into forest policies, laws, and management practices because of growing needs for sustainable forest use in China, Japan, and Korea. This reevaluation of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry has provided empirical data to help improve forestry systems. Although traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia have been scarcely theorized, they play a significant role in modifying forest management practices in the face of socioeconomic changes.
Essential oils (EOs), also known as volatile oils, are concentrated natural plant products which contain volatile aroma compounds. Most EOs are derived by steam distillation, a tradition which can be traced back as many as 5000 years. They possess unique properties which result in various possibilities for application, also in modern medical contexts. Areas for medical aromatherapy include respiratory diseases, pain management or stress alleviation, amongst many others. Different modes of application exist: The rich ingredients can be absorbed by the body by anointment, gentle massage, inhalation, or oral intake of capsules. Also the risks of EO application in medical contexts should be considered, such as rare allergic reactions, overdosing, poor substance quality or overestimation of the effectiveness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Jun 2, 2018 ... city pre-school children in Sudan. Alya Isam Elgamri1†, Azza .... has many short and long-term health-related repercus- sions. Short terms ..... parental memory thus susceptible to possible recall bias. In this study, subjects ...
Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla
Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…
... Diabetes - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Fasting Blood Sugar Test - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) ...
Leach, Matthew J; Canaway, Rachel; Hunter, Jennifer
To develop a policy, practice, education and research agenda for evidence-based practice (EBP) in traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM). The study was a secondary analysis of qualitative data, using the method of roundtable discussion. The sample comprised seventeen experts in EBP and T&CM. The discussion was audio-recorded, and the transcript analysed using thematic analysis. Four central themes emerged from the data; understanding evidence and EBP, drivers of change, interpersonal interaction, and moving forward. Captured within these themes were fifteen sub-themes. These themes/sub-themes translated into three broad calls to action: (1) defining terminology, (2) defining the EBP approach, and (3) fostering social movement. These calls to action formed the framework of the agenda. This analysis presents a potential framework for an agenda to improve EBP implementation in T&CM. The fundamental elements of this action plan seek clarification, leadership and unification on the issue of EBP in T&CM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was used to assess the impact of traditional practices on trade in traditional plants within the rainforest of Nigeria. A questionnaire survey and market-based observations were used to derive data from 110 stakeholders including: plant collectors, sellers, middlemen and traditional healers. Results of data analyses indicate that: (i plants not suitable for cultural practices were not usually used for traditional medicine. (ii Traditional management of the forests based on open access, restricted access and closed access rights could no longer protect habitats of medicinal plants. (iii Breakdown of management practices in the forests was common because of a twin factor: violators of regulations were not being punished; and there were increasing disputes over land boundaries among communities. (iv Medicinal plants on regular trade were in decline. Stakeholder participation in species rehabilitation in the forests and establishment of ex situ gardens may sustain the medicinal plant trade.
Like any discipline, psychoanalysis has evolved considerably since its inception by Freud over a century ago, and a multitude of different psychoanalytic traditions and schools of theory and practice now exist. However, some of Freud's original ideas, such as the dynamic unconscious, a developmental approach, defence mechanisms, and transference and countertransference remain essential tenets of psychoanalytic thinking to this day. This Review outlines several areas within modern mental health practice in which contemporary adaptations and applications of these psychoanalytic concepts might offer helpful insights and improvements in patient care and management, and concludes with an overview of evidence-based psychoanalytically informed treatments and the links between psychoanalysis, attachment research, and neuroscience. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raja Ikram, Raja Rina; Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Abdullah, Noraswaliza
This paper shall first investigate the informatics areas and applications of the four Traditional Medicine systems - Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine and Traditional Malay Medicine. Then, this paper shall examine the national informatics infrastructure initiatives in the four respective countries that support the Traditional Medicine systems. Challenges of implementing informatics in Traditional Medicine Systems shall also be discussed. The literature was sourced from four databases: Ebsco Host, IEEE Explore, Proquest and Google scholar. The search term used was "Traditional Medicine", "informatics", "informatics infrastructure", "traditional Chinese medicine", "Ayurveda", "traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine", and "traditional malay medicine". A combination of the search terms above was also executed to enhance the searching process. A search was also conducted in Google to identify miscellaneous books, publications, and organization websites using the same terms. Amongst major advancements in TCM and Ayurveda are bioinformatics, development of Traditional Medicine databases for decision system support, data mining and image processing. Traditional Chinese Medicine differentiates itself from other Traditional Medicine systems with documented ISO Standards to support the standardization of TCM. Informatics applications in Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine are mostly ehealth applications that focus more on spiritual healing, Islamic obligations and prophetic traditions. Literature regarding development of health informatics to support Traditional Malay Medicine is still insufficient. Major informatics infrastructure that is common in China and India are automated insurance payment systems for Traditional Medicine treatment. National informatics infrastructure in Middle East and Malaysia mainly cater for modern medicine. Other infrastructure such as telemedicine and hospital information systems focus its
Mzimkulu, Kanyiswa G.; Simbayi, Leickness C.
The aim of this study was to investigate perspectives and practices of Xhosa-speaking African traditional healers, known as "amagqirha", in managing psychosis. Four traditional healers, 3 male and one female, were chosen to take part in the study through their association with psychosis patients undergoing treatment at a South African…
Silbermann, Michael; Hassan, Esmat A
People's attitudes to cancer and its treatment are influenced by the patient's and his family's faith, beliefs, societal traditions, and cultural taboos and stigmatism. In most Middle Eastern countries Islam is the dominant religion, yet there are differences as to people's acceptance of cancer, starting with the realization of the diagnosis and the subsequent treatment planning. In many societies in the Middle East, patients prefer that their families will be the first to know about the disease and to agree to the planned treatment protocols. Whereas in Western societies the patient is usually the first to know, understand, and agree to the proposed therapeutic procedures; this is not the case in various Muslim societies. Health care professionals have to accept these kinds of practices and find ways to cope with their patients' sensitivities, thereby preserving their dignity and faith.
Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon
Although there has been much international commentary, little is known about the interface between traditional knowledge and scientific research in modern naturopathic practice. This study aimed to explore this interface from the perspective of naturopaths. Semistructured interviews were conducted with naturopaths in current practice. The participants were selected using purposive sampling, and the data from the interviews were interpreted using thematic analysis. Interviews were conducted in a place suitable to each participant. Twelve (12) naturopaths in current clinical practice were interviewed. The participants represented a diversity of characteristics including gender, time in practice, level of qualification, and clinical contact hours per week. Thematic analysis was used to identify common themes from the interviews. Analysis identified a disparity in practitioner definition of what constitutes traditional information. However, it also identified that traditional knowledge is considered a valid source of information, whereas the validity and value of modern research is questioned. There is also tension between these two information sources, with science being argued to both support traditional knowledge, while also undermining its value. This tension seems to be overcome by practitioners' use of traditional knowledge to direct their own research, as well as drawing upon their knowledge of science to explain traditional knowledge as yet not researched. The findings of this qualitative study reveal tensions and ambiguities around the interface between tradition and science with regard to naturopathic clinical practice. Understanding these findings may assist individuals and groups within the naturopathic profession, as well as those outside the profession engaging and collaborating with naturopaths.
Shrestha, Nawal; Shrestha, Saugat; Koju, Laxmi; Shrestha, Krishna Kumar; Wang, Zhiheng
plants and reinforcement of existing cultivation practices for sustainable management of high-priority species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madhivanan, Purnima; Kumar, Bhavana N; Adamson, Paul; Krupp, Karl
There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in
Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.
Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available for urban AI communities do not exist in the literature, this community-based project convened 4 focus groups consisting of 26 members of a midwestern urban AI community to better understand traditional healing practices of interest and how they might be integrated into the mental health and substance abuse treatment services in an Urban Indian Health Organization (UIHO). Qualitative content analysis of focus group transcripts revealed that ceremonial participation, traditional education, culture keepers, and community cohesion were thought to be key components of a successful traditional healing program. Potential incorporation of these components into an urban environment, however, yielded 4 marked tensions: traditional healing protocols versus the realities of impoverished urban living, multitribal representation in traditional healing services versus relational consistency with the culture keepers who would provide them, enthusiasm for traditional healing versus uncertainty about who is trustworthy, and the integrity of traditional healing versus the appeal of alternative medicine. Although these tensions would likely arise in most urban AI clinical contexts, the way in which each is resolved will likely depend on tailored community needs, conditions, and mental health objectives. PMID:22731113
Ahmed MOHD MUSTAQUE
Full Text Available Many countries and cultures inherited knowledge of plant medicines to cure diseases and health problems from time immemorial. Field survey work and the registration of patients on a daily basis for a number of 129 randomly selected days, mainly in Thoubal district from January 2006 to October 2006 were conducted, alongside the collection of plants up to April, 2008. Recorded patients belonging to these communities included communities 514 Muslims: 390 Meeteis: 159 Tribals. Male and female were in a proportion of 614:548. The present study deals with 13 plant species, under 14 genera belonging to 13 families closely associated with 12 categories of treatment of diseases and human health problems. The plant parts/plants employed are categorised as leaves (L, 7 times; whole plant (WP, 2 times and Fruits (F, Whole plant without root (WPWR, Seeds (S, Bulbs (B, Roots (R; 1 time each. Category of illnesses and health problems and number of patients recorded were - Bone dislocation, fracture & other bone related problems (BDFOP 402; Ligament (LG 86; Kidney stone and kidney related problem (KSAP 47; Joint, body ache &associated problems( JBAP 37; Gastric problems (GST 35; Diabetes(DBT 35; Leiman or Bad Womb (BW 30; Dhatu or Piles & Constipation (PC 27; Phunba and Lengba or Congestion of chest (CC; Asthma (AST 16; Stomach and associated problems (SAP 14; Heart weakness (9; Liver problems (LP(9; Lack of blood & Blood problem (LBBP 8; Chakmangba or post-birth lack of appetite female case (PBLAFC 8; Paralysis (P6; Female white discharge (FWD 4; Irregular Men’s Cycle (IMC 4; possessiveness due to black earth (PBE 4; Gall bladder stone (GBS 4; Fever (2 and others (OTS 366. The investigation of the traditional medicinal practices of Muslim herbalists in Manipur vis a vis finding along potentiality of the practical know how of indigenous medicinal knowledge. Comparative study of some plants for their useful aspects in solving health problems had been discussed
Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming
In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.
Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world’s populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.
Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming
In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833
Birhan, Wubet; Giday, Mirutse; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun
Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2%) efficacy, 109 (35.6%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0%) cost and 6 (2.0%) dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%), young age (20-40 years, 65.0%), never married (56.9%), orthodox (73.9%), Amhara (52.3%), educational status above grade 12 (34.6%) and government employees (29.4%) were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based apprenticeship was the sources of knowledge for majority of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2% efficacy, 109 (35.6% dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3% dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0% cost and 6 (2.0% dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%, young age (20-40 years, 65.0%, never married (56.9%, orthodox (73.9%, Amhara (52.3%, educational status above grade 12 (34.6% and government employees (29.4% were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based
Full Text Available What practices and techniques contribute to the “recontextualization” of an extinct traditional tattoo tradition in contemporary practice? Through what channels do today’s practitioners revive the application and use of extinct tattoos? This paper is about the “recontextualization” of burik, an extinct traditional tattoo found in some of the mummies in Kabayan, Benguet, north of Luzon, Philippines. While the traditional cultural bearers are already nonextant, I explore the contemporary transformations of the burik through “cultural borrowing” and “appropriation,” such as (a graphic designs on clothing, (b actual tattoo designs on the skin, and (c an aesthetic tattoo practice. Tattooing, in terms of both practice and design, has become a popular practice worldwide. In the Philippines, tattoo artists turn to traditional tattoo practice by “re-invoking” the features of tattoos (pain, permanence, and the “graphicness” (designs is appropriated to recent practices in tattooing the skin (“skin-deep” and incorporated in tattoo designs on clothing (“surface”.I argue that the successive phases and changes in the status of burik tattoos—enabled by the advent of modern technology, the Internet, and mass media—encourage an interaction between contemporary and historical influences rather than an extinction of past practice. Such cross-sector sources continue to characterize the reinterpretation of traditional tattoos in contemporary practices. To understand fully the significance of burik today, I draw on Appadurai’s notion of objects as “things-in-motion” and Kopytoff’s “social biography of objects” as the burik relate to relevant socioeconomic and political contexts across time.
Full Text Available What practices and techniques contribute to the “recontextualization” of an extinct traditional tattoo tradition in contemporary practice? Through what channels do today’s practitioners revive the application and use of extinct tattoos? This paper is about the “recontextualization” of burik, an extinct traditional tattoo found in some of the mummies in Kabayan, Benguet, north of Luzon, Philippines. While the traditional cultural bearers are already nonextant, I explore the contemporary transformations of the burik through “cultural borrowing” and “appropriation,” such as (a graphic designs on clothing, (b actual tattoo designs on the skin, and (c an aesthetic tattoo practice. Tattooing, in terms of both practice and design, has become a popular practice worldwide. In the Philippines, tattoo artists turn to traditional tattoo practice by “re-invoking” the features of tattoos (pain, permanence, and the “graphicness” (designs is appropriated to recent practices in tattooing the skin (“skin-deep” and incorporated in tattoo designs on clothing (“surface”.I argue that the successive phases and changes in the status of burik tattoos—enabled by the advent of modern technology, the Internet, and mass media—encourage an interaction between contemporary and historical influences rather than an extinction of past practice. Such cross-sector sources continue to characterize the reinterpretation of traditional tattoos in contemporary practices. To understand fully the significance of burik today, I draw on Appadurai’s notion of objects as “things-in-motion” and Kopytoff’s “social biography of objects” as the burik relate to relevant socioeconomic and political contexts across time.
Meskó, Bertalan; Drobni, Zsófia; Bényei, Éva; Gergely, Bence; Győrffy, Zsuzsanna
Under the term "digital health", advanced medical technologies, disruptive innovations and digital communication have gradually become inseparable from providing best practice healthcare. While the cost of treating chronic conditions is increasing and doctor shortages are imminent worldwide, the needed transformation in the structure of healthcare and medicine fails to catch up with the rapid progress of the medical technology industry. This transition is slowed down by strict regulations; the reluctance of stakeholders in healthcare to change; and ignoring the importance of cultural changes and the human factor in an increasingly technological world. With access and adoption of technology getting higher, the risk of patients primarily turning to an accessible, but unregulated technological solution for their health problem is likely to increase. In this paper, we discuss how the old paradigm of the paternalistic model of medicine is transforming into an equal level partnership between patients and professionals and how it is aided and augmented by disruptive technologies. We attempt to define what digital health means and how it affects the status quo of care and also the study design in implementing technological innovations into the practice of medicine.
Wu, Ting-Ting; Sung, Tien-Wen
In recent years, mobile device-assisted clinical education has become popular among nursing school students. The introduction of mobile devices saves manpower and reduces errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To respond to the demands of various learning strategies and to maintain existing systems of education, the concept of Cloud Learning is gradually being introduced to instructional environments. Cloud computing facilitates learning that is personalized, diverse, and virtual. This study involved assessing the advantages of mobile devices and Cloud Learning in a public health practice course, in which Google+ was used as the learning platform, integrating various application tools. Users could save and access data by using any wireless Internet device. The platform was student centered and based on resource sharing and collaborative learning. With the assistance of highly flexible and convenient technology, certain obstacles in traditional practice training can be resolved. Our findings showed that the students who adopted Google+ were learned more effectively compared with those who were limited to traditional learning systems. Most students and the nurse educator expressed a positive attitude toward and were satisfied with the innovative learning method.
Presents an overview of Islamic health care beliefs and practices, noting health-related social and spiritual issues, fundamental beliefs and themes in Islam, health care beliefs and practices common among Muslims, and health-affecting social roles among Muslims. Cultural, religious, and social barriers to health care and ways to reduce them are…
Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Rodriguez, Monica; Opara, Ijeoma; Gardner, Michelle; Assan, Maame Araba; Hammond, Rodney; Plata, Jesus; Pierre, Kimberly; Farag, Ehsan
Despite advances in modern healthcare, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) have continued to be heavily utilized in rural communities in Nigeria. Major disparities in maternal health care in Nigeria remain present despite the goal of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal to reduce maternal mortality by 2015. The objective of this study is to review the contribution of TBAs in the birthing process in Nigeria, and to examine barriers and opportunities for utilizing TBAs in improving maternal and child health outcomes in Nigeria. A literature review of two major electronic databases was conducted using the PRISMA framework to identify English language studies conducted between 2006 and 2016. Inclusion criteria included articles that examined the role of traditional birth attendants as a factor influencing maternal health in Nigeria. The value of TBAs has not been fully examined as few studies have aimed to examine its potential role in reducing maternal mortality with proper training. Eight manuscripts that were examined highlighted the role of TBAs in maternal health including outcomes of utilizing trained versus non-trained TBAs. Specific areas of training for TBAs that were identified and recommended in review including: recognizing delivery complications, community support for TBA practices through policy, evaluation of TBA training programs and increasing collaboration between healthcare facilities and TBAs. Policies focused on improving access to health services and importantly, formal health education training to TBAs, are required to improve maternal health outcomes and underserved communities.
The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws.
Drobni, Zsófia; Bényei, Éva; Gergely, Bence; Győrffy, Zsuzsanna
Under the term “digital health”, advanced medical technologies, disruptive innovations and digital communication have gradually become inseparable from providing best practice healthcare. While the cost of treating chronic conditions is increasing and doctor shortages are imminent worldwide, the needed transformation in the structure of healthcare and medicine fails to catch up with the rapid progress of the medical technology industry. This transition is slowed down by strict regulations; the reluctance of stakeholders in healthcare to change; and ignoring the importance of cultural changes and the human factor in an increasingly technological world. With access and adoption of technology getting higher, the risk of patients primarily turning to an accessible, but unregulated technological solution for their health problem is likely to increase. In this paper, we discuss how the old paradigm of the paternalistic model of medicine is transforming into an equal level partnership between patients and professionals and how it is aided and augmented by disruptive technologies. We attempt to define what digital health means and how it affects the status quo of care and also the study design in implementing technological innovations into the practice of medicine. PMID:29184890
Nsioh Macnight Ngwese
Full Text Available In order to deal with recurrent disasters, like floods and droughts coupled with the limited adaptive capacity, in the semiarid regions of Northern Ghana, local communities have no choice but to apply traditional and local knowledge practices. This study seeks to identify such practices employed in selected rural communities in Northern Ghana and to investigate their effectiveness. Data were collected through key informant interviews, household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions, and participant observations. The findings indicated that although diverse practices were applied to predict and manage local disaster events, skepticism prevailed among locals toward these practices regarding their effectiveness. Due to the lack of science-based tools and systems for disaster prediction and management, local communities continually depended on these knowledge systems and practices. Integrating local and traditional disaster risk reduction (DRR efforts into modern scientific knowledge should be encouraged in order to reduce the vulnerability of local communities to disasters with thorough effectiveness evaluation protocols.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5% of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7 of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6 and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2 showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9 and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6. Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and
Ohaja, Magdalena; Murphy-Lawless, Jo
Despite the promotion of hospital-based maternity care as the safest option, for less developed countries, many women particularly those in the rural areas continue to patronise indigenous midwives or traditional birth attendants. Little is known about traditional birth attendants' perspectives regarding their pregnancy and birth practices. To explore traditional birth attendants' discourses of their pregnancy and birthing practices in southeast Nigeria. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided by poststructural feminism was the methodological approach. Individual face to face semi-structured interviews were conducted with five traditional birth attendants following consent. Participants' narratives of their pregnancy and birth practices are organised into two main themes namely: 'knowing differently,' and 'making a difference.' Their responses demonstrate evidence of expertise in sustaining normal birth, safe practice including hygiene, identifying deviation from the normal, willingness to refer women to hospital when required, and appropriate use of both traditional and western medicines. Inexpensive, culturally sensitive, and compassionate care were the attributes that differentiate traditional birth attendants' services from hospital-based maternity care. The participants provided a counter-narrative to the official position in Nigeria about the space they occupy. They responded in ways that depict them as committed champions of normal birth with ability to offer comprehensive care in accordance with the individual needs of women, and respect for cultural norms. Professional midwives are therefore challenged to review their ways of practice. Emphasis should be placed on what formal healthcare providers and traditional birth attendants can learn from each other. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nemutandani, Simon M; Hendricks, Stephen J; Mulaudzi, Mavis F
The indigenous health system was perceived to be a threat to the allopathic health system. It was associated with 'witchcraft', and actively discouraged, and repressed through prohibition laws. The introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 of 2007 brought hope that those centuries of disrespect for traditional health systems would change. The study examined the perceptions and experiences of allopathic health practitioners on collaboration with traditional health practitioners in post-apartheid South Africa. Qualitative descriptive research methodology was used to collect data from allopathic health practitioners employed by Limpopo's Department of Health. In-depth focus group discussions and meetings were conducted between January and August 2014. Perceptions and experiences of working with traditional health practitioners were explored. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Pretoria and approval from the Department's Research Committee. Dominant views were that the two health systems were not compatible with respect to the science involved and the source of knowledge. Overall, quality of health care will be compromised if traditional health practitioners are allowed to work in public health facilities. Allopathic health practitioners do not appear ready to work with traditional health practitioners, citing challenges of quality of health care, differences regarding concept of sciences and source of knowledge; and lack of policy on collaboration. Lack of exposure to traditional medicine seems to impede opportunities to accept and work with traditional healers. Exposure and training at undergraduate level regarding the traditional health system is recommended. Policy guidelines on collaborations are urgently required.
Tarver, Michael; Guelmann, Marcio; Primosch, Robert
This survey intended to determine how the implementation of office-based IV deep sedation by a third party provider (OIVSED) impacted the traditional sedation practices employed in pediatric dentistry private practice settings. A digital survey was e-mailed to 924 members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry practicing in California, Florida, and New York, chosen because these states had large samples of practicing pediatric dentists in geographically disparate locations. 151 pediatric dentists using OIVSED responded to the survey. Improved efficiency, safety and quality of care provided, and increased parental acceptance were reported advantages of this service. Although less costly than hospital-based general anesthesia, the average fee for this service was a deterrent to some parents considering this option. Sixty-four percent of respondents continued to provide traditional sedation modalities, mostly oral sedation, in their offices, as parenteral routes taught in their training programs were less often selected. OIVSED users reported both a reduction in the use of traditional sedation modalities in their offices and use of hospital-based GA services in exchange for perceived improvements in efficiency, safety and quality of care delivered. Patient costs, in the absence of available health insurance coverage, inhibited accessing this service by some parents.
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.
Full Text Available A former red-brick housing commission house in the bay-side suburbs ofMelbourne has been transformed by Mark Dymiotis to replicate traditional villageMediterranean practices of his heritage. For many years, people have come into thegarden through the Council of Adult Education and the Open Garden scheme tolearn wine making and bread baking and other traditional Greek–Mediterraneaneveryday food practices. Mark draws on his own heritage and the knowledge ofolder people, the migrants who brought these practices to this land, about whichhe has been researching, writing and teaching for over 20 years. The garden is aplatform for teaching about healthy and aff ordable everyday dietary practices.
Alves, Miriam Cristiane; Seminotti, Nedio
To understand the concept of health and the source of psychological distress among followers of a traditional African-Brazilian religion. Qualitative study performed in a community of followers of a traditional African-Brazilian religion, in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. The priest/Babalorixá and six followers of this community participated in the study. Open interviews, which were recorded and subsequently transcribed, were conducted to collect data and construct the corpus of analysis. Report categorization, based on the complex systemic approach, enabled the construction of two main themes: 1) religious community and concept of health, and 2) origin of psychological distress and cultural identity. In this religious community, traditional health therapies, such as the use of herbs, baths, diets and/or initiation rites, were associated with conventional therapies proposed by the Sistema Unico de Saúde (SUS - Unified Health System). Bonds with and belonging to a territory, the relationships among individuals, and the relationship among their spiritual, psychological and physical dimensions are considered in their concepts of psychological distress and health. The way to understand and act in the world, as experienced in this community, with its myths, rites, beliefs and values, constitutes a set of legitimate types of knowledge in its context, which oftentimes opposes and goes beyond professionals' technical-scientific knowledge and truths. This community is a space marked by welcoming, counseling and treatment of followers, where the physical, psychological and spiritual dimensions are integrated in these practices. As regards the black population health, psychological distress results from their having been uprooted from African black cultures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units
Oulanova, Olga; Moodley, Roy
There is revival in the use of traditional healing among Canadian Aboriginal communities and the therapeutic benefits of these practices have received much research attention. An argument is repeatedly made for incorporating indigenous healing into clinical interventions, yet recommendations on how this may be accomplished are lacking. The present…
This article explores the practical implication of adopting critical pedagogy, and more specifically critical legal pedagogy, in the teaching of non-traditional students in higher education context. It is based on the teaching of criminal law at Birkbeck School of Law, addressing learning tasks which have been designed to enhance students'…
Yasien-Esmael, Hend; Rubin, Simon Shimshon
The grief and mourning of Muslim citizens in Israel are considered. First, a series of mourning customs spanning the period from notification of death until post-mourning are presented from 3 perspectives: (a) the requirements of the Islamic Sunni tradition; (b) the manner in which Islamic mourning rituals are practiced; and (c) the authors'…
This thesis argues for the notion of Islam as a lived tradition as a theoretical and methodological contribution to the anthropology of Islam. The argument departs from the literature on Islam on piety towards a consideration of Muslim practice outside of the mosque and prayer group. Focusing on
This research seeks to broaden the dialogue on progressive ballet pedagogy through an examination of reflective practices in the ballet class. Ballet's traditional model of instruction has long required students to quietly comply with the pedagogue's directives, and it has thus become notorious for promoting student passivity. Despite strong…
Jun 15, 2005 ... 7 OAU Doc CAB/LEG/67/3 rev 5 21 ILM 59 (1981). ... the disregard for the risks associated with a particular traditional practice or. (interrelated) .... The sex difference is arguably one of power.42 Patriarchal societies are funda- ..... individual to the group.66 This would, in fact, stand in direct opposition to the.
Hoyler, Elizabeth; Martinez, Roxana; Mehta, Kurren; Nisonoff, Hunter; Boyd, David
Although approximately one half of Guatemalans are indigenous, the Guatemalan Maya account for 72% of the extremely poor within the country. While some biomedical services are available in these communities, many Maya utilise traditional medicine as a significant, if not primary, source of health care. While existing medical anthropological research characterises these modes of medicine as medically dichotomous or pluralistic, our research in a Maya community of the Western Highlands, Concepción Huista, builds on previous studies and finds instead a syncretistic, imbricated local health system. We find significant overlap and interpenetration of the biomedical and traditional medical models that are described best as a framework where practitioners in both settings employ elements of the other in order to best meet community needs. By focusing on the practitioner's perspective, we demonstrate that in addition to patients' willingness to seek care across health systems, practitioners converse across seemingly distinct systems via incorporation of certain elements of the 'other'. Interventions to date have not accounted for this imbrication. Guatemalan governmental policies to support local healers have led to little practical change in the health-care landscape of the country. Therefore, understanding this complex imbrication is crucial for interventions and policy changes.
... health practice for IBS, here are 6 tips: Hypnotherapy (hypnosis). This practice involves the power of suggestion by ... IBS. According to reviews of the scientific literature, hypnotherapy may be a helpful treatment for managing IBS ...
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating traditional medical beliefs and practices in illness behavior as well as predictors of the practices in Gondar city, northwestern Ethiopia, by using the integrated model of behavioral prediction. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted to collect data through interviewer administered structured questionnaires from 496 individuals selected by probability proportional to size sampling technique. Unadjusted bivariate and adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and the results indicated that sociocultural predictors of normative response and attitude as well as psychosocial individual difference variables of traditional understanding of illness causation and perceived efficacy had statistically significant associations with traditional medical practices. Due to the influence of these factors, majority of the study population (85% thus relied on both herbal and spiritual varieties of traditional medicine to respond to their perceived illnesses, supporting the conclusion that characterized the illness behavior of the people as mainly involving traditional medical practices. The results implied two-way medicine needs to be developed with ongoing research, and health educations must take the traditional customs into consideration, for integrating interventions in the health care system in ways that the general public accepts yielding a better health outcome.
Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and
Adepoju, Joseph A
The issue of how immigrant populations combine traditional and Western health beliefs and practices has not been given due attention. Hence, this qualitative research study of Yoruba immigrants, an ethnic group from south-western Nigeria, living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, sheds some light on the question of how best to provide culturally appropriate health care to Yoruba immigrant groups with differences in health beliefs and practices. The study found that there are three types of Yoruba immigrant groups: (1) those who use only Western medicine (though mostly for pragmatic reason); (2) those who combine traditional Yoruba and Western beliefs; and (3) those who combine Western medicine and Christian beliefs.
Full Text Available Abstract The magic word ‘complexity’ has been buzzing around in science, policy and society for quite some time now. There seems to be a common feel for a ‘new way’ of doing things, for overcoming the limits of tradition. From the combined perspective of critical complexity thinking and environment and health practice we want to contribute to the development of alternative routines that may help overcome the limitations of traditional environment and health science. On the one hand traditional environment and health science is too self-confident with respect to potential scientific insight in environment and health problems: complexity condemns us to limited and ambiguous knowledge and the need for simplification. A more modest attitude would be more realistic from that point of view. On the other hand from a problem solving perspective more boldness is required. Waiting for Godot (perfect undisputed knowledge will not help us with respect to the challenges posed to society by environment and health problems. A sense of urgency is legitimate: the paralysis by traditional analysis should be resolved. Nevertheless this sense of urgency should not withhold us from investing in the problem solving quality of our endeavour; quality takes time, fastness from a quality perspective often leads us to a standstill. We propose the concept of critical complexification of environment and health practice that will enable the integration of relevant actors and factors in a pragmatic manner. We will illustrate this with practical examples and especially draw attention to the practical complexities involved, confronting us not only with fundamental questions, but also with fundamental challenges.
Gureje, Oye; Nortje, Gareth; Makanjuola, Victor; Oladeji, Bibilola D; Seedat, Soraya; Jenkins, Rachel
Traditional and complementary systems of medicine include a broad range of practices, which are commonly embedded in cultural milieus and reflect community beliefs, experiences, religion, and spirituality. Two major components of this system are discernible: complementary alternative medicine and traditional medicine, with different clientele and correlates of patronage. Evidence from around the world suggests that a traditional or complementary system of medicine is commonly used by a large number of people with mental illness. Practitioners of traditional medicine in low-income and middle-income countries fill a major gap in mental health service delivery. Although some overlap exists in the diagnostic approaches of traditional and complementary systems of medicine and conventional biomedicine, some major differences exist, largely in the understanding of the nature and cause of mental disorders. Treatments used by providers of traditional and complementary systems of medicine, especially traditional and faith healers in low-income and middle-income countries, might sometimes fail to meet widespread understandings of human rights and humane care. Nevertheless, collaborative engagement between traditional and complementary systems of medicine and conventional biomedicine might be possible in the care of people with mental illness. The best model to bring about that collaboration will need to be established by the needs of the extant mental health system in a country. Research is needed to provide an empirical basis for the feasibility of such collaboration, to clearly delineate its boundaries, and to test its effectiveness in bringing about improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The RSA, like most African countries, have two health care systems. The most visible one is the Westernised hospital and/or clinic based treatment of diseases. This system was introduced by the colonisers and perpetuated by the current formal education programmes of most health care professionals in the RSA. Traditional African medicine has existed since time immemorial and continues to treat vast numbers of people. Both these health care systems will be briefly discussed. Then the role of nurses in the RSA's health care system(s will be examined. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Deng, Wei; Li, Le; Wang, Zixia; Chang, Xiaonan; Li, Rui; Fang, Ziye; Wei, Dang; Yao, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Qi; An, Guanghui
To evaluate/assess the quality of the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) of traditional medicine in China. We systematically searched the literature databases WanFang Data, VIP, CNKI and CBM for studies published between 1978 and 2012 to identify and select CPGs of traditional medicine. We used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument to evaluate these guidelines. A total of 75 guidelines were included, of which 46 guidelines (62%) were on Traditional Chinese Medicine, 19 (25%) on Chinese Integrated Medicine, and 10 (13%) on Uyghur Medicine. Most traditional medicine CPGs published in domestic journals scored medicine. In each domain of AGREE II, traditional Medicine CPGs performed clearly better than international CPGs. The same trend was seen in guidelines of Modern Medicine. An increasing amount of CPGs are being published, but their quality is low. Referring to the key points of international guidelines development, supervision through AGREE II, cooperating with international groups and exploring the strategy of guideline development could improve the quality of CPGs on traditional medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Yılmaz, Duygu; Kısa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Güner, Tuba
The purpose of this study was to determine the use of traditional practices to ease labour among Turkish women. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 809 women by using an investigator-designed questionnaire. The mean age of the women was 28.9 ± 8.33 years (min = 15, max = 74), 49.4% were between 20-29 years of age and more than half (56.2%) of the women had had one to two pregnancies. The results showed that traditional practices were known and applied mostly by the women who were at an advanced age, less educated and who lived in rural areas. In addition, the knowledge and application status of traditional practices related to religious beliefs were found to be very high compared with superstitious practices. It was suggested that nurses provide culturally competent care that requires a commitment by the individual nurse to develop, refine and use specific skills in the care of women. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Satishchandra, D M; Naik, V A; Wantamutte, A S; Mallapur, M D; Sangolli, H N
To study the impact of Training of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) on maternal health care in a rural area. An interventional study in the Primary Health Center area was conducted over 1-year period between March 2006 and February 2007, which included all the 50 Traditional Birth Attendants (30 previously trained and 20 untrained), as study participants. Pretest evaluation regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices about maternal care was done. Post-test evaluation was done at the first month (early) and at the fifth month (late) after the training. Analysis was done by using Mc. Nemer's test, Chi-square test with Yates's correction and Fischer's exact test. Early and late post-test evaluation showed that there was a progressive improvement in the maternal health care provided by both the groups. Significant reduction in the maternal and perinatal deaths among the deliveries conducted by TBAs after the training was noted. Training programme for TBAs with regular follow-ups in the resource-poor setting will not only improve the quality of maternal care but also reduce perinatal deaths.
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schulter Buss; Alonso da Costa, Maria Fernanda Baeta Neves; Hermida, Patrícia Madalena Vieira; Marçal, Cláudia Cossentino Bruck; Antonini, Fabiano Oliveira; Cypriano, Camilla Costa
This is a descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach, conducted in ten municipalities in southern Brazil. Data were obtained by talking to 21 nurses from February to November 2012, through semi-structured interviews using questions to probe their health promotion practices. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis focused on health promotion concepts. We identified four themes about health promotion practices of family health nurses in Brazil: a) training of nurses for health promotion practice was weak; b) nurses formed health promotion groups around diseases and life stages; c) nurses formed groups to meet community needs; and d) nurses used health promotion techniques in group work. These family health nurses were somewhat aware of the importance of health promotion, and how to assist the population against various ailments using some health promotion strategies. The main weaknesses were the lack of understanding about health promotion concepts, and the difficulty of understanding the relevance of its practice, probably attributable to limitations in training. We conclude that primary care groups in Brazil's unified health system could do better in applying health promotion concepts in their practice.
Animal Research International. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M
Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and
Shaon Raychaudhuri; Madhusmita Mishra; Poulomi Nandy; Ashoke R. Thakur
Calcutta has a unique waste management system which uses the traditional non conventional practice for treating both the solid as well as soluble waste for its 12 million inhabitants . It not only detoxifies the waste but also generates resources for the existing society in form of employment as well as edibles like sufficient vegetable, fish as well as paddy for consumption. The elemental analysis of these products showed no metal toxicity due to their cultivation using waste resource. Thus ...
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative
Oct 3, 2017 ... in order to improve referral of pregnant women, oral health awareness and dental service utilization among pregnant women in the region. Keywords: oral health practices, oral health status, pregnant women, traditional birth attendant clinics, Nigerian rural community. 17. African Journal of Oral Health.
Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini
Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.
Full Text Available The bioethics study method concerns the duties and values that must be fulfilled for respect for life. The aim of this article is to provide a reflection on bioethics in public health actions. It is a review article that includes authors with different positions. Bioethics, despite its apparent individual focus, is vital to fulfil essential functions in public health, and to guarantee the right to health and respect for human dignity.
Omar Alberto Garzón Chirivi
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios157.168 This article presents a state of the art of academic production concerning traditional and popular medicine in Latin America. It analyzes the relation between studies on chamanismo (the art of medicine men in indigenous communities in some Spanish-speaking countries (Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Spain and studies on curanderismo (the art of healers in urban contexts and evidences recurring elements of a magical, religious and medical kind in their therapeutic practices. Likewise, it shows the changes in the understanding of these systems of treatment and assistance to health and sickness, their permanence and incidence on collective practices associated to spirituality, as well as the construction of alternatives of individual and social health and the interdisciplinary character of the existing research studies. This article, too, proposes the existence of an analytical vacuum regarding gender, class and ethnic group in the studies on traditional and popular medicine.
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
The current practice of health education often fails to harmonize with the multidimensional, dynamic, and functional nature of health as generally defined within our profession. As a stepchild of the medical and public health professions, we have inherited a preoccupation with physical health as the most worthy outcome measure for most of our…
Schramm, Fermin Roland
Bioethics of protection (BP) was proposed in the early 21st century in bioethics, built in Latin America following attempts by researchers to work on the possibilities of public health policies being morally legitimate, socially fair (equitable) and respectful of human rights, after noting the limits of traditional bioethical tools, essentially implemented in and restricted to interpersonal conflicts between moral agents and patients involved in the practice of biomedicine. Methodologically, BP tries to negotiate distinct problematic disciplinary realms that are, however, interlinked through interdisciplinary dialogue and common concern with the quality of life of the human population, considered in its natural, technological, social and cultural contexts: Public Health, concerned with the health and well-being of individuals and populations; Bioethics, concerned primarily with the moral legitimacy of practices that affect their quality of life; Biopolitics, concerned with the social effects of health policies.
Gorski, Lisa A
In 1986, the American Nurses Association (ANA) published the first Standards of Home Health Practice. Revised in 1992 and expanded in 1999 to become Home Health Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, it was revised in 2008 and again in 2014. In the 2014 edition, there are 6 standards of home healthcare nursing practice and 10 standards of professional performance for home healthcare nursing. The focus of this article is to describe the home healthcare standards and to provide guidance for implementation in clinical practice. It is strongly encouraged that home healthcare administrators, educators, and staff obtain a copy of the standards and fully read this essential home healthcare resource.
DeCoux Hampton, Michelle
With the popularity of accelerated pre-licensure nursing programmes and the growth in nursing student enrolments, traditional clinical education continues to be a challenge to deliver. Nursing faculty members are required to develop and implement educational innovations that achieve effective learning outcomes, while using fewer resources. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the effectiveness of a constructivism-based learning project to achieve specific learning outcomes and to supplement approximately 30 clinical hours in a psychiatric-mental health nursing course. Students participated in a 10-week, multistage project that examined life histories, treatment resources, and evidence-based practice, as applied to a single individual with a mental illness. Students reported increased understanding of mental health and illness, developed personal relevance associated with the knowledge gained, and learned to problem solve with regard to nursing care of individuals diagnosed with mental illness. For many students, there also appeared to be a reduction in stigmatized attitudes towards mental illness. Constructivism-based learning is a promising alternative to supplement clinical hours, while effectively achieving learning outcomes. Future research is needed to further validate the use of this method for the learning of course content, as well as the reduction of stigma. © 2011 The Author. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Ashley D. Polasek
Full Text Available The modes of discourse employed by fans of Sherlock Holmes represent both affirmational and transformational impulses. As the fan community has grown and diversified, tensions have arisen between Sherlockians who prefer to utilize traditional frameworks dating back to the early practices of the Baker Street Irregulars in the 1930s and '40s and those who operate primarily in virtual spaces and utilize 21st-century digital platforms as frameworks for their discourse. Because the demographics of affirmational fans tend to align with those of fans preferring traditional frameworks, and conversely, the demographics of transformational fans tend to align with those of fans preferring transmedial frameworks, the styles of engagement often become conflated with the impulses driving the discourse itself. By first examining these tensions and then utilizing case studies that illustrate the four combinations of frameworks and modes of discourse—traditional-affirmational, transmedial-affirmational, traditional-transformational, and transmedial-transformational—I seek to complicate the boundaries that appear to divide the larger Sherlock Holmes fan community. I will demonstrate that the twin fannish impulses to affirm the text and transform it have operated not at odds but in parallel throughout the history of the fandom.
Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example
Julian A. Robbins
Full Text Available In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well. Perhaps most importantly, traditional knowledge and Indigenous spirituality hinges on the maintenance and renewal of relationships to the land.Indigenous land bases and the environment as a whole remain vitally important to the practice of traditional healing.A focus on Indigenous healing, when discussing Indigenous knowledge systems and spirituality, is paramount today due to the large scale suppression of Indigenous cultural expressions during the process of colonization. With respect to policy, there appears to be a historical progression of perception or attitude towards Indigenous traditional healing in Canada from one of disfavour to one favour. There are nevertheless continuing challenges for traditional healing. Mainstream perceptions and subsequent policy implementations sometimes still reflect attitudes that were formulated during the decline of traditional healing practice during colonization processes. As a consequence the ability for particular communities to maintain and use their specific understandings ofIndigenous knowledge continues encounter obstacles. Indigenous Knowledge systems are living entities and not relics of the past. Today, these knowledge systems are still greatly being applied to help Indigenous communities and Indigenous people recover fromintergenerational pain and suffering endured during the colonization process. Future policy development and implementation should aim to support Indigenous peoples and communities when
Pfeiffer, Constanze; Mwaipopo, Rosemarie
Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women's health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including
Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Zhou, Liang; Kumar, Kishore; Gao, Jie; Vaid, Henna; Liu, Huiming; Hankey, Alex; Wang, Guojun; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Nie, Jing-Bao; Nichter, Mark
India and China face the same challenge of having too few trained psychiatric personnel to manage effectively the substantial burden of mental illness within their population. At the same time, both countries have many practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine who are a potential resource for delivery of mental health care. In our paper, part of The Lancet and Lancet Psychiatry's Series about the China-India Mental Health Alliance, we describe and compare types of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in India and China. Further, we provide a systematic overview of evidence assessing the effectiveness of these alternative approaches for mental illness and discuss challenges in research. We suggest how practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and mental health professionals might forge collaborative relationships to provide more accessible, affordable, and acceptable mental health care in India and China. A substantial proportion of individuals with mental illness use traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine, either exclusively or with biomedicine, for reasons ranging from faith and cultural congruence to accessibility, cost, and belief that these approaches are safe. Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine find several approaches to be promising for treatment of mental illness, but most clinical trials included in these systematic reviews have methodological limitations. Contemporary methods to establish efficacy and safety-typically through randomised controlled trials-need to be complemented by other means. The community of practice built on collaborative relationships between practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and providers of mental health care holds promise in bridging the treatment gap in mental health care in India and China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sousa, Islandia Maria Carvalho de; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale
This study aimed to analyze the inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and its integration with primary healthcare (PHC). A qualitative study drew on institutional data, indexed articles, and case studies in selected Brazilian cities: Campinas (São Paulo State), Florianópolis (Santa Catarina State), Recife (Pernambuco State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The analysis adopted the perspective of inclusion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the healthcare network and its integration with primary healthcare, based on the following dimensions: presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine on the municipal agenda; position in the services; mode of access to Traditional and Complementary Medicine; Traditional and Complementary Medicine practitioners; types of practices; demand profile; and potential for expansion in the SUS. The authors identified and characterized four types of inclusion and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, whether in association or not: Type 1 - in primary healthcare via professionals from the family health teams - Integrated; Type 2 - in primary healthcare via professionals with full-time employment - Juxtaposed; Type 3 - in primary healthcare via matrix-organized teams - Matrix Organization; Type 4 - in specialized services - Without Integration. The combination of types 1 and 3 was considered a potential guideline for the expansion of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS and can orient the growth and integration of Traditional and Complementary Medicine with primary healthcare. The growing presence of Traditional and Complementary Medicine in the SUS requires conceiving its strategic expansion, while existing experiences should not be wasted.
Wangchuk, Phurpa; Pyne, Stephen G; Keller, Paul A
: This study involves the assessment of the Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) which was integrated with the mainstream biomedicine in 1967 to provide primary health care services in the country. It caters to 20-30% of the daily out-patients within 49 traditional medicine units attached to 20 district modern hospitals and 29 Basic Health Units in the country. : This study presents the ethnopharmacological, ethnobotanical and the ethnoquality concepts in relation to mainstream Tibetan medicine and describes the current practices of BTM. : Experienced BTM practitioners (Drung-tshos and Smen-pas) were selected using a convenience sampling method and were interviewed using an open questionnaire followed by informal discussions. The corpus of BTM, Tibetan and scientific literature was obtained and the information on ethnopharmacological, ethnoquality and ethnobotanical concepts and current practices of BTM was extracted. : This study found that the BTM shares many similarities in terms of materia medica, pharmacopoeia and the principles and concepts of ethnopharmacology and ethnobotany with its mainstream Tibetan medicine. However, the resourceful Bhutanese Drung-tshos and Smen-pas have adapted this medical system based on the local language, culture, disease trend, health care needs and their familiarity with the locally available medicinal ingredients making it particular to the country. A number of notable distinctions observed in the current practices include a code of classification of diseases (only 79 of 404 types of disorders recognized), formulations (currently used only 103 of thousands formulation types), usage of medicinal plants (only 229 species of thousands described) and selected treatment procedures (golden needle and water therapy). This BTM was found to cater to 20-30% of daily out-patients visiting 49 modern hospitals and basic health units in the country. : The BTM has been evolved from the Tibetan medicine. While the pharmacopoeia
Brobeck, E; Odencrants, S; Bergh, H; Hildingh, C
Health promotion practice is an important work assignment within the entire health and medical care sector. Nurses are important for the development and implementation of health promotion in clinical practice. The aim was to describe how district nurses view health promotion practice and how it was implemented in clinical practice following a training initiative. The study has a descriptive design and a qualitative method. The sample consisted of three focus groups with 16 participants. The interviews were conducted as a conversation with focus on the district nurses view of health promotion and its implementation in clinical practice. The data have been processed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Three categories, titled Training as motivation, Lack of grounding and Lack of scope were identified. The result demonstrated that training provides motivation, but also the importance of grounding in the organization and the need for scope in performing health promotion practice. Our results show that the training initiative has contributed positively to the district nurses' view of health promotion practice, but that they also feel that there are obstacles. The district nurses in our study suggest that health promotion practice should be more visible, and not something that is done when time permits. The district nurses feel motivated and have an enthusiasm for health promotion practice but more time and resources are required to design successful health-promoting initiatives. Before implementing a major training initiative for healthcare personnel in health promotion, it is essential to examine whether the conditions for this exist in the organization. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.
Scriven, Angela; Hodgins, Margaret
...: www.sagepublications.comHealth Promotion Settings Principles and Practice Edited by Angela Scriven and Margaret HodginsEditorial arrangement, Introduction to Part II © Angela Scriven and Margaret...
Meskó, Bertalan; Drobni, Zsófia; Bényei, Éva; Gergely, Bence; Győrffy, Zsuzsanna
Under the term “digital health”, advanced medical technologies, disruptive innovations and digital communication have gradually become inseparable from providing best practice healthcare. While the cost of treating chronic conditions is increasing and doctor shortages are imminent worldwide, the needed transformation in the structure of healthcare and medicine fails to catch up with the rapid progress of the medical technology industry. This transition is slowed down by strict regulations; th...
Aborigo, Raymond Akawire; Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D
Traditional medical systems in low income countries remain the first line service of choice, particularly for rural communities. Although the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is recognised in many primary health care systems in low income countries, other types of traditional practitioners have had less traction. We explored the role played by traditional healers in northern Ghana in managing pregnancy-related complications and examined their relevance to current initiatives to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. A grounded theory qualitative approach was employed. Twenty focus group discussions were conducted with TBAs and 19 in-depth interviews with traditional healers with expertise in managing obstetric complications. Traditional healers are extensively consulted to manage obstetric complications within their communities. Their clientele includes families who for either reasons of access or traditional beliefs, will not use modern health care providers, or those who shop across multiple health systems. The traditional practitioners claim expertise in a range of complications that are related to witchcraft and other culturally defined syndromes; conditions for which modern health care providers are believed to lack expertise. Most healers expressed a willingness to work with the formal health services because they had unique knowledge, skills and the trust of the community. However this would require a stronger acknowledgement and integration within safe motherhood programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... information from the communities. Analysis was done using the descriptive method. Results showed a close relationship between salutation and health issues. It also showed that in spite of the fact that modernization has eroded most of our cultural values, the communalist values of the Igbo people are still cherished.
This is because the moral guidance put forward by. African religions is underestimated; hence making HIV/AIDS more of a moral problem. Rethinking the dialogue with TARs, will help in setting appropriate means of enhancing health in a broad sense and living in human dignity in Africa. Mtafiti Mwafrika Vol. 15 2005: pp.
Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Method: Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Final considerations: Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care.
Full Text Available Background: West Park Healthcare Centre, a complex continuing care and rehabilitation setting in Ontario, Canada has implemented practice development as one method of facilitating person-centred, evidence-informed practices. West Park is planning the construction of a new hospital, with a target construction timeline of 2018-21. Practice development is an internationally established transformation model (Manley et al., 2008 that can breathe life into the necessary but often burdensome process of policy revision in healthcare settings. Aims: The aim of this article is to share how practice development was used to review and revise West Park’s after-death care policy. The process entailed an integration of a broad span of evidence and intentional challenge of ‘habit-based’ ways. Such an approach to policy revision is needed if practice leaders are to use evidence to help achieve transformative changes in practice. Conclusions: Our after death-care policy involved processes that were antithetical to our shared vision for person-centred practices. Unquestioned, longstanding traditional approaches to after-death care needed to be questioned. Through the transformative journey at personal and organisational levels of applying practice development principles to this process, we were successful in bringing forward a policy that supports end-of-life plans of care, choice and person-centred after-death care practices and language. Implications for practice: •\tHealthcare organisations can review after-death care by exploring different sources of evidence, including research, clinical experience, local audit and patient experience, to challenge taken-for-granted practices •\tConsultation with funeral professionals will be valuable in terms of establishing what they do and do not need from a healthcare organisation •\tFellow patients do not need to be ‘protected’ from the after-death care process and appreciate having a voice on how it is
Th essence of management is obtaining results through the efforts of other people. The efforts obtained, or performance, are enhanced by those who practice management with certain understandings of the work, role and behavior of management, who have the will to manage, and who have requisite skill and aptitude. Discussion of managerial work, role, and behavior comprises the major part of the following paper. The paper concludes with the suggestion that ineffective management is not the result of lack of knowledge about managing, rather ineffective management is more often the result of a lack of will to manage
Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo
Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a
Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly
Luu, Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thieng; Newman, Ian M
Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas
Rissardo, Leidyani Karina; Alvim, Neide Aparecida Titonelli; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Carreira, Lígia
This research aims to understand the care practices of health professionals who assist the elderly Kaingang. It is a qualitative study, supported in ethnography, conducted by ten professionals working in primary health care in the indigenous land of Faxinal, Paraná, Brazil. The data was collected from November 2010 to February 2012 by participant observation and interviews, and analyzed based on the Transcultural Care Theory. Was identified the preoccupation of the carers practices with the medication and immunization, as well as traditional medical care. To achieve these, care professionals had strategies that implemented maintenance of older people in care. We conclude that cultural values and integrate scientific need assistance to improve the health of elderly indigenous.
Full Text Available Background The South African medical doctor has been well established over the years as the keeper of the holy medical grails. Entrance for newcomers to the medical domain has not been and is still not easy. The hostility towards the allied professions in the 1950s and later in the 1980s provides evidence of this. Certain prerequisites for entrance were set and jealously guarded by the medical fraternity. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act, (Act No 22, 2007 is another such a challenge. This time it is not an outsider fraternity that is fighting alone for its own recognition. They are backed by a government and political force to get the traditional health practitioner (previously known as the traditional healer statutorily recognized. Aims The study aimed to reflect on the future professional relationship between the medical doctor and the traditional health practitioner in South Africa. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the future professional relationship between the medical doctor and the traditional health practitioner in South Africa. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It is clear that the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 will put enormous pressure on the medical doctor, not only to relinquish some of his healthcare empowerment, but also to see and to accept the traditional health practitioner as a new, respectable health copractitioner and colleague. Facts hereto reveal that there are in terms of training, health ethics, practice approaches, attitudes and views, basically not a single point of similarity or agreement between the medical doctor and the traditional health practitioner whatsoever. Notwithstanding these enormous differences, the existence of the Traditional Health
Lake, James; Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome
This paper provides an overview of the rapidly evolving paradigm of "Integrative Mental Health (IMH)." The paradigm of contemporary biomedical psychiatry and its contrast to non-allopathic systems of medicine is initially reviewed, followed by an exploration of the emerging paradigm of IMH, which aims to reconcile the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model with evidence-based methods from traditional healing practices. IMH is rapidly transforming conventional understandings of mental illness and has significant positive implications for the day-to-day practice of mental health care. IMH incorporates mainstream interventions such as pharmacologic treatments, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions, as well as alternative therapies such as acupuncture, herbal and nutritional medicine, dietary modification, meditation, etc. Two recent international conferences in Europe and the United States show that interest in integrative mental health care is growing rapidly. In response, the International Network of Integrative Mental Health (INIMH: www.INIMH.org) was established in 2010 with the objective of creating an international network of clinicians, researchers, and public health advocates to advance a global agenda for research, education, and clinical practice of evidence-based integrative mental health care. The paper concludes with a discussion of emerging opportunities for research in IMH, and an exploration of potential clinical applications of integrative mental health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abodunrin, O L; Akande, T M; Musa, I O; Aderibigbe, S A
A sizeable number of deliveries still take place with the assistance of Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria. This study aims to determine the factors that determine the referral practices of the TBAs in Ilorin of high risk and complicated pregnancies. This descriptive study was conducted among all the 162 registered TBAs in Ilorin that were traceable using pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. About 90%, whose source of skill acquisition was by inheritance did not refer their clients appropriately compared with 48% of those whose source of skill acquisition was through formal training (p<0.05). The more the numbers of trainings, the more appropriate the referral (p<0.05). Having supervisory visit by qualified personnel is associated with appropriate referral practices (p<0.05). Regular training and re-training of TBAs with routine monitoring and supportive supervision will promote prompt referral of high risk and complicated pregnancies and deliveries.
One Health approaches to human and veterinary medicine are critical to professionals addressing global issues of food security and disease prevention. However, we have yet to develop a sufficient strategy to translate our theoretical understanding to practical application. This paper will explore the current shortcomings of One Health, within both the medical and veterinary communities, and highlight solutions to overcome these challenges. PMID:23024395
the moderate knowledge on good practices of malaria prevention and management hence improvement with accurate knowledge through ... received basic health training and work in the community .... CHWs (a binome comprising of a man and a women for general ..... health workers empowerment activities are required to.
Erickson, Molly L
The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project seeks to identify the musical and performance characteristics of traditional/acoustic musicians and determine the vocal demands they face with the goals of (1) providing information and outreach to this important group of singers and (2) providing information to physicians, speech-language pathologists, and singing teachers who will enable them to provide appropriate services. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data have been collected through administration of a 53-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to artists performing at local venues in Knoxville, Tennessee and also to musicians attending the 2008 Folk Alliance Festival in Memphis, Tennessee. Approximately 41% of the respondents have had no vocal training, whereas approximately 34% of the respondents have had some form of formal vocal training (private lessons or group instruction). About 41% of the participants had experienced a tired voice, whereas about 30% of the participants had experienced either a loss of the top range of the voice or a total loss of voice at least once in their careers. Approximately 31% of the respondents had no health insurance. Approximately 69% of the respondents reported that they get their information about healthy singing practices solely from fellow musicians or that they do not get any information at all. Traditional/acoustic musicians are a poorly studied population at risk for the development of voice disorders. Continued research is necessary with the goal of a large sample that can be analyzed for associations, identification of subpopulations, and formulation of specific hypotheses that lend themselves to experimental research. Appropriate models of information and service delivery tailored for the singer-instrumentalist are needed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
This article considers the impact of the global mental health discourse on India's traditional healing systems. Folk mental health traditions, based in religious lifeways and etiologies of supernatural affliction, are overwhelmingly sought by Indians in times of mental ill-health. This is despite the fact that the postcolonial Indian state has historically considered the popularity of these indigenous treatments regressive, and claimed Western psychiatry as the only mental health system befitting the country's aspirations as a modern nation-state. In the last decade however, as global mental health concerns for scaling up psychiatric interventions and instituting bioethical practices in mental health services begin to shape India's mental health policy formulations, the state's disapproving stance towards traditional healing has turned to vehement condemnation. In present-day India, traditional treatments are denounced for being antithetical to global mental health tenets and harmful for the population, while biomedical psychiatry is espoused as the only legitimate form of mental health care. Based on ethnographic research in the Hindu healing temple of Balaji, Rajasthan, and analysis of India's mental health policy environment, I demonstrate how the tenor of the global mental health agenda is negatively impacting the functioning of the country's traditional healing sites. I argue that crucial changes in the therapeutic culture of the Balaji temple, including the disappearance of a number of key healing rituals, are consequences of global mental health-inspired policy in India which is reducing the plural mental health landscape.
Zhang, Bing; Jin, Rui; Huang, Jianmei; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xue, Chunmiao; Lin, Zhijian
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) property theory is believed to be a key and difficult point of basic theory studies of TCM. Complex concepts, components and characteristics of TCM property have long puzzled researchers and urged them to develop new angles and approaches. In the view of cognitive science, TCM property theory is a cognitive process of storing, extracting, rebuilding and summarizing the sensory information about TCMs and their effects during the medical practice struggling against diseases under the guidance of traditional Chinese philosophical thinking. The cognitive process of TCM property has particular cognitive elements and strategies. Taking into account clinical application characteristics of TCMs, this study defines the particular cognitive elements. In the combination of research methods of modern chemistry, biology and mathematics, and on the basis early-stage work for five years, we have built a TCM property cognition model based on three elements and practiced with drugs with pungent and hot properties as example, in the hope of interpreting TCM properties with modern science and providing thoughts for the nature of medical properties and instruction for rational clinical prescription.
Nguyen, Kim Yen T; Smallidge, Dianne L; Boyd, Linda D; Rainchuso, Lori
Purpose: Infrequent use of the Western health care by the Vietnamese may be explained by deeply-rooted traditional oral health beliefs and practices unique to the Asian culture. This study investigated Vietnamese oral health beliefs and practices and their relationship to the utilization of Western preventive oral health care services among Vietnamese-Americans. Methods: An exploratory, cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample of 140 par-ticipants (n = 140) was used for this study. Participants were recruited on site of a Vietnamese-owned business, with questionnaires consisting of 28 questions that were distributed in hard copy by the principal investigator (PI) on multiple occasions and at various times of the day. Results: Spearman Rank Correlations tests showed participants who agreed with the statement, "Regular dental visits will help prevent dental problems," were more likely to utilize medical health services (pissues. No statistical significance was found between age, gender, pri-mary language, years spent in the United States, education level, religion and the Vietnamese survey participants' individual oral beliefs and practices. Conclusion: The results suggest that Vietnamese Americans holding the belief that dental visits help prevent oral health problems, were more likely to utilize Western health care services. The study also supports existing literature that Vietnamese oral health beliefs and practices impact the use of Western health care services. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Jambai, A; MacCormack, C
In Sierra Leone constraints to ideal maternal health require a primary health care approach that includes collaboration with traditional midwives. They are authoritative figures embedded within local political structures and a powerful women's religion. The local causes of maternal risk are described, including civil war and refugee camp life. Traditional midwives provide vital services in the camp, are respected for their social status, and learn additional skills. Biomedical and traditional systems of authoritative knowledge, based on different kinds of legitimacy to heal, are in a complementary relationship.
Kies, C W
In South Africa, premarital vaginal penetration was not allowed in traditional Zulu society because illegitimate children disrupted the community. Young people could have external sexual intercourse between the thighs, however, only if 1st instructed in this practice by the leader of each peer group plus the girl's group leader had to approve of a meeting between the boy and girl. In addition, men could not marry before proving themselves in the battlefield, usually between 30-35 years old. Women could not marry until all the women of an older age group had married, therefore women were approximately 25 years old when married. In years past, the Zulu believed that a large enough quantity of semen must accumulate inside the wife's body before a baby would grow. Newlyweds therefore had intercourse day and night for the 1st few weeks until they believed that the wife was pregnant. Frequency of intercourse either decreased or ceased once a women was pregnant. A breast feeding mother could not have sexual intercourse because the fetus would poison the child who was still breast feeding. Children were breast fed for 3 years. Husbands could have sexual intercourse between the thighs with a mistress during the lactational period of his wife, however. Polygynists slept with each wife for only 1 period/month, often not during her most fertile days. They therefore had fewer children/wife than men in monogamous relationships. Today females do not practice abstinence after birth and breast feed their children for 3 years. Additionally, they become sexually active at an earlier age. Only 5% of the respondents of a survey were using modern contraceptives. Due to the nonuse of traditional practices and modern contraceptives, the present levels of fertility are higher than was the case in the past.
Zuma, Thembelihle; Wight, Daniel; Rochat, Tamsen; Moshabela, Mosa
Traditional health practitioners (THPs) play a vital role in the health care of the majority of the South African population and elsewhere on the African continent. However, many studies have challenged the role of THPs in health care. Concerns raised in the literature include the rationale, safety and effectiveness of traditional health practices and methods, as well as what informs them. This paper explores the processes followed in becoming a traditional healer and how these processes are related to THP roles. A qualitative research design was adopted, using four repeat group discussions with nine THPs, as part of a larger qualitative study conducted within the HIV Treatment as Prevention trial in rural South Africa. THPs were sampled through the local THP association and snowballing techniques. Data collection approaches included photo-voice and community walks. The role identity theory and content analysis were used to explore the data following transcription and translation. In the context of rural Northern KwaZulu-Natal, three types of THPs were identified: 1) Isangoma (diviner); 2) Inyanga (one who focuses on traditional medical remedies) and 3) Umthandazi (faith healer). Findings revealed that THPs are called by ancestors to become healers and/or go through an intensive process of learning about traditional medicines including plant, animal or mineral substances to provide health care. Some THPs identified themselves primarily as one type of healer, while most occupied multiple healing categories, that is, they practiced across different healing types. Our study also demonstrates that THPs fulfil roles that are not specific to the type of healer they are, these include services that go beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses or divination. THPs serve roles which include, but are not limited to, being custodians of traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counsellors, mediators and spiritual protectors. THPs' mode specific
Elouyse Fernandes Leitão
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.
Despite strong religious influence in the development of medicine and medical ethics, religion has been relatively absent in the rise of preventive medicine and population health. Episodic, clinical medicine has a powerful hold on the religious imagination in health care. Nevertheless, Hebrew Scripture, elements of rabbinical teaching, and modern concepts of social justice all can be used to inspire action in health care that goes beyond clinical medicine. The Christian tradition can call upon the corporal works of mercy, virtue ethics, and Catholic social teaching, as well as the modern history Catholic sisters in the U.S. to do the same. By considering the moral imperative for public health, Jewish and Christian individuals and organizations reaffirm the notion that the human person is both sacred and social. This article suggests a need for religious traditions to consider their moral traditions anew with an eye toward prevention and population health.
Thwala, Siphiwe B P; Holroyd, Eleanor; Jones, Linda K
This study explores and describes the values, beliefs, and practices of rural Swazi women regarding childbearing in the postpartum period. A retrospective ethnographic research design was used. A snowballing sampling method was used to recruit fifteen participants. Face-to-face unstructured audio-taped interviews and field notes were utilised to gather data. Results showed that rural Swazi women held a dual health belief system of modern and traditional medicinal use; practiced lengthy periods of postpartum confinement; customarily gave regular enemas and traditional medicines to their babies; undertook the specific cultural practice of taking the baby to enyonini [a tree struck by lightening] to perform specific rituals; used self-prescribed pharmacy medicines; used both traditional and modern contraception; as well as practiced breastfeeding. Rural Swazi women observe modern health practices alongside traditional customary practices that are inherent to their health belief and value systems in the postnatal period. These customary beliefs and values underpin their birth practices postpartum. Recommendations include the need to consider including formal knowledge on cultural aspects of childbirth and postpartum care into midwifery education; a review of maternal care practices and policies to incorporate widely practised traditional elements including redressing the use of self-prescribed pharmacy medicines to ensure a higher level of safety. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu
The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Vandebroek, Ina; Thomas, Evert; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick; Puyvelde, Luc Van; De Kimpe, Norbert
The objective of the present study was to reveal patterns in the treatment of health conditions in a Quechua-speaking community in the Bolivian Andes based on plant use data from traditional healers and patient data from a primary health care (PHC) service, and to demonstrate similarities and differences between the type of illnesses treated with traditional and biomedical health care, respectively. A secondary analysis of plant use data from semi-structured interviews with eight healers was conducted and diagnostic data was collected from 324 patients in the community PHC service. Health conditions were ranked according to: (A) the percentage of patients in the PHC service diagnosed with these conditions; and (B) the citation frequency of plant use reports to treat these conditions by healers. Healers were also queried about the payment modalities they offer to their patients. Plant use reports from healers yielded 1166 responses about 181 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 67 different health conditions, ranging from general symptoms (e.g. fever and body pain), to more specific ailments, such as arthritis, biliary colic and pneumonia. The results show that treatment offered by traditional medicine overlaps with biomedical health care in the case of respiratory infections, wounds and bruises, fever and biliary colic/cholecystitis. Furthermore, traditional health care appears to be complementary to biomedical health care for chronic illnesses, especially arthritis, and for folk illnesses that are particularly relevant within the local cultural context. Payment from patients to healers included flexible, outcome contingent and non-monetary options. Traditional medicine in the study area is adaptive because it corresponds well with local patterns of morbidity, health care needs in relation to chronic illnesses, cultural perceptions of health conditions and socio-economic aspects of health care. The quantitative analysis of plant use reports and patient
Ali, A A; Siddig, M F
To identify and understand knowledge and practice among traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a total of 111 TBAs were interviewed at Kassala, Eastern Sudan between March and April 2011. Hand-washing prior to the delivery was a universal practice but only 25.2% of the interviewed TBAs used sterilised equipment. TBAs in this study appeared to have a low level of awareness about when a mother should be referred to hospital, and lacked basic information on family planning and HIV/AIDS. None of these 111 TBAs knew or used equipment for neonatal resuscitation (such as bag, tube and mask) or knew neonatal signs that needed extra attention such as change in skin colour, weak suckling and respiratory distress, and nearly one-third (28.8%) of the respondents believed in a few days delay in milk production. Thus, substantial effort is needed to improve the knowledge and practice among TBAs in Eastern Sudan, including training programmes, and this might be the best hope to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
Kuek, K; Liow, T S
The Chinese traditional medical system and pharmacology have a 1000-year history, and practitioners of Chinese traditional medicine play an important role in providing health care and family planning services in China. Vast numbers of patients from all walks of life and of all races benefit from Chinese traditional medicine. Although there are no official government records on the activities of practitioners of traditional medicine, the Chinese charitable medical organizations have some data on the nature of available services and their use. In China, in the context of significant government investment in health care facilities throughout the country and the proliferation of private hospitals, specialist centers, and general practitioners providing modern health care, the number of Chinese traditional charity medical aid departments, instead of falling by the wayside, has increased. The Chinese Traditional Medicine and Physician and Medicine Dealers Association of Malaysia was established 27 years ago. There are now officially 719 Chinese physicians and 1869 medical halls and Chinese physician infirmaries in Malaysia. The authors describe the status of Chinese physicians and medical halls in Malaysia, charitable organizations, and applications of Chinese traditional medicine.
Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G
Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kattan, Abdullah E; AlShomer, Feras; Alhujayri, Abdulaziz K; Addar, Abdullah; Aljerian, Albaraa
Burn first aid awareness has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a report on the knowledge and practices of the Saudi population with regard to burn first aid and the application of traditional remedies. An internet-based survey was conducted to assess the public's knowledge on first aid practices and home remedies applied for burn injuries among Saudi adults. A total of 2758 individuals responded to the survey. There were 1178 (42.7 %) respondents who had previously received burn first aid information. One thousand five hundred fifty respondents had a history of burn exposure in which burn injury first aid was applied as follows: 1118 (72.1 %) removed clothing and accessories from the injured area; water was applied by 990 (63.9 %); among those who applied water, 877 (88.6 %) applied cold water; and only 57 (5.8 %) did so for more than 15 min. Wrapping the burn area was performed by 526 (33.9 %), and 985 (63.5 %) sought medical assistance. When it comes to traditional remedies, 2134 (77.4 %) knew of and/or implemented these remedies as first aid or to treat burns. Honey and toothpaste were the commonest among these remedies with 1491 (69.9 %) and 1147 (53.7 %), respectively. This was associated with female gender ( r = 0.87, P first aid. Proper burn first aid is a simple, cheap, and accessible means of managing burns initially. Although the majority of the respondents were university graduates (51.1 %), knowledge and implementation of burn first aid was very poor. Major healthcare agencies should review and promote a consistent guideline for burn first aid in an effort to tackle and minimize the effect of this grave injury.
A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators
Price, L.; Dutch, R.S.
The authors are Health Physicists who, having worked at Nuclear Power Stations, are now experienced tutors employed at Nuclear Electric's Nuclear Training Centre at Oldbury-on-Severn. The Centre provides training at professional and technician levels in all aspects of nuclear and associated technologies to operating and support staff throughout Nuclear Electric. For many years the authors have lectured on radiological protection to groups with widely differing backgrounds: Engineers, Scientists and Industrial Staff, including Contractors. This paper will discuss the authors' experiences in using practicals and exercises to reinforce traditional lectures. (author)
Why HIV positive patients on antiretroviral treatment and/or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis use traditional medicine: perceptions of health workers, traditional healers and patients: a study in two provinces of South Africa.
Puoane, T R; Hughes, G D; Uwimana, J; Johnson, Q; Folk, W R
The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART). The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART), using an exploratory qualitative design in two provinces of South Africa: an urban township health facility in the Western Cape, and a rural district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with antennal HIV rate of 32% and 28%'respectively. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 participants: six HIV patients on ART and using Traditional Medicine(TM), two doctors, two nurses and four traditional healers. Two focus group discussions -one at each site - were held with community health workers who work with HIV-positive patients (Western Cape  and in KZN ). Patient said to have used Traditional Healing Practices (THP) before they were diagnosed with HIV, and some who have been diagnosed with HIV continue using TM in conjunction with ART and/or Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Patients preferred not to disclose THP to health professionals because of lack of support and understanding. Patients utilize THP because of family expectations, privacy and confidentiality, especially when they have not disclosed their HIV status. Healthcare professionals had strong negative opinions about THP, especially for HIV-positive patients. Traditional healers supported the patient's rationale for THP use. This study revealed a need to better understand factors involved in patients' choosing to use THP concurrently with ART.
Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the cultural phenomenon of magical practices in the Muslim society of Banten which still exists up to the present. It is a part of my MA thesis research that has been combined with my recent field research using ethnography method based on the anthropological approach. Magical practices becomes cultural identity for Bantenese society. Several sources on Banten mention that Banten as a central spot for magical sciences, besides it is also well- known as a religious area. The magical practices are still regarded important for Bantenese people, especially who live in the villages to solve their practical problems in their social life. Magic is a socio-religious phenomenon which has long, well-established roots in Banten society. It is traceable from many literatures that describes the uniqueness of Bantenese’s culture. Besides other magical practices debus is the most noticeable appearance of the magical tradition in Banten since the sultanate period until nowadays. The existence of debus Banten and other kinds of magical practices in Banten has strengthened the reputation of Banten as if ‘a haven of magical sciences’. Tulisan ini mencoba mendiskusikan tentang fenomena kultural mengenai praktek magis pada masyarakat Muslim Banten yang masih ada hingga saat ini. Artikel ini merupakan bagian dari tesis Master saya yang sudah dikombinasikan dengan penelitian lapangan baru-baru ini dengan menggunakan metode etnografi berdasarkan pendekatan antropologis. Praktek magis sudah menjadi identitas kultural bagi masyarakat Banten. Beberapa sumber menyebut Banten sebagai pusat ilmu-ilmu gaib, di samping dikenal sebagai daerah yang religius. Praktek magis masih dianggap penting bagi masyarakat Banten, khususnya yang tinggal di pedesaan untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah praktis dalam kehidupan sosial mereka. Magis adalah sebuah fenomena sosio-kultural yang memiliki akar yang cukup lama dan sudah berakar kuat dalam
Carol Raish; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Carol J. Condie
Indigenous and traditional peoples worldwide have used fire to manipulate their environment for thousands of years. These longstanding practices still continue and have considerable relevance for todayâs land managers. This discussion explores the value of documenting and understanding historic and contemporary fire use attitudes and practices of the varied cultural/...
Koole, Heather; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.
Purpose: This preliminary investigation examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') use of contextualized practices (i.e., functional, personally relevant, nonhierarchical, and collaborative) compared with traditional practices (i.e., clinical, generic, hierarchical, and expert driven) with school-age children and adolescents with traumatic…
Methods: A cross sectional survey of the reproductive health knowledge and practices of 412 junior secondary school pupils from 12 schools in Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken using a uniform set of structured self-administered questionnaire. Results: The results revealed that while the pupils demonstrated fair ...
Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda. Methods: ...
Ariff, Kamil M; Beng, Khoo S
Understanding the sociocultural dimension of a patient's health beliefs is critical to a successful clinical encounter. Malaysia with its multi-ethnic population of Malay, Chinese and Indian still uses many forms of traditional health care in spite of a remarkably modern rural health service. The objective of this paper is discuss traditional health care in the context of some of the cultural aspects of health beliefs, perceptions and practices in the different ethnic groups of the author's rural family practices. This helps to promote communication and cooperation between doctors and patients, improves clinical diagnosis and management, avoids cultural blind spots and unnecessary medical testing and leads to better adherence to treatment by patients. Includes traditional practices of 'hot and cold', notions of Yin-Yang and Ayurveda, cultural healing, alternative medicine, cultural perception of body structures and cultural practices in the context of women's health. Modern and traditional medical systems are potentially complementary rather than antagonistic. Ethnic and cultural considerations can be integrated further into the modern health delivery system to improve care and health outcomes.
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Habib
The pastoral lifestyle of Indigenous communities of Bajaur Agency is bringing them close to natural remedies for treating their domestic animals. Several studies have been conducted across the globe describing the importance of traditional knowledge in veterinary care. Therefore, this study was planned with the aim to record knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices from the remote areas and share sit with other communities through published literature. Data was gathered from community members through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through informant consensus factor (Fic) to evaluate the consent of current ethnoveterinary practices among the local people. In total, 73 medicinal plants were recorded under the ethnoveterinary practices. Most widely used medicinal plants with maximum use reports (URs) were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Solanum virginianum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Curcuma longa L. New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra. Family Apiaceae was the utmost family with high number (7 species) of medicinal plants. Maximum number of medicinal plants (32) was used for gastric problems. High Fic was recorded for dermatological (0.97) followed by reproductive (0.93) and gastrointestinal disorders (0.92). The main route of remedies administration was oral. Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. This knowledge is in the custody of nomadic grazers, herders, and aged community members. Plants with new medicinal uses need to be validated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the development of new alternative drugs for veterinary purposes.
Full Text Available Background The South African healthcare establishment is primarily managed and overseen by medical doctors. This powerbase was established over many years, especially after the early 1930s. World War II gave doctors the final approval to take this supervisory and sole decision-making role regarding healthcare training, practice models and other health workers in South Africa. This phenomenon led initially to doctors having a certain jurisdiction to set the pace and to make the rules. This jurisdiction became more comprehensive and extent with time in South Africa to include a collection of unique medical traditions, customs, privileges, habits, healthcare rights and empowerment as well as exclusive medical training and practice models to become known as the holy grails of the South African medical doctors. The power of these holy grails has become untouchable to anyone outside the medical domain. Since the 1980s, some powers vested in these holy grails have been lost to the allied health professions and to other insiders of the HPCSA brotherhood itself. The recognition of traditional healers by means of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007 seems to challenge these holy grails of medical doctors. This may also create internal conflict in the South African medical brotherhood that can cost medical doctors more ground. Aims The study aimed to determine if the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 challenges the holy grails of South African medical doctors, subsequently affecting the long-established management and guardian system of the medical field within South Africa or the practice rights of medical doctors. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the possible effect of the Traditional Health
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R
Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.
Evelyn L. Rhodes
Full Text Available Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of
Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William
Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID
Full Text Available Children's health and wellbeing is high on the research and policy agenda of many nations. There is a wealth of epidemiological research linking childhood circumstances and health practices with adult health. However, echoing a broader picture within child health research where children have typically been viewed as objects rather than subjects of enquiry, we know very little of how, in their everyday lives, children make sense of health-relevant information.This paper reports key findings from a qualitative study exploring how children understand food in everyday life and their ideas about the relationship between food and health. 53 children aged 9-10, attending two socio-economically contrasting schools in Northern England, participated during 2010 and 2011. Data were generated in schools through interviews and debates in small friendship groups and in the home through individual interviews. Data were analysed thematically using cross-sectional, categorical indexing.Moving beyond a focus on what children know the paper mobilises the concept of health literacy (Nutbeam, 2000, explored very little in relation to children, to conceptualise how children actively construct meaning from health information through their own embodied experiences. It draws on insights from the Social Studies of Childhood (James and Prout, 2015, which emphasise children's active participation in their everyday lives as well as New Literacy Studies (Pahl and Rowsell, 2012, which focus on literacy as a social practice. Recognising children as active health literacy practitioners has important implications for policy and practice geared towards improving child health. Keywords: Children, Health literacy, Qualitative, UK
Kaymakamoglu, Sibel Ersel
This study explored the EFL teachers' beliefs, perceived practice and actual classroom practice in relation to Traditional (teacher-centered) and Constructivist (learner-centered) teaching in Cyprus Turkish State Secondary Schools context. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews and structured observations were employed with purposively…
... professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2013 Dietary Supplements Red Yeast ... to exploring complementary health products and practices in the context of rigorous ... health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...
Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.
The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding....
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.
Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...
The presentation is focused on some problems which arise when RCM is introduced for first time. These problems were identified from EQE-Bulgaria experience when RCM meters were discussed for first time at number of plants and organizations. Mainly the following problem areas are covered: The first group of problems arise from the nature of RCM. The RCM is referred to as a 'new concept', 'new philosophy', 'new maintenance system', etc. On the other hand, RCM has nothing new - it is a structure of established maintenance techniques. It leads to some difficulties to explain what exactly is the 'new' to a managerial body and to a staff of a plant which has its own established maintenance system running for years. This group of problems covers in particular the following points: RCM definition vs. 'Traditional' Maintenance definition; The understanding about the relationship between inherent reliability and the desired performance of an asset; Difficulties to prove the advantages of RCM and the benefits of its implementation in case RCM is not a country-wide practice. The second problem area is the terminology. The RCM concept is developed and described mainly in reference documents written in English. The direct translation into a certain language introduces some misunderstanding especially if there is no established terminology in the corresponding national language. The first major task is to get clear understanding about relationship between RCM terminology and the terms used in the current maintenance practice defined in the national standards. The next problem area is the availability or unavailability of relevant reliability plant specific data. We found that people tend to trust more the 'numerical' (quantitative) results rather than the qualitative ones. So efforts should be spent to explain and even to prove the advantages and disadvantages of both qualitative and quantitative approaches as well as to show clearly the relation between qualitative and
Joshua A. Drew
Full Text Available Conservation biology and environmental anthropology are disciplines that are both concerned with the identification and preservation of diversity, in one case biological and in the other cultural. Both conservation biology and the study of traditional ecoloigcal knowledge function at the nexus of the social and natural worlds, yet historically there have been major impediments to integrating the two. Here we identify linguistic, cultural, and epistemological barriers between the two disciplines. We argue that the two disciplines are uniquely positioned to inform each other and to provide critical insights and new perspectives on the way these sciences are practiced. We conclude by synthesizing common themes found in conservation success stories, and by making several suggestions on integration. These include cross-disciplinary publication, expanding memberships in professional societies and conducting multidisciplinary research based on similar interests in ecological process, taxonomy, or geography. Finally, we argue that extinction threats, be they biological or cultural/linguistic are imminent, and that by bringing these disciplines together we may be able to forge synergistic conservation programs capable of protecting the vivid splendor of life on Earth.
The practice of medicine stands at the threshold of a transformation from its current focus on the treatment of disease events to an emphasis on enhancing health, preventing disease and personalizing care to meet each individual's specific health needs. Personalized health care is a new and strategic approach that is driven by personalized health planning empowered by personalized medicine tools, which are facilitated by advances in science and technology. These tools improve the capability to predict health risks, to determine and quantify the dynamics of disease development, and to target therapeutic approaches to the needs of the individual. Personalized health care can be implemented today using currently available technologies and know-how and thereby provide a market for the rational introduction of new personalized medicine tools. The need for early adoption of personalized health care stems from the necessity to reduce the egregious and wasteful burden of preventable chronic diseases, which is not effectively addressed by our current approach to care. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pires Marques, Tiago
In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making. The 'ethical tradition' thus conceived proves to be functional in terms of preserving the threatened identity of French psychiatry. Nevertheless, this movement also pinpoints impasses that transcend the French context and may provide valuable resources for ethical reflections on mental health on a global scale.
Celia Maria Sivalli Campos
Full Text Available Objective Identify nurses’ emancipatory practices in primary care, to contribute to the improvement of health care. Method A case study type social research of qualitative nature, in which nurses of a primary health care service unit in São Paulo were interviewed. Results The home visit was identified as a nursing practice possible to be expanded in order to identify social determinants of health, triggering emancipatory practices in the service. This expansion occurred because the design of health care labour intended by the service team changed its focus from the traditional object of health services, the disease. Conclusion First, it is advocated that social policies lead projects with the purpose of improving health needs. On the other hand, the daily labour needs to provide opportunities for reflection and discussion of healthcare projects, leading workers to propose labour-processes targeted to both the social determinants of health and people’s illness.
Celia Maria Sivalli Campos
Full Text Available Objective Identify nurses’ emancipatory practices in primary care, to contribute to the improvement of health care. Method A case study type social research of qualitative nature, in which nurses of a primary health care service unit in São Paulo were interviewed. Results The home visit was identified as a nursing practice possible to be expanded in order to identify social determinants of health, triggering emancipatory practices in the service. This expansion occurred because the design of health care labour intended by the service team changed its focus from the traditional object of health services, the disease. Conclusion First, it is advocated that social policies lead projects with the purpose of improving health needs. On the other hand, the daily labour needs to provide opportunities for reflection and discussion of healthcare projects, leading workers to propose labour-processes targeted to both the social determinants of health and people’s illness.
Musyimi, Christine W; Mutiso, Victoria N; Nandoya, Erick S; Ndetei, David M
Qualitative evidence on dialogue formation and collaboration is very scanty in Kenya. This study thus aimed at the formation of dialogue and establishment of collaboration among the informal (faith and traditional healers) and formal health workers (clinicians) in enhancing community-based mental health in rural Kenya. Qualitative approach was used to identify barriers and solutions for dialogue formation by conducting nine Focus Group Discussions each consisting of 8-10 participants. Information on age, gender and role in health care setting as well as practitioners' (henceforth used to mean informal (faith and traditional healers) and formal health workers) perceptions on dialogue was collected to evaluate dialogue formation. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis was performed using thematic content analysis and Statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS) software respectively. We identified four dominant themes such as; (i) basic understanding about mental illnesses, (ii) interaction and treatment skills of the respondents to mentally ill persons, (iii) referral gaps and mistrust among the practitioners and (iv) dialogue formation among the practitioners. Although participants were conversant with the definition of mental illness and had interacted with a mentally ill person in their routine practice, they had basic information on the causes and types of mental illness. Traditional and faith healers felt demeaned by the clinicians who disregarded their mode of treatment stereotyping them as "dirty". After various discussions, majority of practitioners showed interest in collaborating with each other and stated that they had joined the dialogue in order interact with people committed to improving the lives of patients. Dialogue formation between the formal and the informal health workers is crucial in establishing trust and respect between both practitioners and in improving mental health care in Kenya. This approach could be scaled up among all the
Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa
The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…
Davidian, Marilyn R.
Fifty years of research has demonstrated the value of faculty mentoring for students. The purpose of this research was to explore the faculty mentoring experiences among graduates of traditional and distance education programs in health information management professional education. The sample (n = 1039) was drawn from baccalaureate and masters…
Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia
contexts. This study also found that there was knowledge and appreciation for traditional health practices in both regions.
Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia
contexts. This study also found that there was knowledge and appreciation for traditional health practices in both regions. PMID:28414735
Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca; Castañeda, Sheila F; Perez, Ramona L; Nodora, Jesse N; Gonzalez, Patricia; Lopez, Emma Julián; Talavera, Gregory A
Type II diabetes mellitus is currently the leading cause of death in Mexico. Oaxaca is one of the poorest states in Mexico with the largest concentration of indigenous people in the country. Despite the alarming increase of diabetes rates in this region, little is known about the indigenous populations' cultural understandings and related practices for this chronic disease. This study examined diabetes cultural beliefs and traditional medicine use among a sample of 158 adults with and without diabetes in Oaxaca, Mexico. Individuals with and without diabetes did not differ in their traditional culture beliefs regarding diabetes in this study. Younger age (OR = 1.04) and stronger beliefs in punitive and mystical retribution (OR = 5.42) regarding diabetes causality increased the likelihood of using traditional medicine (p diabetes prevention and management efforts in the region.
Full Text Available At the margins of modern medical practice, pushing the very limits of science, and indefatigably rendering the precincts of public discourse, still functional remnants of Christian civilization continue to provide care for the hopeless, perform healing sacraments for the incurable, and curate objects of votive devotion for the suffering and needy. These public services go largely unaccounted for, though they secure an ordered world, structure perception, and serve as ontological anchors. Lost in the vague, scientifically unrarified notions of spirituality that brace a general, undifferentiated worldwide metaphysical experience and disregard immense cultural, functional, geographic and performative distinctness, Catholic sacramental practices aimed at alleviating suffering and promoting healthy lifestyles are receiving only marginal mention in scientific literature(1, despite the fact that they make up daily reality in large parts of contemporary Europe and Latin America. Writing this editorial from the Northeast of Brazil, where traditional religious practice has sustained generations through the calamities of severe droughts, slavery, extreme poverty, high child mortality, failed political orders, and a harsh global economic reality, it is difficult to underestimate the power of sacramental experience to sustain a cultural identity. It was defined the concept of care of the sick in the context of the religious experience of the Northeast of Brazil which is historically relevant to health promotion. Until the emergence of national health care in the late nineteenth century, it was largely the order of the Franciscan friars that was charged with promoting healthy lives in the region. The Catholic concept of care that guided their efforts structures three procedural reality principles: the psychological reality of the transference to the person in one’s charge (care/caritas, the performative practice of religious sacrament such as the anointment
Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J
Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap.
This paper suggests a novel approach concerning the medical treatment of human beings, which appears to be economically and practically superior to either biomedicine or traditional medicine. A brand new medical system-Hehe [see text] medicine, has been proposed based on a preventive-biomedical-psycho-social treatment model. This is characterized by a dual approach in which life nurturing is consistently practised and medical treatment is applied when necessary in order to maintain a healthy life. Its core value would facilitate the self-restoration to health and self-adaptation to nature through health cultivation and medical means. Medical services would be firstly provided to the prevention of potential disease germinating in the human body, and clinical medical treatment would be the last resort of systematic medical practice. This paper discusses not only this new concept but also the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine, especially how both medical systems compare in cognitive style, on a cultural level, and on a technical level.
Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A
To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shakespear, Kaylynn; Waite, Phillip J; Gast, Julie
Researchers sought to determine the difference in health behaviors between women who receive prenatal care via the Centering Pregnancy approach and those involved in traditional prenatal care. Using a cross-sectional design, adult pregnant women (n = 125) were surveyed from at least 28 weeks gestation to delivery. The sample was comprised of primarily white low income women. Using multiple linear regression it was determined that women in Centering Pregnancy had significantly lower index health behavior scores compared with the traditional care group showing that those in Centering Pregnancy reported engaging in fewer health promoting behaviors. Furthermore, no differences were observed for smoking or weight gain behaviors between groups. Additionally, those in Centering Pregnancy reported a lower perceived value of prenatal care. The results of this study suggest that Centering Pregnancy is not adequately aiding its patients in adopting healthy behaviors during pregnancy.
Schulte, Stephanie J
Question: How were traditional librarian reference desk services successfully eliminated at one health sciences library? Setting: The analysis was done at an academic health sciences library at a major research university. Method: A gap analysis was performed, evaluating changes in the first eleven months through analysis of reference transaction and instructional session data. Main Results: Substantial increases were seen in the overall number of specialized reference transactions and those conducted by librarians lasting more than thirty minutes. The number of reference transactions overall increased after implementing the new model. Several new small-scale instructional initiatives began, though perhaps not directly related to the new model. Conclusion: Traditional reference desk services were eliminated at one academic health sciences library without negative impact on reference and instructional statistics. Eliminating ties to the confines of the physical library due to staffing reference desk hours removed one significant barrier to a more proactive liaison program. PMID:22022221
Uzuner, Halil; Bauer, Rudolf; Fan, Tai-Ping; Guo, De-An; Dias, Alberto; El-Nezami, Hani; Efferth, Thomas; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Heinrich, Michael; Robinson, Nicola; Hylands, Peter J; Hendry, Bruce M; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Xu, Qihe
GP-TCM is the 1st EU-funded Coordination Action consortium dedicated to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. This paper aims to summarise the objectives, structure and activities of the consortium and introduces the position of the consortium regarding good practice, priorities, challenges and opportunities in TCM research. Serving as the introductory paper for the GP-TCM Journal of Ethnopharmacology special issue, this paper describes the roadmap of this special issue and reports how the main outputs of the ten GP-TCM work packages are integrated, and have led to consortium-wide conclusions. Literature studies, opinion polls and discussions among consortium members and stakeholders. By January 2012, through 3 years of team building, the GP-TCM consortium had grown into a large collaborative network involving ∼200 scientists from 24 countries and 107 institutions. Consortium members had worked closely to address good practice issues related to various aspects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and acupuncture research, the focus of this Journal of Ethnopharmacology special issue, leading to state-of-the-art reports, guidelines and consensus on the application of omics technologies in TCM research. In addition, through an online survey open to GP-TCM members and non-members, we polled opinions on grand priorities, challenges and opportunities in TCM research. Based on the poll, although consortium members and non-members had diverse opinions on the major challenges in the field, both groups agreed that high-quality efficacy/effectiveness and mechanistic studies are grand priorities and that the TCM legacy in general and its management of chronic diseases in particular represent grand opportunities. Consortium members cast their votes of confidence in omics and systems biology approaches to TCM research and believed that quality and pharmacovigilance of TCM products are not only grand priorities, but also grand challenges. Non-members, however, gave priority
R. О. Reinhardt
Full Text Available Nowadays energy diplomacy tends to be one of most relevant and important fields of applied research in International Relations. It is characterized by an interdisciplinary approach being an intersection of political and economic theory, international law, energetics, theory of diplomacy, as well as other fields. Still, numerous research works in the given area both in Russia and abroad are characterized by a number of controversies, such as absence of a common theoretical, methodological basis and conventional terminology, as well as lack of consistency in the choice of scientific paradigms, which leads to divergence of research results and hinders the comparability of the latter. Along with that, in terms of scientific policy it is worth mentioning the absence of a common scientific space in the above field of research, which tends to be shaped by national research cultures and traditions. Throughout the 2000-2010s representatives of the MGIMO scientific school have accumulated experience in dealing with problems of energy diplomacy. However, most of the existing works do not specify the selected political theory paradigms, such as, for instance, realism, liberalism or constructivism. With no intention to conduct a comparative analysis of the aforementioned concepts, the authors of the article outline the key theoretical findings of political realism as the most suitable paradigm for explaining, analyzing and eventually forecasting the recent trends and phenomena given the current geopolitical and economical juncture. They prove the applicability of the proposed model to the OPEC case study and demonstrate its potential practical usefulness for policy-makers in foreign affairs and international energy relations.
Zogas, Spyros; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Birbas, Konstantinos; Chondrocoukis, Gregory; Mantas, John
This paper presents a comparison between e-Learning and traditional learning methods of a University course on Health Informatics domain. A pilot research took place among University students who divided on two learning groups, the e-learners and the traditional learners. A comparison of the examinations' marks for the two groups of students was conducted in order to find differences on students' performance. The study results reveal that the students scored almost the same marks independently of the learning procedure. Based on that, it can be assumed that the e-learning courses have the same effectiveness as the in-classroom learning sessions.
Full Text Available The population residing Sub Sahara Africa (SSA continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, various Neglected Tropical as well as Non-Communicable Diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medicine and medical devices. Also, the population in most countries in this region still and has minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian traditional medicine system is one of the oldest documented form of traditional medicine practice in Africa and the pioneer of worlds medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health care system. Challenging issues that drags back integration is the development of education curricula for training Traditional medicine experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana has managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone and Tanzania have traditional medicine products being sold over the counters due to availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should taken in the integration process in order to safeguard the Sub-Sahara Africa population from disease burdens [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 312-316
With the growth of Web 2.0 library intranets in recent years, many libraries are leaving behind legacy, first-generation intranets. As Web 2.0 intranets multiply and mature, how will traditional intranet best practices--especially in the areas of planning, implementation, and evaluation--translate into an existing Web 2.0 intranet infrastructure?…
... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...
Boyer, E. Marcia
Information is presented on a study designed to gather details about the services provided by clinical dental hygienists in traditional and nontraditional settings. The 10 research topics addressed include: services provided by the clinical RDH in the traditional and nontraditional setting; time allocated for such services; how patients are…
Evidence-based health information is distinguished by the provision of an unbiased and trustworthy description of the current state of medical knowledge. It enables people to learn more about health and disease, and to make health-related decisions - on their own or together with others - reflecting their attitudes and lifestyle. To adequately serve this purpose, health information must be evidence-based. A working group from the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (Deutsches Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin) has developed a first draft of good practice guidelines for health information (Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation) with the aim of providing support for authors and publishers of evidence-based health information. The group included researchers, patient representatives, journalists and developers of health information. The criteria for evidence-based health information were developed and agreed upon within this author group, and then made available for public comment. All submitted comments were documented and assessed regarding the need to revise or amend the draft. Changes were subsequently implemented following approval by the author group. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation calls for a transparent methodological approach in the development of health information. To achieve this, evidence-based information must be based on (a) a systematic literature search, (b) a justified selection of evidence, (c) unbiased reporting of relevant results, (d) appropriate factual and linguistic communication of uncertainties, (e) either avoidance of any direct recommendations or a strict division between the reporting of results and the derivation of recommendations, (f) the consideration of current evidence on the communication of figures, risks and probabilities, and (g) transparent information about the authors and publishers of the health information, including their funding sources. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation lists a total of 16 aspects to be addressed
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.
Purpose To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers’ and fathers’ traditional cultural values and young adults’ health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Methods Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents’ cultural values (time 1) and young adults’ health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents’ traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents’ cultural values and young adults’ routine care. Results Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers’ more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08–.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09–.75, p = .012) in young adulthood. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of examining intragroup variability in culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. PMID:27988108
Hollnagel, Hanne; Malterud, Kirsti
autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis......autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis...
Full Text Available Background & aim: Early breastfeeding initiation (EBFI defined as giving breast milk within the first hours following birth, which is recommended as a simple strategy for the enhancement of neonatal health and survival. This descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the practices, perceptions and beliefs of renowned traditional birth attendants (TBA regarding EBFI in Chipinge rural community, Zimbabwe. Methods: The study population was selected through purposive sampling technique. One-on-one interview was conducted for the purpose of unearthing sensitive issues regarding EBFI. The data were collected using an unstructured in-depth interview to explore the practices, perceptions, and beliefs regarding EBFI. Data analysis was carried out using thematic analysis. To this end, the data were presented in thematic categories using the deductive approach and coded into subthemes, which were then merged into themes. The trustworthiness of the study was enhanced through credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. Results: The emerged themes included EBFI preparation, EBFI and significance of colostrum, and determinants of EBFI. The findings revealed that EBFI was not only related to physical and emotional interactions, but also associated with a totality of the person, involving sociocultural ties. The EBFI is viewed as a predictor of maternal sociocultural integrity and the legitimacy of the newborn. In the context under study, failure to breastfeed or to initiate breastfeeding early is thought to be a result of the mother’s past immorality. Breastfeeding in Chipinge community goes beyond the mother-baby interaction. Conclusion: It encompasses the whole person, that is the physical, social, cultural and spiritual ties. Under this condition, the mother should testify and undergo a ritual cleansing to rectify the problem.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Croatian consumers’ acceptance of health related innovations in traditional meat products. A face-to-face survey was conducted with a sample of 151 visitors of a specialized fair of traditional food products in Zagreb in 2013. The respondents were asked to indicate their attitudes on a fivepoint scale, where 1 meant rejection or no impact and 5 meant full acceptance or high impact. Results (mean±SD showed the highest level of acceptance for innovations related to better control of smoking conditions (3.3± 1.14 and reduction of salt content (3.1±1.15, followed by reduced fat content (3.0±1.14 and controlled fermentation (2.9±1.12. The perceived negative impact of innovations on traditional character of meat products was highest for fat (3.4±0.99 and salt (3.4±1.03 reduction and lowest for controlled fermentation (3.2±1.04 and smoking conditions (3.2±1.05. With regards to respondents’ socio-demographic features a nonparametric test statistic (Mann-Whitney U revealed a higher acceptance of fat reduction and higher willingness to increase a consumption of healthier traditional meat products among females, while age, education level and income had no influence on the investigated parameters. In addition, some health related innovations; e.g. fat reduction and controlled fermentation were generally less acceptable among respondents with a high consumption frequency of traditional meat products. The results of this preliminary study indicated controlled smoking conditions as the best accepted health related innovation by Croatian consumers with the least negative impact on perceived traditional character of product. In general terms, women were more likely to accept some of the investigated innovations and consequently to increase their consumption of innovate products. However, the most regular consumers of traditional meat products were less open towards innovations which may pose a challenge to
Johns, Timothy; Powell, Bronwen; Maundu, Patrick; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B
Traditional food systems offer a key link between the social and economic resilience of smallholder farmers and pastoralists and the sustainable food and nutrition security of global populations. This paper addresses issues related to socio-cultural diversity and the continuing complex engagement of traditional and modern communities with the plants and animals that sustain them. In light of some of the unhealthful consequences of the 'nutrition transition' to globalized modern diets, the authors define and propose a process for a more successful food system transition that balances agro-biodiversity and processed commodities to support diet diversity, health and social equity alongside sustainable economic growth. We review empirical research in support of practice and policy changes in agriculture, economic development and health domains as well as cross-sectoral and community-based innovation. High-value food crops within domestic and global value chains can be an entry point for smallholders' participation as contributors and beneficiaries of development, while sustainable small farms, as purveyors of environmental and public health services, diversify global options for long-term adaptation in the face of environmental uncertainty. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Thompson, Lindsay A; Ferdig, Rick; Black, Erik
In the United States, primary and secondary online schools are institutions that deliver online curricula for children enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12). These institutions commonly provide opportunities for online instruction in conjunction with local schools for students who may need remediation, have advanced needs, encounter unqualified local instructors, or experience scheduling conflicts. Internet-based online schooling may potentially help children from populations known to have educational and health disadvantages, such as those from certain racial or ethnic backgrounds, those of low socioeconomic status, and children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To describe the basic and applied demographics of US online-school users and to compare student achievement in traditional versus online schooling environments. We performed a brief parental survey in three states examining basic demographics and educational history of the child and parents, the child's health status as measured by the CSHCN Screener, and their experiences and educational achievement with online schools and class(es). Results were compared with state public-school demographics and statistical analyses controlled for state-specific independence. We analyzed responses from 1971 parents with a response rate of 14.7% (1971/13,384). Parents of online-school participants were more likely to report having a bachelor's degree or higher than were parents of students statewide in traditional schools, and more of their children were white and female. Most notably, the prevalence of CSHCN was high (476/1971, 24.6%) in online schooling. Children who were male, black, or had special health care needs reported significantly lower grades in both traditional and online schools. However, when we controlled for age, gender, race, and parental education, parents of CSHCN or black children reported significantly lower grades in online than in traditional schooling (adjusted odds ratio [a
Weinstein, Ronald S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Doarn, Charles R
Telemedicine and telehealth are the practices of medicine at a distance. Performing the equivalent of a complete clinical examination by telemedicine would be unusual. However, components of a more traditional clinical examination are part of the telemedicine workup for specific conditions. Telemedicine clinical examinations are facilitated, and enhanced, through the integration of a class of medical devices referred to as telemedicine peripherals (eg, electronic stethoscopes, tele-ophthalmoscopes, video-otoscopes, and so forth). Direct-to-consumer telehealth is a rapidly expanding segment of the health care service industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lamster, Ira B; Myers-Wright, Noreen
The health care environment in the U.S. is changing. The population is aging, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, edentulism is decreasing, and periodontal infection/inflammation has been identified as a risk factor for NCDs. These trends offer an opportunity for oral health care providers to broaden the scope of traditional dental practice, specifically becoming more involved in the management of the general health of patients. This new practice paradigm will promote a closer integration with the larger health care system. This change is based on the realization that a healthy mouth is essential for a healthy life, including proper mastication, communication, esthetics, and comfort. Two types of primary care are proposed: screenings for medical conditions that are directly affected by oral disease (and may modify the provision of dental care), and a broader emphasis on prevention that focuses on lifestyle behaviors. Included in the former category are screenings for NCDs (e.g., the risk of cardiovascular disease and identification of patients with undiagnosed dysglycemia or poorly managed diabetes mellitus), as well as identification of infectious diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis C. Reducing the risk of disease can be accomplished by an emphasis on smoking cessation and dietary intake and the prevention of obesity. These activities will promote interprofessional health care education and practice. While change is always challenging, this new practice paradigm could improve both oral health and health outcomes of patients seen in the dental office. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Full Text Available Opinion leaders play an important role in mitigating health issues and are able to influence attitudes and health behaviors to a certain extent. However, in the world we are living today, individual health decision making no longer rely fully on doctor’s advice, but often persuaded by people or organisations deemed reliable and trustworthy. Interestingly, one does not have to have a medical degree to be seen as “reliable” or “trustworthy” in giving out medical advices. Computer-mediated-communication changes the way opinion leaders emerge in virtual communities, specifically in the context of health. Through increased access to both traditional and online media, people have a fair access to communication technology and therefore, our definition of opinion leaders have shifted from how we used to understand it through Lazarsfeld’s two-steps flow theory. In fact, the way opinion leaders operate via social media platform is very different from how it used to be through the traditional mass media. This paper will discuss on the characteristics of new media opinion leaders, particularly in the context of health, in hopes to learn new ways to promote health in future communication campaigns.
Kirby, J P
In rural Africa delivering better health care is more complicated than simply offering good medical services; it must also take into account peoples' religious orientation and beliefs. Here the non-material causes of illness are at least as important as the biological or material and, in many places, one can only determine the exact nature of the problem and its corresponding remedy after the fact, through a process involving divination and sacrifice. In northern Ghana, by adapting to traditional methods of divination, Islam is gradually introducing a future perspective and expanding the possibilities of preventative action. By so doing it is bringing about a religio-epistemological transformation that is, among other things, helping people to understand and make better use of Western bio-medicine and primary health care programs. The author argues for a similar adaptation and dialogue between African traditional beliefs and Western medical institutions.
Deb, Lokesh; Laishram, Surbala; Khumukcham, Nongalleima; Ningthoukhongjam, Dhaneshwor; Nameirakpam, Surjit Singh; Dey, Amitabha; Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Ningthoukhongjam, Tombi Raj
Traditional health care practices are still being followed extensively in Manipur, North-East India. This is the major or the only medical facility available in some rural areas of Manipur. Cross cultural ethno-pharmacological survey was conducted to document traditional health care practices by Maiba-Maibi (male-female traditional health care practitioners of Manipur). All together 59 traditional practitioners belonging to 12 ethnic communities in nine districts of the Manipur state were interviewed. A predesigned questionnaire was used for interviews, which included queries for type of ailments treating, symptoms, bioresources used, method of preparation, dosage forms, formulation, unit doses. The entire interviews were done in the residence of respective Maiba-Maibi, their patient handing and preparation of medicinal formulations were documented in written and audio-visual format. The survey recorded traditional knowledge on 949 formulations used for 66 human ailments. Five hundred forty six plant products, 42 animal products and 22 organic/inorganic materials were found to be used in these 949 formulations. Five plant species - Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignonaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) and Allium sativum (Liliaceae) used by maximum number of Maiba and Maibi in maximum number of formulations. This particular method of documentation keeps traditional knowledge alive. The WHO estimated perspective of traditional medicine across the world. These observations support therapeutic worth of Manipur Traditional medicines (MTM). Having generated a large database in course of this survey, next focus targeted for the scientific justification of MTM with an aim to develop commercially viable products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lemley, Megan; Spies, Lori A
To describe selected common health beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes. Selected clinical trials, qualitative studies, and systematic reviews. The Hispanic folk illness belief susto refers to an episode of severe fright, and Mexican American immigrants hold varying views on its relation to diabetes. Culturally and in the research, susto has also been linked with depression. Sabila (aloe vera) and nopal (prickly pear cactus) are herbal remedies that have had widespread, longstanding use in Mexican culture and while this is not the gold standard of research, it does provide ample evidence and a strong cultural belief that these therapies work. There is some evidence in the literature to support their efficacy as glucose-lowering agents, but lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, potential side effects, and a dearth of rigorous clinical trials preclude aloe vera and nopal from being recommended therapy. Awareness about susto beliefs, commonly used herbal remedies, and development of culturally sensitive communication skills are essential for nurse practitioners to effectively assist patients in this population achieve their glycemic goals. Research on the effects of nopal and aloe vera on diabetes is needed to guide clinical decisions. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Guilmet, George M.; Whited, David L.
Discusses the integration of American Indian cultural perspectives within counseling and mental health services. Outlines several issues illustrating cultural lessons for clinical practices: family and social structure, ritual, cultural values and conflict, sense of time and self, communication styles, anger, and traditionalism. Contains 47…
Haile, Kaleab Taye; Ayele, Asnakew Achaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Demeke, Chilot Abiyu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the chronic nature of the disease, the complexities of treatment modalities and the difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens. Yet, research on herbal medicine use in this patient population is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with the use of traditional herbal medicine among PLWHA in Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 360 PLWHA attending the outpatient clinic of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital from September 1 to 30, 2016. A questionnaire about the socio-demographic, disease characteristics as well as traditional herbal medicine use was filled by the respondents. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use. Out of 360 respondents, 255 (70.8%) used traditional herbal medicine. The most common herbal preparations used by PLWHA were Ginger (Zingiber officinale) (47%), Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (40.8%) and Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) (31.4%). Majority of herbal medicine users rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers (61.2%). Only lower educational status was found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use in the multivariate logistic regression. The use of herbal medicine among PLWHA is a routine practice and associated with a lower educational status. Patients also rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, health care providers should often consult patients regarding herbal medicine use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Bonucci, Massimo; Daher, Michel; Kebudi, Rejin; Saad, Bashar; Breitkreuz, Thomas; Rassouli, Maryam; Rossi, Elio; Gafer, Nahla; Nimri, Omar; Hablas, Mohamed; Kienle, Gunver Sophia; Samuels, Noah; Silbermann, Michael
The recent wave of migration from Middle Eastern countries to Europe presents significant challenges to the European health profession. These include the inevitable communication gap created by differences in health care beliefs between European oncologists, health care practitioners, and refugee patients. This article presents the conclusions of a workshop attended by a group of clinicians and researchers affiliated with the Middle East Cancer Consortium, as well as four European-based health-related organizations. Workshop participants included leading clinicians and medical educators from the field of integrative medicine and supportive cancer care from Italy, Germany, Turkey, Israel, Palestine, Iran, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Sudan. The workshop illustrated the need for creating a dialogue between European health care professionals and the refugee population in order to overcome the communication barriers to create healing process. The affinity for complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) among many refugee populations was also addressed, directing participants to the mediating role that integrative medicine serves between CTM and conventional medicine health belief models. This is especially relevant to the use of herbal medicine among oncology patients, for whom an open and nonjudgmental (yet evidence-based) dialogue is of utmost importance. The workshop concluded with a recommendation for the creation of a comprehensive health care model, to include bio-psycho-social and cultural-spiritual elements, addressing both acute and chronic medical conditions. These models need to be codesigned by European and Middle Eastern clinicians and researchers, internalizing a culturally sensitive approach and ethical commitment to the refugee population, as well as indigenous groups originating from Middle Eastern and north African countries. European oncologists face a communication gap with refugee patients who have recently immigrated from Middle Eastern and
Dressel, Anne; Schneider, Robert; DeNomie, Melissa; Kusch, Jennifer; Welch, Whitney; Sosa, Mirtha; Yeldell, Sally; Maida, Tatiana; Wineberg, Jessica; Holt, Keith; Bernstein, Rebecca
Most low-income Americans fail to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactivity and poor diet contribute to obesity, a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases. Health promotion activities have the potential to improve health outcomes for low-income populations. Measuring the effectiveness of these activities, however, can be challenging in community settings. A "Biking for Health" study tested the impact of a bicycling intervention on overweight or obese low-income Latino and African American adults to reduce barriers to cycling and increase physical activity and fitness. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in summer 2015. A 12-week bicycling intervention was implemented at two sites with low-income, overweight, or obese Latino and African American adults. We found that randomized controlled trial methodology was suboptimal for use in this small pilot study and that it negatively affected participation. More discussion is needed about the effectiveness of using traditional research methods in community settings to assess the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. Modifications or alternative methods may yield better results. The aim of this article is to discuss the effectiveness and feasibility of using traditional research methods to assess health promotion interventions in community-based settings.
Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.
Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…
Bennett, Kelly J; Olsen, Jennifer M; Harris, Sara; Mekaru, Sumiko; Livinski, Alicia A; Brownstein, John S
Hurricane Isaac made landfall in southeastern Louisiana in late August 2012, resulting in extensive storm surge and inland flooding. As the lead federal agency responsible for medical and public health response and recovery coordination, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) must have situational awareness to prepare for and address state and local requests for assistance following hurricanes. Both traditional and non-traditional data have been used to improve situational awareness in fields like disease surveillance and seismology. This study investigated whether non-traditional data (i.e., tweets and news reports) fill a void in traditional data reporting during hurricane response, as well as whether non-traditional data improve the timeliness for reporting identified HHS Essential Elements of Information (EEI). HHS EEIs provided the information collection guidance, and when the information indicated there was a potential public health threat, an event was identified and categorized within the larger scope of overall Hurricane Issac situational awareness. Tweets, news reports, press releases, and federal situation reports during Hurricane Isaac response were analyzed for information about EEIs. Data that pertained to the same EEI were linked together and given a unique event identification number to enable more detailed analysis of source content. Reports of sixteen unique events were examined for types of data sources reporting on the event and timeliness of the reports. Of these sixteen unique events identified, six were reported by only a single data source, four were reported by two data sources, four were reported by three data sources, and two were reported by four or more data sources. For five of the events where news tweets were one of multiple sources of information about an event, the tweet occurred prior to the news report, press release, local government\\emergency management tweet, and federal situation report. In all circumstances where
The directive implements the OSWER (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response) Integrated Health and Safety Standards Operating Practices in conjunction with the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) Worker Protection Standards, replacing the OSWER Integrated Health and Safety Policy
Mignone, Javier; Bartlett, Judith; O'Neil, John; Orchard, Treena
The practice of integrating western and traditional indigenous medicine is fast becoming an accepted and more widely used approach in health care systems throughout the world. However, debates about intercultural health approaches have raised significant concerns. This paper reports findings of five case studies on intercultural health in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Suriname. It presents summary information on each case study, comparatively analyzes the initiatives following four main analytical themes, and examines the case studies against a series of the best practice criteria. PMID:17803820
Hylko, J.M.; Bradshaw, M.C.; Ross, L.E.; Brennan, M.J.; Pomatto, C.B.; Shelly, F.C.
Environmental restoration (ER) is the process of removing a facility from service, the demolition of structures the identification and disposal of all hazardous and radioactive wastes, the decontamination of equipment and materials, and the restoration of a site for unrestricted use. The number of ER projects encompassing hazardous, industrial, and radiological conditions is expected to increase in response to various program requirements or mission changes. As a result, the practicing health physicist (HP) may have to address unique health and safety (H and S) issues beyond those of performing routine radiological activities. These unique H and S issues could include, but are not limited to the razing of buildings, the removal of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals, below-grade excavation, confined space entry, storing flammable or combustible liquids, monitoring exposure to hazardous substances, contacting energized systems (e.g., electricity, hydraulics), noise abatement, the nullification of manufacturer warranties, and the operation and movement of heavy equipment. The purpose of this paper is to educate the practicing HP about these issues by reviewing specific regulations governing all H and S activities, and to provide an example of a site-specific H and S primer (e.g., Health and Safety Plan [HASP]). This primer advices the practicing HP about sound H and S principles, furnishes basic strategies for performing a hazard assessment/job safety analysis (HA/JSA) that can be applied to any ER project, and describes various engineering and administrative controls to mitigate hazardous exposures to ER personnel. In addition, 26 inspection checklist topics are available from the primary author to evaluate the adequacy of the engineering and administrative controls, or to necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) thereby mitigating the corresponding hazard. (author)
Phelps, Charles; Madhavan, Guruprasad; Rappuoli, Rino; Levin, Scott; Shortliffe, Edward; Colwell, Rita
Scarce resources, especially in population health and public health practice, underlie the importance of strategic planning. Public health agencies' current planning and priority setting efforts are often narrow, at times opaque, and focused on single metrics such as cost-effectiveness. As demonstrated by SMART Vaccines, a decision support software system developed by the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, new approaches to strategic planning allow the formal incorporation of multiple stakeholder views and multicriteria decision making that surpass even those sophisticated cost-effectiveness analyses widely recommended and used for public health planning. Institutions of higher education can and should respond by building on modern strategic planning tools as they teach their students how to improve population health and public health practice. Strategic planning in population health and public health practice often uses single indicators of success or, when using multiple indicators, provides no mechanism for coherently combining the assessments. Cost-effectiveness analysis, the most complex strategic planning tool commonly applied in public health, uses only a single metric to evaluate programmatic choices, even though other factors often influence actual decisions. Our work employed a multicriteria systems analysis approach--specifically, multiattribute utility theory--to assist in strategic planning and priority setting in a particular area of health care (vaccines), thereby moving beyond the traditional cost-effectiveness analysis approach. (1) Multicriteria systems analysis provides more flexibility, transparency, and clarity in decision support for public health issues compared with cost-effectiveness analysis. (2) More sophisticated systems-level analyses will become increasingly important to public health as disease burdens increase and the resources to deal with them become scarcer. The teaching of strategic planning in public
Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu
Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.
Deegan, Donna; Wims, Padraig; Pettit, Tony
Purpose: In this article the use of blended learning multimedia materials as an education tool was compared with the traditional approach for skills training. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was conducted in Ireland using a pre-test, post-test experimental design. All students were instructed on how to complete two skills using either a…
Kyei, Mathew Y; Klufio, George O; Ayamba, Ali; Mohammed, Sherif
This study was aimed at identifying Ghanaian traditional medicines used for the management of prostate diseases and their constituents. Reviews of studies conducted on them are also presented. This was a prospective study. Traditional Medicine samples from consecutive patients with either lower urinary symptoms (LUTS) presenting at the Urology Unit of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Accra from January 2015 to June 2016 and had a prior treatment with traditional medicines, had the samples retrieved. Additionally, all the 58 licensed pharmaceutical shops in Okaishie, a whole sale and retail depot for medicines in the main business district of Accra, were visited and traditional medicines for the management of prostate diseases acquired. The products constituent as labeled were documented and entered once on a proforma. This study was part of a study on the management of benign prostate hyperplasia at the KBTH approved by the Medical Directorate.The findings were analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics and presented as a table. Eleven products were identified with the main indigenous medicinal plant identified being the root extract of Croton membranaceus . This was the constituent in four products (Uro 500 ® , UR-Quick mixture ® , Prostacure® and prostat®60). Although studies on the basic pharmacology and animal studies have confirmed its effect on the prostate, only one clinical study was identified. Croton membranaceus was the indigenous traditional medicine identified for relieving LUTS due to prostate disease. There is the need for empirical evidence on its efficacy in treating Prostate cancer. Not declared.
Lewis, Sarah R
The Practice of Health Program Evaluation provides an overview of the evaluation process for public health programs while diving deeper to address select advanced concepts and techniques. The book unfolds evaluation as a three-phased process consisting of identification of evaluation questions, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of results and recommendations. The text covers research design, sampling methods, as well as quantitative and qualitative approaches. Types of evaluation are also discussed, including economic assessment and systems research as relative newcomers. Aspects critical to conducting a successful evaluation regardless of type or research design are emphasized, such as stakeholder engagement, validity and reliability, and adoption of sound recommendations. The book encourages evaluators to document their approach by developing an evaluation plan, a data analysis plan, and a dissemination plan, in order to help build consensus throughout the process. The evaluative text offers a good bird's-eye view of the evaluation process, while offering guidance for evaluation experts on how to navigate political waters and advocate for their findings to help affect change.
Pati, S; Chauhan, A S; Mahapatra, S; Sinha, R; Pati, S
Health promotion is an integral part of routine clinical practice. The physicians' role in improving the health status of the general population, through effective understanding and delivery of health promotion practice, is evident throughout the international literature. Data from India suggest that physicians have limited skills in delivering specific health promotion services. However, the data available on this is scarce. This study was planned to document the current health promotion knowledge, perception and practices of local primary care physicians in Odisha. An exploratory study was planned between the months of January - February 2013 in Odisha among primary care physicians working in government set up. This exploratory study was conducted, using a two-step self-administered questionnaire, thirty physicians practicing under government health system were asked to map their ideal and current health promotion practice, and potential health promotion elements to be worked upon to enhance the practice. The study recorded a significant difference between the mean of current and ideal health promotion practices. The study reported that physicians want to increase their practice on health education. We concluded that inclusion of health promotion practices in routine care is imperative for a strong healthcare system. It should be incorporated as a structured health promotion module in medical curriculum as well.
The South African traditional health practitioner as a beneficiary of and provider to medical funds and schemes through the traditional health practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007: A present-day perspective
Full Text Available Background Payments to traditional health practitioners for services rendered from medical funds and schemes, as envisaged by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007, is controversial and a point of contention. Such policy was followed before in South Africa in the 1990s when some funds and schemes offered limited alternative healthcare benefits for members consulting traditional healers. Aims The study aimed to offer a contemporary view of the South African traditional health practitioner as a provider to and beneficiary of the medical funds and schemes through the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the South African traditional health practitioner as a provider to and beneficiary of the medical schemes and funds through the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It seems as if the South African authorities completely misunderstand the future implications of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007 on healthcare. This is specifically true when it comes to the right to claim from medical funds and schemes for services rendered by traditional health practitioners and the possible extra costs for these medical schemes and funds. Conclusion The implications of Section 42(2 of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007 which aims to set up a claiming process for traditional health practitioners, seems to be very problematic. The fact that Act No 22 (2007 has not been enacted properly nine years after its promulgation has put a halt on the professionalization of traditional healers until 2015. This also affected their status as a beneficiary of and service provider to the
Trenz, Rebecca C; Ecklund-Flores, Lisa; Rapoza, Kimberly
To describe differences in life stress, anxiety, depression, and alcohol use between traditional and nontraditional college students. A targeted, stratified sample of college students (N = 1,187; Mage = 23.96, SD = 7.30; female, 67.2%) completed study surveys in Spring 2011. Participants completed demographic information, life stress (Crisis in Family Systems), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption) surveys during regularly scheduled class times. Fifty-three percent (n = 630) of study participants were nontraditional students. Nontraditional students scored significantly higher than traditional students on life stress (t = -3.05, p students did not differ on alcohol use. Interventions for nontraditional college students should address the mental health issues specific to this growing college subpopulation.
O'Neill, Barbara; Xiao, Jing Jian; Ensle, Karen
This study explored relationships between the practice of following a hand-written or computer-generated budget and the frequency of performance of positive personal health and financial practices. Data were collected from an online quiz completed by 942 adults, providing a simultaneous assessment of individuals' health and financial practices.…
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
Purpose To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. Results There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; de Waart, Frouwkje G; Raat, Hein
To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying behavior, especially because early-onset mental health problems
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. METHODS: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181. Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between these variables while controlling for baseline problems. Additionally, we tested whether gender differences in mental health and suicidal ideation were present for the two types of bullying. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between gender and traditional bullying victimization and between gender and cyber bullying victimization on mental health problems. Among boys, traditional and cyber bullying victimization were not related to mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. Among girls, both traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with mental health problems after controlling for baseline mental health. No significant interaction between gender and traditional or cyber bullying victimization on suicidal ideation was found. Traditional bullying victimization was associated with suicidal ideation, whereas cyber bullying victimization was not associated with suicidal ideation after controlling for baseline suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation, whereas traditional, as well as cyber bullying victimization is associated with an increased risk of mental health problems among girls. These findings stress the importance of programs aimed at reducing bullying
Frazzoli, Chiara, E-mail: email@example.com [External Relations Office, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy); Pouokam, Guy Bertrand, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Food Safety Laboratory, Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde 1 (Cameroon); Mantovani, Alberto, E-mail: email@example.com [Dept. Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy); Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State (Nigeria)
The term geophagy is applied to the recurrent intentional eating of soil with multifactorial motivation. Geophagists are generally defined by gender (women), age (children), physical status (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, postpartum), social status (people exposed to significant nutritional deficiencies), and culture, but lost awareness of traditional medical meaning of this practice is changing these consumption patterns and increasing health risks. Moreover, although the holistic anthropological perspective recognizes soil consumption as mineral supplementation under certain circumstances, we should consider how the living environment has changed and is changing, along with diet, nutrition requirements, and habits. Therefore, benefits-to-risks ratio of cultural behaviours initiated centuries ago based on traditional medical practices requires deep revision and assessment. Knowledge on minerals metabolism, bioavailability and interactions is required to properly assess the role of geophagy in a balanced and safe intake of micronutrients. Most important, the risk of unbalanced intake of minerals may be serious since the mineralogy and chemistry of geophagic clays are uncontrolled, variable, and difficult to standardize. In addition, other factors (radioactive materials, organic chemicals and soil pathogens) complicate the risk assessment for population groups consuming soil. Since the geophagic practice is expected to persist despite economic development, the paper discusses the multifaceted spectrum of geophagy to highlight critical aspects for risk management. - Highlights: • Cultural behaviors initiated centuries ago need revision and assessment • Geophagy should consider how living environment, diet, and habits are changing • Update of nutritional requirements is crucial to assess geophagy • Chemicals, radioactive materials, and soil pathogens are risk factors of geophagy • Geochemical data could anticipate and prevent major food born/nutritional risks.
Frazzoli, Chiara; Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Mantovani, Alberto; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere
The term geophagy is applied to the recurrent intentional eating of soil with multifactorial motivation. Geophagists are generally defined by gender (women), age (children), physical status (e.g. pregnancy, lactation, postpartum), social status (people exposed to significant nutritional deficiencies), and culture, but lost awareness of traditional medical meaning of this practice is changing these consumption patterns and increasing health risks. Moreover, although the holistic anthropological perspective recognizes soil consumption as mineral supplementation under certain circumstances, we should consider how the living environment has changed and is changing, along with diet, nutrition requirements, and habits. Therefore, benefits-to-risks ratio of cultural behaviours initiated centuries ago based on traditional medical practices requires deep revision and assessment. Knowledge on minerals metabolism, bioavailability and interactions is required to properly assess the role of geophagy in a balanced and safe intake of micronutrients. Most important, the risk of unbalanced intake of minerals may be serious since the mineralogy and chemistry of geophagic clays are uncontrolled, variable, and difficult to standardize. In addition, other factors (radioactive materials, organic chemicals and soil pathogens) complicate the risk assessment for population groups consuming soil. Since the geophagic practice is expected to persist despite economic development, the paper discusses the multifaceted spectrum of geophagy to highlight critical aspects for risk management. - Highlights: • Cultural behaviors initiated centuries ago need revision and assessment • Geophagy should consider how living environment, diet, and habits are changing • Update of nutritional requirements is crucial to assess geophagy • Chemicals, radioactive materials, and soil pathogens are risk factors of geophagy • Geochemical data could anticipate and prevent major food born/nutritional risks
The World Health Organization's Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion has been influential in guiding the development of 'settings' based health promotion. Over the past decade, settings such as schools have flourished and there has been a considerable amount of academic literature produced, including theoretical papers, descriptive studies and evaluations. However, despite its central importance, the health-promoting general practice has received little attention. This paper discusses: the significance of this setting for health promotion; how a health promoting general practice can be created; effective health promotion approaches; the nursing contribution; and some challenges that need to be resolved. In order to become a health promoting general practice, the staff must undertake a commitment to fulfil the following conditions: create a healthy working environment; integrate health promotion into practice activities; and establish alliances with other relevant institutions and groups within the community. The health promoting general practice is the gold standard for health promotion. Settings that have developed have had the support of local, national and European networks. Similar assistance and advocacy will be needed in general practice. This paper recommends that a series of rigorously evaluated, high-quality pilot sites need to be established to identify and address potential difficulties, and to ensure that this innovative approach yields tangible health benefits for local communities. It also suggests that government support is critical to the future development of health promoting general practices. This will be needed both directly and in relation to the capacity and resourcing of public health in general.
Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice
Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.
Verónica Martínez Robles
The model of compact city that Barcelona aims, has required the renewal of its historical areas, and in order to improve their level of centrality, taking into account, that in addition of its historical centre “Ciutat Vella”, Barcelona contains diverse traditional neighborhoods each of them having their own historical centre. The difference centre‐periphery should also be perceived among these other historical centers. Integration should not be confused with standardization, neither differentiation with segregation.
Owens, Heather; Christian, Becky; Polivka, Barbara
The purpose of this systematic review was to examine influences affecting sleep behavior in traditional-age college students and to advocate for improved sleep behavior assessments. A literature search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases was performed using the search terms "college students" and "sleep" in the title that were published in English from 1978 to 2016. The circadian clock is reset in traditional-age college students leading to delayed sleep times. Newly realized autonomy and increased use of technology also prevent traditional-age college students from obtaining sufficient sleep. Insufficient sleep experienced by these students has been linked to insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes, weight gain, and stress. Sleep insufficiency increases the risk for pedestrian, motor vehicle, and domestic and occupational injuries. Insufficient sleep may result in poor academic performance influencing subsequent health outcomes. Evidence supports the need for nurse practitioners and other healthcare providers to incorporate systematic sleep behavior assessments to improve health outcomes among traditional-age college students. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. METHODS: We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. RESULTS: Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54% mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure. However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure. Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (subacute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (subacute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system.
The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358
The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world's medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens.
The WHO held an Expert Committee Meeting in Botswana to identify ways by which traditional health practitioners might contribute to AIDS prevention and treatment. Medium Term Plans for AIDS control in Botswana, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Uganda have already defined areas of community-based care, counseling and symptomatic treatment appropriate for traditional healers. Traditional healers and midwives often play central roles in maintenance of social stability, provide valuable information on sexual behavior, teach young people about sexual roles, and act as informal networks for women, especially in Islamic communities. Many indigenous concepts on the cause and transmission of HIV/AIDS are compatible with modern scientific concepts, although expressed in different terms and conceptual frameworks. AIDS is often considered an indigenous disease, caused by contact of blood and semen, therefore treatable by indigenous methods. In their role as informal community leaders and guardians of social norms, healers and midwives can channel educational messages and act as change agents. Healers can convey technically appropriate home care, dispense symptomatic care, treat opportunistic infections and counsel young people about control of HIV.
Rice, Michael J
This article is the first in a new column focusing on evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychiatric mental health nursing. The EBP movement was strongly influenced by a British epidemiologist, Dr. Cochrane, who advocated care based on randomized clinical controlled trials in the late 1900s. Although the majority of the EBP movement is directed toward developing clinical guidelines, the critical element focuses on the therapeutic relationship and clinical judgment associated with providing care. This column will address a clinical problem, define PICO questions, report knowledge base searches, and present existing evidence. Recommendations will be offered for potential interventions and suggestions for evaluating clinical outcomes. Nurses can no longer view clinical studies as academic exercises discarded on graduation and not applied to the clinical setting. Conscientiously applying what is known about treatments and interventions of ethical, if not legal, value is consistent with the professional definition of care. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2008; 14(2), 107-111. DOI: 10.1177/1078390308315798.
Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison
Forty years of safe motherhood programming has demonstrated that isolated interventions will not reduce maternal mortality sufficiently to achieve MDG 5. Although skilled birth attendants (SBAs) can intervene to save lives, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are often preferred by communities. Considering the value of both TBAs and SBAs, it is important to review strategies for maximizing their respective strengths. To describe mechanisms to integrate TBAs with the health system to increase skilled birth attendance and examine the components of successful integration. A systematic review of interventions linking TBAs and formal health workers, measuring outcomes of skilled birth attendance, referrals, and facility deliveries. Thirty-three articles met the selection criteria. Mechanisms used for integration included training and supervision of TBAs, collaboration skills for health workers, inclusion of TBAs at health facilities, communication systems, and clear definition of roles. Impact on skilled birth attendance depended on selection of TBAs, community participation, and addressing barriers to access. Successful approaches were context-specific. The integration of TBAs with formal health systems increases skilled birth attendance. The greatest impact is seen when TBA integration is combined with complementary actions to overcome context-specific barriers to contact among SBAs, TBAs, and women. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitworth, David E
Laboratory-based practical classes are a common feature of life science teaching, during which students learn how to perform experiments and generate/interpret data. Practical classes are typically instructional, concentrating on providing topic- and technique-specific skills, however to produce research-capable graduates it is also important to develop generic practical skills. To provide an opportunity for students to develop the skills needed to create bespoke protocols for experimental benchwork, a traditional practical was repurposed. Students were given a list of available resources and an experimental goal, and directed to create a bench protocol to achieve the aim (measuring the iron in hemoglobin). In a series of teaching events students received feedback from staff, and peers prototyped the protocols, before protocols were finally implemented. Graduates highlighted this exercise as one of the most important of their degrees, primarily because of the clear relevance of the skills acquired to professional practice. The exercise exemplifies a range of pedagogic principles, but arguably its most important innovation is that it repurposed a pre-existing practical. This had the benefits of automatically providing scaffolding to direct the students' thought processes, while retaining the advantages of a "discovery learning" exercise, and allowing facile adoption of the approach across the sector. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):377-380, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer benefits to human health when administered in adequate amounts. Among the frequent proposed health benefits attributed to probiotics, their ability to interact with the host immune system is now well demonstrated. Although history has revealed that probiotics were part of fermented foods in the past, clinicians have started to use them therapeutically in regular diets. Moreover, the use of genetically modified probiotics to deliver molecules of therapeutic interest is gaining importance as an extension of the probiotic concept. This chapter summarizes some of the recent findings and perspectives on the use of both traditional and genetically modified probiotics to treat human diseases as well as what the future may hold concerning the use of these probiotics in humans.
Full Text Available Background. Baduanjin is a traditional Chinese qigong that has been practiced for a long time in China as a mind-body exercise in community elderly populations. The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the perceived benefit of regular Baduanjin qigong in community elders. Methods. A total of 20 participants who had completed the 12-week Baduanjin qigong training were interviewed regarding their perceived effect on physical and psychological health and whether Baduanjin qigong was suitable for the elderly. Results. Almost all participants agreed that Baduanjin qigong could promote their multisystem or organ functions (e.g., digestive and circulatory systems, increase their immunity, make their bodies relax, and improve their mood and confidence. Most of the participants also agreed that Baduanjin qigong was appropriate for elderly individuals. Few individuals felt bored because of an hour Baduanjin training each day. Conclusions. The findings suggest that regular Baduanjin qigong may be potentially helpful to promote the overall physical and psychological health of elderly community populations and may be useful and feasible as a body-mind exercise in the health promotion in the elderly community populations.
U'Ren, Richard C
.... ________________________________________________________________ Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication U'Ren, Richard, 1939- Social perspective : the missing element in mental health practice / Richard U'Ren...
Sissine, Mysha; Segan, Robert; Taylor, Mathew; Jefferson, Bobby; Borrelli, Alice; Koehler, Mohandas; Chelvayohan, Meena
Another one million community healthcare workers are needed to address the growing global population and increasing demand of health care services. This paper describes a cost comparison between two training approaches to better understand costs implications of training community health workers (CHWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our team created a prospective model to forecast and compare the costs of two training methods as described in the Dalburge Report - (1) a traditional didactic training approach ("baseline") and (2) a blended eLearning training approach ("blended"). After running the model for training 100,000 CHWs, we compared the results and scaled up those results to one million CHWs. A substantial difference exists in total costs between the baseline and blended training programs. RESULTS indicate that using a blended eLearning approach for training community health care workers could provide a total cost savings of 42%. Scaling the model to one million CHWs, the blended eLearning training approach reduces total costs by 25%. The blended eLearning savings are a result of decreased classroom time, thereby reducing the costs associated with travel, trainers and classroom costs; and using a tablet with WiFi plus a feature phone rather than a smartphone with data plan. The results of this cost analysis indicate significant savings through using a blended eLearning approach in comparison to a traditional didactic method for CHW training by as much as 67%. These results correspond to the Dalberg publication which indicates that using a blended eLearning approach is an opportunity for closing the gap in training community health care workers.
Si-Yuan Pan; Gerhard Litscher; Si-Hua Gao; Shu-Feng Zhou; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hou-Qi Chen; Shuo-Feng Zhang; Min-Ke Tang; Jian-Ning Sun; Kam-Ming Ko
In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesse...
From September 2015, schools in England will be teaching new A-level science specifications that have been developed by examination boards to encompass new higher levels of demand developed by the Department for Education. Integral to these new specifications is a radical change to the contribution of practical science to the A-level grade of the…
Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge
Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…
Paul H. Gobster
Landscape and Urban Planning encourages multiple perspectives and approaches to help understand landscapes as social-ecological systems, with the goal that by building a robust science of landscape we can provide sustainable solutions for guiding its change. But the link between science and practice, or more simply put, between knowledge and action, is not always clear...
Calvo, Carmen Benso
The paper reviews school practice in Spain through the long historic period of the dictatorship of Gen. Francisco Franco between the 1936 Civil War and Franco's death in 1975. For this purpose, an analysis is made of the most relevant documents (school materials, reports, direct testimonies by practising teachers, scientific papers on education…
Yi, Lian-yun; Peng, Jing
The actual effect is a big problem in current school moral education. By analyzing the problems in the theory and practice of the current school moral education, the author points out that the reason is that, for a long time, the meaning of morality has been dissimilated, and moral education is considered as a kind of knowledge input and…
This article offers a model to assist music teachers in reflecting on their teaching practice in relation to their aims and values. Initially developed as a workshop aid for use on a music education MA program, the model is intended to provoke critical engagement with two prominent tensions in music education: that between mastery and enjoyment,…
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... of children with congenital heart defects attending the Paediatric Cardiology Clinic of ... Keywords: Congenital heart disease, Oral health knowledge, Oral health practices.
Full Text Available The major impact of humans on forest ecosystems including loss of forest area, habitat fragmentation, and soil degradation leads to losses of biodiversity. These problems can be addressed by integration of agriculture with forests and maintaining the existing forests. This study was initiated to assess woody species diversity of traditional agroforestry practices. Three study sites (Burkitu, Chire, and Erba were selected based on the presence of agroforestry practice. Forty-eight (48 sample quadrants having an area of 20 m × 20 m, 16 sample quadrants in each study site, were systematically laid using four transect lines at different distance. The diversity of woody species was analyzed by using different diversity indices. A total of 55 woody species belonging to 31 families were identified and documented. There were significantly different (P<0.05 among the study Kebeles (peasant associations. Mangifera indica, Entada abyssinica, and Croton macrostachyus were found to have the highest Important Value Index. The results confirmed that traditional agroforestry plays a major role in the conservation of native woody species. However, threats to woody species were observed. Therefore, there is a need to undertake conservation practices before the loss of species.
Supriya, K E
In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.
Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck
Full Text Available This article intends to evince and analyze the impact of the Christian conceptions of sickness and death on the Guarani indian sensibility and its translation in terms of representations and social practices in the Jesuitical reductions. The analysis of the records made by the missionaries, especially the Cartas Ânuas of the Jesuitical Province of Paraguay regarding the period from 1609 to 1675, revealed that, on the one hand, the Guarani kept traditional practices of their religious sensibility – as is evinced in the resignification of the "copious crying" and the funereal laments –, and, on the other hand, that the missionaries, besides incorporating the native pharmacopoeia and many of the indian healing practices, skillfully manipulated the cures and the "bien morir", a strategy that was fundamental to the success of the civilization-conversion project of the Companhia de Jesus alongside the Guarani.
France has a complex system for the taxation of alcoholic beverages. In the French overseas territories (FOT), the system includes little-known specificities whose purpose is to preserve the sugar-cane-rum sector, a pillar for the weak economies in these territories. Taxes are reduced for traditional rums produced and sold locally. This favors the marketing of alcoholic spirits at low prices. In metropolitan France, on the contrary, spirits are heavily taxed drinks and their share in consumption is minor. Reunion Island (RI) is a FOT confronted with significant socioeconomic precariousness and with one of the highest national morbidity and mortality rates associated with alcohol abuse. Spirits account for half of the total consumption of pure alcohol, with a strong predominance for local traditional rums. These products are preferentially consumed by vulnerable subjects, often affected by an alcohol-use disorder. This study consists of three parts. First, a comparative analysis of alcoholic beverage prices between RI and mainland France. Second, an analysis of the bibliography on the consequences of preferential consumption of spirits. Third, a literature review on the impact of taxation on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. In France, the cheapest gram of pure alcohol is found in the FOT. The preferential consumption of spirits is associated with more frequent and more rapid complications. It is correlated with the level of alcoholic psychoses. Taxation is effective in reducing damage caused by the abuse of alcoholic beverages. The World Health Organization recommends the application of a minimum price for alcohol and tax increases. The reduced taxation of the traditional rums of the FOT does not take into account public health data. Its purpose is economic. In RI, it contributes to a high level of consumption of spirits and encourages excess mortality through alcohol abuse. It constitutes an inequality of health for these populations. Changes in this tax
Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng
Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij – Jansen, Petra M.; de Waart, Frouwkje G.; Raat, Hein
textabstractPurpose: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods: A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N = 3181). Traditional and cyber bullying victimization were assessed at baseline, whereas mental health status an...
Trish, Erin; Ginsburg, Paul; Gascue, Laura; Joyce, Geoffrey
Nearly one-third of Medicare beneficiaries are enrolled in a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan, yet little is known about the prices that MA plans pay for physician services. Medicare Advantage insurers typically also sell commercial plans, and the extent to which MA physician reimbursement reflects traditional Medicare (TM) rates vs negotiated commercial prices is unclear. To compare prices paid for physician and other health care services in MA, traditional Medicare, and commercial plans. Retrospective analysis of claims data evaluating MA prices paid to physicians and for laboratory services and durable medical equipment between 2007 and 2012 in 348 US core-based statistical areas. The study population included all MA and commercial enrollees with a large national health insurer operating in both markets, as well as a 20% sample of TM beneficiaries. Enrollment in an MA plan. Mean reimbursement paid to physicians, laboratories, and durable medical equipment suppliers for MA and commercial enrollees relative to TM rates for 11 Healthcare Common Procedure Coding Systems (HCPCS) codes spanning 7 sites of care. The sample consisted of 144 million claims. Physician reimbursement in MA was more strongly tied to TM rates than commercial prices, although MA plans tended to pay physicians less than TM. For a mid-level office visit with an established patient (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 99213), the mean MA price was 96.9% (95% CI, 96.7%-97.2%) of TM. Across the common physician services we evaluated, mean MA reimbursement ranged from 91.3% of TM for cataract removal in an ambulatory surgery center (CPT 66984; 95% CI, 90.7%-91.9%) to 102.3% of TM for complex evaluation and management of a patient in the emergency department (CPT 99285; 95% CI, 102.1%-102.6%). However, for laboratory services and durable medical equipment, where commercial prices are lower than TM rates, MA plans take advantage of these lower commercial prices, ranging from 67.4% for a walker
Wong, Josephine; Fisher, Jane
The Chinese postpartum custom of "confinement" or "doing-the-month" involves formalised social support and recognition of the status of motherhood and has been presumed in anthropological literature to protect mothers of newborns from postpartum depression. The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence about the relationship between confinement practices and postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. A systematic search of the English-language literature. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. It was found that the role of confinement in postpartum depression is complex: eight studies concluded that it had a protective role; four that it increased risk of postpartum mood disturbance and four studies had inconclusive findings. Aspects of the confinement practice that could contribute to or fail to protect against postpartum depression include the generally diminished social support in contemporary society, conflict with a mother-in-law and the tension experienced by modern women as they work to balance traditional with contemporary values. Methodological differences limit meaningful comparisons between the reviewed studies and generalizations from them. There is little consistent evidence that confinement practices reduce postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. Specific components of confinement practices might reduce psychological distress in Chinese mothers of newborns, but these cannot be discerned from the existing evidence. Confinement cannot be presumed to be available to, welcomed by or effective for all Chinese women or to be a substitute for health service provision.
Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen
In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.
Background: Attitude and practice of health care professionals toward autopsy are important as they will give information regarding factors that contribute to the low rate of autopsies in children under five years. Objective: To evaluate the attitude and practice of health care providers towards autopsies in children under five ...
The request for and performance of autopsy have been on the decline despite its obvious merits to medical practice, the patients and public health. Several surveys have exposed some reasons for this decline. Method: This work is a review of the role of forensic pathology to medical practice and public health. The author ...
Chin, Ming-Kai, Ed.; Edginton, Christopher R.
"Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice" draws together global scholars, researchers, and practitioners to provide a review and analysis of new directions in physical education and health worldwide. The book provides descriptive information from 40 countries regarding contemporary practices, models, and…
Brown, Gregory G; Thomas, Michael L; Patt, Virginie
Neuropsychology is an applied measurement field with its psychometric work primarily built upon classical test theory (CTT). We describe a series of psychometric models to supplement the use of CTT in neuropsychological research and test development. We introduce increasingly complex psychometric models as measurement algebras, which include model parameters that represent abilities and item properties. Within this framework of parametric model measurement (PMM), neuropsychological assessment involves the estimation of model parameters with ability parameter values assuming the role of test 'scores'. Moreover, the traditional notion of measurement error is replaced by the notion of parameter estimation error, and the definition of reliability becomes linked to notions of item and test information. The more complex PMM approaches incorporate into the assessment of neuropsychological performance formal parametric models of behavior validated in the experimental psychology literature, along with item parameters. These PMM approaches endorse the use of experimental manipulations of model parameters to assess a test's construct representation. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are evaluated by their implications for measurement error conditional upon ability level, sensitivity to sample characteristics, computational challenges to parameter estimation, and construct validity. A family of parametric psychometric models can be used to assess latent processes of interest to neuropsychologists. By modeling latent abilities at the item level, psychometric studies in neuropsychology can investigate construct validity and measurement precision within a single framework and contribute to a unification of statistical methods within the framework of generalized latent variable modeling.
Salman, Khlood Faik
In this exploratory study I investigated the participation status in breast and cervical cancer screening of a group of American immigrant Arab Muslim women (AMW). Perceived knowledge of and barriers to screening participation, relationships among demographic variables, health practice and beliefs, and self-reports of traditionalism and acculturation also are studied. Factors including religious and cultural beliefs, economic concerns, and modesty and embarrassment were considered. To reach the goals of Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010), an effective and meaningful educational initiative to raise awareness about breast and cervical cancer of AMW will require specific interventions consistent with their cultural and religious traditions.
Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard
Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.
Pinto, Diana; Ribeiro, Branca Telles; Lopes Dantas, Maria Tereza
In the present article, we investigate the extent to which professional theories that underlie, inform, and guide the interviewing practices of two psychiatrists (a neuropsychiatrist and a psychoanalyst) are discursively displayed in their ways of conducting a psychiatric interview. This study analyses excerpts from two audio-recorded psychiatric interviews held at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. It follows theoretical and methodological frameworks derived from interactional sociolinguistics. Ethnographic data and research interviews with both clinicians also ground our discussion. Using frame analysis as a central tool, we found that the psychiatrist who subscribes to a neuropsychiatric orientation displays a concern on assessing the patient's cognitive processes, and shifts topics away from the patient's delusions to (re)introduce the institutional frame of the psychiatric interview. By contrast, the psychiatrist who holds a psychoanalytic orientation towards interviewing not only listens attentively to very personal topics introduced by the patient, but also sustains and develops these topics. Most of all, she proposes and stays within conversational frames. In keeping a dual understanding about their practices in the interview situation, both doctors balance the need to follow the institutional agenda and the need to listen to the patient, despite their different theoretical orientations.
Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K
Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.
Conclusion: The gaps in reproductive health knowledge, negative attitudes, high prevalence of risky sexual activity and poor reproductive health care seeking behaviour call for mounting of educational intervention programmes and development of youth-friendly reproductive health services on campus. KEY WORDS: ...
Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…
Tomedi, Angelo; Stroud, Sophia R; Maya, Tania Ruiz; Plaman, Christopher R; Mwanthi, Mutuku A
To assess the effectiveness of a traditional birth attendant (TBA) referral program on increasing the number of deliveries overseen by skilled birth attendants (SBA) in rural Kenyan health facilities before and after the implementation of a free maternity care policy. In a rural region of Kenya, TBAs were recruited to educate pregnant women about the importance of delivering in healthcare facilities and were offered a stipend for every pregnant woman whom they brought to the healthcare facility. We evaluated the percentage of prenatal care (PNC) patients who delivered at the intervention site compared with the percentage of PNC patients who delivered at rural control facilities, before and after the referral program was implemented, and before and after the Kenya government implemented a policy of free maternity care. The window period of the study was from July of 2011 through September 2013, with a TBA referral intervention conducted from March to September 2013. The absolute increases from the pre-intervention period to the TBA referral intervention period in SBA deliveries were 5.7 and 24.0% in the control and intervention groups, respectively (p facility significantly increased compared to control health facilities when TBAs educated women about the need to deliver with a SBA and when TBAs received a stipend for bringing women to local health facilities to deliver. Furthermore, this TBA referral program proved to be far more effective in the target region of Kenya than a policy change to provide free obstetric care.
Temesgen, Tedla Mulatu; Umer, Jemal Yousuf; Buda, Dawit Seyoum; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu
Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have been a subject of discussion in the provision of maternal and newborn health care. The objective of this study was to assess the role of trained traditional birth attendants in maternal and newborn health care in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. A qualitative study was used where 21 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with health service providers, trained traditional birth attendants, mothers, men, kebele leaders and district health personnel. The findings of this study indicate that trained traditional birth attendants are the backbone of the maternal and child health development in pastoralist communities. However, the current numbers are inadequate and cannot meet the needs of the pastoralist communities including antenatal care, delivery, postnatal care and family planning. In addition to service delivery, all respondents agreed on multiple contributions of trained TBAs, which include counselling, child care, immunisation, postnatal care, detection of complication and other social services. Without deployment of adequate numbers of trained health workers for delivery services, trained traditional birth attendants remain vital for the rural community in need of maternal and child health care services. With close supportive supervision and evaluation of the trainings, the TBAs can greatly contribute to decreasing maternal and newborn mortality rates.
Warden, G L
The traditional separation of health care delivery and financing systems is breaking down as various new types of health care facilities are established and as payment continues to be a major concern. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (GHC) was organized as a prepaid group practice system responsive to consumers. Costs, methods of payment and delivery of care are interrelated and are all influenced by consumer ownership. GHC has been refining its benefit programs since 1945. Strategies for controlling use and costs focus on improved provider management and on flexibility. This article explains how the structure of GHC benefits the consumer.
Bin Mohammed, A; Abdul Raheem, K P; Kaivalyam, K
The Ayurvedic manuscript was first composed in Sanskrit by Agnivesha, an individual who lived sometime before 750 B.C. The Ayurveda contains instructions on how to live in order to prevent the occurrence of sickness and how to cure it, if illness arises. The medical work of Ayurveda is comprised of elements of Physiology, Pathology, Pharmacology, Materia Medica, and Surgery, among others. It originally consisted of 100 sections each with 1000 stanzas comprising up to 100,000 verses in eight books. All recent medical works on Ayurveda are based upon the writings of Charaka and Sushruta, who rearranged the books into chapters on surgery, nosology, anatomy, therapeutics, toxicology, and local diseases. The authors explain the use of traditional medicine for health and family planning, and the extent of self-medication in sections on the role of Ayurvedic medicine for health, clinics and medical centers on Ayurveda in Malaysia, oleo-therapy/massage through the application of medicated oil and liniment, institutions and laboratories, research, the extent of self-medication, family planning, and Malaysian Ayurvedic or the Siddha practice of contraception.
Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser
Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports on income generation practices among civil servants in the health sector, with a particular emphasis on dual practice. It first approaches the subject of public–private overlap. Thereafter it focuses on coping strategies in general and then on dual practice in particular. To compensate for unrealistically low salaries, health workers rely on individual coping strategies. Many clinicians combine salaried, public-sector clinical work with a fee-for-service private clientele. This dual practice is often a means by which health workers try to meet their survival needs, reflecting the inability of health ministries to ensure adequate salaries and working conditions. Dual practice may be considered present in most countries, if not all. Nevertheless, there is surprisingly little hard evidence about the extent to which health workers resort to dual practice, about the balance of economic and other motives for doing so, or about the consequences for the proper use of the scarce public resources dedicated to health. In this paper dual practice is approached from six different perspectives: (1 conceptual, regarding what is meant by dual practice; (2 descriptive, trying to develop a typology of dual practices; (3 quantitative, trying to determine its prevalence; (4 impact on personal income, the health care system and health status; (5 qualitative, looking at the reasons why practitioners so frequently remain in public practice while also working in the private sector and at contextual, personal life, institutional and professional factors that make it easier or more difficult to have dual practices; and (6 possible interventions to deal with dual practice.
Embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both philosophical and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic/narrative study, with its methodology grounded in eco-feminism and realism/constructivism, examines the work of six secondary science teachers as they engage in an action research project focused on merging environmental education in their science lessons. Over the course of several months the teachers examine and discuss their views and their professional development related to the project. In the place of definitive conclusions, eight propositions relating the work of secondary science teachers to environmental education, form the basis for a discussion of the implications of the study. The implications are particularly relevant to secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, where the embedding of environmental education in science studies has been mandated.
... with historical origins in ancient Indian philosophy. Various styles of yoga typically combine physical postures and movement, ... Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141: management of menopausal symptoms. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014;123( ...
Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria
Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are
Andrasi, A.; Bouvier, C.; Brandl, A.; De Carlan, L.; Fischer, H.; Franck, D.; Hoellriegl, V.; Li, W. B.; Oeh, U.; Ritt, J.; Roth, P.; Schlagbauer, M.; Schmitzer, Ch; Wahl, W.; Zombori, P.
The idea of the IDEA project aimed to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of more reliable and possibly faster in vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. In direct in vivo monitoring technique the optimum choice of the detectors to be applied for different monitoring tasks has been investigated in terms of material, size and background in order to improve conditions namely to increase counting efficiency and reduce background. Detailed studies have been performed to investigate the manifold advantageous applications and capabilities of numerical simulation method for the calibration and optimisation of in vivo counting systems. This calibration method can be advantageously applied especially in the measurement of low-energy photon emitting radionuclides, where individual variability is a significant source of uncertainty. In bioassay measurements the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can improve considerably both the measurement speed and the lower limit of detection currently achievable with alpha spectrometry for long-lived radionuclides. The work carried out in this project provided detailed guidelines for optimum performance of the technique of ICP-MS applied mainly for the determination of uranium and thorium nuclides in the urine including sampling procedure, operational parameters of the instruments and interpretation of the measured data. The paper demonstrates the main advantages of investigated techniques in comparison with the performances of methods commonly applied in routine monitoring practice. (authors)
Holistic health practice is often described as being about understanding the larger contexts of patients, their health services, and their communities. Yet do traditional quantitative and qualitative health research methods produce the best possible evidence for the holistic practices of doctors, nurses, and allied health professionals? This paper argues "no", and examines the potential of a cutting-edge, social science research method--Quali-Quantitative Research (QQA)--for providing better evidence for holistic practice, particularly in small-N populations, such as rural and remote communities. It does so with reference to the international literature on holistic medicine, as well as three holistic health projects conducted in Tasmania: about prevention of falls in older people, adolescent substance abuse, and interventions for children aged 0-5 exposed to domestic violence. The findings suggest that much health research fails to capture rigorously the contextual complexity of holistic health challenges: the multiple different needs of individual patients, and the interprofessional approaches needed to deliver multidisciplinary and multiservice health interventions tailored to meet those needs in particular community contexts. QQA offers a "configurational", case-based, diversity-oriented approach to analysing data that combines qualitative and quantitative techniques to overcome the limitations of both research traditions. The author concludes that QQA could open new frontiers for holistic health by helping doctors, nurses, and allied health professionals answer a fundamental question presented by complex health challenges: "Given this set of whole-of-patient needs, what elements of which interventions in what services would work best in this particular community?"
Full Text Available background: Attractive adses of traditional health services often promises such as certainty of healing, treatment without side effect, experience personnel, exclusive recipes, and testimony of patients who recovered. Ads that this unsubstantiated allegedly played a role in the tendency of people turn to traditional medicine. The aim of the study is to describe the perception of patients about the correspondence between the advertisement and the services provided qualitatively. Methods: The study was conducted in Surabaya for 5 months in 2012. Informants were selected purposively. results: The result shows that most of the information about traditional health services obtained from either advertisement local and national television. Health complaints predominanly degenerative diseases, and most have been treated to modern medicine but because they do not heal, switch to traditional medicine. conclusion: Informants judge ad featuring attractive because advanced equipment, herbal remedies as well as testimonials of patients who have recovered. Much of the promise of the ads is not evident when patients seek treatment, so they seek other traditional treatments. Most of them are less satisfied, but there is a fraction that satisfied because being cured. Traditional health services responsiveness associated with the non-medical aspects assessed either by informants. recomendation:Competent authorities should enforce and socialize media literacy to encourage community.
Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses changes in certain dress and clothing practices and their effects on conflict within oneself and others. In this context, the paper analyzes certain conflict situations faced by the Goranci females in Belgrade. This conflict was brought about by the changes that have occurred in the females clothing during the second half of 20th and the first decade of 21st century. The focus is placed on changes that were initiated by external factors - legislation, migration and fashion trends. Accepting novelties in dress and clothing was not always simple and easy, especially if they implied the elimination of those garments implying a certain symbolic significance within the Goranci community and female subculture. Besides, changes in clothing imply and initiate changes in other spheres of life, especially in the sphere of (self identification, on several levels at the same time (gender, religious, ethnic, etc.. The initiation of the clothing changes impacted the women in such a way to become somewhat at odds with themselves, to feel discomfort because of the fear that the (non acceptance of the novelty could cause conflicts with some family members and relatives. A reconciliation with oneself and others imply that a women accepts a new way of dressing, but also the rest of whatever this may imply. Such reconciliation - assessed in this way - is not an end in itself. It is a process that involves several aspects simultaneously, and clothing is just one among them. In addition, a reconciliation on a personal level does not imply in itself reconciliation with others, and vice versa. Conflicts due to clothing do not represent an exception in this respect, but proved to be indicative for understanding complex socio-cultural processes such as reconciliation.
According to self-reports, the most common new health problems since taking up the caregiving role were chronic ill health (97%), social isolation (95%) and mental stress (92%). The health-promoting practices most often engaged in were eating a balanced diet (67%), seeking spiritual support (58%), and performing ...
Background: Health care associated infections are most commonly transmitted by the hands of Health care workers and other hospital personnel. Objective: To investigate compliance with hand hygiene guidelines and methods of hand hygiene practice among community health officers in Rivers State Nigeria. Methods: Self ...
American Psychologist, 2013
Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…
... very occasional or no alcohol, limited red meat, and never sunbathed or used suncreen in that order. Formal education of the mother, internal locus of control and worse health status were positively associated with the health practices index. Other sociodemographic (age, SES, religion) and psychological (health value, ...
Health Data Recording, Reporting and Utilization Practices Among Primary Health Care Workers in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria. ... of PHC workers used notepads, 52.3% used notebooks while only 47.7% used health management information system (HMIS) forms to record data. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Barton, Sylvia; Awosoga, Olu; Konkin, Jill
Many baccalaureate schools of nursing are using non-traditional placements for undergraduate community health clinical rotations. These placements occur at agencies not organizationally affiliated with the health care system and they typically do not employ registered nurses (RNs). In this paper, we describe the qualitative findings of a mixed method study that explored these gaps as they relate to pre-registration nursing students' preparation for community health roles. While non-traditional community health placements offer unique opportunities for learning through carefully crafted service learning pedagogy, these placements also present challenges for student preparation for practice in community health roles. The theory-practice gap and the gap between the expected and actual performance of new graduates are accentuated through the use of non-traditional community clinical experiences. These gaps are not necessarily due to poor pedagogy, but rather due to the perceptions and values of the stakeholders involved: nursing students, community health nursing faculty, and community health nurses. New ways must be developed between academe and community health practice areas to provide students with opportunities to develop competence for practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahiti, Gladys R; Kiwara, Angwara D; Mbekenga, Columba K; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel
In many low-income countries, formal post-partum care utilization is much lower than that of skilled delivery and antenatal care. While Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) might play a role in post-partum care, research exploring their attitudes and practices during this period is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore TBAs' practices and perceptions in post-partum care in rural Tanzania. Qualitative in-depth interview data were collected from eight untrained and three trained TBAs. Additionally, five multiparous women who were clients of untrained TBAs were also interviewed. Interviews were conducted in February 2013. Data were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze data. Our study found that TBAs take care of women during post-partum with rituals appreciated by women. They report lacking formal post-partum care training, which makes them ill-equipped to detect and handle post-partum complications. Despite their lack of preparation, they try to provide care for some post-partum complications which could put the health of the woman at risk. TBAs perceive that utilization of hospital-based post-partum services among women was only important for the baby and for managing complications which they cannot handle. They are poorly linked with the health system. This study found that the TBAs conducted close follow-ups and some of their practices were appreciated by women. However, the fact that they were trying to manage certain post-partum complications can put women at risk. These findings point out the need to enhance the communication between TBAs and the formal health system and to increase the quality of the TBA services, especially in terms of prompt referral, through provision of training, mentoring, monitoring and supervision of the TBA services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background "Integrative health care" has become a common term to describe teams of health care providers working together to provide patient care. However this term has not been well-defined and likely means many different things to different people. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for describing, comparing and evaluating different forms of team-oriented health care practices that have evolved in Western health care systems. Discussion Seven different models of team-oriented health care practice are illustrated in this paper: parallel, consultative, collaborative, coordinated, multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and integrative. Each of these models occupies a position along the proposed continuum from the non-integrative to fully integrative approach they take to patient care. The framework is developed around four key components of integrative health care practice: philosophy/values; structure, process and outcomes. Summary This framework can be used by patients and health care practitioners to determine what styles of practice meet their needs and by policy makers, healthcare managers and researchers to document the evolution of team practices over time. This framework may also facilitate exploration of the relationship between different practice models and health outcomes.
Adams, Jo Hunter; Young, Samorga; Laird, Lance D; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer J; Hassan, Ahmed; Egal, Fadumo; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Barnes, Linda L
Oral health disparities related to socioeconomic status have been well described in the U.S., but oral health among refugee groups has not been well characterized. This article examines oral health among Somali refugees in Massachusetts. Eighty-three (83) participants were purposively selected for an in-depth, open-ended interview related to oral health. Older individuals associated use of the stick brush with the Islamic practice of cleansing before prayer. When unable to find stick brushes in the U.S., many adopted the Western toothbrush. Parents expressed concern that their children had adopted U.S. practices of brushing with a toothbrush only once or twice a day. Somali oral health practices have changed following arrival to the U.S., but the underlying model for oral health care remains rooted in Islam. By acknowledging the value of traditional practices, dentists may communicate the value of Western preventive and restorative dentistry, and recommend approaches to integrating the two.
Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize
Marco Otarola Rojas; Sean Collins; Victor Cal; Francisco Caal; Kevin Knight; John Arnason; Luis Poveda; Pablo Sanchez-Vindas; Todd Pesek
The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for futu...
Jørgensen, Rasmus; Edwards, Kasper
Purpose Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are a part of healthcare operations but relying on explicit knowledge is not necessarily sufficient to continuously adapt and improve processes. The theory of communities of practice (CoP) proposes an approach to knowledge sharing that could supplement...... the use of SOPs. A CoP is a social community formed around a practice (e.g. ICU nursing) which induce a propensity to share experiences and thereby constitute knowledge sharing (Lave & Wenger 1991; Brown & Duguid 1991). CoP was conceived as a descriptive construct but has gained popularity and is found...
Dr. Nelson Boniface
hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.
Baybutt, Michelle; Chemlal, Khadoudja
As a setting, prisons offer a unique opportunity to invest in the health of disadvantaged and marginalised populations and address health inequalities and social exclusion - thereby achieving sustainable improvements in well-being for offenders and their families and in turn, helping to reduce rates of re-offending. This article draws on English and French experiences and doctoral research to advocate a shift from a pathogenic model towards a salutogenic model of health as a helpful way to address inequalities and thus, by promoting joined-up working across justice and wider systems, impact positively beyond 'health' for the effective resettlement of prisoners. The paper utilises examples from horticulture to further argue the powerful role of nature in the prison setting in mediating aspects of culture particularly relating to processes of socialisation. Critical success lies in bridging across systems and a commitment to joined-up working at all levels across and beyond prison. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi
The purpose of this article is to describe the healthcare beliefs and practices of Arab American women, specifically those regarding menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and family planning. The information in this paper is derived from the author's experience as a researcher, as an Arab healthcare provider, and from the literature. Guidelines for nurses who provide care to Arab American women are also presented.
Chisholm, Daniel; Stewart, Alan
BACKGROUND: Both economic and ethical perspectives are exerting increasing influence at all levels of mental health policy and practice; yet there is little consensus on how these two different perspectives are to be reconciled or explicitly incorporated into decision-making. AIM: This review article is directed towards a fuller understanding of the complex trade-offs and compromises that are or may be made by clinicians, managers and policy-makers alike in the context of mental health care planning and delivery. METHOD: We briefly outline a number of key principles of health care economics and ethics, and then focus on the particular incentives and trade-offs that are raised by these principles at three levels of the mental health system: government and society; purchasers and providers; and users and carers. RESULTS: At the level of government and society, we find (economically influenced) attempts to reform mental health care offset by concerns revolving around access to care: whether society is prepared to forgo economic benefits in exchange for improved equity depends to a considerable extent on the prevailing ethical paradigm. The implementation of these reforms at the level of purchasers and providers has helped to focus attention on evaluation and prioritization, but has also introduced "perverse incentives" such as cost-shifting and cream-skimming, which can impede access to or continuity of appropriate care for mentally ill people. Finally, we detect opportunities for moral hazard and other forms of strategic behaviour that are thrown up by the nature of the carer:user relationship in mental health care. CONCLUSION: We conclude by highlighting the need to move towards a more open, accountable and evidence-based mental health care system. Acknowledgement of and progress towards these three requirements will not deliver ideal levels of efficiency or equity, but will foster a greater understanding of the relevance of ethical considerations to mental health
Full Text Available Journalists in Western liberal democracies face similar challenges in melding existing, hierarchical models of media production with emerging communications technologies where knowledge, expertise and authority are networked and distributed. This paper examines the attitudes and approaches of a select group of digital journalists in Canada to the impact of social media on journalism and professional constructs of the journalist. It is based on expert interviews with nine leading senior online news managers and journalists from Canada’s principal news organisations, with a focus on the growing influence of social media, and the professionals’ subjective, experience-based understandings of the current changes in journalism. The interviewees demonstrated a tacit understanding of a shift away from the traditional role of gatekeeper towards a shared ecosystem of news and information. While journalism was conceived as more of a collaborative enterprise, with interviewees seeking to adapt and benefit from a more participatory media environment, the journalists also expressed the occupational boundaries of the profession as a way of rearticulating their authority. While immediacy was mentioned as one of the main new factors in news media reporting, concerns about the impact of immediacy on the quality of news reporting were largely absent from the discourse of the interviewees. The increased velocity of information due to social media was thus framed as a positive development that could enable journalists and newsrooms to be more responsive and relevant to audiences. It was also seen as providing the increased opportunities for interaction with audiences. The study contributes to the body of work on how digital news leaders are negotiating the meaning and value of journalism. As such, our sample is not broadly representative of the attitudes of most journalists, either in Canada or elsewhere. Rather, it represents a select group at the vanguard of
Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian
In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Raman, Shanti; Nicholls, Rachel; Ritchie, Jan; Razee, Husna; Shafiee, Samaneh
to review qualitative research studies conducted in low resource settings around the perinatal continuum over the past two decades, with particular focus on the cultural realm; to identify common themes in the research-base, in order to provide policy direction for culturally appropriate perinatal interventions. systematic literature search of electronic databases from 1990 to 2014, including Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using relevant search terms such as traditional beliefs, practices, pregnancy, childbirth; established criteria used to determine quality of studies; and thematic synthesis of the literature enabled by NVivo 10 software. low and middle income countries using the World Bank classification. religious and spiritual beliefs strongly influenced behaviour over the perinatal period. Beliefs in supernatural influences, particularly malevolent forces were widespread, such that pregnancy was concealed in many parts of Africa and Asia. In most low resource settings, pregnancy and childbirth were seen as normal phenomena. Rituals played an important part for women and their infants, reinforced by inter-generational support. Cross-cutting themes that emerged were: (1) the role of women as mothers, demonstrating their'goodness' by bearing pain and suffering; (2) the idea of the 'natural' incorporating the supernatural; and (3) negotiating change across generations. a diverse repertoire of cultural practices influences perinatal well-being across low resource settings. Health practitioners and policy-makers need to acknowledge the primacy of women's reproductive roles, the cultural constructions of motherhood; that supernatural forces are believed to exert powerful influences on the health of mother and infant; that inter-generational tensions result in resisting or embracing change. Public health planners and practitioners need to take culture seriously, not ignore the contribution of culture in shaping women's behaviours and choices throughout the
Reeve, Matthew; Onyo, Pamela; Nyagero, Josephat; Morgan, Alison; Nduba, John; Kermode, Michelle
Current efforts to reduce maternal and newborn mortality focus on promoting institutional deliveries with skilled birth attendants (SBAs), and discouraging deliveries at home attended by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). In rural Kenya, semi-nomadic pastoralist communities are underserved by the formal health system, experience high maternal and neonatal mortality, and rely primarily on TBAs for delivery care, despite Government proscription of TBA-assisted births. This study examined the knowledge, attitude and practices of TBAs serving these communities to assess the potential for collaboration between TBAs and SBAs. A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey was conducted among 171 TBAs from Maasai and Samburu pastoralist communities in Laikipia and Samburu counties, Kenya, as part of a larger mixed-methods study in partnership with a local service provider. BAs were relatively elderly (mean age 59.6 years), and attended an average of 5-6 deliveries per year. A minority (22.2%) had received formal training. They provided antenatal, intra-partum and post-partum care. Most TBA care was non-interventionist, but not necessarily consistent with best practice. Most had encountered birth complications, but knowledge regarding management of complications was sub-optimal. Most had previously referred at least one woman to a health facility (80.1%), were key participants in decision making to refer women (96.5%), and had been present at an institutional delivery (54.4%). TBAs continue to be key providers of maternal and neonatal healthcare in regions where the formal health system has poor coverage or acceptability. Strengthening existing TBA/SBA collaborations could improve both community links to the formal health system, and the quality of care provided to pastoralist women, while remaining consistent with current Government policy.
Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand
This article suggests that in order to understand the social differences evident in disease prevalence and outcomes, it is necessary to understand what it means to live with multiple social, physical, and psychological challenges. Drawing on research in cancer diagnosis, we discuss practices...... of health, illness, and care-seeking. We suggest that the focus on lifestyle and behavioral change that dominates contemporary public health interventions should be complemented with a Weberian circumstantial approach. Acknowledging the situatedness of health and illness practices may enable us to help our...... patients gain access to, and benefit from, the health-care system....
Ben-Arye, Eran; Samuels, Noah; Goldstein, Lee Hilary; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Omran, Suha; Schiff, Elad; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Bar-Sela, Gil; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Saad, Bashar; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael
The authors assessed the use of herbal medicine by Middle Eastern patients with cancer, as reported by their oncology health care professionals (HCPs). Herbal products identified by the study HCPs were evaluated for potential negative effects. Oncology HCPs from 16 Middle Eastern countries received a 17-item questionnaire asking them to list 5 herbal products in use by their patients with cancer. A literature search (PubMed, Micromedex, AltMedDex, and the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database) was conducted to identify safety-related concerns associated with the products listed. A total of 339 HCPs completed the study questionnaire (response rate of 80.3%), identifying 44 herbal and 3 nonherbal nutritional supplements. Safety-related concerns were associated with 29 products, including herb-drug interactions with altered pharmacodynamics (15 herbs), direct toxic effects (18 herbs), and increased in vitro response of cancer cells to chemotherapy (7 herbs). Herbal medicine use, which is prevalent in Middle Eastern countries, has several potentially negative effects that include direct toxic effects, negative interactions with anticancer drugs, and increased chemosensitivity of cancer cells, requiring a reduction in dose-density. Oncology HCPs working in countries in which herbal medicine use is prevalent need to better understand the implications of this practice. The presence of integrative physicians with training in complementary and traditional medicine can help patients and their HCPs reach an informed decision regarding the safety and effective use of these products. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Bauer, Mark S; Leader, Deane; Un, Hyong; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M
We investigated the size profile of US primary care and behavioral health physician practices since size may impact the ability to institute care management processes (CMPs) that can enhance care quality. We utilized 2009 claims data from a nationwide commercial insurer to estimate practice size by linking providers by tax identification number. We determined the proportion of primary care physicians, psychiatrists, and behavioral health providers practicing in venues of >20 providers per practice (the lower bound for current CMP practice surveys). Among primary care physicians (n=350,350), only 2.1% of practices consisted of >20 providers. Among behavioral health practitioners (n=146,992) and psychiatrists (n=44,449), 1.3% and 1.0% of practices, respectively, had >20 providers. Sensitivity analysis excluding single-physician practices as "secondary" confirmed findings, with primary care and psychiatrist practices of >20 providers comprising, respectively, only 19.4% and 8.8% of practices (difference: Pestimate practice census for a high-complexity, high-cost behavioral health condition; only 1.3-18 patients per practice had claims for this condition. The tax identification number method for estimating practice size has strengths and limitations that complement those of survey methods. The proportion of practices below the lower bound of prior CMP studies is substantial, and care models and policies will need to address the needs of such practices and their patients. Achieving a critical mass of patients for disorder-specific CMPs will require coordination across multiple small practices.
Peters, Gjalt-jorn Ygram; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Sanderman, Robbert
The instrument of scientific publishing, originally a necessary tool to enable development of a global science, has evolved relatively little in response to technological advances. Current scientific publishing practices incentivize a number of harmful approaches to research. Health Psychology
Health and safety management practices in small and medium enterprises in the ... on national economies, the construction industry receives additional attention in ... and training were considered key factors of H&S for SMCEs at project level.
Oct 10, 2011 ... and the oral health practices among 12 year-old children. Design: Descriptive ... the absence or presence of dental caries (5-7). The patient's ... secondary school teenagers had partial knowledge ... and diet counselling.
Levy, Barry S; Gaufin, Joyce R
.... Designed for new and seasoned public health workers alike, this user-friendly guide focuses on the day-to-day practical skills and competencies that are often not taught in educational or training programs...
Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.
Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa ... of research studies that do not conform with international ethical standards and ... Journal articles ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science ...
Redknap, Robina; Twigg, Di; Towell, Amanda
The nursing practice environment is an important factor for services to consider in the attraction and retention of a skilled workforce during future nursing shortages. Despite the significant number of international studies undertaken to understand the influence of the practice environment on nurse satisfaction and retention, few have been undertaken within the mental health setting. This paper reports on results from a survey conducted in a large Australian public mental health hospital to examine nurses' perceptions of their practice environment, and identifies interventions that could be implemented to improve the practice environment. The hospital is the only remaining, standalone public mental health hospital in Western Australia. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Sørensen, Mariann B.
included in various official visions papers and recommendations. The main question is pedagogical: How do practitioners in the health sector i.e. in nursing deal with these perspectives? The materials are the Danish Health Board´s program of rehabilitation and palliative care, data from a focus group study......, and data from published autobiographies. The analysis shows that challenges are centered on communication about existential and spiritual matters. The relationship between being professional, personal and private is focused on in the light of the concepts of empathy and epoché as well as in a discussion...
Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria
Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings.
Reynolds, Martin; Sarriot, Eric; Swanson, Robert Chad; Rusoja, Evan
Systems thinking and reference to complexity science have gained currency in health sector practice and research. The extent to which such ideas might represent a mere passing fad or might more usefully be mobilized to tackle wicked problems in health systems is a concern underpinning this paper. Developing the usefulness of the systems idea requires appreciating how systems ideas are used essentially as constructs conceptually bounded by practitioners. Systems are used for purposes of understanding and engaging the reality of health issues, with the intent of transforming the reality into one that is more manageable, equitable, and sustainable. We examine some manifestations of the systems idea in health practice and the traditions of systems practice that variously make use of them. This provides a platform for proposing a systems thinking in (health) practice heuristic: a learning device supporting how different tools and methods can address "wicked problems" in health praxis. The device is built on the use of "conversation" as a metaphor to help practitioners use systems ideas in tandem with existing disciplinary and professional skills and methods. We consider how the application of the heuristic requires, and helps to develop, human characteristics of humility, empathy, and recognition of fallibility. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein
Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.
Zahourek, Rothlyn P
Ericksonian hypnosis conceptual framework. To acquaint psychiatric-mental health nurses with hypnotic principles and how these can be integrated into their practice. Published literature and author's clinical experience. Ericksonian hypnosis offers an array of potential interventions for psychiatric-mental health nurses to integrate into their practices in a framework familiar to nurses: holism, honoring and respecting individuality, and capitalizing on an individual's strengths.
Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Pingarilho, Marta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo
Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers' health. The aim of this work was to evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty-six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair-XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Results were not consistent for organic farmers when compared to controls, with a 48% increase of micronuclei in lumphocytes frequency (p=0.016) contrasted by the significant decreases of TCR-Mf (p=0.001) and %T (p=0.001). Our data confirm the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and show as exposure conditions may influence observed effects. These results must be interpreted with caution due to the small size of the sample and the unbalanced distribution of individuals in the three study groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The workplace can be concerned by all types and all levels of addictive practices: consumption of alcohol or psychoactive substances, work addiction, internet addiction and technology addiction. Addictions can be related to multiple factors, both within and outside the workplace. With the employer, responsible for occupational health and safety, the multidisciplinary team of the inter-company occupational health service must today implement a collective and global prevention policy with regard to addictions, in addition to the traditional follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Background Ethics is the philosophical discipline that advises on decision making criteria when difficult choices are to be made. Research has shown over the last years that public health researchers and practitioners ‘must confront numerous ethical choices' but they ‘often feel ill-prepared to make
Ganiah, Amal N; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Alhadidi, Majdi M B
Patients with mental illnesses are at high risk for physical disorders and death. The aim of this study is to describe mental health nurses' attitudes and practice toward physical health care for patients with mental illnesses. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data using self- reported questionnaire from 202 mental health nurses working in mental health settings in Jordan. The study adopted translated version of Robson and Haddad Physical Health Attitudes Scale to the Arabic language. There was significant positive correlation between the participants' positive attitudes and their current practice (r = .388, p = .000), mental health nurses who have more positive attitudes regarding physical health care involved physical health care more in their current practice. Mental health nurses' attitudes affect the quality of care provided to patients with mental illnesses. The results provide implications for practice, education, and research.
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of eye health care amongst doctors in Lagos. Methodology: Open and closed-ended questionnaires were given to respondents. The questionnaire contained information about age, sex, general knowledge as well as practice of eye care. Results: A total of 104 ...
This research explores midwives' perceptions and experiences of health promotion practice in Ghana. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was used in order to gain better insight into midwives' perceptions and experiences of health promotion practice. A total of 21 midwives took part in the study. Data were collected by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the transcript. Five dominant themes emerged from the interview transcripts, namely: health promotion as education, health promotion activities, the value of health promotion, client participation, and midwives' barriers to promoting health. Although midwives underscored the importance of health promotion to their work, their reports indicated that, in practice, midwives mostly delivered health education and behaviour change communication rather than health promotion. The midwives expressed the view that by way of their close association with women, they were in a better position to influence women's health. Health promotion activities engaged by the midwives included weight management, healthy eating, infection prevention, personal hygiene, counselling on family planning, and screening for hazardous and harmful substance use such as alcohol and smoking. All the midwives mentioned that clients participated in their health promotion activities. Factors that were identified by the midwives to enhance client participation were trust, attitude of the midwife, building rapport, creating enabling environment, listening and paying attention to clients and using simple language. The barriers to health promotion identified by the midwives included time, stress, culture, lack of training and inadequate health educational materials. Midwives in this study had limited knowledge about health promotion, yet could play a significant role in influencing health; thus there is a need for on-going in-service training for midwives to focus on health promotion. © The Author
Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne
Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.
Nicholls, Larissa; Strengers, Yolande
Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches
Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard
Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.
Chua, Melinda; Baldwin, Timothy C; Hocking, Trevor J; Chan, Kelvin
Amorphophallus konjac (konjac) has long been used in China, Japan and South East Asia as a food source and as a traditional medicine. Flour extracted from the corm of this species is used in Far Eastern cuisine to make noodles, tofu and snacks. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a gel prepared from the flour has been used for detoxification, tumour-suppression, blood stasis alleviation and phlegm liquefaction; and for more than 2000 years has been consumed by the indigenous people of China for the treatment of asthma, cough, hernia, breast pain, burns as well as haematological and skin disorders. Over the past two decades, purified konjac flour, commonly known as konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been introduced on a relatively small scale into the United States and Europe, both as a food additive and a dietary supplement. The latter is available in capsule form or as a drink mix and in food products. Clinical studies have demonstrated that supplementing the diet with KGM significantly lowers plasma cholesterol, improves carbohydrate metabolism, bowel movement and colonic ecology. Standards for the classification of both konjac flour and KGM have been established by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, the European Commission and the U.S. Food Chemicals Codex. However, to date, there is no worldwide agreed regulatory standard for konjac flour or KGM. This highlights the need for harmonization of konjac commercial standards to assess and ensure the quality of existing and future KGM products. Despite the widespread consumption of konjac derived products in East and South East Asia, there has been limited research on the biology, processing and cultivation of this species in the West. Most studies performed outside Asia have focussed on the structural characterisation and physicochemical properties of KGM. Therefore, the objective of this monograph is to review the literature covering the ethnic uses, botany and cultivation of konjac corms, together with the health
Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Karp, Celia; Lutter, Chessa; Stewart, Christine; Iannotti, Lora
Food-based interventions can reduce the prevalence of undernutrition and improve household food security, but nutritious and accessible foods may be underutilized. In Ecuador, eggs are inexpensive and widely available, but while they are a valuable source of essential nutrients for infants and young children, medical advice and community-based information have limited their inclusion in infants' diets. A qualitative component was conducted to understand local perceptions, knowledge, and practices to complement a randomized control trial that studied the effect of introducing eggs on nutritional status and growth in infants from 6 to 9 months in rural communities in the highland province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador. The qualitative inquiry consisted of key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), and structured observations in order to understand perceptions, knowledge, and practices related to household egg consumption and to the introduction of eggs in infants' diets. The two principal findings were that: (i) eggs are an available and culturally acceptable food source although they are not always a part of the diet; and (ii) perceptions and practices related to household consumption and the introduction of eggs into the diet of infants are shaped by local knowledge and practices, which are shaped by biomedical information and advice provided by public health professionals. Through an effective food-based intervention that includes qualitative research and a social marketing component, the behaviors of mothers and other caregivers can be modified, enabling children to realize the nutritional advantages of early introduction of eggs into their diet.
In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to
of public health exist – the government (public) health services on the one hand and the other ... misunderstanding of the entire meaning, practices, relations and efficient running of these ... science and act of preventing disease, ... of physical, mental and social well-being and ..... medicine at the Cambridge Medical School.
Golden, Larry; O'Malley, Patrick
Data indicate that practice by unqualified personnel, financial exploitation, and sexual exploitation are the most frequent types of misconduct by mental health practitioners. Solutions to these problems lie in the areas of regulation, education of counselors-in-training, and education of consumers of mental health services. (Author)
Hankivsky, Olena; de Leeuw, Sarah; Lee, Jo-Anne; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Khanlou, Nazilla
... recycled) that is processed chlorineand acid-free. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Health inequities in Canada : intersectional frameworks and practices / edited by Olena Hankivsky. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7748-1975-6 (bound); ISBN 978-0-7748-1972-5 (pbk) 1. Health services accessibi...
Threeton, Mark D.; Evanoski, Danielle C.
In an effort to provide additional insight on providing a secure teaching and learning environment within schools, this study sought to: (1) explore the safety and health practices within Career and Technical Education (CTE); and (2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation of health and safety programs. While it…
Asokan, G V
Allied healthcare workers are from diverse professions and the key skill required is providing evidence-based care but this concept has not permeated enough for using it skillfully in their professions. A well structured curriculum in allied health professions is needed to strengthen concerted teaching, research, and practice to empower their professionals and make considerable differences in the lives of people by adopting evidence-based practice. Information sources for allied health professionals have relied on advice of their supervisors and colleagues, personal experiences, authoritative theory and texts for practice. Because of "research-practice" gap, often the use of evidence is not reflected in an individual day to day professional practice. Although allied health professionals work in resource and evidence challenged settings, there are certain barriers and facilitators, which need to be addressed. To implement practice-related research findings and uptake of evidence requires two essential components, namely, practical component and knowledge component. Research bench marking and research metrics for quality assurance and standardization through evidence-based practice will promote academic status and credibility of allied health profession. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
Drennan, Vari M; Joseph, Judy
This paper reports on the perceptions of experienced health visitors working with refugee families in Inner London. Women who are refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom are more likely to experience depression than either non-refugee women or male asylum seekers. Health visitors provide a universal public health service to all women on the birth of a child, or with children aged under five, and as such are well placed to identify emotional and mental health problems of women who are refugees. Despite successive waves of refugees to the United Kingdom in the 20th century, there are no empirical studies of health visiting practice with this vulnerable group. There is also no body of evidence to inform the practice of health visitors new to working with asylum seekers and refugees. An exploratory study was undertaken in Inner London in 2001. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 13 health visitors experienced in working with women and families who are refugees. A range of structural challenges was identified that mediated against the development of a health-promoting relationship between health visitors and refugee women. With refugee families, who were living in temporary accommodation, health visitors were prioritizing basic needs that had to be addressed: in addition, they prioritized the needs of children before those of women. Health visitors were aware of the emotional needs of women and had strategies for addressing these with women in more settled circumstances. Health visitors considered themselves ill-prepared to deal with the complexities of working with women in these situations. This study identifies issues for further exploration, not least from the perspective of refugee women receiving health visiting services. Health visitors in countries receiving refugee women are framing their work with these women in ways that reflect Maslow's theory of a hierarchy of needs. This study suggests ways that public health
Paula Peixoto Messias
Full Text Available The present study reports the experience of an academic course during the practice of Nursing Psychiatric Nursing Course and Mental Health Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS in southern Bahia. The study is descriptive and participatory method. During practice, we carried out activities aimed at promoting the role of those involved. Such activities were craft workshops, beauty shop, video workshops, conversing, wheels of music, talks about coping with difficult situations and exercise a sense of positivity. Communication and listening therapy has permeated the whole the user and his family. I believe that with the activities carried out contributed to the improvement of health and the process of social reinsertion of CAPS. I hope with the information in this report, we enrich the acquis concerning the development of practices of care in mental health within the CAPS and encourage care practices that address the psychosocial rehabilitation of subjects.
Paula Peixoto Messias
Full Text Available The present study reports the experience of an academic course during the practice of Nursing Psychiatric Nursing Course and Mental Health Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS in southern Bahia. The study is descriptive and participatory method. During practice, we carried out activities aimed at promoting the role of those involved. Such activities were craft workshops, beauty shop, video workshops, conversing, wheels of music, talks about coping with difficult situations and exercise a sense of positivity. Communication and listening therapy has permeated the whole process and the end of the period there was a home visit to the user and his family. I believe that with the activities carried out contributed to the improvement of health and the process of social reinsertion of CAPS. I hope with the information in this report, we enrich the acquis concerning the development of practices of care in mental health within the CAPS and encourage care practices that address the psychosocial rehabilitation of subjects.
Porr, Caroline J
This Clinical Concepts article concerns the relational tools required by public health nurses to establish relationships with single mothers living on public assistance, mothers who are vulnerable and often stigmatized. The implications of stigmatization for relationship building are highlighted based on previous research investigating how public health nurses working in Canadian jurisdictions establish professional caring relationships with this cohort of mothers. Public health nurses employed interactional strategies including engaging in a positive manner and offering verbal commendations which served as effective relational tools to break through mothers' walls of defensiveness and to resume the dynamic process of relationship building. Building Relationship is a key practice standard for public health nurses and is instrumental to their work at both individual and community levels to improve social determinants of health. The author concludes with recommendations to facilitate building relationships during everyday public health nursing practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background:Investigating the interdisciplinary relationships between stakeholders engaged in arts and health practice in the UK and Denmark, specifically with regard to institutional logics theory. The identified stakeholders: health professionals, museum educators and mental health service users....... Method:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants: health professionals, museum educators and service users. Data were collected in Denmark and the UK. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data and theoretical lenses of sociological theories, and institutional logics explored...... the findings. Results:The interdisciplinary work in arts and health is complex, given the different disciplines and institutions involved. Findings illustrate that institutional logics play a vital and ambiguous part in arts and health practice and that this presents a challenge for interdisciplinary working...
The Health Physics and Waste Minimization Best Practices project examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a tool for identifying health physics and waste minimization best practices for low-level solid radioactive waste (LLW) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The goal of the project is to identify best practices from the nuclear power industry that will reduce the amount of LLW going to disposal in a cost-effective manner. An increase in worker efficiency and productivity is a secondary goal. These practices must be adaptable for implementation in the DOE complex. Once best practices are identified, ranked, and funded for implementation, a pilot implementation will be done at the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building at Los Alamos National Laboratory
Feuer, Vera; Rocker, Joshua; Saggu, Babar M; Andrus, Jason M
Behavioral health emergencies most commonly present as depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and severe disorganization. Emergency clinicians should avoid relying solely on past medical history or previous psychiatric diagnoses that might prematurely rule out medical pathologies. Treatments for behavioral health emergencies consist of de-escalation interventions aimed at preventing agitation, aggression, and harm. This issue reviews medical pathologies and underlying causes that can result in psychiatric presentations and summarizes evidence-based practices to evaluate, manage, and refer patients with behavioral health emergencies.
R. Bannink (Rienke); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); F. de Waart (Frouwkje); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractPurpose: To examine whether traditional and cyber bullying victimization were associated with adolescent's mental health problems and suicidal ideation at two-year follow-up. Gender differences were explored to determine whether bullying affects boys and girls differently. Methods: A
Gautam, Kanak S
Worker shortage is among the foremost challenges facing US health care today. Health care organizations are also confronted with rising costs of recruiting and compensating scarce workers in times of declining reimbursement. Many health care organizations are adopting online recruitment as a nontraditional, low-cost method for hiring staff. Online recruitment is the fastest growing method of recruitment today, and has advantages over traditional recruiting in terms of cost, reach, and time-saving. Several health care organizations have achieved great success in recruiting online. Yet awareness of online recruiting remains lower among health care managers than managers in other industries. Many health care organizations still search for job candidates within a 30-mile radius using traditional methods. This article describes the various aspects of online recruitment for health care organizations. It is meant to help health care managers currently recruiting online by answering frequently asked questions (eg, Should I be advertising on national job sites? Why is my Web site not attracting job seekers? Is my online ad effective?). It is also meant to educate health care managers not doing online recruiting so that they try recruiting online. The article discusses the salient aspects of online recruiting: (a) using commercial job boards; (b) building one's own career center; (c) building one's own job board; (d) collecting and storing resumes; (e) attracting job seekers to one's Web site; (f) creating online job ads; (g) screening and evaluating candidates online; and (h) building long-term relationships with candidates. Job seekers in health care are adopting the Internet faster than health care employers. To recruit successfully during the current labor shortage, it is imperative that employers adopt and expand online recruiting.
Gaggioli, Andrea; Raspelli, Simona; Grassi, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Cipresso, Pietro; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe
In this paper we introduce a new ubiquitous computing paradigm for behavioral health care: "Interreality". Interreality integrates assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) may improve existing psychological treatment. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Daniela, a 40 years old teacher, with a mother affected by Alzheimer's disease.
Grant, Cameron C; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Turner, Nikki; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Kerse, Ngaire; Jones, Rhys; York, Deon; Desmond, Natalie; Stewart, Joanna
To identify primary care factors associated with immunisation coverage. A survey during 2005-2006 of a random sample of New Zealand primary care practices, with over-sampling of practices serving indigenous children. An immunisation audit was conducted for children registered at each practice. Practice characteristics and the knowledge and attitudes of doctors, nurses and caregivers were measured. Practice immunisation coverage was defined as the percentage of registered children from 6 weeks to 23 months old at each practice who were fully immunised for age. Associations of practice, doctor, nurse and caregiver factors with practice immunisation coverage were determined using multiple regression analyses. One hundred and twenty-four (61%) of 205 eligible practices were recruited. A median (25th-75th centile) of 71% (57-77%) of registered children at each practice was fully immunised. In multivariate analyses, immunisation coverage was higher at practices with no staff shortages (median practice coverage 76% vs 67%, P = 0.004) and where doctors were confident in their immunisation knowledge (72% vs 67%, P= 0.005). Coverage was lower if the children's parents had received information antenatally, which discouraged immunisation (67% vs 73%, P = 0.008). Coverage decreased as socio-economic deprivation of the registered population increased (P < 0.001) and as the children's age (P = 0.001) and registration age (P = 0.02) increased. CONCLUSIONS Higher immunisation coverage is achieved by practices that establish an early relationship with the family and that are adequately resourced with stable and confident staff. Immunisation promotion should begin antenatally. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Redknap, Robina; Twigg, Di; Rock, Daniel; Towell, Amanda
Historically, mental health services have faced challenges in their ability to attract and retain a competent nursing workforce in the context of an overall nursing shortage. The current economic downturn has provided some respite; however, this is likely to be a temporary reprieve, with significant nursing shortages predicted for the future. Mental health services need to develop strategies to become more competitive if they are to attract and retain skilled nurses and avoid future shortages. Research demonstrates that creating and maintaining a positive nursing practice environment is one such strategy and an important area to consider when addressing nurse retention. This paper examines the impact the nursing practice environment has on nurse retention within the general and mental health settings. Findings indicate, that while there is a wealth of evidence to support the importance of a positive practice environment on nurse retention in the broader health system, there is little evidence specific to mental health. Further research of the mental health practice environment is required. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Stone, Jacqueline D; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Attoh, Prince; D'Abundo, Michelle; Gong, Tao
Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group or individual to achieve a common goal, in this case health promotion for individuals with disabilities. (1) To examine the association between the transformational leadership behaviors of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) network professionals and their practice beliefs about health promotion activities, specifically cardiovascular fitness and healthy weight, for people with disabilities. (2) To determine if discipline and/or years of practice moderate the association between transformational leadership behaviors and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. There is a positive association between transformational leadership behaviors and health professionals practice beliefs regarding health promotion activities for persons with disabilities. A quantitative cross-sectional web-based survey design was used to determine the association between leadership behaviors and practices beliefs regarding health promotion for people with disabilities. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and an adapted version of the Role of Health Promotion in Physical Therapy Survey were used to measure leadership and practice beliefs, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the association of leadership behaviors with health promotion practice beliefs variables. Transformational leadership behaviors of the AUCD network professionals were positively associated with health promotion practice beliefs about cardiovascular fitness for people with disabilities. Years post licensure and discipline did not moderate the association between transformational leadership and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. Transformational leadership may facilitate health professionals' health promotion practices for people with disabilities. Further research and training in leadership is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dow, Alan W; DiazGranados, Deborah; Mazmanian, Paul E; Retchin, Sheldon M
Developing interprofessional education (IPE) curricula that improve collaborative practice across professions has proven challenging. A theoretical basis for understanding collaborative practice in health care settings is needed to guide the education and evaluation of health professions trainees and practitioners and support the team-based delivery of care. IPE should incorporate theory-driven, evidence-based methods and build competency toward effective collaboration.In this article, the authors review several concepts from the organizational science literature and propose using these as a framework for understanding how health care teams function. Specifically, they outline the team process model of action and planning phases in collaborative work; discuss leadership and followership, including how locus (a leader's integration into a team's usual work) and formality (a leader's responsibility conferred by the traditional hierarchy) affect team functions; and describe dynamic delegation, an approach to conceptualizing escalation and delegation within health care teams. For each concept, they identify competencies for knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors to aid in the development of innovative curricula to improve collaborative practice. They suggest that gaining an understanding of these principles will prepare health care trainees, whether team leaders or members, to analyze team performance, adapt behaviors that improve collaboration, and create team-based health care delivery processes that lead to improved clinical outcomes.
Clark, Melinda; Quinonez, Rocio; Bowser, Jonathan; Silk, Hugh
Oral diseases are very prevalent across the lifespan and impact overall health, yet are largely preventable. The Smiles for Life (SFL) curriculum was created to educate healthcare providers about oral disease and support integration of oral health and primary care. This study examines SFL's influence on clinical practice and education. Surveys were sent to registered users of SFL. Users who self-identified as direct care providers (DCPs), or educators, were included in the analysis. Survey response rate was 18 percent, with 87 percent identifying as DCPs and 13 percent as educators. Across professions, 85 percent of DCPs reported SFL influencing their practice to some degree, with variance among profession type and experience. DCPs most commonly reported that SFL led them to improve how they conduct oral health activities, with 60 percent performing the activity more skillfully following completion of SFL. Fluoride varnish application was the most common practice behavior initiated, and caries risk assessments was the oral health activity affected to the greatest degree. A majority of educators (94 percent) reported that SFL led them to incorporate or enhance oral health in their teaching. SFL helped educators emphasize the importance of oral health, improved their ability to teach content, raised motivation, and reduced barriers to teaching oral health. Data supports that SFL is positively influencing oral health practice across professions, especially in areas of caries risk assessment and fluoride varnish application. SFL improves the frequency and quality with which DCPs and educators participate in oral health activities, and facilitates oral health inclusion in primary care. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Hamer, Davidson H; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z; Snetro-Plewman, Gail; Kambikambi, Chilobe; Sakala, Amon; Filumba, Stephen; Sichamba, Bias; Marsh, David R
Teaming is an accepted approach in health care settings but rarely practiced at the community level in developing countries. Save the Children trained and deployed teams of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) and trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential newborn and curative care for children aged 0-59 months in rural Zambia. This paper assessed whether CHWs and trained TBAs can work as teams to deliver interventions and ensure a continuum of care for all children under-five, including newborns. We trained CHW-TBA teams in teaming concepts and assessed their level of teaming prospectively every six months for two years. The overall score was a function of both teamwork and taskwork. We also assessed personal, community and service factors likely to influence the level of teaming. We created forty-seven teams of predominantly younger, male CHWs and older, female trained TBAs. After two years of deployment, twenty-one teams scored "high", twelve scored "low," and fourteen were inactive. Teamwork was high for mutual trust, team cohesion, comprehension of team goals and objectives, and communication, but not for decision making/planning. Taskwork was high for joint behavior change communication and outreach services with local health workers, but not for intra-team referral. Teams with members residing within one hour's walking distance were more likely to score high. It is feasible for a CHW and a trained TBA to work as a team. This may be an approach to provide a continuum of care for children under-five including newborns.
Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex
Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; Pconvenience or nontraditional food stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible to families.
Carrasco Z, Constanza; Pérez V, Cristhian; Torres A, Graciela; Fasce H, Eduardo
Medical Education, according to the constructivist education paradigm, puts students as the protagonists of the teaching and learning process. It demands changes in the practice of teaching. However, it is unclear whether this new model is coherent with the teachers ways to cope with learning. To analyze the relationship between teaching practices and learning strategies among teachers of health careers in Chilean universities. The Teaching Practices Questionnaire and Learning Strategies Inventory of Schmeck were applied to 200 teachers aged 24 to 72 years (64% females). Teachers use different types of teaching practices. They commonly use deep and elaborative learning strategies. A multiple regression analysis showed that learning strategies had a 13% predictive value to identify student-centered teaching, but they failed to predict teacher-centered teaching. Teaching practices and learning strategies of teachers are related. Teachers frequently select constructivist model strategies, using different teaching practices in their work.
Byrne, Abbey; Caulfield, Tanya; Onyo, Pamela; Nyagero, Josephat; Morgan, Alison; Nduba, John; Kermode, Michelle
Kenya has a high burden of maternal and newborn mortality. Consequently, the Government of Kenya introduced health system reforms to promote the availability of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and proscribed deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Despite these changes, only 10% of women from pastoralist communities are delivered by an SBA in a health facility, and the majority are delivered by TBAs at home. The aim of this study is to better understand the practices and perceptions of TBAs and SBAs serving the remotely located, semi-nomadic, pastoralist communities of Laikipia and Samburu counties in Kenya, to inform the development of an SBA/TBA collaborative care model. This descriptive qualitative study was undertaken in 2013-14. We conducted four focus group discussions (FGDs) with TBAs, three with community health workers, ten with community women, and three with community men. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven SBAs and eight key informants. Topic areas covered were: practices and perceptions of SBAs and TBAs; rewards and challenges; managing obstetric complications; and options for SBA/TBA collaboration. All data were translated, transcribed and thematically analysed. TBAs are valued and accessible members of their communities who adhere to traditional practices and provide practical and emotional support to women during pregnancy, delivery and post-partum. Some TBA practices are potentially harmful to women e.g., restricting food intake during pregnancy, and participants recognised that TBAs are unable to manage obstetric complications. SBAs are acknowledged as having valuable technical skills and resources that contribute to safe and clean deliveries, especially in the event of complications, but there is also a perception that SBAs mistreat women. Both TBAs and SBAs identified a range of challenges related to their work, and instances of mutual respect and informal collaborations between SBAs and TBAs were described. These findings
Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria; Wagemakers, Anne-Marie; Saan, Hans; de Hoog, Kees
Health and well-being are the result of a series of complex processes in which an individual interacts with other people and the environment. A systematic approach ensures incorporation of individual, ecological, social and political factors. However, interactions between these factors can be overlooked within a systematical approach. A systemic approach can provide additional information by incorporating interactions and communication. The opportunities of a systems thinking perspective for health promotion were investigated for this paper. Although others have also made attempts to explore systems thinking in the field of health promotion, the implications of systems thinking in practice need attention. Other fields such as agricultural extension studies, organizational studies and development studies provide useful experiences with the use of a systems thinking perspective in practice. Building on experiences from these fields, we give a theoretical background in which processes of social learning and innovation play an important role. From this background, we derive an overview of important concepts for the practical application of a systems thinking perspective. These concepts are the structure of the system, meanings attached to actions, and power relations between actors. To make these concepts more explicit and reduce the theoretical character of systems thinking, we use an illustration to elaborate on these concepts in practice. For this purpose, we describe a health promotion partnership in The Netherlands using the concepts structure, meaning and power relations. We show how a systems perspective increases insight in the functioning of a partnership and how this can facilitate processes of social learning and innovation. This article concludes by identifying future opportunities and challenges in adopting systems thinking for health promotion practice. A systems perspective towards health promotion can help projects reaching a more integral and
Martin, Trish; Maguire, Tessa; Quinn, Chris; Ryan, Jo; Bawden, Louise; Summers, Monica
Forensic mental health nursing is a recognized field of nursing in most countries. Despite a growing body of literature describing aspects of practice, no publication has been found that captures the core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of forensic mental health nurses. One group of nurses in Australia have pooled their knowledge of relevant literature and their own clinical experience and have written standards of practice for forensic mental health nursing. This paper identifies the need for standards, provides a summary of the standards of practice for forensic mental health nurses, and concludes with how these standards can be used and can articulate to others the desired and achievable level of performance in the specialty area.
Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.
Koga, Minori; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Miyazaki, Akane; Nakai, Yukiei; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Kubo, Chizuru; Suzuki, Junko; Ohkubo, Iwao; Shimizu, Mari; Musashi, Manabu; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Kusumi, Ichiro
Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality) and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste) soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean) intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.
Full Text Available Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.
Gollust, Sarah E.; Goold, Susan D.; Jacobson, Peter D.
Objectives. We sought to ascertain the types of ethical challenges public health practitioners face in practice and to identify approaches used to resolve such challenges. Methods. We conducted 45 semistructured interviews with public health practitioners across a range of occupations (e.g., health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses) at 13 health departments in Michigan. Results. Through qualitative analysis, we identified 5 broad categories of ethical issues common across occupations and locations: (1) determining appropriate use of public health authority, (2) making decisions related to resource allocation, (3) negotiating political interference in public health practice, (4) ensuring standards of quality of care, and (5) questioning the role or scope of public health. Participants cited a variety of values guiding their decision-making that did not coalesce around core values often associated with public health, such as social justice or utilitarianism. Public health practitioners relied on consultations with colleagues to resolve challenges, infrequently using frameworks for decision-making. Conclusions. Public health practitioners showed a nuanced understanding of ethical issues and navigated ethical challenges with minimal formal assistance. Decision-making guides that are empirically informed and tailored for practitioners might have some value. PMID:19059850
Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Bisinelli, Julio Cesar; Moysés, Samuel Jorge
To evaluate public health dentistry practices of two different family health models. Qualitative study conducted with data obtained from focus groups consisting of 58 dentists working in the Family Health Strategy for at least three years between August-October, 2006. The Paideia Family Health Approach was used in the city of Campinas and the Oral Health Initiative as part of the Family Health Strategy was implemented in the city of Curitiba, Southeastern and Southern Brazil, respectively. Data was analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic method. Analysis indicators were employed to indicate backwardness, stagnation or progress in oral health practices effective from the implementation of the strategies referred. The indicators used were: work process; interdisciplinary approach; territorialization; capacity building of human resources; health promotion practices; and responsiveness to users' demands. There was progress in user access to services, humanization of health care, patient welcoming and patient-provider relationship. The results related to health promotion practices, territorialization, interdisciplinary approach and resource capacity building indicated a need for technical and operational enhancements in both cities. Both models have brought about important advances in terms of increased access to services and humanization of health care. Universal access to oral health at all levels of complexity was not achieved in both cities studied. Local health managers and oral health program coordinators must bring more weight to bear in the arena that defines public policy priorities.
Maryam Rasti Broojeni; Shayesteh Bannaeian Broojeni
Today, discussions on health have considered the spiritual – mental health on a par with physical health. A close relationship can be seen between two points, mental health and ethical, training issues, so that individuals who do not have spiritual virtues and religious training are not healthy individuals. Due to the considerable importance of moral and mental health about children, this study was aimed to investigate training issues and moral and mental health about children. The ...
Vyagusa, Dismas B; Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Masatu, Melchiory
Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs' inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal
Pennell, Nathan A; Dicker, Adam P; Tran, Christine; Jim, Heather S L; Schwartz, David L; Stepanski, Edward J
Accompanied by the change in the traditional medical landscape, advances in wireless technology have led to the development of telehealth or mobile health (mHealth), which offers an unparalleled opportunity for health care providers to continually deliver high-quality care. This revolutionary shift makes the patient the consumer of health care and empowers patients to be the driving force of management of their own health through mobile devices and wearable technology. This article presents an overview of technology as it pertains to clinical practice considerations. Telemedicine is changing the way clinical care is delivered without regard for proximity to the patient, whereas nonclinical telehealth applications affect distance education for consumers or clinicians, meetings, research, continuing medical education, and health care management. Technology has the potential to reduce administrative burdens and improve both efficiency and quality of care delivery in the clinic. Finally, the potential for telehealth approaches as cost-effective ways to improve adherence to treatment is explored. As telehealth advances, health care providers must understand the fundamental framework for applying telehealth strategies to incorporate into successful clinical practice.
Nash, Michael; McDonagh, Caitriona; Culhane, Aisling; Noone, Imelda; Higgins, Agnes
Rapid tranquillization is a pharmacological intervention sometimes employed in mental health care for the management of acute behavioural disturbance. It is a form of restrictive practice, which, along with seclusion and restraint, is a conventional and controversial intervention in the therapeutic management of risk in mental health settings. This study surveyed mental health nurses practice in rapid tranquillization. A self-report questionnaire was utilized which addressed aspects such as definitions of rapid tranquillization, presence of rapid tranquillization policy, types of incidents where it is used and postintervention monitoring. The results demonstrate that rapid tranquillization is an intervention used in the management of acute behavioural disturbance in various mental health settings in Ireland. Respondents showed a basic understanding of rapid tranquillization as an intervention; however, some areas reported not having a specific rapid tranquillization policy. There was some evidence of a variation in postrapid tranquillization monitoring of psychiatric/mental health and physical health. Service user debriefing following rapid tranquillization was reported to be common; however, the content of this was not elaborated on. In the light of variations in practice, specific training and the development of rapid tranquillization policies are recommended. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Paudel, R; Pradhan, B
Health-care waste is a by-product of health care. Its poor management exposes health-care workers, waste handlers and the community to infections, toxic effects and injuries including damage of the environment. It also creates opportunities for the collection of disposable medical equipment, its re-sale and potential re-use without sterilization, which causes an important burden of disease worldwide. The purpose of this study was to find out health care waste management practice in hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Narayani Sub-Regional Hospital, Birgunj from May to October 2006 using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study population was four different departments of the hospital (Medical/Paediatric, Surgical/Ortho, Gynae/Obstetric and Emergency), Medical Superintendent, In-charges of four different departments and all sweepers. Data was collected using interview, group discussion, observation and measurement by weight and volume. Total health-care waste generated was 128.4 kg per day while 0.8 kg per patient per day. The composition of health care waste was found to be 96.8 kg (75.4%) general waste, 24.1 kg (8.8%) hazardous waste and 7.5 kg (5.8%) sharps per day by weight. Health staffs and sweepers were not practicing the waste segregation. Occupational health and safety was not given due attention. Majority of the sweepers were unaware of waste management and need of safety measures to protect their own health. Health care waste management practice in the hospital was unsatisfactory because of the lack of waste management plan and carelessness of patients, visitors and staffs. Therefore the hospital should develop the waste management plan and strictly follow the National Health Care Waste Management Guideline.
Chismar, William; Horan, Thomas A; Hesse, Bradford W; Feldman, Sue S; Shaikh, Abdul R
Rapid advances in information and networking technologies have greatly expanded the modes for conducting business and science. For the past two decades, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been supporting efforts to develop a comprehensive cyberinfrastructure with the goal of transforming the nature of scientific investigations. More recently, the NIH began supporting efforts to develop a cyberinfrastructure of healthcare research and practice. However, the best structure and applications of cyberinfrastructure in health care have yet to be defined. To address these issues, the NIH and the Kay Center for E-Health Research at Claremont Graduate University sponsored a symposium on "Cyberinfrastructure for Public Health and Health Services: Research and Funding Directions." The symposium convened researchers, practitioners, and federal funders to discuss how to further cyberinfrastructure systems and research in the public health and health services sectors. This paper synthesizes findings of the symposium, the goals of which were to determine the dynamics necessary for executing and utilizing cyberinfrastructure in public health and health services; examine the requirements of transdisciplinary collaboration; and identify future research directions. A multi-faceted conception of use-inspired research for cyberinfrastructure is developed. Use-inspired research aims to further basic theory but is grounded, inspired, and informed by practical problems. A cyberinfrastructure framework is presented that incorporates three intersecting dimensions: research-practice, health services-public health, and social-technical dimensions. Within this framework, this paper discusses the ways in which cyberinfrastructure provides opportunities to integrate across these dimensions to develop research and actions that can improve both clinical outcomes and public health. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Mackey, Sandra; Hatcher, Deborah; Happell, Brenda; Cleary, Michelle
At least three decades after primary health care (PHC) took nursing by storm it is time to re-examine the philosophical shift to a PHC framework in pre-registration nursing curricula and overview factors which may hinder or promote full integration of PHC as a course philosophy and a contemporary approach to professional practice. Whilst nurse education has traditionally focused on preparing graduates for practice in the acute care setting, there is continuing emphasis on preparing nurses for community based primary health roles, with a focus on illness prevention and health promotion. This is driven by growing evidence that health systems are not responding adequately to the needs and challenges of diverse populations, as well as economic imperatives to reduce the burden of disease associated with the growth of chronic and complex diseases and to reduce the costs associated with the provision of health care. Nursing pre-registration programs in Australia and internationally have philosophically adopted PHC as a curriculum model for preparing graduates with the necessary competencies to function effectively across a range of settings. Anecdotal evidence, however, suggests that when adopted as a program philosophy PHC is not always well integrated across the curriculum. In order to develop a strong and resilient contemporary nursing workforce prepared for practice in both acute and community settings, pre-registration nursing programs need to comprehensively consider and address the factors impacting on the curricula integration of PHC philosophy.
Health decision making is both the lynchpin and the least developed aspect of evidence-based practice. The evidence-based practice process requires integrating the evidence with consideration of practical resources and patient preferences and doing so via a process that is genuinely collaborative. Yet, the literature is largely silent about how to accomplish integrative, shared decision making. for evidence-based practice are discussed for 2 theories of clinician decision making (expected utility and fuzzy trace) and 2 theories of patient health decision making (transtheoretical model and reasoned action). Three suggestions are offered. First, it would be advantageous to have theory-based algorithms that weight and integrate the 3 data strands (evidence, resources, preferences) in different decisional contexts. Second, patients, not providers, make the decisions of greatest impact on public health, and those decisions are behavioral. Consequently, theory explicating how provider-patient collaboration can influence patient lifestyle decisions made miles from the provider's office is greatly needed. Third, although the preponderance of data on complex decisions supports a computational approach, such an approach to evidence-based practice is too impractical to be widely applied at present. More troublesomely, until patients come to trust decisions made computationally more than they trust their providers' intuitions, patient adherence will remain problematic. A good theory of integrative, collaborative health decision making remains needed.
In this paper, I use a social practices view of literacy to challenge dominant conceptions of health literacy. Health literacy is frequently defined as an abstract skill that can be measured through individual performance tests. The concept of health literacy as a skill neglects the contextual nature of reading and writing in health care settings. It risks ignoring the many ways in which patients access and comprehend health information, make sense of their experience and the resources they d...
Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Shinada, Kayoko; Wright, Fredrick A C; Kawaguchi, Yoko
This study aims to analyse the relationship between seven health practices, oral health behaviors, and oral health status in community dwelling elderly Thai. The subjects were 612 elderly people (mean age = 68.8 ± 5.9 years). Questionnaires survey about sociodemographics, self-reported seven health practices and oral health behaviors were conducted by trained interviewers. Oral examinations investigated the number of teeth present, decayed teeth, periodontal status and functional tooth units (FTUs). Oral malodor was assessed by Organoleptic Test, and unstimulated saliva was collected for 5 min. Five health practices (smoking, drinking, physical activity, breakfast and weight maintenance) were significantly related with oral health behaviors. ancova analysis demonstrated the following significant associations: (i) smoking behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (ii) drinking alcohol behavior with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iii) eating breakfast behavior with periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (iv) eating between-meal snack with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, decayed teeth and periodontal disease, (v) maintaining weight with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease and oral malodor, (vi) sleeping with number of teeth present, number of FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate, (vii) physical activity with periodontal disease and salivary flow rate. Good health practices were related with good oral health behaviors. Moreover, general health practices were associated with the clinical oral health status such as number of teeth present, decayed teeth, FTUs, periodontal disease, oral malodor and salivary flow rate. The elderly with good general health practices were considered to have good oral health status. Improving general health
Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Arnfred, Sidse M; Petersen, Lone
OBJECTIVE: Implementation of recovery-oriented practice has proven to be challenging, and little is known about the extent to which recovery-oriented principles are integrated into mental health inpatient settings. This review of the literature examined the extent to which a recovery......-oriented approach is an integrated part of mental health inpatient settings. METHODS: A systematic search (2000-2014) identified quantitative and qualitative studies that made explicit reference to the concept of recovery and that were conducted in adult mental health inpatient settings or that used informants from......, the United States, Australia, and Ireland were included. The results highlight the limited number of studies of recovery-oriented practice in mental health inpatient settings and the limited extent to which such an approach is integrated into these settings. Findings raise the question of whether recovery...
Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize
Full Text Available The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for future generations. Being envisaged and implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya traditional healers of the southern Maya Mountains, Belize, this model can be replicated in other communities worldwide. A ethnobotany study in collaboration with these healers led to collection of 102 medicinal species from Itzama, their traditional healing cultural center and medicinal garden. Of these 102 species, 40 of prior reported 106 consensus study plants were present in the garden. There were 62 plants not previously reported growing in the garden as well. A general comparison of these plants was also made in relation to species reported in TRAMIL network, Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP, the largest regional medicinal pharmacopoeia. A relative few species reported here were found in the CHP. However, the majority of the CHP plants are common in Belize and many are used by the nearby Mopan and Yucatec Maya. Since these 102 species are relied upon heavily in local primary healthcare, this Q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal garden represents possibilities toward novel sustainable, culturally relative holistic health promotion and community based conservation practices.
Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Sfakianakis, Chrisanthos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.
Asclepius and Hippocrates focused medical practice on the natural approach and treatment of diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding the patient’s health, independence of mind, and the need for harmony between the individual, social and natural environment, as reflected in the Hippocratic Oath. The aim of this study was to present the philosophy of care provision in ancient Greece and to highlight the influence of the Hippocratic ideal in modern health care practices. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases. According to the literature, “healthy mind in a healthy body” was the main component of the Hippocratic philosophy. Three main categories were observed in the Hippocratic provision of care: health promotion, interventions on trauma care, and mental care and art therapy interventions. Health promotion included physical activity as an essential part of physical and mental health, and emphasized the importance of nutrition to improve performance in the Olympic Games. Interventions on trauma care included surgical practices developed by Hippocrates, mainly due to the frequent wars in ancient Greece. Mental care and art therapy interventions were in accordance with the first classification of mental disorders, which was proposed by Hippocrates. In this category music and drama were used as management tools in the treatment of illness and in the improvement of human behavior. The role of Asclepieion of Kos was highlighted which clearly indicates a holistic health care model in care provision. Finally, all practices regarded detailed recordings and evaluation of information within the guidelines. The Hippocratic philosophy on health care provision focused on the holistic health care model, applying standards and ethical rules that are still valid today. PMID:25512827
Velasco, H; Astorga, R Torres; Joseph, D; Antoine, J S; Mabit, L; Toloza, A; Dercon, G; Walling, Des E
Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of 137 Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area. The local 137 Cs reference inventory, measured at an adjacent undisturbed flat area, was 670 Bq m -2 (SD = 100 Bq m -2 , CV = 15%, n = 7). Within the study area, where cultivation commenced in 1992 after deforestation, three representative downslope transects were sampled. These were characterized by 137 Cs inventories ranging from 190 to 2200 Bq m -2 . Although, the study area was cultivated by the local farmers, the 137 Cs depth distributions obtained from the area differed markedly from those expected from a cultivated area. They showed little evidence of tillage mixing within the upper part of the soil or, more particularly, of the near-uniform activities normally associated with the plough layer or cultivation horizon. They were very similar to that found at the reference site and were characterized by high 137 Cs activities at the surface and much lower activities at greater depths. This situation is thought to reflect the traditional manual tillage practices which cause limited disturbance and mixing of the upper part of the soil. It precluded the use of the conversion models normally used to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137 Cs measurements on cultivated soils and the Diffusion and Migration conversion model frequently used for uncultivated soils was modified for
Ng, Andrea K.; Li Sigui; Recklitis, Christopher; Diller, Lisa R.; Neuberg, Donna; Silver, Barbara; Mauch, Peter M.
Purpose: To compare the health practice of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) survivors and their siblings, and to assess the impact of socioeconomic status and disease history on health practice of HL survivors. Methods and Materials: We conducted a questionnaire study on long-term HL survivors and their siblings on health care utilization, health habits, and screening behavior. Results: A total of 511 HL survivors (response rate of 50%, including survivors lost to contact) and 224 siblings (response rate, 58%) participated. Median time from HL diagnosis was 15 years. Significantly more survivors than siblings had a physical examination in the past year (63% vs. 49%, p = 0.0001). Male survivors were significantly more likely than siblings to perform monthly self-testicular examinations (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.02). Among survivors, higher household income (p = 0.01) independently predicted for having had a physical examination in the past year. Lower educational level (p = 0.0004) and history of relapsed HL (p = 0.03) were independent predictors for smoking, moderate/heavy alcohol use, and/or physical inactivity. Conclusions: Compared with siblings, long-term HL survivors have a higher level of health care utilization and better screening practice. Survivors from lower socioeconomic background had lower adherence to routine health care and greater report of unhealthy habits. Survivors with history of relapsed HL were also more likely to engage in unhealthy habits
the clinics at M’shi., and to analyze the practice and logic of the untrained helpers, in the villages and the professional staff at M’shi. To do that I have done a fieldwork study in the area around M’shi., using qualitative methods such as Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and observations. I have used...... they are part of the tradition and the culture. The women make a perfectly normal choice when they choose the TBAs for care as they are part of the folk sector. The TBA’s are there, culturally sensitive, trusted and respected. They have certain knowledge and skills. The professional, medical system may as well...
Steffi L. Colyer, Polly M. McGuigan
Full Text Available Textile electromyography (EMG electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. EMG signals were identically processed to provide average rectified EMG (normalized to walking and excitation length. Results were compared across measurement systems and demonstrated good agreement between the magnitude of muscle excitation when EMG activity was lower, but agreement was poorer when excitation was higher. The length of excitation bursts was consistently longer when measured using textile vs. surface EMG electrodes. Comparable between-session (day-to-day repeatability was found for average rectified EMG (mean coefficient of variation, CV: 42.6 and 41.2% and excitation length (CV: 12.9 and 9.8% when using textile and surface EMG, respectively. Additionally, similar within-session repeatability (CV was recorded for average rectified EMG (13.8 and 14.1% and excitation length (13.0 and 12.7% for textile and surface electrodes, respectively. Generally, textile EMG electrodes appear to be capable of providing comparable muscle excitation information and reproducibility to surface EMG during dynamic tasks. Textile EMG shorts could therefore be a practical alternative to traditional laboratory-based methods allowing muscle excitation information to be collected in more externally-valid training environments.
Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra
The aim of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples collected from the selected professional cooking workplaces (WCs) and residential household cooking areas (WRs), where traditional and primitive cooking practices are still prevelent. Another aim of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic risk for Pakistani human exposure to dust-bound PAHs via the routes of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Generally, the concentration of individual congeners of PAHs in surface dust samples of WC sites was higher than those measured in WR sites (p < 0.05). The benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a very high carcinogenic compound, was present in the dust samples from WC sites in the highest mean concentration (630 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.)). The BaP mean concentration in WC workplaces was almost eight times higher than the mean value found in WR exposure sites. Moreover, the average concentration of ∑PAHs, combustion origin PAHs (∑COMB) and sum total of 7-carcinogenic PAHs (∑7-carcinogens) were also significantly higher in WC dusts samples than that in WR workplaces. Principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratios suggested coal/wood combustion as major PAH emission sources in both exposure sites. The average incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) suggested a moderate to potential high cancer risk for adults and children exposed to dust-bound PAHs in both exposure sites, in particular via both dermal and ingestion contact pathways.
Willison, Donald J; Ondrusek, Nancy; Dawson, Angus; Emerson, Claudia; Ferris, Lorraine E; Saginur, Raphael; Sampson, Heather; Upshur, Ross
The generation of evidence is integral to the work of public health and health service providers. Traditionally, ethics has been addressed differently in research projects, compared with other forms of evidence generation, such as quality improvement, program evaluation, and surveillance, with review of non-research activities falling outside the purview of the research ethics board. However, the boundaries between research and these other evaluative activities are not distinct. Efforts to delineate a boundary - whether on grounds of primary purpose, temporality, underlying legal authority, departure from usual practice, or direct benefits to participants - have been unsatisfactory.Public Health Ontario has eschewed this distinction between research and other evaluative activities, choosing to adopt a common framework and process to guide ethical reflection on all public health evaluative projects throughout their lifecycle - from initial planning through to knowledge exchange. The Public Health Ontario framework was developed by a working group of public health and ethics professionals and scholars, in consultation with individuals representing a wide range of public health roles. The first part of the framework interprets the existing Canadian research ethics policy statement (commonly known as the TCPS 2) through a public health lens. The second part consists of ten questions that guide the investigator in the application of the core ethical principles to public health initiatives.The framework is intended for use by those designing and executing public health evaluations, as well as those charged with ethics review of projects. The goal is to move toward a culture of ethical integrity among investigators, reviewers and decision-makers, rather than mere compliance with rules. The framework is consonant with the perspective of the learning organization and is generalizable to other public health organizations, to health services organizations, and beyond. Public
This article will discuss new regulations and professional guidance addressing bullying and workplace violence including addressing recent organizational initiatives to support the health care workforce; reviewing how professional education has historically contributed to a culture of bullying across health care; and exploring how academia is shifting the culture of professional practice through innovative education programming. Applicable to all health care sectors where case management is practiced. This article is the second of two on this topic. Part 2 focuses on how traditional professional education has been cited as a contributing factor to bullying within and across disciplines. Changes to educational programming will impact the practice culture by enhancing collaboration and meaningful interactions across the workforce. Attention is also given to the latest regulations, professional guidelines, and organizational initiatives. Workplace bullying and violence have contributed to health care become the most dangerous workplace sector. This is a concerning issue that warrants serious attention by all industry stakeholders.Traditional professional education models have created a practice culture that promotes more than hinders workplace bullying and violence in the industry. Changes to both academic coursework and curricula have shifted these antiquated practice paradigms across disciplines. New care delivery modes and models have fostered innovative care and treatment perspectives. Case management is poised to facilitate the implementation of these perspectives and further efforts to promote a safe health care workplace for patients and practitioners alike.
da Fonseca, Lázaro Batista; Nobre, Maria Teresa; dos Santos, João José Gomes
The scope of this paper is to describe the relationship between health production, urban growth and environmental degradation in the community of the "Urban Expansion Zone" of Aracaju in the State of Sergipe. It also touches on the impacts on the health of the population due to tourism and real estate speculation associated with the absence of basic services. Based on the assumption that illnesses caused by such changes only appear on the public health care system as a worsening of symptoms, neglecting the complex health-environment relationship, this paper highlights the possibility of pondering the bases upon which urban growth occurs in the light of imminent environmental degradation. The activities of health community agents were monitored duly connecting them to regional growth and environmental degradation. This was done from March 2010 and June 2011 adopting the ethnographic perspective as the method of choice. Other ways of inclusion in the community were mapped: contact with older residents, religious leaderships and the members of the traditional professions, etc. The results show the changes that have been occurring in the region, especially with respect to the extinction of traditional practices, increase in violence, unemployment, loss of community ties and illness.
Audet, Carolyn M; Hamilton, Erin; Hughart, Leighann; Salato, Jose
"Medical pluralism" is the use of multiple health systems and is common among people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Healers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) often are a patient's first and/or preferred line of treatment; this often results in delayed, interrupted, or abandoned diagnosis and therapy. Literature from the study of medical pluralism suggests that HIV care and treatment programs are infrequently and inconsistently engaging healers around the world. Mistrust and misunderstanding among patients, clinical providers, and traditional practitioners make the development of effective partnerships difficult, particularly regarding early HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy. We provide recommendations for the development of successful collaboration health workforce efforts based on both published articles and case studies from our work in rural Mozambique.
Kroeze, R.; Keulen, S.
This article states that the distinctiveness of business history and its convincingness can be improved by the concept of invented tradition and narrative. After a theoretical overview it suggests that the narrative approach explains the way leaders operate in practice. It argues that with a
Change between Entry and Graduation in MSW Student Views on Social Work's Traditional Mission, Career Motivations, and Practice Preferences: Caucasian, Student of Color, and American Indian Group Comparisons
Limb, Gordon E.; Organista, Kurt C.
The current study builds on a previous study that examined change in student views on social work's traditional mission, career motivations, and practice preferences between entry into and graduation from master of social work programs. Results from 6,987 students at entry and 3,451 students at graduation showed that students at graduation…
Full Text Available Clinical work with suicidal people is a demanding area. Little is known about health professionals’ practices when faced with suicidal patients. The aims of this study were to: (1 describe the practices most likely to be adopted by professionals facing a suicidal patient and (2 analyze the differences according to professional characteristics (group, specific training on suicide, and experience with suicidal patients. A self-report questionnaire that was developed for this study was filled out by 239 participants. Participants were psychologists, psychiatrists, and general practitioners who work in different contexts: hospitals, public health centres, schools or colleges, and community centres. Principal components analysis, analyses of variance, and t-tests were used. Four components were identified: (1 Comprehensive risk assessment; (2 protocols, psychotherapy and connectedness; (3 multidisciplinary clinical approach; and, (4 family, explaining a total of variance of 44%. Positive associations between suicide-related variables (training and experience and practices were found. In general, health professionals’ practices are evidence-based, however a relevant percentage of professionals can benefit from training and improve their practices.
Evaluation of poultry processing practices, related public health laws and diseases of chickens at slaughter: A pilot study in Kaduna state. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...
This project, managed by the American University of Beirut, will survey public health academics and practitioners around the world about their attitudes and practices around funding from for-profit corporations, particularly those whose products are associated with non-communicable diseases. The project will also review ...
Cite as: Abimanyi-Ochom J. Practicalities of health survey field work research in a resource limited setting: challenges and ... vided only ART while TASO provided social support in ..... first aid box in case of any minor accident but was limited.
Akubue, B. N.; Anikweze, G. U.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the health care practices for medical textiles in government hospitals Enugu State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the availability and maintenance of medical textiles in government hospitals in Enugu State, Nigeria. A sample of 1200 hospital personnel were studied. One thousand two hundred…
Method:A self-administered questionnaire was utilised to assess oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among 46 orthodontic patients consisting of 18 males (39.1%) and 28 females (60.9%) with a mean age of 18.4 ± 7.6 years who were on active fixed orthodontic appliances at the University of Benin Teaching ...
Raynel, S; Reynolds, H
Are specialized ophthalmic units with inpatient facilities going to disappear in the New Zealand public health system? We have entered the era of cost containment, business methodologies, bench marking, day case surgery, and technologic advances. The dilemma for nursing is maintenance of a skill base with dwindling clinical practice areas.
HIV self-testing practices among Health Care Workers: feasibility and options for ... is required to increase the rate of HIV testing and expand treatment services. ... 244(80%) of the HCWs had motivation or interest to be tested by themselves.
... observational checklist were the instruments for data collection. Findings revealed poor knowledge of concept, components, timing of visits on focused antenatal care and non compliance with the guidelines for the practice of focused antenatal care, because of health workers lack of knowledge on focused antenatal care.
Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.
This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on
Background: Bottled water labels enable the consumers to choose brands that can best fit to their needs and preferences. Anything inaccurate, however, may pose serious public health risks, especially to vulnerable individuals. In Ethiopia, regular monitoring of bottled water quality and labelling practices is still lacking.
Background: There has been increasing incidence of occupational diseases among woodworkers due to exposure to preventable hazards in the workplace. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of health education on the knowledge and practice of workplace hygiene and protective measures among ...
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of an Integral Life Practice workshop on perceptions of health and spirituality. An integral psychological approach using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods in a pre- and post-test, quasi experimental and control group design was used to assess changes ...
Health psychology in family practice: Fulfilling a vital need. A Kagee, P Naidoo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...
Levy, Leonard A.; Levine, Peter M.
As the profession of podiatric medicine becomes more closely identified with the delivery of primary care, it is suggested that it is essential for practicing podiatrists and students to have more educational opportunities in the field of holistic health care, psychiatry, and the behavioral sciences. (Author/MLW)
Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa. African countries have an urgent need for research to battle the diseases that ravage their populations and hamper their economic and social development. This research entails both benefits and risks for the people involved. Particular effort must be ...
Pain, Simon Watson
A practical guide to environmental, safety, and occupational health audits. It allows organizations and business to avoid expensive external auditors and retain the knowledge and learning 'in-house'. It allows any competent manager or safety/environmental officer to undertake in-house audits in a competent and reproducible fashion.
Luke, Robert; Solomon, Patty; Baptiste, Sue; Hall, Pippa; Orchard, Carole; Rukholm, Ellen; Carter, Lorraine
Online learning (e-learning) has a nascent but established history. Its application to interprofessional education (IPE), however, is relatively new. Over the past 2 decades the Internet has been used increasingly to mediate education. We have come past the point of "should we use the Internet for education" to "how should we use the Internet for education." Research has begun on the optimal development of online learning environments to support IPE. Developing online IPE should follow best practices in e-learning generally, though there are some special considerations for acknowledging the interprofessional context and clinical environments that online IPE is designed to support. The design, development, and deployment of effective online IPE must therefore pay special attention to the particular constraints of the health care worker educational matrix, both pre- and postlicensure. In this article we outline the design of online, interprofessional health sciences education. Our work has involved 4 educational and 4 clinical service institutions. We establish the context in which we situate our development activities that created learning modules designed to support IPE and its transfer into new interprofessional health care practices. We illustrate some best practices for the design of effective online IPE, and show how this design can create effective learning for IPE. Challenges exist regarding the full implementation of interprofessional clinical practice that are beginning to be met by coordinated efforts of multiple health care education silos.
Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young
This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphata...
Naveen Agarwal; Balram Paswan; Prakash H. Fulpagare; Dhirendra N Sinha; Thaksaphon Thamarangsi; Manju Rani
Background and challenges to implementation Technological advancement is growing very fast in India and majority of young population is handling electronic devices often during leisure as well as at work. This study indicates that electronic tablets are less time consuming and improves survey response rate over the traditional paper-pencil survey method. Intervention or response An Android-based Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire was used with the...
Full Text Available Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator’s teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women’s health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem.
Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul
The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society.
Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul
The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society. PMID:20640020
Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette
Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.
Heidarian, Ahmadali; Mason, David
Health information technology (HIT) has the potential to fundamentally change the practice of optometry and the relationship between optometrists and patients and to improve clinical outcomes. This paper aims to provide data on how health information technology is currently being used in New Zealand optometric practices. Also this paper aims to explore the potential benefits and barriers to the future adoption of health information technology in New Zealand. One hundred and six New Zealand optometrists were surveyed about their current use of health information technology and about potential benefits and barriers. In addition, 12 semi-structured interviews were carried out with leaders of health information technology in New Zealand optometry. The areas of interest were the current and intended use of HIT, the potential benefits of and barriers to using HIT in optometric offices and the level of investment in health information technology. Nearly all optometrists (98.7 per cent) in New Zealand use computers in their practices and 93.4 per cent of them use a computer in their consulting room. The most commonly used clinical assessment technology in optometric practices in New Zealand was automated perimeter (97.1 per cent), followed by a digital fundus/retinal camera (82.6 per cent) and automated lensometer (62.9 per cent). The pachymeter is the technology that most respondents intended to purchase in the next one to five years (42.6 per cent), followed by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (36.8 per cent) and corneal topographer (32.9 per cent). The main benefits of using health information technology in optometric practices were improving patient perceptions of ‘state of the art’ practice and providing patients with information and digital images to explain the results of assessment. Barriers to the adoption of HIT included the need for frequent technology upgrades, cost, lack of time for implementation, and training. New Zealand optometrists are using HIT
Schwarte, Liz; Ngo, Samantha; Banthia, Rajni; Flores, George; Prentice, Bob; Boyle, Maria; Samuels, Sarah E
Local health departments (LHDs) are dedicating resources and attention to preventing obesity and associated chronic diseases, thus expanding their work beyond traditional public health activities such as surveillance. This study investigated practices of local health departments in California to prevent obesity and chronic disease. We conducted a web-based survey in 2010 with leaders in California's LHDs to obtain diverse perspectives on LHDs' practices to prevent obesity and chronic disease. The departmental response rate for the 2010 survey was 87% (53 of California's 61 LHDs). Although staff for preventing obesity and chronic disease decreased at 59% of LHDs and stayed the same at 26% of LHDs since 2006, LHDs still contributed the same (12%) or a higher (62%) level of effort in these areas. Factors contributing to internal changes to address obesity and chronic disease prevention included momentum in the field of obesity prevention, opportunities to learn from other health departments, participation in obesity and chronic disease prevention initiatives, and flexible funding streams for chronic disease prevention. LHDs that received foundation funding or had a lead person or organizational unit coordinating or taking the lead on activities related to obesity and chronic disease prevention were more likely than other LHDs to engage in some activities related to obesity prevention. California LHDs are increasing the intensity and breadth of obesity and chronic disease prevention. Findings provide a benchmark from which further changes in the activities and funding sources of LHD chronic disease prevention practice may be measured.
Chin, Marshall H; Clarke, Amanda R; Nocon, Robert S; Casey, Alicia A; Goddu, Anna P; Keesecker, Nicole M; Cook, Scott C
Over the past decade, researchers have shifted their focus from documenting health care disparities to identifying solutions to close the gap in care. Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is charged with identifying promising interventions to reduce disparities. Based on our work conducting systematic reviews of the literature, evaluating promising practices, and providing technical assistance to health care organizations, we present a roadmap for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in care. The roadmap outlines a dynamic process in which individual interventions are just one part. It highlights that organizations and providers need to take responsibility for reducing disparities, establish a general infrastructure and culture to improve quality, and integrate targeted disparities interventions into quality improvement efforts. Additionally, we summarize the major lessons learned through the Finding Answers program. We share best practices for implementing disparities interventions and synthesize cross-cutting themes from 12 systematic reviews of the literature. Our research shows that promising interventions frequently are culturally tailored to meet patients' needs, employ multidisciplinary teams of care providers, and target multiple leverage points along a patient's pathway of care. Health education that uses interactive techniques to deliver skills training appears to be more effective than traditional didactic approaches. Furthermore, patient navigation and engaging family and community members in the health care process may improve outcomes for minority patients. We anticipate that the roadmap and best practices will be useful for organizations, policymakers, and researchers striving to provide high-quality equitable care.
Casey, W.R.; Miller, A.J.; McCaslin, J.B.; Coulson, L.V.
It is hoped that this manual will serve both as a teaching aid as well as a useful adjunct for program development. In the context of application, this manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff, and designers since the achievement of a good radiation program indeed involves a combined effort. Ultimately, radiation safety and good work practices become the personal responsibility of the individual. The practices presented in this manual are not to be construed as mandatory rather they are to be used as appropriate for the specific case in the interest of radiation safety. As experience is accrued and new data obtained in the application of this document, ONS will update the guidance to assure that at any given time the guidance reflects optimum performance consistent with current technology and practice.The intent of this guide therefore is to: define common health physics problems at accelerators; recommend suitable methods of identifying, evaluating, and managing accelerator health physics problems; set out the established safety practices at DOE accelerators that have been arrived at by consensus and, where consensus has not yet been reached, give examples of safe practices; introduce the technical literature in the accelerator health physics field; and supplement the regulatory documents listed in Appendix D. Many accelerator health physics problems are no different than those at other kinds of facilities, e.g., ALARA philosophy, instrument calibration, etc. These problems are touched on very lightly or not at all. Similarly, this document does not cover other hazards such as electrical shock, toxic materials, etc. This does not in any way imply that these problems are not serious. 160 refs
Skarholt, Kari; Blix, Elisabeth H; Sandsund, Mariann; Andersen, Thale K
The aim of this article is to address health promoting leadership; what do leaders actually do to promote health at work? Leadership practice plays a crucial role in the workplace and greatly affects the working environment and working conditions. Through a theoretical and empirical approach, we seek to find characteristics/patterns of health promoting leadership. The definition of health promoting leadership is a democratic and supportive leadership style, where leaders seek to motivate and inspire their employees. The study in this article is based on qualitative research methods. We have investigated and compared leadership practice in four different organizations/industries in Norway: construction, oil and gas, health care and cleaning. These organizations and professions are quite different, and thus leadership must be understood and developed within its context. However, we found some generic characteristics of health promoting leadership: hands-on, accessible, supportive, inclusive and democratic. Current literature only rarely addresses how leadership affects health promotion at work. Consequently, more knowledge is needed about how leaders really succeed in creating healthy workplaces and healthy employees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Miller, Louise C; Devaney, Susan W; Kelly, Glenda L; Kuehn, Alice F
Attrition in the public health nursing work force combined with a lack of faculty to teach public health prompted development of a "long-distance" learning project. Practicing associate degree nurses enrolled in an online course in population-based practice worked with experienced public health nurse "e-mentors." Student-mentor pairs worked through course assignments, shared public health nursing experiences, and problem-solved real-time public health issues. Nursing faculty served as coordinators for student learning and mentor support. Over 3 years, 38 student-mentor pairs participated in the project. Students reported they valued the expertise and guidance of their mentors. Likewise, mentors gained confidence in their practice and abilities to mentor. Issues related to distance learning and e-mentoring centered around use of technology and adequate time to communicate with one another. E-mentoring is a viable strategy to connect nurses to a learning, sharing environment while crossing the barriers of distance, agency isolation, and busy schedules.
Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.
Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A; Patterson, Davis G; Fenton, Susan H; Ostergard, Stefanie J
This study assessed electronic health record (EHR) and health information technology (HIT) workforce resources needed by rural primary care practices, and their workforce-related barriers to implementing and using EHRs and HIT. Rural primary care practices (1,772) in 13 states (34.2% response) were surveyed in 2012 using mailed and Web-based questionnaires. EHRs or HIT were used by 70% of respondents. Among practices using or intending to use the technology, most did not plan to hire new employees to obtain EHR/HIT skills and even fewer planned to hire consultants or vendors to fill gaps. Many practices had staff with some basic/entry, intermediate and/or advanced-level skills, but nearly two-thirds (61.4%) needed more staff training. Affordable access to vendors/consultants who understand their needs and availability of community college and baccalaureate-level training were the workforce-related barriers cited by the highest percentages of respondents. Accessing the Web/Internet challenged nearly a quarter of practices in isolated rural areas, and nearly a fifth in small rural areas. Finding relevant vendors/consultants and qualified staff were greater barriers in small and isolated rural areas than in large rural areas. Rural primary care practices mainly will rely on existing staff for continued implementation and use of EHR/HIT systems. Infrastructure and workforce-related barriers remain and must be overcome before practices can fully manage patient populations and exchange patient information among care system partners. Efforts to monitor adoption of these skills and ongoing support for continuing education will likely benefit rural populations. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.
Robinson, Alison; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Harris, Mark
Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
This article analyzes informal medical payments that the majority of Lithuanians give or feel compelled to give to doctors before or after treatment. It focuses on how patients and their caretakers encounter, practice, and enact informal payments in health care and how these payments create a reality of health care that is not limited to an economic rationality. Within such a frame, rather than being considered a gift or bribe, it conceptualizes these little white envelopes as a practice of health and care. The article shows how an envelope of money given to a doctor transcends the material patient-doctor transaction and emerges as a productive force for coping with illness, medical encounters, and misfortunes. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
Weiss, Marjorie D
Strategically leveraging health and safety initiatives with sustainability and stewardship helps organizations improve profitability and positively impact team member and customer attachment to the organization. Collective efficacy enhances the triple bottom line: healthy people, healthy planet, and healthy profits. The HS(3)™ Best Practice Exchanges group demonstrated that collective efficacy can leverage the social cohesion, communication channels, and activities within workplaces to promote a healthy, sustainable work culture. This in turn (1) protects the health and safety of workers, (2) preserves the natural environment, and (3) increases attachment to the organization. Community-based participatory research using the Attach21 survey assessed the progress of these companies in their efforts to integrate health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship. Monthly Best Practice Exchanges promoted collective efficacy by providing support, encouragement, and motivation to share and adopt new ideas. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Current and potential future contributions of social workers to health practice are considered at the three levels of direct service to patients, influence on the processes and procedures of the health setting and influence on its future planning and service development. The capacity of U.S.A. and U.K. social work to contribute at these levels is compared in the light of their contrasting relationships to the health system. U.S.A. social work in health care is practised as employees of the health setting or as private practitioners and contains the majority of U.S.A. social workers. It remains a specialism that sustains a major body of published work, commitment to knowledge-building, standard setting and performance review, and a psycho-social orientation shared by a growing number of medical and nursing professionals. Its approach to the health system is that of the pursuit of professional credibility in the secondary setting by adopting the professional-technical practice model of the clinician. U.K. social work since the early 1970s has been committed to generic education and practice and to the development of its own primary setting in social services departments which now employ almost all U.K. social workers. Area team social work in these departments, typified by statutory work with the most deprived sections of the population, has become the dominant culture of British social work, with implications for the occupational identity and career prospects of those social workers who are outposted or attached to health settings but no longer employed by them. British social work and its management now approach the health system from a position of organizational independence which should strengthen their capacity to influence the health system. The cultural differences between social work and medicine, however, are experienced more keenly than ever as many social workers adopt a socio-political practice model that is at odds with the professional-technical model
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
Huffman, Melinda H
The increasing demand for health coaches and wellness coaches in worksite health promotion and the marketplace has resulted in a plethora of training programs with wide variations in coaching definitions, content, attributes, and eligibility of those who may train. It is in the interest of public awareness and safety that those in clinical practice take the lead in this discussion and offer a reasonable contrast and comparison focusing on the risks and responsibilities of health coaching in particular. With the endorsement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAO