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Sample records for traditional field sampling

  1. Where on earth to publish? A sample survey comparing traditional and open access publishing in the oncological field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Bravo, Elena; Camerini, Tiziana; Ferri, Maurizio; Rizzo, Roberto; Solimini, Renata; Cognetti, Gaetana

    2013-01-22

    The paper intends to help scientific authors to make the best choice of journals in which to publish, by describing and comparing journal features in the area of oncology. For this purpose, the authors identified impact factor (IF) ranking, cost options and copyright conditions offered to authors wishing to publish in full open access (OA), subscription-based or hybrid journals. Data referring to articles published in 2010 by three Italian research institutions (National Institute of Health - Rome (ISS), Regina Elena National Cancer Institute - Rome (IRE), National Cancer Institute - Milan (INT) in journals (78) managed according to different business models, all listed in the Journal Citation Reports, subject category Oncology, were collected and analysed. The journals surveyed were ranked according to IF, position in quartiles, publication charges, usage rights in published articles, self-archiving conditions in OAI-compliant repositories digital archives. Almost half (34) the journals surveyed were included in the first quartile, thus revealing authors' preference for journals with a high IF. The prevalent journal business model was the hybrid formula (based on subscriptions but also offering a paid OA option) with 51 journals, followed by subscription-based only journals accounting for 22, while just 5 full OA journals were identified. In general, no relationship was found between IF and article publication charges, in terms of correspondence between more expensive fees and higher IF. The issue of OA journals as compared with traditional subscription-based journals is highly debated among stakeholders: library administrators facing financial restrictions, authors seeking to locate the best outlet for their research, publishers wishing to increase their revenues by offering journals with wider appeal. Against this background, factors such as the quest for alternatives to high-cost business models, investments in setting up institutional repositories hosting the

  2. Field Experience Study in a Traditional Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenich, Theresa A.

    1978-01-01

    A field experience in fashion marketing for Kansas State University students is described. The functions and responsibilities of the coordinator, the student, and the departmental supervisor are outlined, along with the evaluation processes used. (Author/LBH)

  3. Nuclear forensics of a non-traditional sample: Neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Jamie L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    Recent nuclear forensics cases have focused primarily on plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) materials. By definition however, nuclear forensics can apply to any diverted nuclear material. This includes neptunium (Np), an internationally safeguarded material like Pu and U, that could offer a nuclear security concern if significant quantities were found outside of regulatory control. This case study couples scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with quantitative analysis using newly developed specialized software, to evaluate a non-traditional nuclear forensic sample of Np. Here, the results of the morphological analyses were compared with another Np sample of known pedigree, as well as other traditional actinide materials in order to determine potential processing and point-of-origin

  4. Field sampling and travel report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Sigua was involved with two field visits of watersheds with different livestock production systems (poultry, swine, and beef/dairy cattle); one in the sub-basins of Pinhal River Watershed (October 23, 2008) and at the micro-basins of the Rio Pine Forest (October 29, 2008) where studies of assess...

  5. Comparing the effectiveness of virtual and traditional forestry field tours

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Elissa C.; Fletcher, Richard A.; Jensen, Edward C.; Rickenbach, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Virtual tours are among the many new Internet-based tools with potential applications in natural resource education. While technology exists to create virtual tour Web sites, little is understood about how they meet educational objectives and whether they can be complementary alternatives for traditional field tours. The Sustainable Forestry Partnership and the Forestry Media Center at Oregon State University created parallel virtual and field tours to compare these teaching techniques. Both ...

  6. Field Sampling from a Segmented Image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical method for deriving the optimal prospective field sampling scheme on a remote sensing image to represent different categories in the field. The iterated conditional modes algorithm (ICM) is used for segmentation...

  7. Catch me if you can: Comparing ballast water sampling skids to traditional net sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; Linley, Robert Dallas; Schillak, Lothar; Schneider, Gerd; Stehouwer, Peter; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    With the recent ratification of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004, it will soon be necessary to assess ships for compliance with ballast water discharge standards. Sampling skids that allow the efficient collection of ballast water samples in a compact space have been developed for this purpose. We ran 22 trials on board the RV Meteor from June 4-15, 2015 to evaluate the performance of three ballast water sampling devices (traditional plankton net, Triton sampling skid, SGS sampling skid) for three organism size classes: ≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 μm to Natural sea water was run through the ballast water system and untreated samples were collected using paired sampling devices. Collected samples were analyzed in parallel by multiple analysts using several different analytic methods to quantify organism concentrations. To determine whether there were differences in the number of viable organisms collected across sampling devices, results were standardized and statistically treated to filter out other sources of variability, resulting in an outcome variable representing the mean difference in measurements that can be attributed to sampling devices. These results were tested for significance using pairwise Tukey contrasts. Differences in organism concentrations were found in 50% of comparisons between sampling skids and the plankton net for ≥ 50 μm, and ≥ 10 μm to < 50 μm size classes, with net samples containing either higher or lower densities. There were no differences for < 10 μm organisms. Future work will be required to explicitly examine the potential effects of flow velocity, sampling duration, sampled volume, and organism concentrations on sampling device performance.

  8. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans

    2012-01-01

    An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...

  9. Development of new functional properties in traditional ceramics field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carda, J.B.; Pedra, J.M.; Nunez, I.; Peiro, N.C.; Gil, C.; Navarro, E.; Gomez, J.J.; Chiva, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the present communication, several ways to obtain functional properties in ceramic tiles will be exposed, developed by the research group in Solid State Chemistry of Jaume I University from Castellon, in close collaboration with the ceramic industry set in Castellon (Spain). Then, searching for a new properties, those that involve advanced fields in ceramics, such as mechanical, electrical or optical properties have been chosen, transferring their application to traditional products, selecting for it the development of this properties in surface (as the obtaining if glass-ceramic glazes) or in the ceramic body (increasing its mechanical resistance, more dense and with less thickness of layer). Related to the surface properties interesting in traditional ceramics field, glass-ceramic glazes have been designed, presenting high resistance to abrasion and chemical agents attack, formulating systems of devitrification of α-SiO 2 crystallization (cristobalite), anoritite and zircon. Systems that reduce resistivity of glazes have been developed too, causing the discharge to the ground of the static charge, designing a semiconductor system SnO 2 -Sb 2 O 3 . o finish with surface properties, bactericidal properties glazes have been originated, working with CeO 2 -ZrO 2 and TiO 2 (anatase) systems. According to ceramic bodies, highly gressificated systems have been developed, with an open porosity lower than 0.5% of water absorption and with high mechanical resistance, aspects that open ways to develop multilayer systems allowing the reduction of body thickness without a decrease of its technical features. (author)

  10. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) - FIELDS Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulsipher, Brent A.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Carlson, Deborah K.; Bing-Canar, John; Cooper, Brian; Roth, Chuck

    2003-04-19

    Two software packages, VSP 2.1 and FIELDS 3.5, are being used by environmental scientists to plan the number and type of samples required to meet project objectives, display those samples on maps, query a database of past sample results, produce spatial models of the data, and analyze the data in order to arrive at defensible decisions. VSP 2.0 is an interactive tool to calculate optimal sample size and optimal sample location based on user goals, risk tolerance, and variability in the environment and in lab methods. FIELDS 3.0 is a set of tools to explore the sample results in a variety of ways to make defensible decisions with quantified levels of risk and uncertainty. However, FIELDS 3.0 has a small sample design module. VSP 2.0, on the other hand, has over 20 sampling goals, allowing the user to input site-specific assumptions such as non-normality of sample results, separate variability between field and laboratory measurements, make two-sample comparisons, perform confidence interval estimation, use sequential search sampling methods, and much more. Over 1,000 copies of VSP are in use today. FIELDS is used in nine of the ten U.S. EPA regions, by state regulatory agencies, and most recently by several international countries. Both software packages have been peer-reviewed, enjoy broad usage, and have been accepted by regulatory agencies as well as site project managers as key tools to help collect data and make environmental cleanup decisions. Recently, the two software packages were integrated, allowing the user to take advantage of the many design options of VSP, and the analysis and modeling options of FIELDS. The transition between the two is simple for the user – VSP can be called from within FIELDS, automatically passing a map to VSP and automatically retrieving sample locations and design information when the user returns to FIELDS. This paper will describe the integration, give a demonstration of the integrated package, and give users download

  11. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  12. A Quantitative Proteomics Approach to Clinical Research with Non-Traditional Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rígel Licier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The proper handling of samples to be analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS can guarantee excellent results and a greater depth of analysis when working in quantitative proteomics. This is critical when trying to assess non-traditional sources such as ear wax, saliva, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, tears, nipple aspirate fluid, breast milk/colostrum, cervical-vaginal fluid, nasal secretions, bronco-alveolar lavage fluid, and stools. We intend to provide the investigator with relevant aspects of quantitative proteomics and to recognize the most recent clinical research work conducted with atypical samples and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Having as reference the most recent and different approaches used with non-traditional sources allows us to compare new strategies in the development of novel experimental models. On the other hand, these references help us to contribute significantly to the understanding of the proportions of proteins in different proteomes of clinical interest and may lead to potential advances in the emerging field of precision medicine.

  13. A Quantitative Proteomics Approach to Clinical Research with Non-Traditional Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licier, Rígel; Miranda, Eric; Serrano, Horacio

    2016-10-17

    The proper handling of samples to be analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) can guarantee excellent results and a greater depth of analysis when working in quantitative proteomics. This is critical when trying to assess non-traditional sources such as ear wax, saliva, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, tears, nipple aspirate fluid, breast milk/colostrum, cervical-vaginal fluid, nasal secretions, bronco-alveolar lavage fluid, and stools. We intend to provide the investigator with relevant aspects of quantitative proteomics and to recognize the most recent clinical research work conducted with atypical samples and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Having as reference the most recent and different approaches used with non-traditional sources allows us to compare new strategies in the development of novel experimental models. On the other hand, these references help us to contribute significantly to the understanding of the proportions of proteins in different proteomes of clinical interest and may lead to potential advances in the emerging field of precision medicine.

  14. Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ton

    2016-01-01

    : beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....

  15. Properties and cleanability of new and traditional surface materials in cattle barns - a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KUISMA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study surface properties and cleanability of new and traditional surface materials in cattle barns were examined in a field test. The concrete and plastic-coated samples were placed on a walking path on the floor and on a feeding table in a cattle barn. The surfaces were characterized using colorimetric and gloss measurements and determination of topography. In most cases, the colour of the surfaces placed on the floor darkened during the one year study period, whereas the colour changes of the samples placed on the feeding table did not show a similar trend. However, in both locations the plastic-coated surfaces were generally the easiest to clean, and the highest colour changes indicating soil residues were detected on the uncoated and silane-impregnated concrete surfaces. The difference between the locations was also seen in the gloss values, which increased in the samples placed on the floor during the one-year test period but varied considerably between the different materials on the surfaces placed on the feeding table. This field study confirmed the observation from earlier laboratory studies that plastic coatings improved the cleanability of concrete cattle barn surfaces. Silane impregnation was not functionally competitive with the plastic coatings. In general, the cleanability results were in accordance with the results of previous laboratory experiments but the field study provided practical information about the behaviour of the surface materials examined.;

  16. Geomorphology: Perspectives on observation, history, and the field tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, John D.

    2013-10-01

    Other than a common interest in form and process, current geomorphologists have little in common with those who established the foundations of this science. Educated people who had an interest in Earth processes during the nineteenth century cannot be compared to the scholars who study geomorphology in the twenty-first century. Whereas Earth has undergone natural change from the beginning of time, the human record of observing and recording processes and changes in the surface Is but a recent phenomena. Observation is the only thread, however, that connects all practitioners of geomorphology through time. As people acquired knowledge related to all aspects of life, technological revolutions, such as the Iron Age, Bronze Age, agricultural revolution, the atomic age, and the digital age, shaped human existence and thought. Technology has greatly changed the power of human observation, including inward to the atomic scale and outward into the realm of space.Books and articles describe how to collect and analyze data but few references document the field experience. Each of us, however, has experienced unique circumstances during field work and we learned from various mentors how to observe. The surface of Earth on which we practice the vocation of geomorphology may not be much different from a hundred years ago but many things about how we collect data, analyze it and disseminate the results have changed. How we function in the field, including what we wear, what we eat, how we get there, and where we choose to collect data, clearly reflects the complexity of the human system on Earth and the processes and forms that arouse our interest. Computers, miniaturization of electronics, satellite communications and observation platforms in space provide access to data to aid in our quest to understand Earth surface processes. Once, people lived closer to nature in primitive shelters in contrast with life in urban environments. But as urban life continues to expand and people

  17. Automated Sample Preparation for Radiogenic and Non-Traditional Metal Isotopes: Removing an Analytical Barrier for High Sample Throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M. Paul; Romaniello, Stephen; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Herrmann, Achim; Martinez-Boti, Miguel A.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Foster, Gavin L.

    2014-05-01

    MC-ICP-MS has dramatically improved the analytical throughput for high-precision radiogenic and non-traditional isotope ratio measurements, compared to TIMS. The generation of large data sets, however, remains hampered by tedious manual drip chromatography required for sample purification. A new, automated chromatography system reduces the laboratory bottle neck and expands the utility of high-precision isotope analyses in applications where large data sets are required: geochemistry, forensic anthropology, nuclear forensics, medical research and food authentication. We have developed protocols to automate ion exchange purification for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U) using the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha). The system is not only inert (all-flouropolymer flow paths), but is also very flexible and can easily facilitate different resins, samples, and reagent types. When programmed, precise and accurate user defined volumes and flow rates are implemented to automatically load samples, wash the column, condition the column and elute fractions. Unattended, the automated, low-pressure ion exchange chromatography system can process up to 60 samples overnight. Excellent reproducibility, reliability, recovery, with low blank and carry over for samples in a variety of different matrices, have been demonstrated to give accurate and precise isotopic ratios within analytical error for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U). This illustrates the potential of the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha) as a powerful tool in radiogenic and non-traditional isotope research.

  18. Theoretical basis, application, reliability, and sample size estimates of a Meridian Energy Analysis Device for Traditional Chinese Medicine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yen Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is currently a popular tool in the scientific research of meridian electrophysiology. In this field, it is generally believed that measuring the electrical conductivity of meridians provides information about the balance of bioenergy or Qi-blood in the body. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed database based on some original articles from 1956 to 2014 and the authoŕs clinical experience. In this short communication, we provide clinical examples of Meridian Energy Analysis Device application, especially in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, discuss the reliability of the measurements, and put the values obtained into context by considering items of considerable variability and by estimating sample size. CONCLUSION: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is making a valuable contribution to the diagnosis of Qi-blood dysfunction. It can be assessed from short-term and long-term meridian bioenergy recordings. It is one of the few methods that allow outpatient traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis, monitoring the progress, therapeutic effect and evaluation of patient prognosis. The holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and new trends in modern medicine toward the use of objective instruments require in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of meridian energy, and the Meridian Energy Analysis Device can feasibly be used for understanding and interpreting traditional Chinese medicine theory, especially in view of its expansion in Western countries.

  19. Designing optimal sampling schemes for field visits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a statistical method for deriving optimal spatial sampling schemes. The research focuses on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF...

  20. [Sample size calculation in clinical post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingkun; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, as the Chinese government and people pay more attention on the post-marketing research of Chinese Medicine, part of traditional Chinese medicine breed has or is about to begin after the listing of post-marketing evaluation study. In the post-marketing evaluation design, sample size calculation plays a decisive role. It not only ensures the accuracy and reliability of post-marketing evaluation. but also assures that the intended trials will have a desired power for correctly detecting a clinically meaningful difference of different medicine under study if such a difference truly exists. Up to now, there is no systemic method of sample size calculation in view of the traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, according to the basic method of sample size calculation and the characteristic of the traditional Chinese medicine clinical evaluation, the sample size calculation methods of the Chinese medicine efficacy and safety are discussed respectively. We hope the paper would be beneficial to medical researchers, and pharmaceutical scientists who are engaged in the areas of Chinese medicine research.

  1. Optimal sampling schemes for vegetation and geological field visits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The presentation made to Wits Statistics Department was on common classification methods used in the field of remote sensing, and the use of remote sensing to design optimal sampling schemes for field visits with applications in vegetation...

  2. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  3. Using remotely-sensed data for optimal field sampling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available M B E R 2 0 0 8 15 USING REMOTELY- SENSED DATA FOR OPTIMAL FIELD SAMPLING BY DR PRAVESH DEBBA STATISTICS IS THE SCIENCE pertaining to the collection, summary, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data. It is often impractical... studies are: where to sample, what to sample and how many samples to obtain. Conventional sampling techniques are not always suitable in environmental studies and scientists have explored the use of remotely-sensed data as ancillary information to aid...

  4. Xenosurveillance reflects traditional sampling techniques for the identification of human pathogens: A comparative study in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Fauver

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel surveillance strategies are needed to detect the rapid and continuous emergence of infectious disease agents. Ideally, new sampling strategies should be simple to implement, technologically uncomplicated, and applicable to areas where emergence events are known to occur. To this end, xenosurveillance is a technique that makes use of blood collected by hematophagous arthropods to monitor and identify vertebrate pathogens. Mosquitoes are largely ubiquitous animals that often exist in sizable populations. As well, many domestic or peridomestic species of mosquitoes will preferentially take blood-meals from humans, making them a unique and largely untapped reservoir to collect human blood.We sought to take advantage of this phenomenon by systematically collecting blood-fed mosquitoes during a field trail in Northern Liberia to determine whether pathogen sequences from blood engorged mosquitoes accurately mirror those obtained directly from humans. Specifically, blood was collected from humans via finger-stick and by aspirating bloodfed mosquitoes from the inside of houses. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of RNA and DNA derived from these specimens was performed to detect pathogen sequences. Samples obtained from xenosurveillance and from finger-stick blood collection produced a similar number and quality of reads aligning to two human viruses, GB virus C and hepatitis B virus.This study represents the first systematic comparison between xenosurveillance and more traditional sampling methodologies, while also demonstrating the viability of xenosurveillance as a tool to sample human blood for circulating pathogens.

  5. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  6. Geochemistry Sampling for Traditional and Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry in Southeast Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Cody; Dobson, Patrick; Conrad, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is an area of high regional heat flux due the movement of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone Hotspot beginning ca.16 Ma. Temperature gradients between 45-60 °C/km (up to double the global average) have been calculated from deep wells that penetrate the upper aquifer system (Blackwell 1989). Despite the high geothermal potential, thermal signatures from hot springs and wells are effectively masked by the rapid flow of cold groundwater through the highly permeable basalts of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) (up to 500+ m thick). This preliminary study is part of an effort to more accurately predict temperatures of the ESRP deep thermal reservoir while accounting for the effects of the prolific cold water aquifer system above. This study combines the use of traditional geothermometry, mixing models, and a multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool to investigate the geothermal potential of the ESRP. In March, 2014, a collaborative team including members of the University of Idaho, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected 14 thermal water samples from and adjacent to the Eastern Snake River Plain. The preliminary results of chemical analyses and geothermometry applied to these samples are presented herein.

  7. Geochemistry Sampling for Traditional and Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Studies; Wood, Thomas [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Studies; Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Studies; McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Studies; Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is an area of high regional heat flux due the movement of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone Hotspot beginning ca.16 Ma. Temperature gradients between 45-60 °C/km (up to double the global average) have been calculated from deep wells that penetrate the upper aquifer system (Blackwell 1989). Despite the high geothermal potential, thermal signatures from hot springs and wells are effectively masked by the rapid flow of cold groundwater through the highly permeable basalts of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) (up to 500+ m thick). This preliminary study is part of an effort to more accurately predict temperatures of the ESRP deep thermal reservoir while accounting for the effects of the prolific cold water aquifer system above. This study combines the use of traditional geothermometry, mixing models, and a multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool to investigate the geothermal potential of the ESRP. In March, 2014, a collaborative team including members of the University of Idaho, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected 14 thermal water samples from and adjacent to the Eastern Snake River Plain. The preliminary results of chemical analyses and geothermometry applied to these samples are presented herein.

  8. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgiakos, Leonidas

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years) regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France). Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries). Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old) have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries. PMID:29439536

  9. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vlontzos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France. Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly. Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.

  10. Comparison of leach results from field and laboratory prepared samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The leach behavior of saltstone prepared in the laboratory agrees well with that from samples mixed in the field using the Littleford mixer. Leach rates of nitrates and cesium from the current reference formulation saltstone were compared. The laboratory samples were prepared using simulated salt solution; those in the field used Tank 50 decontaminated supernate. For both nitrate and cesium, the field and laboratory samples showed nearly identical leach rates for the first 30 to 50 days. For the remaining period of the test, the field samples showed higher leach rates with the maximum difference being less than a factor of three. Ruthenium and antimony were present in the Tank 50 supernate in known amounts. Antimony-125 was observed in the leachate and a fractional leach rate was calculated to be at least a factor of ten less than that of 137 Cs. No 106 Ru was observed in the leachate, and the release rate was not calculated. However, based on the detection limits for the analysis, the ruthenium leach rate must also be at least a factor of ten less than cesium. These data are the first measurements of the leach rates of Ru and Sb from saltstone. The nitrate leach rates for these samples were 5 x 10 -5 grams of nitrate per square cm per day after 100 days for the laboratory samples and after 200 days for the field samples. These values are consistent with the previously measured leach rates for reference formulation saltstone. The relative standard deviation in the leach rate is about 15% for the field samples, which all were produced from one batch of saltstone, and about 35% for the laboratory samples, which came from different batches. These are the first recorded estimates of the error in leach rates for saltstone

  11. Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.

  12. Field calibration of blowfly-derived DNA against traditional methods for assessing mammal diversity in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Gan, Han Ming; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Wilson, John-James

    2016-11-01

    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.

  13. Peptoniphilus catoniae sp. nov., isolated from a human faecal sample from a traditional Peruvian coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha B; Tito, Raul Y; Obregón-Tito, Alexandra J; O'Neal, Lindsey; Trujillo-Villaroel, Omar; Marin-Reyes, Luis; Troncoso-Corzo, Luzmila; Guija-Poma, Emilio; Lewis, Cecil M; Lawson, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a faecal sample obtained from an individual in a traditional community located off the southern coast of Peru. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the novel bacterium belonged to the genus Peptoniphilus but showed no particular relationship with any species, demonstrating less than 91 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with all members of the genus. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were determined to be C10 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 2ω6,9c/anteiso-C18 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol%. End-products of metabolism from peptone-yeast-glucose broth (PYG) were determined to be acetate and butyrate. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic results, the organism represents a novel species of the genus Peptoniphilus, for which the name Peptoniphilus catoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M6.X2DT ( = DSM 29874T = CCUG 66798T).

  14. Field Sample Preparation Method Development for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibman, C.; Weisbrod, K.; Yoshida, T.

    2015-01-01

    Non-proliferation and International Security (NA-241) established a working group of researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to evaluate the utilization of in-field mass spectrometry for safeguards applications. The survey of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mass spectrometers (MS) revealed no instrumentation existed capable of meeting all the potential safeguards requirements for performance, portability, and ease of use. Additionally, fieldable instruments are unlikely to meet the International Target Values (ITVs) for accuracy and precision for isotope ratio measurements achieved with laboratory methods. The major gaps identified for in-field actinide isotope ratio analysis were in the areas of: 1. sample preparation and/or sample introduction, 2. size reduction of mass analyzers and ionization sources, 3. system automation, and 4. decreased system cost. Development work in 2 through 4, numerated above continues, in the private and public sector. LANL is focusing on developing sample preparation/sample introduction methods for use with the different sample types anticipated for safeguard applications. Addressing sample handling and sample preparation methods for MS analysis will enable use of new MS instrumentation as it becomes commercially available. As one example, we have developed a rapid, sample preparation method for dissolution of uranium and plutonium oxides using ammonium bifluoride (ABF). ABF is a significantly safer and faster alternative to digestion with boiling combinations of highly concentrated mineral acids. Actinides digested with ABF yield fluorides, which can then be analyzed directly or chemically converted and separated using established column chromatography techniques as needed prior to isotope analysis. The reagent volumes and the sample processing steps associated with ABF sample digestion lend themselves to automation and field

  15. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  16. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  17. Using remote sensing images to design optimal field sampling schemes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available sampling schemes case studies Optimized field sampling representing the overall distribution of a particular mineral Deriving optimal exploration target zones CONTINUUM REMOVAL for vegetation [13, 27, 46]. The convex hull transform is a method... of normalizing spectra [16, 41]. The convex hull technique is anal- ogous to fitting a rubber band over a spectrum to form a continuum. Figure 5 shows the concept of the convex hull transform. The differ- ence between the hull and the orig- inal spectrum...

  18. Field test comparison of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size using a digital 'beachball' camera versus traditional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Rubin, D.M.; Harney, J.; Mustain, N.

    2007-01-01

    This extensive field test of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size from digital images was conducted using a digital bed-sediment camera, or 'beachball' camera. Using 205 sediment samples and >1200 images from a variety of beaches on the west coast of the US, grain size ranging from sand to granules was measured from field samples using both the autocorrelation technique developed by Rubin [Rubin, D.M., 2004. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(1): 160-165.] and traditional methods (i.e. settling tube analysis, sieving, and point counts). To test the accuracy of the digital-image grain size algorithm, we compared results with manual point counts of an extensive image data set in the Santa Barbara littoral cell. Grain sizes calculated using the autocorrelation algorithm were highly correlated with the point counts of the same images (r2 = 0.93; n = 79) and had an error of only 1%. Comparisons of calculated grain sizes and grain sizes measured from grab samples demonstrated that the autocorrelation technique works well on high-energy dissipative beaches with well-sorted sediment such as in the Pacific Northwest (r2 ??? 0.92; n = 115). On less dissipative, more poorly sorted beaches such as Ocean Beach in San Francisco, results were not as good (r2 ??? 0.70; n = 67; within 3% accuracy). Because the algorithm works well compared with point counts of the same image, the poorer correlation with grab samples must be a result of actual spatial and vertical variability of sediment in the field; closer agreement between grain size in the images and grain size of grab samples can be achieved by increasing the sampling volume of the images (taking more images, distributed over a volume comparable to that of a grab sample). In all field tests the autocorrelation method was able to predict the mean and median grain size with ???96% accuracy, which is more than

  19. Sampling soils for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1981-10-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137 Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500-, and 12 500-cm 3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137 Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137 Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, where CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137 Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2 to 4 aliquots out of an many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137 Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137 Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor

  20. Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckette, J.O.; Suneson, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped

  1. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  2. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  3. Sampling atmospheric pesticides with SPME: Laboratory developments and field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junxia; Tuduri, Ludovic; Mercury, Maud; Millet, Maurice; Briand, Olivier; Montury, Michel

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the atmospheric exposure of the greenhouse workers to pesticides, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used under non-equilibrium conditions. Using Fick's law of diffusion, the concentrations of pesticides in the greenhouse can be calculated using pre-determined sampling rates (SRs). Thus the sampling rates (SRs) of two modes of SPME in the lab and in the field were determined and compared. The SRs for six pesticides in the lab were 20.4-48.3 mL min -1 for the exposed fiber and 0.166-0.929 mL min -1 for the retracted fiber. In field sampling, two pesticides, dichlorvos and cyprodinil were detected with exposed SPME. SR with exposed SPME for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). SR for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). The trends of temporal concentration and the inhalation exposure were also obtained. - SPME was proved to be a powerful and simple tool for determining pesticides' atmospheric concentration

  4. INTERACTION OF IMPULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS WITH SURFACES OF METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavliouchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of maximum tangential component of magnetic intensity Hτm have been carried out in the paper. The measurements have been taken on the surface of metal samples according to time of single current pulse rise in the form of semi-sinusoid of a linear current wire. Measurements have been made with the purpose to determine a value of the component according to thickness of samples made of aluminium.Temporary resolution ranges of electric and magnetic properties and defects of sample continuity along the depth have been found.Empirical formulae of dependence Hτm on sample thickness have been derived and their relation with efficient depth penetration of magnetic field into metal has been found.

  5. An evaluation of soil sampling for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Schofield, T G; Trujillo, G

    1983-05-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from an intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500- and 12,500-cm3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, whereas CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2-4 aliquots out of as many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor.

  6. Serum Dried Samples to Detect Dengue Antibodies: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Maldonado-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs. Methods. Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. Results. DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x. The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. Conclusion. DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field.

  7. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, Bram; Mukherjee, Amajit; Navin, Deepa; Krishnan, Nattu; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Sharma, Vivek; Marjara, Pritpal

    2010-02-01

    This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used for the assessment of the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of condoms in target areas in four states and along selected national highways in India, as part of Avahan, the India AIDS initiative. A significant general increase in condom availability was observed in the intervention area between 2005 and 2008. High coverage rates were gradually achieved through an extensive network of pharmacies and particularly of non-traditional outlets, whereas traditional outlets were instrumental in providing large volumes of condoms. LQAS is seen as a valuable tool for the routine monitoring of the geographical coverage and of the quality of delivery systems of condoms and of health products and services in general. With a relatively small sample size, easy data collection procedures and simple analytical methods, it was possible to inform decision-makers regularly on progress towards coverage targets.

  8. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  9. Spread of Traditional Medicines in India: Results of National Sample Survey Organization's Perception Survey on Use of AYUSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Sugumar, V Raji

    2015-10-04

    For the first time, we have a comprehensive database on usage of AYUSH (acronym for Ayurveda, naturopathy and Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in India at the household level. This article aims at exploring the spread of the traditional medical systems in India and the perceptions of people on the access and effectiveness of these medical systems using this database. The article uses the unit level data purchased from the National Sample Survey Organization, New Delhi. Household is the basic unit of survey and the data are the collective opinion of the household. This survey shows that less than 30% of Indian households use the traditional medical systems. There is also a regional pattern in the usage of particular type of traditional medicine, reflecting the regional aspects of the development of such medical systems. The strong faith in AYUSH is the main reason for its usage; lack of need for AYUSH and lack of awareness about AYUSH are the main reasons for not using it. With regard to source of medicines in the traditional medical systems, home is the main source in the Indian medical system and private sector is the main source in Homeopathy. This shows that there is need for creating awareness and improving access to traditional medical systems in India. By and large, the users of AYUSH are also convinced about the effectiveness of these traditional medicines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Neil C.

    2008-10-01

    A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

  11. Sampling general N-body interactions with auxiliary fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, C.; Berkowitz, E.; Luu, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present a general auxiliary field transformation which generates effective interactions containing all possible N-body contact terms. The strength of the induced terms can analytically be described in terms of general coefficients associated with the transformation and thus are controllable. This transformation provides a novel way for sampling 3- and 4-body (and higher) contact interactions non-perturbatively in lattice quantum Monte Carlo simulations. As a proof of principle, we show that our method reproduces the exact solution for a two-site quantum mechanical problem.

  12. A longitudinal field multiple sampling ionization chamber for RIBLL2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuwen; Ma Peng; Lu Chengui; Duan Limin; Sun Zhiyu; Yang Herun; Zhang Jinxia; Hu Zhengguo; Xu Shanhu

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal field MUltiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC), which makes multiple measurements of energy loss for very high energy heavy ions at RIBLL2, has been constructed and tested with 3 constituent α source ( 239 Pu : 3.435 MeV, 241 Am : 3.913 MeV, 244 Cm : 4.356 MeV). The voltage plateau curve has been plotted and-500 V is determined as a proper work voltage. The energy resolution is 271.4 keV FWHM for the sampling unit when 3.435 MeV energy deposited. A Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation is made and it indicates the detector can provide unique particle identification for ions Z≥4. (authors)

  13. Modification and Application of a Leaf Blower-vac for Field Sampling of Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; van Telgen, Mario D; Chen, Junhui; Xiao, Haijun; de Kraker, Joop; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke

    2016-08-10

    Rice fields host a large diversity of arthropods, but investigating their population dynamics and interactions is challenging. Here we describe the modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for suction sampling of arthropod populations in rice. When used in combination with an enclosure, application of this sampling device provides absolute estimates of the populations of arthropods as numbers per standardized sampling area. The sampling efficiency depends critically on the sampling duration. In a mature rice crop, a two-minute sampling in an enclosure of 0.13 m(2) yields more than 90% of the arthropod population. The device also allows sampling of arthropods dwelling on the water surface or the soil in rice paddies, but it is not suitable for sampling fast flying insects, such as predatory Odonata or larger hymenopterous parasitoids. The modified blower-vac is simple to construct, and cheaper and easier to handle than traditional suction sampling devices, such as D-vac. The low cost makes the modified blower-vac also accessible to researchers in developing countries.

  14. Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2008-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Among Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated From Traditional and Industrial Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Arslani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foodborne diseases are one of the serious problems in the world. Every year, more than 100 million people are affected by foodborne and waterborne diseases particularly immunocompromised diseases. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern in bacterial isolates from food samples of meat, dairy, and pastry products from west of Tehran, Iran, during April 2007 to March 2008. Materials and Methods: A total of 1625 different food samples including dairy products, meat and pastries were collected randomly from different parts of the west of Tehran. All samples were kept at 4°C. The samples were first cultured according to the standard bacteriological methods and then Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolates were identified using standard bacteriological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method according to Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: During 2007 and 2008, 2.8% and 3% of the food samples were contaminated with S. aureus. Similarly, 3.5% and 6.4% of the food samples were contaminated with E. coli. E. coli isolates were highly resistant to amikacin and cephotaxime and this resistance was increased in 2008. Similarly S. aureus isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, cephotaxime, gentamicin, and tetracyclin. There was no significant difference during 2007-2008. Conclusion: The rate of contamination during 2007 was 2.8% and during 2008 was 3% for S. aureus. This strain was isolated from the food samples. Further studies should be done to determine the changes of bacterial resistance pattern for various food samples. Thus, the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies should be established, enabling the determination of trends over time.

  16. UMTRA ground water sampling techniques: Comparison of the traditional and low flow methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the potential changes in water quality data that may occur with the conversion from MBV (multiple bore volume) to LF (low flow) sampling and provides two examples of how such a change might impact Project decisions. The existing scientific literature on LF sampling is reviewed and the new LF data from three UMTRA Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites are evaluated seeking answers to the questions posed above. Several possible approaches, that the UMTRA Project may take to address issues unanswered by the literature are presented and compared, and a recommendation is offered for the future direction of the LF conversion effort

  17. Field data analysis of active chlorine-containing stormwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianyi; Gaafar, Mohamed; Yang, Rong-Cai; Ding, Chen; Davies, Evan G R; Bolton, James R; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-15

    Many municipalities in Canada and all over the world use chloramination for drinking water secondary disinfection to avoid DBPs formation from conventional chlorination. However, the long-lasting monochloramine (NH 2 Cl) disinfectant can pose a significant risk to aquatic life through its introduction into municipal storm sewer systems and thus fresh water sources by residential, commercial, and industrial water uses. To establish general total active chlorine (TAC) concentrations in discharges from storm sewers, the TAC concentration was measured in stormwater samples in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, during the summers of 2015 and 2016 under both dry and wet weather conditions. The field-sampling results showed TAC concentration variations from 0.02 to 0.77 mg/L in summer 2015, which exceeds the discharge effluent limit of 0.02 mg/L. As compared to 2015, the TAC concentrations were significantly lower during the summer 2016 (0-0.24 mg/L), for which it is believed that the higher precipitation during summer 2016 reduced outdoor tap water uses. Since many other cities also use chloramines as disinfectants for drinking water disinfection, the TAC analysis from Edmonton may prove useful for other regions as well. Other physicochemical and biological characteristics of stormwater and storm sewer biofilm samples were also analyzed, and no significant difference was found during these two years. Higher density of AOB and NOB detected in the storm sewer biofilm of residential areas - as compared with other areas - generally correlated to high concentrations of ammonium and nitrite in this region in both of the two years, and they may have contributed to the TAC decay in the storm sewers. The NH 2 Cl decay laboratory experiments illustrate that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration is the dominant factor in determining the NH 2 Cl decay rate in stormwater samples. The high DOC concentrations detected from a downstream industrial sampling location may contribute to a

  18. Mapping the Iranian Research Literature in the Field of Traditional Medicine in Scopus Database 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GhaedAmini, Hossein; Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Saghafi, Zahra; Bazrafshan, Azam; GhaedAmini, Alireza; GhaedAmini, Mohammadreza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to provide research and collaboration overview of Iranian research efforts in the field of traditional medicine during 2010-2014. This is a bibliometric study using the Scopus database as data source, using search affiliation address relevant to traditional medicine and Iran as the search strategy. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the Iranian authors. Highly cited articles (citations >10) were further explored to highlight the impact of research domains more specifically. About 3,683 articles were published by Iranian authors in Scopus database. The compound annual growth rate of Iranian publications was 0.14% during 2010-2014. Tehran University of Medical Sciences (932 articles), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (404 articles) and Tabriz Islamic Medical University (391 articles), were the leading institutions in the field of traditional medicine. Medicinal plants (72%), digestive system's disease (21%), basics of traditional medicine (13%), mental disorders (8%) were the major research topics. United States (7%), Netherlands (3%), and Canada (2.6%) were the most important collaborators of Iranian authors. Iranian research efforts in the field of traditional medicine have been increased slightly over the last years. Yet, joint multi-disciplinary collaborations are needed to cover inadequately described areas of traditional medicine in the country.

  19. Comparison of dechlorination rates for field DNAPL vs synthetic samples: effect of sample matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Sakulchaicharoen, N.; Herrera, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nanometals have received significant attention in recent years due to their ability to rapidly destroy numerous priority source zone contaminants in controlled laboratory studies. This has led to great optimism surrounding nanometal particle injection for insitu remediation. Reported dechlorination rates vary widely among different investigators. These differences have been ascribed to differences in the iron types (granular, micro, or nano-sized iron), matrix solution chemistry and the morphology of the nZVI surface. Among these, the effects of solution chemistry on rates of reductive dechlorination of various chlorinated compounds have been investigated in several short-term laboratory studies. Variables investigated include the effect of anions or groundwater solutes such as SO4-2, Cl-, NO3-, pH, natural organic matters (NOM), surfactant, and humic acid on dechlorination reaction of various chlorinated compounds such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform (CF). These studies have normally centered on the assessment of nZVI reactivity toward dechlorination of an isolated individual contaminant spiked into a ground water sample under ideal conditions, with limited work conducted using real field samples. In this work, the DNAPL used for the dechlorination study was obtained from a contaminatied site. This approach was selected to adequately simulate a condition where the nZVI suspension was in direct contact with DNAPL and to isolate the dechlorination activity shown by the nZVI from the groundwater matrix effects. An ideal system "synthetic DNAPL" composed of a mixture of chlorinated compounds mimicking the composition of the actual DNAPL was also dechlorinated to evaluate the DNAPL "matrix effect" on NZVI dechlorination activity. This approach allowed us to evaluate the effect of the presence of different types of organic compounds (volatile fatty acids and humic acids) found in the actual DNAPL on nZVI dechlorination activity. This presentation will

  20. Assessment of reflectivity of noise barriers in the far field – QUIESST method compared to traditional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, F. de

    2013-01-01

    The sound reflectivity of noise barriers elements is one of the major acoustic product characteristics. Traditionally this property was tested in reverberation rooms according to EN 1793-1 and the results were used to predict the effect of sound reflections in the far field. As in many cases these

  1. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  2. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Legionella real-time PCR against traditional culture for routine and public health testing of water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S; Stevenson, D; Walker, J; Bennett, A

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Legionella qPCR alongside traditional culture for enumeration of Legionella from water samples as part of both routine and public health investigation testing. Routine water samples (n = 2002) and samples from public health investigations (n = 215) were analysed by culture and qPCR for Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila and L. pneumophila sg-1. A negative qPCR result was highly predictive of a negative culture result for all water systems (negative predictive values, NPV from 97·4 to 100%). Positive predictive values (PPV) were lower (0-50%). Results for qPCR were generally larger than culture with average log 10 differences of 1·1 for Legionella spp. and 1·2 for L. pneumophila. Alert and action levels of 1000 and 10 000 GU per litre, respectively, are proposed for Legionella qPCR for hot and cold water systems (HCWS). The use of qPCR significantly reduced the time to results for public health investigations by rapidly identifying potential sources and ruling out others, thus enabling a more rapid and efficient response. The high NPV of qPCR supports its use to rapidly screen out negative samples without culture. Alert and action levels for Legionella qPCR for HCWS are proposed. Quantitative PCR will be a valuable tool for both routine and public health testing. This study generated comparative data of >2000 water samples by qPCR and culture. Action and alert levels have been recommended that could enable duty holders to interpret qPCR results to facilitate timely Legionella control and public health protection. © 2017 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Bean T; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Andrew Chi-Yeu; Hung, Po-Chen; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC) filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters) and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min). Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  5. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsun Wang

    Full Text Available Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min. Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  6. Aerosol emissions factors from traditional biomass cookstoves in India: insights from field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Residential solid biomass cookstoves are important sources of aerosol emissions in India. Cookstove emissions rates are largely based on laboratory experiments conducted using the standard water-boiling test, but real-world emissions are often higher owing to different stove designs, fuels, and cooking methods. Constraining mass emissions factors (EFs for prevalent cookstoves is important because they serve as inputs to bottom-up emissions inventories used to evaluate health and climate impacts. Real-world EFs were measured during winter 2015 for a traditional cookstove (chulha burning fuel wood, agricultural residue, and dung from different regions of India. Average (±95 % confidence interval EFs for fuel wood, agricultural residue, and dung were (1 PM2.5 mass: 10.5 (7.7–13.4 g kg−1, 11.1 (7.7–15.5 g kg−1, and 22.6 (14.9–32.9 g kg−1, respectively; (2 elemental carbon (EC: 0.9 (0.6–1.4 g kg−1, 1.6 (0.6–3.0 g kg−1, and 1.0 (0.4–2.0 g kg−1, respectively; and (3 organic carbon (OC: 4.9 (3.2–7.1 g kg−1, 7.0 (3.5–12.5 g kg−1, and 12.9 (4.2–15.01 g kg−1, respectively. The mean (±95 % confidence interval OC ∕ EC mass ratios were 6.5 (4.5–9.1, 7.6 (4.4–12.2, and 12.7 (6.5–23.3, respectively, with OC and EC quantified by the IMPROVE_A thermal-optical reflectance protocol. These real-world EFs are higher than those from previous laboratory-based measurements. Combustion conditions have larger effects on EFs than the fuel types. We also report the carbon mass fractions of our aerosol samples determined using the thermal-optical reflectance method. The mass fraction profiles are consistent between the three fuel categories but markedly different from those reported in past literature – including the source profiles for wood stove PM2.5 emissions developed as inputs to receptor modeling studies conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board of India. Thermally

  7. Theoretically informed Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals by sampling of alignment-tensor fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Guzmán, Orlando [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340, México (Mexico); Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P. [Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Pablo, Juan J. de, E-mail: depablo@uchicago.edu [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.

  8. Theoretically informed Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals by sampling of alignment-tensor fields.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Perez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Guzman, Orlando; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-07-27

    A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.

  9. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Introduction of Women into Work Groups in Traditionally Male Career Fields: Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    based on Bass’ theory of interpersonal behavior in organizations, consists of 27 forced-choice interest and opinion items. There are three scales in...Constantinople reviews the theory and measurement of mas- culinity-femininity as a unidimensional bipolar concept. She concludes that evidence...tends toward traditional stereotypes (male-task oriented, female- socioemotional ), but in mixed-sex groups they are less likely to indulge in stereo

  11. Interactive Editing of GigaSample Terrain Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Treib, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Previous terrain rendering approaches have addressed the aspect of data compression and fast decoding for rendering, but applications where the terrain is repeatedly modified and needs to be buffered on disk have not been considered so far. Such applications require both decoding and encoding to be faster than disk transfer. We present a novel approach for editing gigasample terrain fields at interactive rates and high quality. To achieve high decoding and encoding throughput, we employ a compression scheme for height and pixel maps based on a sparse wavelet representation. On recent GPUs it can encode and decode up to 270 and 730 MPix/s of color data, respectively, at compression rates and quality superior to JPEG, and it achieves more than twice these rates for lossless height field compression. The construction and rendering of a height field triangulation is avoided by using GPU ray-casting directly on the regular grid underlying the compression scheme. We show the efficiency of our method for interactive editing and continuous level-of-detail rendering of terrain fields comprised of several hundreds of gigasamples. © 2012 The Author(s).

  12. NEON terrestrial field observations: designing continental scale, standardized sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. Kao; C.M. Gibson; R. E. Gallery; C. L. Meier; D. T. Barnett; K. M. Docherty; K. K. Blevins; P. D. Travers; E. Azuaje; Y. P. Springer; K. M. Thibault; V. J. McKenzie; M. Keller; L. F. Alves; E. L. S. Hinckley; J. Parnell; D. Schimel

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in climate and land use and the resulting shifts in species distributions and ecosystem functions have motivated the development of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Integrating across spatial scales from ground sampling to remote sensing, NEON will provide data for users to address ecological responses to changes in climate, land use,...

  13. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  14. Procedures for field chemical analyses of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Ealey, D.

    1983-12-01

    A successful water-quality monitoring program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement procedures in order to obtain reliable field data. It is imperative that the responsible personnel have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Unfortunately, there is a belief that field analyses are simple and straightforward. Yet, significant controversy as well as misuse of common measurement techniques abounds. This document describes procedures for field measurements of pH, carbonate and bicarbonate, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, Eh, and uranium. Each procedure section includes an extensive discussion regarding the limitations of the method as well as brief discussions of calibration procedures and available equipment. A key feature of these procedures is the consideration given to the ultimate use of the data. For example, if the data are to be used for geochemical modeling, more precautions are needed. In contrast, routine monitoring conducted merely to recognize gross changes can be accomplished with less effort. Finally, quality assurance documentation for each measurement is addressed in detail. Particular attention is given to recording sufficient information such that decisions concerning the quality of the data can be easily made. Application of the procedures and recommendations presented in this document should result in a uniform and credible water-quality monitoring program. 22 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  15. Traditional Arabic Palestinian ethnoveterinary practices in animal health care: A field survey in the West Bank (Palestine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Jamous, Rania M

    2016-04-22

    In Palestine, medicinal plants have continued to play a vital role in fulfilling animal healthcare needs of rural communities. However, these valuable resources are being depleted mainly due to over-harvesting, inappropriate agricultural practices (e.g., over use of herbicides), agricultural expansion, and over-grazing. Therefore, immediate action is required to conserve these resources and document the associated knowledge. The purpose of this study was, thus, to document and analyze information associated with medicinal plants that are used in managing animal health problems in the West Bank, Palestine. Ethnobotanical data were collected from Apr 2012 to Feb 2014 mainly using semi-structured interviews with informants sampled using purposive sampling technique and through field observations. The study revealed the use of 138 medicinal plant species in the West Bank for the treatment of several livestock diseases, of these 75 species representing 70 genera and 33 families were reported by 3 independent informants or above. Classification of the ethnoveterinary plant species cited by three informants or above used in a rank-order priority (ROP) based on their claimed relative healing potential has demonstrated that the following are the plants with the highest efficacy: Camellia sinenses, Teucrium capitatum, and Salvia fruticosa with ROPs of 97.1, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively, are used primarily to relieve gastric disorders. Gastrointestinal disorders is the disease group in the study area that scored the highest Informant consensus factor (ICF) value (0.90), followed by urinary, and reproductive disorders (0.89). Our study provided evidence that medicinal plants are still playing important role in the management of livestock diseases, and showed that ethnoveterinary plants used in animal health care in Palestine have been also recorded in human Traditional Arabic Palestinian Herbal Medicine (TAPHM), and demonstrated a strong link between human and veterinary

  16. Spin imaging in solids using synchronously rotating field gradients and samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, R.A.; Yannoni, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    A method for spin-imaging in solids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is described. With this method, the spin density distribution of a two- or three-dimensional object such as a solid can be constructed resulting in an image of the sample. This method lends itself to computer control to map out an image of the object. This spin-imaging method involves the steps of placing a solid sample in the rf coil field and the external magnetic field of an NMR spectrometer. A magnetic field gradient is superimposed across the sample to provide a field gradient which results in a varying DC field that has different values over different parts of the sample. As a result, nuclei in different parts of the sample have different resonant NMR frequencies. The sample is rotated about an axis which makes a particular angle of 54.7 degrees with the static external magnetic field. The magnetic field gradient which has a spatial distribution related to the sample spinning axis is then rotated synchronously with the sample. Data is then collected while performing a solid state NMR line narrowing procedure. The next step is to change the phase relation between the sample rotation and the field gradient rotation. The data is again collected as before while the sample and field gradient are synchronously rotated. The phase relation is changed a number of times and data collected each time. The spin image of the solid sample is then reconstructed from the collected data

  17. Positive and negative psychological correlates, gender specific and traditional factors for first onset angina in a sample of pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, R.; Anjum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Methods: Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85 % of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49 % of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional

  18. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES, GENDER SPECIFIC AND TRADITIONAL FACTORS FOR FIRST ONSET ANGINA IN A SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rafia; Anjum, Afifa

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85% of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49% of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional studies, to be tailored

  19. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO and dynamic (DYN exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001. HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures. Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn was lower during ISO (p < 0.001. Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well.

  20. Remotely detected high-field MRI of porous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Juliette A.; Han, Song-I.; Pines, Alexander

    2004-04-01

    Remote detection of NMR is a novel technique in which an NMR-active sensor surveys an environment of interest and retains memory of that environment to be recovered at a later time in a different location. The NMR or MRI information about the sensor nucleus is encoded and stored as spin polarization at the first location and subsequently moved to a different physical location for optimized detection. A dedicated probe incorporating two separate radio frequency (RF)—circuits was built for this purpose. The encoding solenoid coil was large enough to fit around the bulky sample matrix, while the smaller detection solenoid coil had not only a higher quality factor, but also an enhanced filling factor since the coil volume comprised purely the sensor nuclei. We obtained two-dimensional (2D) void space images of two model porous samples with resolution less than 1.4 mm 2. The remotely reconstructed images demonstrate the ability to determine fine structure with image quality superior to their directly detected counterparts and show the great potential of NMR remote detection for imaging applications that suffer from low sensitivity due to low concentrations and filling factor.

  1. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India

    OpenAIRE

    Piot, Bram; Mukherjee, Amajit; Navin, Deepa; Krishnan, Nattu; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Sharma, Vivek; Marjara, Pritpal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites. Methods The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used for the assessment of the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of condoms in target areas in four states and along selected national highways in...

  2. Traditional vs. Modern Approaches in Business English Teaching in the Economic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine different techniques and approaches used in teaching and learning business English in the economic field. Besides applying the already well-known methods used in second language acquisition, we also tried to incorporate computer-mediated communication into the communicative approach. At all times, the choice of the methods and approaches used in teaching business English has focused on our students' needs in their vocation or job. We worked with two groups of studen...

  3. Field sampling, preparation procedure and plutonium analyses of large freshwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straelberg, E.; Bjerk, T.O.; Oestmo, K.; Brittain, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    This work is part of an investigation of the mobility of plutonium in freshwater systems containing humic substances. A well-defined bog-stream system located in the catchment area of a subalpine lake, Oevre Heimdalsvatn, Norway, is being studied. During the summer of 1999, six water samples were collected from the tributary stream Lektorbekken and the lake itself. However, the analyses showed that the plutonium concentration was below the detection limit in all the samples. Therefore renewed sampling at the same sites was carried out in August 2000. The results so far are in agreement with previous analyses from the Heimdalen area. However, 100 times higher concentrations are found in the lowlands in the eastern part of Norway. The reason for this is not understood, but may be caused by differences in the concentrations of humic substances and/or the fact that the mountain areas are covered with snow for a longer period of time every year. (LN)

  4. The Analysis of Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Relation to Cerebral Infarction in a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaqi; Xu, Fei; Mohammadtursun, Nabijan; Lv, Yubao; Tang, Zihui; Dong, Jingcheng

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relationships between the constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and patients with cerebral infarction (CI) in a Chinese sample. A total of 3748 participants with complete data were available for data analysis. All study subjects underwent complete clinical baseline characteristics' evaluation, including a physical examination and response to a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administrated questionnaire. A population of 2010 neutral participants were used as the control group. Multiple variable regression (MLR) were employed to estimate the relationship between constitutions of TCM and the outcome. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association of body constitution of TCM and CI. Communications and healthcare centers in Shanghai. A total of 3748 participants with complete data were available for data analysis. All study subjects underwent complete clinical baseline characteristics' evaluation, including a physical examination and response to a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administrated questionnaire. A population of 2010 neutral participants were used as the control group. MLR were employed to estimate the relationship between constitutions of TCM and the outcome. The prevalence of CI was 2.84% and 4.66% in neutral participants and yang-deficient participants (p = 0.012), respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between yang deficiency and CI. After adjustment for relevant potential confounding factors, the MLR detected significant associations between yang deficiency and CI (odds ratio = 1.44, p = 0.093). A yang-deficient constitution was significantly and independently associated with CI. A higher prevalence of CI was found in yang-deficient participants as compared with neutral participants.

  5. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management

  6. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  7. The comparison of composite aircraft field repair method (cafrm) with traditional aircraft repair technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Mary Elizabeth

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle includes biotic and abiotic processes important to global climate, atmospheric chemistry, food security, and the study of related cycles. The largest flux of sulfur on Earth is weathering from the continents into the sulfate-rich oceans; one way in which sulfur can be returned to land is through transport of reduced sulfur gases via the atmosphere. Here I developed a method for quantifying low-level environmental fluxes of several sulfur-containing gases, H2S, COS, CH3SCH 3 (DMS), and HSCH3, between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. COS is the most prevalent reduced sulfur gas in the atmosphere, considered to be inert in the troposphere except for its uptake in plant leaves and to a smaller extent aerobic soils. This dissertation reports two surprising cases that go against conventional thinking about the sulfur cycle. We found that the common salt marsh plant Batis maritima can mediate net COS production to the atmosphere. We also found that an aerobic wheat field soil produces COS abiotically when incubated in the dark at > 25 °C and at lower temperatures under light conditions. We then sought to separately quantify plant and soil sulfur gas fluxes by undertaking a year-long field campaign in a grassland with a Mediterranean climate, where green plants were present only half of the year. We measured in situ soil fluxes of COS and DMS during the non- growing dry season, using water additions to simulate soil fluxes of the growing, wet season. COS and CO2 are consumed in a predictable ratio by enzymes involved in photosynthetic pathways; however, while CO2 is released by back diffusion and autorespiration, COS is usually not generated by plants. Using measurements during the growing season, we were then able to calculate gross primary production by using the special relationship between CO2 and COS. This dissertation has developed a greater understanding of the vagaries of the atmospheric-terrestrial sulfur cycle and

  8. Trapped field measurements on MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblischka, Michael; Karwoth, Thomas; Zeng, XianLin; Hartmann, Uwe [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, P. O. Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Berger, Kevin; Douine, Bruno [University of Lorraine, GREEN, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2016-07-01

    Trapped field measurements were performed on bulk, polycrystalline MgB{sub 2} samples stemming from different sources with the emphasis to develop applications like superconducting permanent magnets ('supermagnets') and electric motors. We describe the setup for the trapped field measurements and the experimental procedure (field cooling, zero-field cooling, field sweep rates). The trapped field measurements were conducted using a cryocooling system to cool the bulk samples to the desired temperatures, and a low-loss cryostat equipped with a room-temperature bore and a maximum field of ±5 T was employed to provide the external magnetic field. The superconducting coil of this cryostat is operated using a bidirectional power supply. Various sweep rates of the external magnetic field ranging between 1 mT/s and 40 mT/s were used to generate the applied field. The measurements were performed with one sample and two samples stacked together. A maximum trapped field of 7 T was recorded. We discuss the results obtained and the problems arising due to flux jumping, which is often seen for the MgB{sub 2} samples cooled to temperatures below 10 K.

  9. Experimental study on the luminous radiation associated to the field emission of samples submitted to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.; Junquera, T.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Luong, M.; Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays the accelerating gradient of the RF cavities is limited by the strong field emission (FE) of electrons stemming from the metallic walls. Previous experiments evidenced luminous radiations associated with electron emission on cathodes subjected to intense DC electric field. These observations led these authors to propose new theoretical models of the field emission phenomenon. The presented experimental study extends these previous DC works to the RF case. A special copper RF cavity has been developed equipped with an optical window and a removable sample. It has been designed for measuring both electron current and luminous radiation emitted by the sample, subjected to maximum RF electric field. The optical apparatus attached to the cavity permits to characterize the radiation in terms of intensity, glowing duration and spectral distribution. The results concerning different niobium or copper samples, whom top was either scratched or intentionally contaminated with metallic or dielectric particles are summarized. (author)

  10. Experimental study on the luminous radiation associated to the field emission of samples submitted to high RF fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.; Junquera, T.; Fouaidy, M.; Le Goff, A.; Luong, M.; Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerating gradient of the RF cavities is limited by the strong field emission (FE) of electrons stemming from the metallic walls. Previous experiments evidenced luminous radiations associated with electron emission of cathodes subjected to intense DC electric field. These observations invoked the proposal of new theoretical models of the field emission phenomenon. This experimental study extends the previous DC works to the RF case. A special copper RF cavity has been developed equipped with an optical window and a removable sample. It has been designed for measuring both electron current and luminous radiation emitted by the sample, subjected to maximum RF electric field. The optical apparatus attached to the cavity permits to characterize the radiation in terms of intensity, glowing duration and spectral distribution. The results concerning different niobium or copper samples, whom top was either scratched or intentionally contaminated with metallic or dielectric particles are summarized. (author)

  11. Field-based detection of biological samples for forensic analysis: Established techniques, novel tools, and future innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack; Watts, Giles; Hobbs, Glyn; Dawnay, Nick

    2018-04-01

    Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user. In doing so it is now possible for enforcement officers to generate a crime scene DNA profile which can then be matched to a reference or database profile. The introduction of these novel genetic platforms also allows for further development of new molecular assays aimed at answering the more traditional questions relating to body fluid identity and species detection. The current drive for field-based molecular tools is in response to the needs of the criminal justice system and enforcement agencies, and promises a step-change in how forensic evidence is processed. However, the adoption of such systems by the law enforcement community does not represent a new strategy in the way forensic science has integrated previous novel approaches. Nor do they automatically represent a threat to the quality control and assurance practices that are central to the field. This review examines the historical need and subsequent research and developmental breakthroughs in field-based forensic analysis over the past two decades with particular focus on genetic methods Emerging technologies from a range of scientific fields that have potential applications in forensic analysis at the crime scene are identified and associated issues that arise from the shift from laboratory into operational field use are discussed

  12. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  13. Communication: Multiple atomistic force fields in a single enhanced sampling simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Viet, Man [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Derreumaux, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.derreumaux@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS, Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Bvd Saint-Germain, 75005 Paris (France); Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS, Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-07-14

    The main concerns of biomolecular dynamics simulations are the convergence of the conformational sampling and the dependence of the results on the force fields. While the first issue can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling techniques such as simulated tempering or replica exchange molecular dynamics, repeating these simulations with different force fields is very time consuming. Here, we propose an automatic method that includes different force fields into a single advanced sampling simulation. Conformational sampling using three all-atom force fields is enhanced by simulated tempering and by formulating the weight parameters of the simulated tempering method in terms of the energy fluctuations, the system is able to perform random walk in both temperature and force field spaces. The method is first demonstrated on a 1D system and then validated by the folding of the 10-residue chignolin peptide in explicit water.

  14. Magnetorheological measurements with consideration for the internal magnetic field in samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordonski, W; Gorodkin, S [QED Technologies International, 1040 University Ave., Rochester, NY 14607 (United States)], E-mail: kordonski@qedmrf.com

    2009-02-01

    The magnetically induced yield stress in a sample of suspension of magnetic particles is associated with formation of a field-oriented structure, the strength of which depends on the degree of particles magnetization. This factor is largely defined by the actual magnetic field strength in the sample. At the same time it is common practice to present and analyze magnetorheological characteristics as a function of the applied magnetic field. Uncertainty of an influence function in magnetorheology hampers interpretation of data obtained with different measurement configurations. It was shown in this paper that rheological response of magnetorheological fluid to the applied magnetic field is defined by the sample's actual (internal) magnetic field intensity, which, in turn, depends on sample geometry and field orientation all other factors being equal. Utilization of the sample's actual field as an influence function in magnetorheology allows proper interpretation of data obtained with different measuring system configurations. Optimization of the actual internal field is a promising approach in designing of energy efficient magnetorheological devices.

  15. Feasible sampling plan for Bemisia tabaci control decision-making in watermelon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos Ho; Sarmento, Renato A; Pereira, Poliana S; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Santos, Fábio A; Silva, Joedna; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-11-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important pests of watermelon fields worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the starting point for the generation of decision-making systems of integrated pest management programs. The aim of this study was to determine a conventional sampling plan for B. tabaci in watermelon fields. The optimal leaf for B. tabaci adult sampling was the 6 th most apical leaf. Direct counting was the best pest sampling technique. Crop pest densities fitted the negative binomial distribution and had a common aggregation parameter (K common ). The sampling plan consisted of evaluating 103 samples per plot. This sampling plan was conducted for 56 min, costing US$ 2.22 per sampling and with a 10% maximum evaluation error. The sampling plan determined in this study can be adopted by farmers because it enables the adequate evaluation of B. tabaci populations in watermelon fields (10% maximum evaluation error) and is a low-cost (US$ 2.22 per sampling), fast (56 min per sampling) and feasible (because it may be used in a standardized way throughout the crop cycle) technique. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Sample cell for in-field X-ray diffraction experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Höglin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample cell making it possible to perform synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction experiments in a magnetic field of 0.35 T has been constructed. The device is an add-on to an existing sample cell and contains a strong permanent magnet of NdFeB-type. Experiments have shown that the setup is working satisfactory making it possible to perform in-field measurements.

  17. Second harmonic sound field after insertion of a biological tissue sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiu-Fen; Zhang, Bo

    2002-01-01

    Second harmonic sound field after inserting a biological tissue sample is investigated by theory and experiment. The sample is inserted perpendicular to the sound axis, whose acoustical properties are different from those of surrounding medium (distilled water). By using the superposition of Gaussian beams and the KZK equation in quasilinear and parabolic approximations, the second harmonic field after insertion of the sample can be derived analytically and expressed as a linear combination of self- and cross-interaction of the Gaussian beams. Egg white, egg yolk, porcine liver, and porcine fat are used as the samples and inserted in the sound field radiated from a 2 MHz uniformly excited focusing source. Axial normalized sound pressure curves of the second harmonic wave before and after inserting the sample are measured and compared with the theoretical results calculated with 10 items of Gaussian beam functions.

  18. Site-specific waste management instruction for the field sampling organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Site-Specific Waste Management Instruction (SSWMI) provides guidance for the management of waste generated from field-sampling activities performed by the Environment Restoration Contractor (ERC) Sampling Organization that are not managed as part of a project SSWMI. Generally, the waste is unused preserved groundwater trip blanks, used and expired calibration solutions, and other similar waste that cannot be returned to an ERC project for disposal. The specific waste streams addressed by this SSWMI are identified in Section 2.0. This SSWMI was prepared in accordance with BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements. Waste generated from field sample collection activities should be returned to the project and managed in accordance with the applicable project-specific SSWMI whenever possible. However, returning all field sample collection and associated waste to a project for disposal may not always be practical or cost effective. Therefore, the ERC field sampling organization must manage and arrange to dispose of the waste using the (Bechtel Hanford, Inc. [BHI]) Field Support Waste Management (FSWM) services. This SSWMI addresses those waste streams that are the responsibility of the field sampling organization to manage and make arrangements for disposal

  19. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  20. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  1. Accuracy and Effort of Interpolation and Sampling: Can GIS Help Lower Field Costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Simpson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a problem for all reservoirs in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Before working on sediment removal, a survey on the extent and distribution of the sediment is needed. Two sample lakes were used to determine which of three interpolation methods gave the most accurate volume results. A secondary goal was to see if fewer samples could be taken while still providing similar results. The smaller samples would mean less field time and thus lower costs. Subsamples of 50%, 33% and 25% were taken from the total samples and evaluated for the lowest Root Mean Squared Error values. Throughout the trials, the larger sample sizes generally showed better accuracy than smaller samples. Graphing the sediment volume estimates of the full sample, 50%, 33% and 25% showed little improvement after a sample of approximately 40%–50% when comparing the asymptote of the separate samples. When we used smaller subsamples the predicted sediment volumes were normally greater than the full sample volumes. It is suggested that when planning future sediment surveys, workers plan on gathering data at approximately every 5.21 meters. These sample sizes can be cut in half and still retain relative accuracy if time savings are needed. Volume estimates may slightly suffer with these reduced samples sizes, but the field work savings can be of benefit. Results from these surveys are used in prioritization of available funds for reclamation efforts.

  2. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The process of obtaining and analyzing water samples from the environment includes a number of steps that can affect the reported result. The equipment used to collect and filter samples, the bottles used for specific subsamples, any added preservatives, sample storage in the field, and shipment to the laboratory have the potential to affect how accurately samples represent the environment from which they were collected. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented policies to include the routine collection of quality-control samples in order to evaluate these effects and to ensure that water-quality data were adequately representing environmental conditions. Since that time, the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality has provided training in how to design effective field quality-control sampling programs and how to evaluate the resultant quality-control data. This report documents that training material and provides a reference for methods used to analyze quality-control data.

  3. From Field to the Web: Management and Publication of Geoscience Samples in CSIRO Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, A.; Klump, J. F.; Tey, V.; Fraser, R.; Reid, N.; Brown, A.; Golodoniuc, P.

    2016-12-01

    Inaccessible samples are an obstacle to the reproducibility of research and may cause waste of time and resources through duplication of sample collection and management. Within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mineral Resources there are various research communities who collect or generate physical samples as part of their field studies and analytical processes. Materials can be varied and could be rock, soil, plant materials, water, and even synthetic materials. Given the wide range of applications in CSIRO, each researcher or project may follow their own method of collecting, curating and documenting samples. In many cases samples and their documentation are often only available to the sample collector. For example, the Australian Resources Research Centre stores rock samples and research collections dating as far back as the 1970s. Collecting these samples again would be prohibitively expensive and in some cases impossible because the site has been mined out. These samples would not be easily discoverable by others without an online sample catalog. We identify some of the organizational and technical challenges to provide unambiguous and systematic access to geoscience samples, and present their solutions (e.g., workflow, persistent identifier and tools). We present the workflow starting from field sampling to sample publication on the Web, and describe how the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) can be applied to identify samples along the process. In our test case geoscientific samples are collected as part of the Capricorn Distal Footprints project, a collaboration project between the CSIRO, the Geological Survey of Western Australia, academic institutions and industry partners. We conclude by summarizing the values of our solutions in terms of sample management and publication.

  4. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  5. Field desorption and field ion surface studies of samples exposed to the plasmas of PLT and ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.; Panitz, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications to the surface of field-ion specimens exposed to plasma discharges in PLT and ISX determined by Imaging Probe, Field Ion Microscope, and Transmission Electron Microscope analysis have in the past shown several consistent features. Surface films consisting primarily of limiter material with trapped plasma and impurity species have been found to reside on samples with direct line of sight exposure to the plasma during the discharges. Control specimens placed in the tokamak, but shielded from the plasma, on the other hand, remained free of deposits. When exposed to only high power plasma discharges, samples placed at the wall position in PLT and ISX have survived the exposures with no evidence of damage or implantation. In this paper we describe the results of a recent exposure in PLT in which for the first time samples of stainless steel were included for High-Field Surface Analysis. Tokamak operating conditions, including stainless-steel limiters, titanium gettering between discharges, and the occurrence of a disruption, also distinguished this exposure from those carried out previously. Surprisingly, even with stainless-steel limiters, carbon films were found to be deposited on the samples at a rate

  6. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2013-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ≥90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. -- Highlights: •Earthworm response to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in soil is examined. •Metabolomics shows significant changes to metabolic profile after 2 days. •Significant relationships observed between metabolomic and reproduction endpoints. •Metabolomics may have value as a rapid screening tool for chronic toxicity. -- Earthworm metabolomic responses measured after 2 and 14 days are compared to traditional earthworm ecotoxicity endpoints (survival and reproduction) in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

  7. Field sampling for monitoring migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    Initial research on compositing, field designs, and site mapping oriented toward detecting spills and migration at commercial low-level radioactive or chemical waste sites is summarized. Results indicate that the significance test developed to detect samples containing high levels of contamination when they are mixed with several other samples below detectable limits (composites), will be highly effective with large sample sizes when contaminant levels frequently or greatly exceed a maximum acceptable level. These conditions of frequent and high contaminant levels are most likely to occur in regions of a commercial waste site where the priors (previous knowledge) about a spill or migration are highest. Conversely, initial investigations of Bayes sampling strategies suggest that field sampling efforts should be inversely proportional to the priors (expressed as probabilities) for the occurrence of contamination

  8. Field sampling for monitoring, migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of two studies funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the USEPA, the authors have investigated field sampling strategies and compositing as a means of detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive and chemical waste disposal sites and bioassays for detecting contamination at chemical waste sites. Compositing (pooling samples) for detection is discussed first, followed by the development of a statistical test to determine whether any component of a composite exceeds a prescribed maximum acceptable level. Subsequently, the authors explore the question of optimal field sampling designs and present the features of a microcomputer program designed to show the difficulties in constructing efficient field designs and using compositing schemes. Finally, they propose the use of bioassays as an adjunct or replacement for chemical analysis as a means of detecting and defining the areal extent of chemical migration

  9. Sampling Design of Soil Physical Properties in a Conilon Coffee Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira de Jesus Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Establishing the number of samples required to determine values of soil physical properties ultimately results in optimization of labor and allows better representation of such attributes. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil physical properties in a Conilon coffee field and propose a soil sampling method better attuned to conditions of the management system. The experiment was performed in a Conilon coffee field in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, under a 3.0 × 2.0 × 1.0 m (4,000 plants ha-1 double spacing design. An irregular grid, with dimensions of 107 × 95.7 m and 65 sampling points, was set up. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.20 m depth from each sampling point. Data were analyzed under descriptive statistical and geostatistical methods. Using statistical parameters, the adequate number of samples for analyzing the attributes under study was established, which ranged from 1 to 11 sampling points. With the exception of particle density, all soil physical properties showed a spatial dependence structure best fitted to the spherical model. Establishment of the number of samples and spatial variability for the physical properties of soils may be useful in developing sampling strategies that minimize costs for farmers within a tolerable and predictable level of error.

  10. Toxicity evaluation of natural samples from the vicinity of rice fields using two trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Catarina R; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    An ecotoxicological screening of environmental samples collected in the vicinity of rice fields followed a combination of physical and chemical measurements and chronic bioassays with two freshwater trophic levels (microalgae: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris; daphnids: Daphnia longispina and Daphnia magna). As so, water and sediment/soil elutriate samples were obtained from three sites: (1) in a canal reach crossing a protected wetland upstream, (2) in a canal reach surrounded by rice fields and (3) in a rice paddy. The sampling was performed before and during the rice culture. During the rice cropping, the whole system quality decreased comparatively to the situation before that period (e.g. nutrient overload, the presence of pesticides in elutriates from sites L2 and L3). This was reinforced by a significant inhibition of both microalgae growth, especially under elutriates. Contrary, the life-history traits of daphnids were significantly stimulated with increasing concentrations of water and elutriates, for both sampling periods.

  11. A simplified field protocol for genetic sampling of birds using buccal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.; McDearman, Will; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    DNA sampling is an essential prerequisite for conducting population genetic studies. For many years, blood sampling has been the preferred method for obtaining DNA in birds because of their nucleated red blood cells. Nonetheless, use of buccal swabs has been gaining favor because they are less invasive yet still yield adequate amounts of DNA for amplifying mitochondrial and nuclear markers; however, buccal swab protocols often include steps (e.g., extended air-drying and storage under frozen conditions) not easily adapted to field settings. Furthermore, commercial extraction kits and swabs for buccal sampling can be expensive for large population studies. We therefore developed an efficient, cost-effective, and field-friendly protocol for sampling wild birds after comparing DNA yield among 3 inexpensive buccal swab types (2 with foam tips and 1 with a cotton tip). Extraction and amplification success was high (100% and 97.2% respectively) using inexpensive generic swabs. We found foam-tipped swabs provided higher DNA yields than cotton-tipped swabs. We further determined that omitting a drying step and storing swabs in Longmire buffer increased efficiency in the field while still yielding sufficient amounts of DNA for detailed population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new field protocol allows time- and cost-effective DNA sampling of juveniles or small-bodied birds for which drawing blood may cause excessive stress to birds and technicians alike.

  12. Global analysis of the temperature and flow fields in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Grande, I.; Rivas, D.; de Pablo, V.

    The temperature field in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces will be analyzed, using a global model where the temperature fields in the sample, the furnace and the insulation are coupled; the input thermal data is the electric power supplied to the heaters. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the furnace is formulated analytically, taking into account specular reflections at the sample; for the solid sample the reflectance is both diffuse and specular, and for the melt it is mostly specular. This behavior is modeled through the exchange view factors, which depend on whether the sample is solid or liquid, and, therefore, they are not known a priori. The effect of this specular behavior in the temperature field will be analyzed, by comparing with the case of diffuse samples. A parameter of great importance is the thermal conductivity of the insulation material; it will be shown that the temperature field depends strongly on it. A careful characterization of the insulation is therefore necessary, here it will be done with the aid of experimental results, which will also serve to validate the model. The heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions will be simulated; parameters like the Marangoni number or the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the temperature distribution in the silicon part will be studied, especially the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of suppresing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be also analyzed. Numerical results show that the thermocapillary flow can indeed be counterbalanced quite effectively.

  13. Sampling of high amounts of bioaerosols using a high-volume electrostatic field sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, A. M.; Sharma, Anoop Kumar

    2008-01-01

    For studies of the biological effects of bioaerosols, large samples are necessary. To be able to sample enough material and to cover the variations in aerosol content during and between working days, a long sampling time is necessary. Recently, a high-volume transportable electrostatic field...... and 315 mg dust (net recovery of the lyophilized dust) was sampled during a period of 7 days, respectively. The sampling rates of the electrostatic field samplers were between 1.34 and 1.96 mg dust per hour, the value for the Gravikon was between 0.083 and 0.108 mg dust per hour and the values for the GSP...... samplers were between 0.0031 and 0.032 mg dust per hour. The standard deviations of replica samplings and the following microbial analysis using the electrostatic field sampler and GSP samplers were at the same levels. The exposure to dust in the straw storage was 7.7 mg m(-3) when measured...

  14. Path integral methods for primordial density perturbations - sampling of constrained Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Path integrals may be used to describe the statistical properties of a random field such as the primordial density perturbation field. In this framework the probability distribution is given for a Gaussian random field subjected to constraints such as the presence of a protovoid or supercluster at a specific location in the initial conditions. An algorithm has been constructed for generating samples of a constrained Gaussian random field on a lattice using Monte Carlo techniques. The method makes possible a systematic study of the density field around peaks or other constrained regions in the biased galaxy formation scenario, and it is effective for generating initial conditions for N-body simulations with rare objects in the computational volume. 21 references

  15. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune

    2013-01-01

    and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7......Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection...

  16. Modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for field sampling of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Telgen, van Mario D.; Chen, Junhui; Xiao, Haijun; Kraker, de Joop; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Werf, van der Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields host a large diversity of arthropods, but investigating their population dynamics and interactions is challenging. Here we describe the modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for suction sampling of arthropod populations in rice. When used in combination with an enclosure,

  17. Water sampling at the Berge Helene FPSO at Chinguetti field in Mauritania using passive samplers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Galien, van der W.

    2007-01-01

    Three rounds of water sampling were performed at the Berge Helene FPSO at the Chinguetti field in Mauritania using passive samplers attached to the FPSO to determine the levels of contamination that could potentially accumulate in organisms. Two rounds were carried out prior to the commencement of

  18. Minimal BRDF Sampling for Two-Shot Near-Field Reflectance Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zexiang; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Yu, Jiyang

    2016-01-01

    We develop a method to acquire the BRDF of a homogeneous flat sample from only two images, taken by a near-field perspective camera, and lit by a directional light source. Our method uses the MERL BRDF database to determine the optimal set of lightview pairs for data-driven reflectance acquisition...

  19. Effect of sample shape on nonlinear magnetization dynamics under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Dmitry V.; Polyakov, Oleg P.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of sample shape on the nonlinear collective dynamics of magnetic moments in the presence of oscillating and constant external magnetic fields is studied using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) approach. The uniformly magnetized sample is considered to be an ellipsoidal axially symmetric particle described by demagnetization factors and uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy formed some angle with an applied field direction. It is investigated as to how the change in particle shape affects its nonlinear magnetization dynamics. To produce a regular study, all results are presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams for all sufficient dynamics regimes of the considered system. In this paper, we show that the sample's (particle's) shape and its orientation with respect to the external field (system configuration) determine the character of magnetization dynamics: deterministic behavior and appearance of chaotic states. A simple change in the system's configuration or in the shapes of its parts can transfer it from chaotic to periodic or even static regime and back. Moreover, the effect of magnetization precession stall and magnetic moments alignment parallel or antiparallel to the external oscillating field is revealed and the way of control of such 'polarized' states is found. Our results suggest that varying the particle's shape and fields' geometry may provide a useful way of magnetization dynamics control in complex magnetic systems

  20. Intact preservation of environmental samples by freezing under an alternating magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Xiao, Nan; Hirose, Takehiro; Sugeno, Masaya; Ohwada, Norio; Inagaki, Fumio

    2015-04-01

    The study of environmental samples requires a preservation system that stabilizes the sample structure, including cells and biomolecules. To address this fundamental issue, we tested the cell alive system (CAS)-freezing technique for subseafloor sediment core samples. In the CAS-freezing technique, an alternating magnetic field is applied during the freezing process to produce vibration of water molecules and achieve a stable, super-cooled liquid phase. Upon further cooling, the temperature decreases further, achieving a uniform freezing of sample with minimal ice crystal formation. In this study, samples were preserved using the CAS and conventional freezing techniques at 4, -20, -80 and -196 (liquid nitrogen) °C. After 6 months of storage, microbial cell counts by conventional freezing significantly decreased (down to 10.7% of initial), whereas that by CAS-freezing resulted in minimal. When Escherichia coli cells were tested under the same freezing conditions and storage for 2.5 months, CAS-frozen E. coli cells showed higher viability than the other conditions. In addition, an alternating magnetic field does not impact on the direction of remanent magnetization in sediment core samples, although slight partial demagnetization in intensity due to freezing was observed. Consequently, our data indicate that the CAS technique is highly useful for the preservation of environmental samples. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part I: Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    Building on the successful application in the laboratory of PLOT-cryoadsorption as a means of collecting vapor (or headspace) samples for chromatographic analysis, in this paper a field portable apparatus is introduced. This device fits inside of a briefcase (aluminum tool carrier), and can be easily transported by vehicle or by air. The portable apparatus functions entirely on compressed air, making it suitable for use in locations lacking electrical power, and for use in flammable and explosive environments. The apparatus consists of four aspects: a field capable PLOT-capillary platform, the supporting equipment platform, the service interface between the PLOT-capillary and the supporting equipment, and the necessary peripherals. Vapor sampling can be done with either a hand piece (containing the PLOT capillary) or with a custom fabricated standoff module. Both the hand piece and the standoff module can be heated and cooled to facilitate vapor collection and subsequent vapor sample removal. The service interface between the support platform and the sampling units makes use of a unique counter current approach that minimizes loss of cooling and heating due to heat transfer with the surroundings (recuperative thermostatting). Several types of PLOT-capillary elements and sampling probes are described in this report. Applications to a variety of samples relevant to forensic and environmental analysis are discussed in a companion paper. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Sampling Error in Relation to Cyst Nematode Population Density Estimation in Small Field Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župunski, Vesna; Jevtić, Radivoje; Jokić, Vesna Spasić; Župunski, Ljubica; Lalošević, Mirjana; Ćirić, Mihajlo; Ćurčić, Živko

    2017-06-01

    Cyst nematodes are serious plant-parasitic pests which could cause severe yield losses and extensive damage. Since there is still very little information about error of population density estimation in small field plots, this study contributes to the broad issue of population density assessment. It was shown that there was no significant difference between cyst counts of five or seven bulk samples taken per each 1-m 2 plot, if average cyst count per examined plot exceeds 75 cysts per 100 g of soil. Goodness of fit of data to probability distribution tested with χ 2 test confirmed a negative binomial distribution of cyst counts for 21 out of 23 plots. The recommended measure of sampling precision of 17% expressed through coefficient of variation ( cv ) was achieved if the plots of 1 m 2 contaminated with more than 90 cysts per 100 g of soil were sampled with 10-core bulk samples taken in five repetitions. If plots were contaminated with less than 75 cysts per 100 g of soil, 10-core bulk samples taken in seven repetitions gave cv higher than 23%. This study indicates that more attention should be paid on estimation of sampling error in experimental field plots to ensure more reliable estimation of population density of cyst nematodes.

  4. Recent developments on field gas extraction and sample preparation methods for radiokrypton dating of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokochi, Reika

    2016-09-01

    Current and foreseen population growths will lead to an increased demand in freshwater, large quantities of which is stored as groundwater. The ventilation age is crucial to the assessment of groundwater resources, complementing the hydrological model approach based on hydrogeological parameters. Ultra-trace radioactive isotopes of Kr (81 Kr and 85 Kr) possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for groundwater dating. The recent advent of atom trap trace analyses (ATTA) has enabled determination of ultra-trace noble gas radioisotope abundances using 5-10 μ L of pure Kr. Anticipated developments will enable ATTA to analyze radiokrypton isotope abundances at high sample throughput, which necessitates simple and efficient sample preparation techniques that are adaptable to various sample chemistries. Recent developments of field gas extraction devices and simple and rapid Kr separation method at the University of Chicago are presented herein. Two field gas extraction devices optimized for different sampling conditions were recently designed and constructed, aiming at operational simplicity and portability. A newly developed Kr purification system enriches Kr by flowing a sample gas through a moderately cooled (138 K) activated charcoal column, followed by a gentle fractionating desorption. This simple process uses a single adsorbent and separates 99% of the bulk atmospheric gases from Kr without significant loss. The subsequent two stages of gas chromatographic separation and a hot Ti sponge getter further purify the Kr-enriched gas. Abundant CH4 necessitates multiple passages through one of the gas chromatographic separation columns. The presented Kr separation system has a demonstrated capability of extracting Kr with > 90% yield and 99% purity within 75 min from 1.2 to 26.8 L STP of atmospheric air with various concentrations of CH4. The apparatuses have successfully been deployed for sampling in the field and purification of groundwater samples.

  5. An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Hijbeek

    Full Text Available In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research.

  6. The concentration of Cs, Sr and other elements in water samples collected in a paddy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Yanai-Kudo, Masumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Torikai, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    To research elemental concentrations in soil water in a paddy field, samples of the soil water were collected with porous Teflon resin tubes which were buried in the field. The soil water collections were made at various depth, 2.5, 12.5, 25 and 35 cm from the surface in the paddy field, located in Rokkasho, Aomori, once every two weeks during the rice cultivation period, from May to October in 1998. The paddy field was irrigated from May 7th to July 20th, dried from July 20th to August 5th, then again irrigated until September 16th. Drastic changes of the alkaline earth metal elements, Fe and Mn in soil water samples were seen at the beginning and end of the midsummer drainage. The concentrations of Cs, Fe, Mn and NH 4 in soil water samples showed a similar variation pattern to that of alkaline earth metal elements in the waterlogged period. The change of redox potential was considered a possible cause for the concentration variation for these substances. (author)

  7. Study of aerosol sample interaction with dc plasma in the presence of oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.S.; Savovic, J.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Marinkovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating magnetic field was used to study the efficiency of the aerosol sample introduction into the dc plasma. At atmospheric plasmas, the effect of magnetic field is reduced to Lorentz forces on the current carrying plasma, which produces motion of the plasma. The motion velocity of dc plasma caused by oscillating magnetic field was correlated to spectral emission enhancement of analytes introduced as aerosols. Emission enhancement is the consequence of the reduced barrier to introduction of analyte species and aerosol particles into the hot plasma region. Two hypotheses described in the literature for the origin of the barrier are considered: (i) barrier induced by temperature field is based upon the thermophoretic forces on the aerosol particles when their radius is comparable to the molecular free path in the surrounding gas and (ii) barrier induced by radial electric field, recently described, that originates from gradients of charged particles in radial direction. Correlation between ionization energy of the analyte atoms with experimental emission enhancement obtained by the use of oscillating magnetic field indicates that mechanism (ii) based upon the radial electric field is predominant. The ultimate emission enhancement and possible analytical advantage is discussed

  8. Scanning SQUID microscope with an in-situ magnetization/demagnetization field for geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junwei; Liu, Xiaohong; Qin, Huafeng; Wei, Zhao; Kong, Xiangyang; Liu, Qingsong; Song, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic properties of rocks are crucial for paleo-, rock-, environmental-magnetism, and magnetic material sciences. Conventional rock magnetometers deal with bulk properties of samples, whereas scanning microscope can map the distribution of remanent magnetization. In this study, a new scanning microscope based on a low-temperature DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) equipped with an in-situ magnetization/demagnetization device was developed. To realize the combination of sensitive instrument as SQUID with high magnetizing/demagnetizing fields, the pick-up coil, the magnetization/demagnetization coils and the measurement mode of the system were optimized. The new microscope has a field sensitivity of 250 pT/√Hz at a coil-to-sample spacing of ∼350 μm, and high magnetization (0-1 T)/ demagnetization (0-300 mT, 400 Hz) functions. With this microscope, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition and the according alternating field (AF) demagnetization curves can be obtained for each point without transferring samples between different procedures, which could result in position deviation, waste of time, and other interferences. The newly-designed SQUID microscope, thus, can be used to investigate the rock magnetic properties of samples at a micro-area scale, and has a great potential to be an efficient tool in paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and magnetic material studies.

  9. Virus isolation vs RT-PCR: which method is more successful in detecting VHSV and IHNV in fish tissue sampled under field conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüsel, R.; Bergmann, S. M.; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2007-01-01

    in Switzerland. Compared to SPNT, the RT-PCR method detected, as with virus isolation, a much lower number of positive cases; reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our results indicate that RT-PCR can not only be successfully applied in field surveys, but may also be slightly more sensitive than virus......This study compared the results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and traditional virus isolation on cell culture in detection of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). RT-PCR was used for 172 tissue sample pools...... (total of 859 fish) originating from a field survey on the occurrence of VHSV and IHNV in farmed and wild salmonids in Switzerland. These samples represented all sites with fish that were either identified as virus-positive by means of virus isolation (three sites, four positive tissue sample pools) and...

  10. Irradiation test of HAFM and tag gas samples at the standard neutron field of 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    To check the accuracy of helium accumulation neutron fluence monitors (HAFM) as new technique for fast reactor neutron dosimetry and the applicability of tag gas activation analysis to fast reactor failed fuel detection, their samples were irradiated at the standard neutron field of the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI' (Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo). Since October in 1996, the HAFM samples such as 93% enriched boron (B) powders of 1 mg and natural B powders of 10 mg contained in vanadium (V) capsule were intermittently irradiated at the reactor core center (Glory hole: Gy) and/or under the leakage neutron field from the reactor core (Fast column: FC). In addition, new V capsules filled with enriched B of 40 mg and Be of 100 mg, respectively, were put into an experimental hole through the blanket surrounding the core. These neutron fields were monitored by the activation foils consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Au, 235 U, 237 Np etc., mainly to confirm the results obtained from 1995's preliminary works. In particular, neutron flux distributions in the vicinity of irradiated samples were measured in more detail. At the end of March in 1997, the irradiated neutron fluence have reached the goal necessary to produce the detectable number of He atoms more than ∼10 13 in each HAFM sample. Six kinds of tag gas samples, which are the mixed gases of isotopically adjusted Xe and Kr contained in SUS capsules, were separately irradiated three times at Gy under the neutron fluence of ∼10 16 n/cm 2 in average. After irradiation, γ-ray spectra were measured for each sample. Depending on the composition of tag gas mixtures, the different patterns of γ-ray peak spectra from 79 Kr, 125 Xe, etc. produced through tag gas activation were able to be clearly identified. These experimental data will be very useful for the benchmark test of tag gas activation calculation applied to the fast reactor failed fuel detection. (author)

  11. Field manual for geohydrological sampling as applied to the radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1983-08-01

    This report serves as a manual for geohydrological sampling as practised by NUCOR's Geology Department. It discusses systematically all aspects concerned with sampling and stresses those where negligence has caused complications in the past. Accurate, neat and systematic procedures are emphasised. The report is intended as a reference work for the field technician. Analytical data on water samples provide an indication of the geohydrological processes taking place during the interaction between groundwater and the enclosing aquifers. It is possible to identify water bodies, using some of a multitude of parameters such as major ions, trace elements and isotopes which may give clues as to the origin, directions of flow and age of groundwater bodies. The South African Radioactive Waste Project also requires this information for determining the direction of migration of the radionuclides in the environment in the event of a spillage. The sampling procedures required for water, and in particular groundwater, must be applied in such a manner that the natural variation of dissolved species is not disturbed to any significant degree. With this in mind, the operator has to exercise meticulous care during initial preparation, collection, storing, preserving and handling of the water samples. This report is a field manual and describes the procedures adopted for the Radwaste Project geohydrological investigations in the Northwest Cape

  12. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  13. Multistatic Array Sampling Scheme for Fast Near-Field Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    human-sized scene in 0.048sec− 0.101sec. Index Terms—Microwave imaging, multistatic radar, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). I. INTRODUCTION Near-field...configuration, but its computational demands are extreme. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) imaging has long been used to efficiently construct images sampled...with the block diagram depicted in Fig. 4. It is noted that the multistatic to monostatic correction is valid over a finite imaging domain. However, as

  14. Vertical sampling flights in support of the 1981 ASCOT cooling tower experiments: field effort and data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G.T.

    1982-03-01

    During the month of August 1981, three nights of experimental sampling of tracers released into the cooling tower plume of a geothermal power plant were conducted. In these experiments a tethered balloon was used to lift a payload so as to obtain vertical profiles of the cooling tower plume and the entrained tracers. A description of the equipment used, the field effort and the data acquired are presented here.

  15. Investigation of applicability of extrapolation method for sample field determination in single-yoke measuring setup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stupakov, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 307, - (2006), s. 279-287 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic measurement * open magnetic sample * surface field determination * single-yoke setup * magnetic non-destructive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2006

  16. Electric field computation and measurements in the electroporation of inhomogeneous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardis, Alessia; Bullo, Marco; Campana, Luca Giovanni; Di Barba, Paolo; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Forzan, Michele; Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Sieni, Elisabetta

    2017-12-01

    In clinical treatments of a class of tumors, e.g. skin tumors, the drug uptake of tumor tissue is helped by means of a pulsed electric field, which permeabilizes the cell membranes. This technique, which is called electroporation, exploits the conductivity of the tissues: however, the tumor tissue could be characterized by inhomogeneous areas, eventually causing a non-uniform distribution of current. In this paper, the authors propose a field model to predict the effect of tissue inhomogeneity, which can affect the current density distribution. In particular, finite-element simulations, considering non-linear conductivity against field relationship, are developed. Measurements on a set of samples subject to controlled inhomogeneity make it possible to assess the numerical model in view of identifying the equivalent resistance between pairs of electrodes.

  17. Preservation of RNA and DNA from mammal samples under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Sanchez, Miguel; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Ecological and conservation genetics require sampling of organisms in the wild. Appropriate preservation of the collected samples, usually by cryostorage, is key to the quality of the genetic data obtained. Nevertheless, cryopreservation in the field to ensure RNA and DNA stability is not always possible. We compared several nucleic acid preservation solutions appropriate for field sampling and tested them on rat (Rattus rattus) blood, ear and tail tip, liver, brain and muscle. We compared the efficacy of a nucleic acid preservation (NAP) buffer for DNA preservation against 95% ethanol and Longmire buffer, and for RNA preservation against RNAlater (Qiagen) and Longmire buffer, under simulated field conditions. For DNA, the NAP buffer was slightly better than cryopreservation or 95% ethanol, but high molecular weight DNA was preserved in all conditions. The NAP buffer preserved RNA as well as RNAlater. Liver yielded the best RNA and DNA quantity and quality; thus, liver should be the tissue preferentially collected from euthanized animals. We also show that DNA persists in nonpreserved muscle tissue for at least 1 week at ambient temperature, although degradation is noticeable in a matter of hours. When cryopreservation is not possible, the NAP buffer is an economical alternative for RNA preservation at ambient temperature for at least 2 months and DNA preservation for at least 10 months. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ratio methods for cost-effective field sampling of commercial radioactive low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.; Thomas, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    In many field studies to determine the quantities of radioactivity at commercial low-level radioactive waste sites, preliminary appraisals are made with field radiation detectors, or other relatively inaccurate devices. More accurate determinations are subsequently made with procedures requiring chemical separations or other expensive analyses. Costs of these laboratory determinations are often large, so that adequate sampling may not be achieved due to budget limitations. In this report, we propose double sampling as a way to combine the expensive and inexpensive aproaches to substantially reduce overall costs. The underlying theory was developed for human and agricultural surveys, and is partially based on assumptions that are not appropriate for commercial low-level waste sites. Consequently, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine whether the results can be applied in circumstances of importance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report gives the simulation details, and concludes that the principal equations are appropriate for most studies at commercial low-level waste sites. A few points require further research, using actual commercial low-level radioactive waste site data. The final section of the report provides some guidance (via an example) for the field use of double sampling. Details of the simulation programs are available from the authors. Major findings are listed in the Executive Summary. 9 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs

  19. Search for life on Mars in surface samples: Lessons from the 1999 Marsokhod rover field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.; Bishop, J.L.; Cockell, C.; Roush, T.L.; Johnson, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Marsokhod 1999 field experiment in the Mojave Desert included a simulation of a rover-based sample selection mission. As part of this mission, a test was made of strategies and analytical techniques for identifying past or present life in environments expected to be present on Mars. A combination of visual clues from high-resolution images and the detection of an important biomolecule (chlorophyll) with visible/near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy led to the successful identification of a rock with evidence of cryptoendolithic organisms. The sample was identified in high-resolution images (3 times the resolution of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder camera) on the basis of a green tinge and textural information suggesting the presence of a thin, partially missing exfoliating layer revealing the organisms. The presence of chlorophyll bands in similar samples was observed in visible/NIR spectra of samples in the field and later confirmed in the laboratory using the same spectrometer. Raman spectroscopy in the laboratory, simulating a remote measurement technique, also detected evidence of carotenoids in samples from the same area. Laboratory analysis confirmed that the subsurface layer of the rock is inhabited by a community of coccoid Chroococcidioposis cyanobacteria. The identification of minerals in the field, including carbonates and serpentine, that are associated with aqueous processes was also demonstrated using the visible/NIR spectrometer. Other lessons learned that are applicable to future rover missions include the benefits of web-based programs for target selection and for daily mission planning and the need for involvement of the science team in optimizing image compression schemes based on the retention of visual signature characteristics. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  1. Temperature and flow fields in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, D.; Haya, R.

    The temperature field in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces will be analyzed. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated analytically, taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It will be shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, and, as a consequence, the effect of the mirror reflectance in the temperature field is quite strong. The conduction-radiation model will be used to simulate the heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions; important parameters like the Marangoni number (that drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt), and the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. The model will be validated comparing with experimental data. The case of samples mounted in a wall-free configuration (as in the MAXUS-4 programme) will be also considered. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt will be analyzed. Of special interest is the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon part, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This thermocapillary flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of counterbalancing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be studied as well. Numerical results show that suppressing the thermocapillary flow can be accomplished quite effectively.

  2. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Stockton, A. M.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rennie, V.; Rader, E.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Sutton, S. A.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Extraterrestrial studies are typically conducted on mg samples from cm-scale features, while landing sites are selected based on m to km-scale features. It is therefore critical to understand spatial distribution of organic molecules over scales from cm to the km, particularly in geological features that appear homogenous at m to km scales. This is addressed by FELDSPAR, a NASA-funded project that conducts field operations analogous to Mars sample return in its science, operations, and technology [1]. Here, we present recent findings from a 2016 and a 2017 campaign to multiple Martian analogue sites in Iceland. Icelandic volcanic regions are Mars analogues due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, temperature extremes [2], and are relatively young and isolated from anthropogenic contamination [3]. Operationally, many Icelandic analogue sites are remote enough to require that field expeditions address several sampling constraints that are also faced by robotic exploration [1, 2]. Four field sites were evaluated in this study. The Fimmvörðuháls lava field was formed by a basaltic effusive eruption associated with the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Mælifellssandur is a recently deglaciated plain to the north of the Myrdalsjökull glacier. Holuhraun is a basaltic spatter and cinder cone formed by 2014 fissure eruptions just north of the Vatnajökull glacier. Dyngjusandur is a plain kept barren by repeated aeolian mechanical weathering. Samples were collected in nested triangular grids from 10 cm to the 1 km scale. We obtained overhead imagery at 1 m to 200 m elevation to create digital elevation models. In-field reflectance spectroscopy was obtained with an ASD spectrometer and chemical composition was measured by a Bruker handheld XRF. All sites chosen were homogeneous in apparent color, morphology, moisture, grain size, and reflectance spectra at all scales greater than 10 cm. Field lab ATP assays were conducted to monitor microbial habitation, and home

  3. [Overview of research projects funding in traditional Chinese medicine oncology field supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dong-Xin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Li-Wei; Zhang, Feng-Zhu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the funding situation of traditional Chinese medicine oncology research projects supported by National Natural Science Fund from 1986-2016 was reviewed. The characteristics of funded projects were summarized from funding amount, funding expenses, funding category, and the main research contents of projects, etc. At the same time, the main problems in the projects were analyzed in this paper, in order to provide reference for the relevant fund applicants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Sampling Strategies for Evaluating the Rate of Adventitious Transgene Presence in Non-Genetically Modified Crop Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, David; Bancal, Rémi; Bensadoun, Arnaud; Monod, Hervé; Messéan, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    According to E.U. regulations, the maximum allowable rate of adventitious transgene presence in non-genetically modified (GM) crops is 0.9%. We compared four sampling methods for the detection of transgenic material in agricultural non-GM maize fields: random sampling, stratified sampling, random sampling + ratio reweighting, random sampling + regression reweighting. Random sampling involves simply sampling maize grains from different locations selected at random from the field concerned. The stratified and reweighting sampling methods make use of an auxiliary variable corresponding to the output of a gene-flow model (a zero-inflated Poisson model) simulating cross-pollination as a function of wind speed, wind direction, and distance to the closest GM maize field. With the stratified sampling method, an auxiliary variable is used to define several strata with contrasting transgene presence rates, and grains are then sampled at random from each stratum. With the two methods involving reweighting, grains are first sampled at random from various locations within the field, and the observations are then reweighted according to the auxiliary variable. Data collected from three maize fields were used to compare the four sampling methods, and the results were used to determine the extent to which transgene presence rate estimation was improved by the use of stratified and reweighting sampling methods. We found that transgene rate estimates were more accurate and that substantially smaller samples could be used with sampling strategies based on an auxiliary variable derived from a gene-flow model. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Comparison of traditional field retting and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 retting of hemp fibres for fibre-reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Kołaczkowski, Bartłomiej

    2017-01-01

    Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. For field retting a classification...

  6. Cryogen free high magnetic field and low temperature sample environments for neutron scattering - latest developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, John

    2016-01-01

    Continuous progress has been made over many years now in the provision of low- and ultra-low temperature sample environments, together with new high-field superconducting magnets and increased convenience for both the user and the neutron research facility via new cooling technologies. Within Oxford Instrument's experience, this has been achieved in many cases through close collaboration with neutron scientists, and with the neutron facilities' sample environment leaders in particular. Superconducting magnet designs ranging from compact Small Angle (SANS) systems up to custom-engineered wide-angle scattering systems have been continuously developed. Recondensing, or 'zero boil-off' (ZBO), systems are well established for situations in which a high field magnet is not conducive to totally cryogen free cooling solutions, and offer a reliable route with the best trade-offs of maximum system capability versus running costs and user convenience. Fully cryogen free solutions for cryostats, dilution refrigerators, and medium-field magnets are readily available. Here we will present the latest technology developments in these options, describing the state-of-the art, the relative advantages of each, and the opportunities they offer to the neutron science community. (author)

  7. Design of Field Experiments for Adaptive Sampling of the Ocean with Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Ooi, B. H.; Cho, W.; Dao, M. H.; Tkalich, P.; Patrikalakis, N. M.

    2010-05-01

    Due to the highly non-linear and dynamical nature of oceanic phenomena, the predictive capability of various ocean models depends on the availability of operational data. A practical method to improve the accuracy of the ocean forecast is to use a data assimilation methodology to combine in-situ measured and remotely acquired data with numerical forecast models of the physical environment. Autonomous surface and underwater vehicles with various sensors are economic and efficient tools for exploring and sampling the ocean for data assimilation; however there is an energy limitation to such vehicles, and thus effective resource allocation for adaptive sampling is required to optimize the efficiency of exploration. In this paper, we use physical oceanography forecasts of the coastal zone of Singapore for the design of a set of field experiments to acquire useful data for model calibration and data assimilation. The design process of our experiments relied on the oceanography forecast including the current speed, its gradient, and vorticity in a given region of interest for which permits for field experiments could be obtained and for time intervals that correspond to strong tidal currents. Based on these maps, resources available to our experimental team, including Autonomous Surface Craft (ASC) are allocated so as to capture the oceanic features that result from jets and vortices behind bluff bodies (e.g., islands) in the tidal current. Results are summarized from this resource allocation process and field experiments conducted in January 2009.

  8. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  9. Field Portable Low Temperature Porous Layer Open Tubular Cryoadsorption Headspace Sampling and Analysis Part II: Applications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3 s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. PMID:26726934

  10. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part II: Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Electro-Optic Sampling of Transient Electric Fields from Charged Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, Michael James [Rochester U.

    2000-01-01

    The passage of a relativistic charged particle beam bunch through a structure is accompanied by transient electromagnetic fields. By causality, these fields must be behind the bunch, and are called "wakefields." The wakefields act back on the beam, and cause instabilities such as the beam break-up instability, and the headtail instability, which limit the luminosity of linear colliders. The wakefields are particularly important for short bunches with high charge. A great deal of effort is devoted to analytical and numerical calculations of wakefields, and wakefield effects. Experimental numbers are needed. In this thesis, we present measurements of the transient electric fields induced by a short high-charge electron bunch passing through a 6-way vacuum cross. These measurements are performed in the time domain using electro-optic sampling with a time resolution of approximately 5 picoseconds. With different orientations of the electro-optic crystal, we have measured different vector components of the electric field. The Fourier transform of the time-domain data yields the product of the beam impedance with the excitation spectrum of the bunch. Since the bunch length is known from streak camera measurements, the k loss factor is directly obtained. There is reasonably good agreement between the experimental k loss factor with calculations from the code MAFIA. To our knowledge, this is the first direct measurement of the k loss factor for bunch lengths shorter than one millimeter ( nns). We also present results of magnetic bunch compression (using a dipole chicane) of a high-charge photoinjector beam for two different UV laser pulse lengths on the pholocalhode. Al best compression, a 13.87 nC bunch was compressed to 0.66 mm (2.19 ps) rms, or a peak current of 3 kA. Other results from the photoinjeclor are given, and the laser system for pholocalhode excitation and electro-optic sampling is described.

  12. Electric field gradient calculation at atomic site of In implanted ZnO samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera; Van Espen, P.; Perez, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) calculated for 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted ZnO samples is reported. The study was made for ideal hexagonal ZnO structures and super-cells considering the In implantation environment at the cation site using the 'WIEN2k' code within the GGA(+U) approximation. The obtained EFG values are in good agreement with the experimental reports for ideal ZnO and 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted structures; measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The attribution of substitutional incorporation of 111 In at the ZnO cation site after annealing was confirmed. (Author)

  13. Field Investigation Plan for 1301-N and 1325-N Facilities Sampling to Support Remedial Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    This field investigation plan (FIP) provides for the sampling and analysis activities supporting the remedial design planning for the planned removal action for the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities (LWDFs), which are treatment, storage,and disposal (TSD) units (cribs/trenches). The planned removal action involves excavation, transportation, and disposal of contaminated material at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF).An engineering study (BHI 1997) was performed to develop and evaluate various options that are predominantly influenced by the volume of high- and low-activity contaminated soil requiring removal. The study recommended that additional sampling be performed to supplement historical data for use in the remedial design

  14. Imaging samples larger than the field of view: the SLS experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Lovric, Goran; Cremona, Tiziana P.; Arcadu, Filippo; Patera, Alessandra; Schittny, Johannes C.; Stampanoni, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Volumetric datasets with micrometer spatial and sub-second temporal resolutions are nowadays routinely acquired using synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). Although SRXTM technology allows the examination of multiple samples with short scan times, many specimens are larger than the field-of-view (FOV) provided by the detector. The extension of the FOV in the direction perpendicular to the rotation axis remains non-trivial. We present a method that can efficiently increase the FOV merging volumetric datasets obtained by region-of-interest tomographies in different 3D positions of the sample with a minimal amount of artefacts and with the ability to handle large amounts of data. The method has been successfully applied for the three-dimensional imaging of a small number of mouse lung acini of intact animals, where pixel sizes down to the micrometer range and short exposure times are required.

  15. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. - Highlights: • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution determined for FE-EPMA. • Detection sensitivity of FE-EPMA greatly superior to that of STEM-EDX. • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution controllable by probe current

  16. Membrane solid-phase extraction: Field application for isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Gates, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes (M-SPE) were used to isolate microgram-per-liter to nanogram-per-liter quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 4- to 8-liter ground-water samples from a crude-oil-contaminated ground-water site near Bemidji, Minnesota. The M-SPE method was evaluated (1) under laboratory conditions using reagent water fortified with individual PAH at 1.23 micrograms per liter, and (2) at the Bemidji site. At the site, ground-water samples were processed and PAH isolated using a M-SPE system connected directly to the well pump. Following sample isolation, all M-SPE samples were extracted using dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. Operationally, the M-SPE method provided a simple means to isolate PAH on site at the wellhead, particularly for anoxic water samples. Acceptable recoveries, ranging from 56 to over 100 percent, were observed for lower molecular weight PAH (naphthalene to pyrene) using the M-SPE method. Recoveries using M-SPE were somewhat lower, but reproducible, for higher molecular weight PAH (chrysene to benzo[ghi]perylene), ranging from 18 to 56 percent. M-SPE provides the capability to collect and field isolate PAH from a sufficiently large number of samples to identify environmental chemical processes occurring at individual compound concentrations of 50 to 1,200 nanograms per liter. Using M-SPE, the potential for facilitated transport of PAH by in situ-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated at the site. Plots comparing DOC and PAH concentrations indicate that PAH concentrations increase exponentially with linear increases in DOC concentrations

  17. Feynman diagrams sampling for quantum field theories on the QPACE 2 supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappl, Florian

    2016-08-01

    This work discusses the application of Feynman diagram sampling in quantum field theories. The method uses a computer simulation to sample the diagrammatic space obtained in a series expansion. For running large physical simulations powerful computers are obligatory, effectively splitting the thesis in two parts. The first part deals with the method of Feynman diagram sampling. Here the theoretical background of the method itself is discussed. Additionally, important statistical concepts and the theory of the strong force, quantum chromodynamics, are introduced. This sets the context of the simulations. We create and evaluate a variety of models to estimate the applicability of diagrammatic methods. The method is then applied to sample the perturbative expansion of the vertex correction. In the end we obtain the value for the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. The second part looks at the QPACE 2 supercomputer. This includes a short introduction to supercomputers in general, as well as a closer look at the architecture and the cooling system of QPACE 2. Guiding benchmarks of the InfiniBand network are presented. At the core of this part, a collection of best practices and useful programming concepts are outlined, which enables the development of efficient, yet easily portable, applications for the QPACE 2 system.

  18. Classification of underwater targets from autonomous underwater vehicle sampled bistatic acoustic scattered fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)].

  19. Near-field acoustic holography using sparse regularization and compressive sampling principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Gilles; Daudet, Laurent; Peillot, Antoine; Ollivier, François; Bertin, Nancy; Gribonval, Rémi

    2012-09-01

    Regularization of the inverse problem is a complex issue when using near-field acoustic holography (NAH) techniques to identify the vibrating sources. This paper shows that, for convex homogeneous plates with arbitrary boundary conditions, alternative regularization schemes can be developed based on the sparsity of the normal velocity of the plate in a well-designed basis, i.e., the possibility to approximate it as a weighted sum of few elementary basis functions. In particular, these techniques can handle discontinuities of the velocity field at the boundaries, which can be problematic with standard techniques. This comes at the cost of a higher computational complexity to solve the associated optimization problem, though it remains easily tractable with out-of-the-box software. Furthermore, this sparsity framework allows us to take advantage of the concept of compressive sampling; under some conditions on the sampling process (here, the design of a random array, which can be numerically and experimentally validated), it is possible to reconstruct the sparse signals with significantly less measurements (i.e., microphones) than classically required. After introducing the different concepts, this paper presents numerical and experimental results of NAH with two plate geometries, and compares the advantages and limitations of these sparsity-based techniques over standard Tikhonov regularization.

  20. Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland

  1. Focussed ion beam thin sample microanalysis using a field emission gun electron probe microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Field emission gun electron probe microanalysis (FEG-EPMA) in conjunction with wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry using a low acceleration voltage (V acc) allows elemental analysis with sub-micrometre lateral spatial resolution (SR). However, this degree of SR does not necessarily meet the requirements associated with increasingly miniaturised devices. Another challenge related to performing FEG-EPMA with a low V acc is that the accuracy of quantitative analyses is adversely affected, primarily because low energy X-ray lines such as the L- and M-lines must be employed and due to the potential of line interference. One promising means of obtaining high SR with FEG-EPMA is to use thin samples together with high V acc values. This mini-review covers the basic principles of thin-sample FEG-EPMA and describes an application of this technique to the analysis of optical fibres. Outstanding issues related to this technique that must be addressed are also discussed, which include the potential for electron beam damage during analysis of insulating materials and the development of methods to use thin samples for quantitative analysis.

  2. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved

  3. Solar magnetic field studies using the 12 micron emission lines. II - Stokes profiles and vector field samples in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagama, Tilak; Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Osherovich, Vladimir; Wiedemann, Gunter; Zipoy, David; Mickey, Donald L.; Garcia, Howard

    1993-01-01

    Polarimetric observations at 12 microns of two sunpots are reported. The horizontal distribution of parameters such as magnetic field strength, inclination, azimuth, and magnetic field filling factors are presented along with information about the height dependence of the magnetic field strength. Comparisons with contemporary magnetostatic sunspot models are made. The magnetic data are used to estimate the height of 12 micron line formation. From the data, it is concluded that within a stable sunspot there are no regions that are magnetically filamentary, in the sense of containing both strong-field and field-free regions.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3α-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered.

  5. Culture-specific influences on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women: the roles of faith and traditional fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Giving Students Control over Their Learning; from Self-guided Museum Visits and Field Trips to Using Scanning Technology to Link Content to Earth Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Phipps, M.

    2011-12-01

    While it may seem counterintuitive, sometimes stepping back is one of the more effective pedagogical approaches instructors can make. On museum visits, an instructor's presence fundamentally alters students' experiences and can curtail student learning by limiting questions or discouraging students from exploring their own interests. Students often rely on the instructor and become passive observers, rather than engaged learners. As an alternative to instructor-led visits, self-guided student explorations of museum exhibits proved to be both popular and pedagogically effective. On pre-instruction and post-instruction surveys, these ungraded, self-guided explorations match or exceed the efficacy of traditional graded lab instruction and completely eclipse gains normally achieved by traditional lecture instruction. In addition, these explorations achieve the remarkable goal of integrating undergraduate earth science instruction into students' social lives. Based on the success of the self-guided museum explorations, this fall saw the debut of an attempt to expand this concept to field experiences. A self-guided student field exploration of Saint Anthony Falls focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the waterfalls' evolution, its early interpretation by 18th and 19th century Dakota and Euro-America societies, and its subsequent social and economic impacts on Upper Midwest societies. Self-guided explorations allow students to explore field settings on their own or with friends and family in a more relaxed manner. At the same time, these explorations give students control over, and responsibility for, their own learning - a powerful pedagogical approach. Student control over their learning is also the goal of an initiative to use scanning technologies, such as linear bar codes, 2D barcodes and radio-frequency identification (RFID), to revolutionize sample identification and study. Scanning technology allows students to

  7. Whole arm manipulation planning based on feedback velocity fields and sampling-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, B; Abdollahi, F; Talebi, H A; Omidi Karkani, E

    2013-09-01

    Changing the configuration of a cooperative whole arm manipulator is not easy while enclosing an object. This difficulty is mainly because of risk of jamming caused by kinematic constraints. To reduce this risk, this paper proposes a feedback manipulation planning algorithm that takes grasp kinematics into account. The idea is based on a vector field that imposes perturbation in object motion inducing directions when the movement is considerably along manipulator redundant directions. Obstacle avoidance problem is then considered by combining the algorithm with sampling-based techniques. As experimental results confirm, the proposed algorithm is effective in avoiding jamming as well as obstacles for a 6-DOF dual arm whole arm manipulator. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uniform field loop-gap resonator and rectangular TEU02 for aqueous sample EPR at 94 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Sarna, Tadeusz; Mett, Richard R.; Hyde, James S.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present the design and implementation of two uniform-field resonators: a seven-loop-six-gap loop-gap resonator (LGR) and a rectangular TEU02 cavity resonator. Each resonator has uniform-field-producing end-sections. These resonators have been designed for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of aqueous samples at 94 GHz. The LGR geometry employs low-loss Rexolite end-sections to improve the field homogeneity over a 3 mm sample region-of-interest from near-cosine distribution to 90% uniform. The LGR was designed to accommodate large degassable Polytetrafluorethylen (PTFE) tubes (0.81 mm O.D.; 0.25 mm I.D.) for aqueous samples. Additionally, field modulation slots are designed for uniform 100 kHz field modulation incident at the sample. Experiments using a point sample of lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) were performed to measure both the uniformity of the microwave magnetic field and 100 kHz field modulation, and confirm simulations. The rectangular TEU02 cavity resonator employs over-sized end-sections with sample shielding to provide an 87% uniform field for a 0.1 × 2 × 6 mm3 sample geometry. An evanescent slotted window was designed for light access to irradiate 90% of the sample volume. A novel dual-slot iris was used to minimize microwave magnetic field perturbations and maintain cross-sectional uniformity. Practical EPR experiments using the application of light irradiated rose bengal (4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2‧,4‧,5‧,7‧-tetraiodofluorescein) were performed in the TEU02 cavity. The implementation of these geometries providing a practical designs for uniform field resonators that continue resonator advancements towards quantitative EPR spectroscopy.

  9. Acute Effects of Exposure to a Traditional Rural Environment on Urban Dwellers: A Crossover Field Study in Terraced Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyoung Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing attention and public preference for rural amenities, little evidence is available on the health benefits of a rural environment. In this study, we identified physiological and psychological benefits of exposure to a rural environment using multiparametric methods. Twelve young male adults participated in a 3-day field experiment (mean ± standard deviation age, 22.3 ± 1.3 years. Sleeping environment, diet program, physical activities, and other factors possibly affecting physiological responses were controlled during experiment period. For all participants, salivary cortisol concentration, heart rate variability, and blood pressure were measured at rural and urban field sites. Self-evaluation questionnaires were administered to analyze the psychological states in two different environments. Volatile compounds in the air were also analyzed to investigate air quality. The data were compared between rural and urban environments. The data showed that exposure to a rural environment reduced stress hormone secretion and sympathetic nervous activity and increased parasympathetic nervous activity. Short-term exposure to a rural environment also improved mood states. Our findings indicate that exposure to a rural environment effectively reduced physiological stress and enhanced psychological well-being.

  10. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  11. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information-inside hotspots or in search of them-based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km2. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Exponentially Biased Ground-State Sampling of Quantum Annealing Machines with Transverse-Field Driving Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2017-02-17

    We study the performance of the D-Wave 2X quantum annealing machine on systems with well-controlled ground-state degeneracy. While obtaining the ground state of a spin-glass benchmark instance represents a difficult task, the gold standard for any optimization algorithm or machine is to sample all solutions that minimize the Hamiltonian with more or less equal probability. Our results show that while naive transverse-field quantum annealing on the D-Wave 2X device can find the ground-state energy of the problems, it is not well suited in identifying all degenerate ground-state configurations associated with a particular instance. Even worse, some states are exponentially suppressed, in agreement with previous studies on toy model problems [New J. Phys. 11, 073021 (2009)NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073021]. These results suggest that more complex driving Hamiltonians are needed in future quantum annealing machines to ensure a fair sampling of the ground-state manifold.

  13. What have we learned from intensive atmospheric sampling field programmes of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Wofsy, S.C.; Daube, B.C.; Matross, D.M.; Chow, V.Y.; Gottlieb, E.; Pathmathevan, M.; Munger, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal gradients in atmospheric CO 2 contain signatures of carbon fluxes, and as part of inverse studies,these signatures have been combined with atmospheric models to infer carbon sources and sinks. However, such studies have yet to yield finer-scale, regional fluxes over the continent that can be linked to ecosystem processes and ground-based observations. The reasons for this gap are twofold: lack of atmospheric observations over the continent and model deficiencies in interpreting such observations. This paper describes a series of intensive atmospheric sampling field programmes designed as pilot experiments to bridge the observational gap over the continent and to help test and develop models to interpret these observations. We summarize recent results emerging from this work,outlining the role of the intensive atmospheric programmes in collecting CO 2 data in both the vertical and horizontal dimensions. These data: (1) quantitatively establish the spatial variability of CO 2 and the associated errors from neglecting this variability in models; (2) directly measure regional carbon fluxes from airmass-following experiments and (3) challenge models to reduce and account for uncertainties in atmospheric transport. We conclude with a look towards the future, outlining ways in which intensive atmospheric sampling can contribute towards advancing carbon science

  14. Field-amplified sample stacking-sweeping of vitamins B determination in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziomba, Szymon; Kowalski, Piotr; Bączek, Tomasz

    2012-12-07

    A capillary electrophoretic method for determination of five water soluble vitamins B along with baclofen as an internal standard has been developed and assessed in context of precision, accuracy, sensitivity, freedom from interference, linearity, detection and quantification limits. On-line preconcentration technique, namely field-amplified sample stacking (FASS)-sweeping, has been employed in respect to obtain more sensitive analysis. Separation conditions received after optimization procedure were as following background electrolyte (BGE), 10 mM NaH(2)PO(4), 80 mM SDS, (pH 7.25); sample matrix (SM), 10 mM NaH(2)PO(4) (pH 4.60); uncoated fused silica capillary (50 μm i.d. × 67 cm length); UV spectrophotometric detection at 200 nm; injection times: 10s and 30s at 3.45 kPa; applied voltage 22 kV; temperature 22°C. Validation parameters, namely precision, accuracy and linearity, were considered as satisfactory. Under the optimized conditions, it has been also successfully applied for vitamins B determination in bacterial growth medium and commercially available Ilex paraguariensis leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultra-wide field imaging system and traditional retinal examinations for screening fundus changes after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Zhang, Qi; Jin, Hai-Ying; Lu, Wu-Yi; Zhao, Pei-Quan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the results of non-mydriatic ultra-wide field imaging system, mydriatic slit-lamp lens (Volk +90 D) and mydriatic Goldmann three-mirror contact lens examinations in screening fundus lesions among patients after cataract surgery. Non-mydriatic images were obtained with an Optomap panoramic 200Tx (Optomap 200Tx) 3d after surgery and graded by a blinded ophthalmologist. A mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination was performed by another blinded retinal specialist on the same day. A third blinded retinal specialist examined patients two weeks after surgery using a Goldmann three-mirror contact lens. In total, 160 patients (184 eyes) were examined, and 66, 69, and 75 cases of retinal lesion(s) were identified using the Optomap 200Tx, slit-lamp lens, and Goldmann three-mirror contact lens, respectively. In 13 cases, fundus changes were sight-threatening. The results obtained by Optomap 200Tx examination and by mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination have good consistency (P=0.375, Kappa=0.942). The mydriatic Goldmann three-mirror lens examination revealed more fundus lesions but are consistent with Optomap 200Tx (P=0.004, Kappa=0.897) and mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination (P=0.031, Kappa=0.932). Early post-operative fundus screening in cataract patients is extremely important and necessary to prevent further vision loss. Wide-field imaging is a feasible and convenient tool for fundus examination that can be used as a primary screening method among patients after cataract surgery.

  16. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka, E-mail: Agnieszka.Galuszka@ujk.edu.pl [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Migaszewski, Zdzisław M. [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Namieśnik, Jacek [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicz St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  17. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M.; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  18. Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, A C; Mwinuka, V; Malema, S S; Glynn, J R; Fine, P E

    2001-01-01

    Selection bias, particularly of controls, is common in case-control studies and may materially affect the results. Methods of control selection should be tailored both for the risk factors and disease under investigation and for the population being studied. We present here a control selection method devised for a case-control study of tuberculosis in rural Africa (Karonga, northern Malawi) that selects an age/sex frequency-matched random sample of the population, with a geographical distribution in proportion to the population density. We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings.

  19. Assessing five field sampling methods to monitor Yellowstone National Park's northern ungulate winter range: the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a new sampling protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela G. Sikkink; Roy Renkin; Geneva Chong; Art Sikkink

    2013-01-01

    The five field sampling methods tested for this study differed in richness and Simpson's Index values calculated from the raw data. How much the methods differed, and which ones were most similar to each other, depended on which diversity measure and which type of data were used for comparisons. When the number of species (richness) was used as a measure of...

  20. Risk factors for pericardial effusion after chemoradiotherapy for thoracic esophageal cancer-comparison of four-field technique and traditional two opposed fields technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Noriko; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Yasushi; Tsuruoka, Shintaro; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Uwatsu, Kotaro; Nagasaki, Kei; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2018-04-11

    Pericardial effusion is an important late toxicity after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced esophageal cancer. We investigated the clinical and dosimetric factors that were related to pericardial effusion among patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who were treated with definitive CCRT using the two opposed fields technique (TFT) or the four-field technique (FFT), as well as the effectiveness of FFT. During 2007-2015, 169 patients with middle and/or lower thoracic esophageal cancer received definitive CCRT, and 94 patients were evaluable (51 FFT cases and 43 TFT cases). Pericardial effusion was observed in 74 patients (79%) and appeared at 1-18.5 months (median: 5.25 months) after CCRT. The 1-year incidences of pericardial effusions were 73.2% and 76.7% in the FFT and TFT groups, respectively (P = 0.6395). The mean doses to the pericardium were 28.6 Gy and 31.8 Gy in the FFT and TFT groups, respectively (P = 0.0259), and the V40 Gy proportions were 33.5% and 48.2% in the FFT and TFT groups, respectively (P effusion was not observed in patients with a pericardial V40 Gy of effusion after CCRT were similar in both groups. As symptomatic pericardial effusion was not observed in patients with a pericardial V40 Gy of effusion.

  1. Development of Methodology and Field Deployable Sampling Tools for Spent Nuclear Fuel Interrogation in Liquid Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-01-01

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  2. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-10-15

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  3. Assessment of outdoor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure through hotspot localization using kriging-based sequential sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Verloock, Leen; Dhaene, Tom; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel methodology is proposed to create heat maps that accurately pinpoint the outdoor locations with elevated exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in an extensive urban region (or, hotspots), and that would allow local authorities and epidemiologists to efficiently assess the locations and spectral composition of these hotspots, while at the same time developing a global picture of the exposure in the area. Moreover, no prior knowledge about the presence of radiofrequency radiation sources (e.g., base station parameters) is required. After building a surrogate model from the available data using kriging, the proposed method makes use of an iterative sampling strategy that selects new measurement locations at spots which are deemed to contain the most valuable information—inside hotspots or in search of them—based on the prediction uncertainty of the model. The method was tested and validated in an urban subarea of Ghent, Belgium with a size of approximately 1 km 2 . In total, 600 input and 50 validation measurements were performed using a broadband probe. Five hotspots were discovered and assessed, with maximum total electric-field strengths ranging from 1.3 to 3.1 V/m, satisfying the reference levels issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for exposure of the general public to RF-EMF. Spectrum analyzer measurements in these hotspots revealed five radiofrequency signals with a relevant contribution to the exposure. The radiofrequency radiation emitted by 900 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base stations was always dominant, with contributions ranging from 45% to 100%. Finally, validation of the subsequent surrogate models shows high prediction accuracy, with the final model featuring an average relative error of less than 2 dB (factor 1.26 in electric-field strength), a correlation coefficient of 0.7, and a specificity of 0.96. -- Highlights: • We present an

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  5. Development of near-field laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sub-micrometric analysis of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Chirelle

    2016-01-01

    A near field laser ablation method was developed for chemical analysis of solid samples at sub-micrometric scale. This analytical technique combines a nanosecond laser Nd:YAG, an atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). In order to improve the spatial resolution of the laser ablation process, the near-field enhancement effect was applied by illuminating, by the laser beam, the apex of the AFM conductive sharp tip maintained at a few nanometers (5 to 30 nm) above the sample surface. The interaction between the illuminated tip and the sample surface enhances locally the incident laser energy and leads to the ablation process. By applying this technique to conducting gold and tantalum samples, and semiconducting silicon sample, a lateral resolution of 100 nm and depths of a few nanometers were demonstrated. Two home-made numerical codes have enabled the study of two phenomena occurring around the tip: the enhancement of the laser electrical field by tip effect, and the induced laser heating at the sample surface. The influence of the main operating parameters on these two phenomena, amplification and heating, was studied. an experimental multi-parametric study was carried out in order to understand the effect of different experimental parameters (laser fluence, laser wavelength, number of laser pulses, tip-to-sample distance, sample and tip nature) on the near-field laser ablation efficiency, crater dimensions and amount of ablated material. (author) [fr

  6. TRAN-STAT, Issue No. 3, January 1978. Topics discussed: some statistical aspects of compositing field samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Some statistical aspects of compositing field samples of soils for determining the content of Pu are discussed. Some of the potential problems involved in pooling samples are reviewed. This is followed by more detailed discussions and examples of compositing designs, adequacy of mixing, statistical models and their role in compositing, and related topics

  7. Field experience of a project with the Dutch Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) and traditional wind pumps in Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslag, H.A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the title project, which started in October 1986, was to promote the use of wind energy in Nicaragua by means of a study on the wind potential, the production and use of wind pumps, and repairs of traditional wind pumps. Involved in the project were a Dutch project coordinator, a Dutch, a German and a Danish advisor for the technical aspects and a Dutch advisor for irrigation. The Nicaraguan National Institute of Energy coordinated the project until 1988. Then the (state) factory, where the mills were manufactured, took over. The study on the wind potential was only partly completed. The production was done at the state factory in Managua (IMEP), where two models were produced: a traditional mill with a rotor of 3 meter, and a CWD-mill with a rotor of 5 meter. Adaptations, based on field experiences, were made in the CWD-model in the third year of the project. The total production after 4 years was 50 mills of 3 meter and 15 mills of 5 meter. The objective was 200 mills per year after the third year of the project. Of the 3 meter mill, 35 were installed and used mainly for cattle watering (sales price US$ 2,200). Of the 5 meter mill, 7 were installed in demonstration projects for small-scale irrigation (sales price US$ 4,000). The production rate of the 3 meter mill at the end of the project was 10 mills per 8 weeks. Production of the 5 meter mill stopped for several reasons, but may go on when adaptations in the mill prove to be effective. Repairs of the traditional mills could not be realized. The overall conclusion is that the achievements of the project were lower than the original objectives for reasons which are formulated in the conclusions. 3 ills

  8. Choice of sample size for high transport critical current density in a granular superconductor: percolation versus self-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulet, R.; Diaz, O.; Altshuler, E.

    1997-01-01

    The percolative character of the current paths and the self-field effects were considered to estimate optimal sample dimensions for the transport current of a granular superconductor by means of a Monte Carlo algorithm and critical-state model calculations. We showed that, under certain conditions, self-field effects are negligible and the J c dependence on sample dimensions is determined by the percolative character of the current. Optimal dimensions are demonstrated to be a function of the fraction of superconducting phase in the sample. (author)

  9. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-01-01

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  10. Partitioning of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in the marine environment: Field samplings vs laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Brownawell, Bruce J. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); González-Mazo, Eduardo [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Lara-Martín, Pablo A., E-mail: pablo.lara@uca.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) constitute the most important group of non-ionic surfactants, used in a wide range of applications such as household cleaners and detergents. Significant amounts of these compounds and their degradation products (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) reach aquatic environments, and are eliminated from the water column by degradation and sorption processes. This work deals with the environmental distribution of AEOs and PEGs in the Long Island Sound Estuary, a setting impacted by sewage discharges from New York City (NYC). The distribution of target compounds in seawater was influenced by tides, consistent with salinity differences, and concentrations in suspended solid samples ranged from 1.5 to 20.5 μg/g. The more hydrophobic AEOs were mostly attached to the particulate matter whereas the more polar PEGs were predominant in the dissolved form. Later, the sorption of these chemicals was characterized in the laboratory. Experimental and environmental sorption coefficients for AEOs and PEGs showed average values from 3607 to 164,994 L/kg and from 74 to 32,862 L/kg, respectively. The sorption data were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model with parameters n and log K{sub F} between 0.8–1.2 and 1.46–4.39 L/kg, respectively. AEO and PEG sorptions on marine sediment were also found to be mostly not affected by changes in salinity. - Highlights: • AEO and PEG levels in estuaries are influenced by tides and suspended solids. • Sediment–water partition coefficients in the lab and in the field are comparable. • Sorption is depending on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. • Sorption data fits Freundlich isotherms, showing K{sub F} values from 29 to 24,892 L/kg. • Sorption is very weakly influenced by salinity changes.

  11. Kolmogorov similarity hypotheses for scalar fields: sampling intermittent turbulent mixing in the ocean and galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Kolmogorov's three universal similarity hypotheses are extrapolated to describe scalar fields like temperature mixed by turbulence. The analogous first and second hypotheses for scalars include the effects of Prandtl number and rate-of-strain mixing. Application of velocity and scalar similarity hypotheses to the ocean must take into account the damping of active turbulence by density stratification and the Earth's rotation to form fossil turbulence. By the analogous Kolmogorov third hypothesis for scalars, temperature dissipation rates χ averaged over lengths r > L K should be lognormally distributed with intermittency factors σ 2 that increase with increasing turbulence energy length scales L O as σ ln r 2 approx = μ θ ln(L O /r). Tests of kolmogorovian velocity and scalar universal similarity hypotheses for very large ranges of turbulence length and timescales are provided by data from the ocean and the galactic interstellar medium. These ranges are from 1 to 9 decades in the ocean, and over 12 decades in the interstellar medium. The universal constant for turbulent mixing intermittency μ θ is estimated from oceanic data to be 0.44±0.01, which is remarkably close to estimates for Kolmorgorov's turbulence intermittency constant μ of 0.45±0.05 from galactic as well as atmospheric data. Extreme intermittency complicates the oceanic sampling problem, and may lead to quantitative and qualitative undersampling errors in estimates of mean oceanic dissipation rates and fluxes. Intermittency of turbulence and mixing in the interstellar medium may be a factor in the formation of stars. (author)

  12. Measurement of the torque on diluted ferrofluid samples in rotating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storozhenko, A.M. [Southwest State University, Kursk, 305040 (Russian Federation); Stannarius, R. [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 39016 Germany (Germany); Tantsyura, A.O.; Shabanova, I.A. [Southwest State University, Kursk, 305040 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    We study magnetic suspensions with different concentrations of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a spherical container under the action of a rotating magnetic field. Experimental data on the concentration dependence of the rotational effect, viz. the torque exerted by the magnetic field, are presented. We explain the observed torque characteristics using a model that takes into account field-driven aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles in stationary or slowly rotating fields. At sufficiently high rotation rates, the rotating magnetic field obviously destroys these aggregates, which results in a decreasing torque with increasing rotation frequency of the field. - Highlights: • The experimental study of the rotational effect in the magnetic fluids is presented. • The torque density non-monotonously depends on the magnetic field frequency. • Experimental data can be explained assuming aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles.

  13. Measurement of the torque on diluted ferrofluid samples in rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storozhenko, A.M.; Stannarius, R.; Tantsyura, A.O.; Shabanova, I.A.

    2017-01-01

    We study magnetic suspensions with different concentrations of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a spherical container under the action of a rotating magnetic field. Experimental data on the concentration dependence of the rotational effect, viz. the torque exerted by the magnetic field, are presented. We explain the observed torque characteristics using a model that takes into account field-driven aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles in stationary or slowly rotating fields. At sufficiently high rotation rates, the rotating magnetic field obviously destroys these aggregates, which results in a decreasing torque with increasing rotation frequency of the field. - Highlights: • The experimental study of the rotational effect in the magnetic fluids is presented. • The torque density non-monotonously depends on the magnetic field frequency. • Experimental data can be explained assuming aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles.

  14. Peer-harassment prevalence in self-reports by primary and lower secondary school students. Statistical comparisons of samples from years 2000 and 2013, investigating traditional and cyber-harassment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmen, Kari Jeanette Langseth

    2015-01-01

    Comparative investigation of traditional peer-harassment and cyber-harassment prevalence, examining first year baseline sample of a longitudinal project in a North-Norwegian setting. Thesis contributes into a main study, “Trivsel i Tromsø” (“Well-being in Tromsø”), which aims to examine psychosocial and psychiatric risk factor associations with bullying and cyberbullying, using a combination of survey tools. The thesis explore one of the three survey tools. Investigation of sample administere...

  15. Risk Attitudes, Sample Selection and Attrition in a Longitudinal Field Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    with respect to risk attitudes. Our design builds in explicit randomization on the incentives for participation. We show that there are significant sample selection effects on inferences about the extent of risk aversion, but that the effects of subsequent sample attrition are minimal. Ignoring sample...... selection leads to inferences that subjects in the population are more risk averse than they actually are. Correcting for sample selection and attrition affects utility curvature, but does not affect inferences about probability weighting. Properly accounting for sample selection and attrition effects leads...... to findings of temporal stability in overall risk aversion. However, that stability is around different levels of risk aversion than one might naively infer without the controls for sample selection and attrition we are able to implement. This evidence of “randomization bias” from sample selection...

  16. Integrating Field-Based Research into the Classroom: An Environmental Sampling Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSutter, T.; Viall, E.; Rijal, I.; Murdoff, M.; Guy, A.; Pang, X.; Koltes, S.; Luciano, R.; Bai, X.; Zitnick, K.; Wang, S.; Podrebarac, F.; Casey, F.; Hopkins, D.

    2010-01-01

    A field-based, soil methods, and instrumentation course was developed to expose graduate students to numerous strategies for measuring soil parameters. Given the northern latitude of North Dakota State University and the rapid onset of winter, this course met once per week for the first 8 weeks of the fall semester and centered on the field as a…

  17. A multi-site recycled tire crumb rubber characterization study: recruitment strategy and field sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of tire crumb rubber infill used in synthetic turf fields. In response, the 2016 Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP) was developed to examine key envir...

  18. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, A.J.; Ryan, E.H.; Huntley, H.S.; Laurindo, L.C.; Coelho, E.; Ozgokmen, TM; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D; Chen, S.S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K.L.; Gough, M; Haus, BK; Haza, A.C.; Hogan, P

    2016-01-01

    The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the velocity field and its statistical parameters are non-Gaussian; most are multimodal. The dominant periods for the surface velocity field are 1–2 days due to inertial oscillations, tides, and the sea b...

  19. Method Evaluation And Field Sample Measurements For The Rate Of Movement Of The Oxidation Front In Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Stefanko, D. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Spencer, W. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hatfield, A. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Arai, Y. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-08-23

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a series of methods and validate their capability to measure differences in oxidized versus reduced saltstone. Validated methods were then applied to samples cured under field conditions to simulate Performance Assessment (PA) needs for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Four analytical approaches were evaluated using laboratory-cured saltstone samples. These methods were X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), chemical redox indicators, and thin-section leaching methods. XAS and thin-section leaching methods were validated as viable methods for studying oxidation movement in saltstone. Each method used samples that were spiked with chromium (Cr) as a tracer for oxidation of the saltstone. The two methods were subsequently applied to field-cured samples containing chromium to characterize the oxidation state of chromium as a function of distance from the exposed air/cementitious material surface.

  20. Original methods of quantitative analysis developed for diverse samples in various research fields. Quantitative analysis at NMCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC) has been opened for nationwide-common utilization of positron nuclear medicine (PET) and PIXE since April 1993. At the present time, nearly 40 subjects of PIXE in various research fields are pursued here, and more than 50,000 samples have been analyzed up to the present. In order to perform quantitative analyses of diverse samples, technical developments in sample preparation, measurement and data analysis have been continuously carried out. Especially, a standard-free method for quantitative analysis'' made it possible to perform analysis of infinitesimal samples, powdered samples and untreated bio samples, which could not be well analyzed quantitatively in the past. The standard-free method'' and a ''powdered internal standard method'' made the process for target preparation quite easier. It has been confirmed that results obtained by these methods show satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility preventing any ambiguity coming from complicated target preparation processes. (author)

  1. Pre-Mission Input Requirements to Enable Successful Sample Collection by a Remote Field/EVA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Young, K. E.; Lim, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to evaluate the sample collection process with respect to sample characterization and decision making. In some cases, it may be sufficient to know whether a given outcrop or hand sample is the same as or different from previous sampling localities or samples. In other cases, it may be important to have more in-depth characterization of the sample, such as basic composition, mineralogy, and petrology, in order to effectively identify the best sample. Contextual field observations, in situ/handheld analysis, and backroom evaluation may all play a role in understanding field lithologies and their importance for return. For example, whether a rock is a breccia or a clast-laden impact melt may be difficult based on a single sample, but becomes clear as exploration of a field site puts it into context. The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is a new activity focused on a science and exploration field based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We used the FINESSE field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure (WCIS) as an opportunity to test factors related to sampling decisions. In contract to other technology-driven NASA analog studies, The FINESSE WCIS activity is science-focused, and moreover, is sampling-focused, with the explicit intent to return the best samples for geochronology studies in the laboratory. This specific objective effectively reduces the number of variables in the goals of the field test and enables a more controlled investigation of the role of the crewmember in selecting samples. We formulated one hypothesis to test: that providing details regarding the analytical fate of the samples (e.g. geochronology, XRF/XRD, etc.) to the crew prior to their traverse will result in samples that are more likely to meet specific analytical

  2. Field test and calibration of neutron coincidence counters for high-mass plutonium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Dickinson, R.J.; Douglas, I.

    1987-02-01

    Five different neutron coincidence systems were evaluated and calibrated for high-mass PuO 2 samples. The samples were from 2 to 7.2 kg of PuO 2 in mass, with a large range of burnup. This report compares the equipment and the results, with an evaluation of deadtime and multiplication corrections

  3. Reverse sample genome probing, a new technique for identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization, and its application to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voordouw, G.; Voordouw, J.K.; Karkhoff-Schweizer, R.R.; Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization is presented. It is based on the fact that, even within a genus, the genomes of different bacteria may have little overall sequence homology. This allows the use of the labeled genomic DNA of a given bacterium (referred to as a standard) to probe for its presence and that of bacteria with highly homologous genomes in total DNA obtained from an environmental sample. Alternatively, total DNA extracted from the sample can be labeled and used to probe filters on which denatured chromosomal DNA from relevant bacterial standards has been spotted. The latter technique is referred to as reverse sample genome probing, since it is the reverse of the usual practice of deriving probes from reference bacteria for analyzing a DNA sample. Reverse sample genome probing allows identification of bacteria in a sample in a single step once a master filter with suitable standards has been developed. Application of reverse sample genome probing to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in 31 samples obtained primarily from oil fields in the province of Alberta has indicated that there are at least 20 genotypically different sulfate-reducing bacteria in these samples

  4. Separation and characterization of nanoparticles in complex food and environmental samples by field-flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Frank von der; Legros, Samuel; Hofmann, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    The thorough analysis of natural nanoparticles (NPs) and engineered NPs involves the sequence of detection, identification, quantification and, if possible, detailed characterization. In a complex or heterogeneous sample, each step of this sequence is an individual challenge, and, given suitable...... has been applied for separation of various types of NP (e.g., organic macromolecules, and carbonaceous or inorganic NPs) in different types of media (e.g., natural waters, soil extracts or food samples).FFF can be coupled to different types of detectors that offer additional information...... conditions on all types of NP in the sample. A holistic methodological approach is preferable to a technique-focused one....

  5. Field sampling and data analysis methods for development of ecological land classifications: an application on the Manistee National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Host; Carl W. Ramm; Eunice A. Padley; Kurt S. Pregitzer; James B. Hart; David T. Cleland

    1992-01-01

    Presents technical documentation for development of an Ecological Classification System for the Manistee National Forest in northwest Lower Michigan, and suggests procedures applicable to other ecological land classification projects. Includes discussion of sampling design, field data collection, data summarization and analyses, development of classification units,...

  6. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  7. Mapping Fish Community Variables by Integrating Field and Satellite Data, Object-Based Image Analysis and Modeling in a Traditional Fijian Fisheries Management Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Jupiter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of marine spatial planning for zoning multi-use areas is growing in both developed and developing countries. Comprehensive maps of marine resources, including those important for local fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, provide a crucial foundation of information for the planning process. Using a combination of field and high spatial resolution satellite data, we use an empirical procedure to create a bathymetric map (RMSE 1.76 m and object-based image analysis to produce accurate maps of geomorphic and benthic coral reef classes (Kappa values of 0.80 and 0.63; 9 and 33 classes, respectively covering a large (>260 km2 traditional fisheries management area in Fiji. From these maps, we derive per-pixel information on habitat richness, structural complexity, coral cover and the distance from land, and use these variables as input in models to predict fish species richness, diversity and biomass. We show that random forest models outperform five other model types, and that all three fish community variables can be satisfactorily predicted from the high spatial resolution satellite data. We also show geomorphic zone to be the most important predictor on average, with secondary contributions from a range of other variables including benthic class, depth, distance from land, and live coral cover mapped at coarse spatial scales, suggesting that data with lower spatial resolution and lower cost may be sufficient for spatial predictions of the three fish community variables.

  8. Study of Low Temperature Baking Effect on Field Emission on Nb Samples Treated by BEP, EP, and BCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Andy; Jin, Song; Rimmer, Robert; Lu, Xiang Yang; Zhao, K.; MacIntyre, Laura; Ike, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Field emission is still one of the major obstacles facing Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) community for allowing Nb SRF cavities to reach routinely accelerating gradient of 35 MV/m that is required for the international linear collider. Nowadays, the well know low temperature baking at 120 C for 48 hours is a common procedure used in the SRF community to improve the high field Q slope. However, some cavity production data have showed that the low temperature baking may induce field emission for cavities treated by EP. On the other hand, an earlier study of field emission on Nb flat samples treated by BCP showed an opposite conclusion. In this presentation, the preliminary measurements of Nb flat samples treated by BEP, EP, and BCP via our unique home-made scanning field emission microscope before and after the low temperature baking are reported. Some correlations between surface smoothness and the number of the observed field emitters were found. The observed experimental results can be understood, at least partially, by a simple model that involves the change of the thickness of the pent-oxide layer on Nb surfaces.

  9. Field and sample history dependence of the compensation temperature in Sm0.97Gd0.03Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, U.V.; Rakhecha, V.C.; Sumithra, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    We present magnetization data on three polycrystalline specimens of Sm 0.97 Gd 0.03 Al 2 : (1) as-cast (grainy texture), (2) powder, and (3) re-melted fast-quenched (plate). The data are presented for nominally zero- (ZFC) and high-field-cooling (HFC) histories. A zero cross-over in magnetization curve at some temperature T=T 0 was seen in ZFC data on grainy and powder samples, but not in the plate sample. At fields surpassing magnetocrystalline anisotropy, a 4f magnetic moment flip was still evidenced by HFC data in all samples at a compensation temperature T comp , which must necessarily be treated as distinct from T 0 (T 0 may not even exist). Proper understanding of T comp should take account of thermomagnetic history effects

  10. Problems with sampling desert tortoises: A simulation analysis based on field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, J.E.; Camp, R.J.; Duda, J.J.; Karl, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) was listed as a U.S. threatened species in 1990 based largely on population declines inferred from mark-recapture surveys of 2.59-km2 (1-mi2) plots. Since then, several census methods have been proposed and tested, but all methods still pose logistical or statistical difficulties. We conducted computer simulations using actual tortoise location data from 2 1-mi2 plot surveys in southern California, USA, to identify strengths and weaknesses of current sampling strategies. We considered tortoise population estimates based on these plots as "truth" and then tested various sampling methods based on sampling smaller plots or transect lines passing through the mile squares. Data were analyzed using Schnabel's mark-recapture estimate and program CAPTURE. Experimental subsampling with replacement of the 1-mi2 data using 1-km2 and 0.25-km2 plot boundaries produced data sets of smaller plot sizes, which we compared to estimates from the 1-mi 2 plots. We also tested distance sampling by saturating a 1-mi 2 site with computer simulated transect lines, once again evaluating bias in density estimates. Subsampling estimates from 1-km2 plots did not differ significantly from the estimates derived at 1-mi2. The 0.25-km2 subsamples significantly overestimated population sizes, chiefly because too few recaptures were made. Distance sampling simulations were biased 80% of the time and had high coefficient of variation to density ratios. Furthermore, a prospective power analysis suggested limited ability to detect population declines as high as 50%. We concluded that poor performance and bias of both sampling procedures was driven by insufficient sample size, suggesting that all efforts must be directed to increasing numbers found in order to produce reliable results. Our results suggest that present methods may not be capable of accurately estimating desert tortoise populations.

  11. Selectivity and limitations of carbon sorption tubes for capturing siloxanes in biogas during field sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2016-06-01

    Siloxane levels in biogas can jeopardize the warranties of the engines used at the biogas to energy facilities. The chemical structure of siloxanes consists of silicon and oxygen atoms, alternating in position, with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon side chain. Siloxanes can be either in cyclic (D) or linear (L) configuration and referred with a letter corresponding to their structure followed by a number corresponding to the number of silicon atoms present. When siloxanes are burned, the hydrocarbon fraction is lost and silicon is converted to silicates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of activated carbon gas samplers for quantitative analysis of siloxanes in biogas samples. Biogas samples were collected from a landfill and an anaerobic digester using multiple carbon sorbent tubes assembled in series. One set of samples was collected for 30min (sampling 6-L gas), and the second set was collected for 60min (sampling 12-L gas). Carbon particles were thermally desorbed and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that biogas sampling using a single tube would not adequately capture octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Even with 4 tubes were used in series, D5 was not captured effectively. The single sorbent tube sampling method was adequate only for capturing trimethylsilanol (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (L2). Affinity of siloxanes for activated carbon decreased with increasing molecular weight. Using multiple carbon sorbent tubes in series can be an appropriate method for developing a standard procedure for determining siloxane levels for low molecular weight siloxanes (up to D3). Appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures should be developed for adequately quantifying the levels of the higher molecular weight siloxanes in biogas with sorbent tubes

  12. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  13. Mass transfer of H2O between petroleum and water: implications for oil field water sample quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, R.A.; Ostvold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Water mass transfer can occur between water and petroleum during changes in pressure and temperature. This process can result in the dilution or concentration of dissolved ions in the water phase of oil field petroleum-water samples. In this study, PVT simulations were undertaken for 4 petroleum-water systems covering a range of reservoir conditions (80-185 o C; 300-1000 bar) and a range of water-petroleum mixtures (volume ratios of 1:1000-300:1000) to quantify the extent of H 2 O mass transfer as a result of pressure and temperature changes. Conditions were selected to be relevant to different types of oil field water sample (i.e. surface, downhole and core samples). The main variables determining the extent of dilution and concentration were found to be: (a) reservoir pressure and temperature, (b) pressure and temperature of separation of water and petroleum, (c) petroleum composition, and (d) petroleum:water ratio (PWR). The results showed that significant dilution and concentration of water samples could occur, particularly at high PWR. It was not possible to establish simple guidelines for identifying good and poor quality samples due to the interplay of the above variables. Sample quality is best investigated using PVT software of the type used in this study. (author)

  14. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  15. Biamperometric estimation of uranium in input KMP samples of spent fuel reprocessing plant: field experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurba, P.B.; Dhakras, S.P.; Chaugule, G.A.; Venugopal, A.K.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Nair, P.R.; Xavier, Mary; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Feasibility of simple, precise and accurate biamperometric determination of uranium at about 0.1 mg level was earlier established using simulated uranium standards. To evaluate the usefulness of this method for accurate determination of uranium in spent fuel dissolver solution samples, analytical work was carried out

  16. Field results for line intersect distance sampling of coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. R. Affleck

    2009-01-01

    A growing recognition of the importance of downed woody materials in forest ecosystem processes and global carbon budgets has sharpened the need for efficient sampling strategies that target this resource. Often the aggregate volume, biomass, or carbon content of the downed wood is of primary interest, making recently developed probability proportional-to-volume...

  17. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Summary report, field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-11-01

    A three-phase field sampling program was conducted on the Buttermilk-Cattaraugus Creek system to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Phase 1 of the sampling program was conducted during November and December 1977; Phase 2 during September 1978; and Phase 3 during April 1979. Bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples were collected over a 45-mile reach of the creek system. Bed sediment samples were also collected at the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek in Lake Erie. A fourth sampling trip was conducted during May 1980 to obtain supplementary channel geometry data and flood plain sediment samples. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, CS-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks

  18. Measurement of the surface field on open magnetic samples by the extrapolation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2005), 104701/1-104701/7 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/04/P010; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic field measurement * extrapolation * air gaps * magnetic permeability Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  19. Investigation of the radiation level and electromagnetic field strength in sample of Damascus schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Abukassem, I.; Raja, G.; Algamdi, H.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine radon concentration and natural gamma dose rate, and to measure the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) level produced by electric power lines and also mobile phone base station inside some elementary and preparatory schools in old town during two terms (studding terms and summer break). Results showed that most of the obtained values were less than 200 Bq/m 3 the action levels, but there were some classrooms concentrations which are more than 200 Bq/m 3 . These high values may be due to building materials, radon concentration in the soil and poor ventilation. It has been noticed that radon concentrations during the second term (summer) were higher than the first term. This may be due to the poor ventilation as schools are closed during summer break. The results showed also decreasing in radon concentration with increasing height of the floor, and radon concentration in old schools is higher than modern ones. EMFs levels in ground and first floors were higher than second floor; the maximum detected values exceeded 50 V/m and 270 mA/m for electric and magnetic field strength respectively, and 0.5 μT for magnetic flux density. Mobile microwave radiation level was relatively low in all positions, and signal increases with floor height. Finally, no observable correlation between the measured electromagnetic fields and the radon concentration were established.

  20. Sub-microanalysis of solid samples with near-field enhanced atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liang, Zhisen; Meng, Yifan; Wang, Tongtong; Hang, Wei; Huang, Benli

    2018-03-01

    A novel approach, which we have chosen to name it as near-field enhanced atomic emission spectroscopy (NFE-AES), was proposed by introducing a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) system into a laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS). The near-field enhancement of a laser-illuminated tip was utilized to improve the lateral resolution tremendously. Using the hybrid arrangement, pure metal tablets were analyzed to verify the performance of NFE-AES both in atmosphere and in vacuum. Due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the incident electromagnetic field is enhanced and confined at the apex of tip, resulting in sub-micron scale ablation and elemental emission signal. We discovered that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the spectral resolution obtained in vacuum condition are better than those acquired in atmospheric condition. The quantitative capability of NFE-AES was demonstrated by analyzing Al and Pb in Cu matrix, respectively. Submicron-sized ablation craters were achieved by performing NFE-AES on a Si wafer with an Al film, and the spectroscopic information from a crater of 650 nm diameter was successfully obtained. Due to its advantage of high lateral resolution, NFE-AES imaging of micro-patterned Al lines on an integrated circuit of a SIM card was demonstrated with a sub-micron lateral resolution. These results reveal the potential of the NFE-AES technique in sub-microanalysis of solids, opening an opportunity to map chemical composition at sub-micron scale.

  1. Bridging scale gaps between regional maps of forest aboveground biomass and field sampling plots using TanDEM-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, G.

    2017-12-01

    Several large-scale maps of forest AGB have been released [1] [2] [3]. However, these existing global or regional datasets were only approximations based on combining land cover type and representative values instead of measurements of actual forest aboveground biomass or forest heights [4]. Rodríguez-Veiga et al[5] reported obvious discrepancies of existing forest biomass stock maps with in-situ observations in Mexico. One of the biggest challenges to the credibility of these maps comes from the scale gaps between the size of field sampling plots used to develop(or validate) estimation models and the pixel size of these maps and the availability of field sampling plots with sufficient size for the verification of these products [6]. It is time-consuming and labor-intensive to collect sufficient number of field sampling data over the plot size of the same as resolutions of regional maps. The smaller field sampling plots cannot fully represent the spatial heterogeneity of forest stands as shown in Figure 1. Forest AGB is directly determined by forest heights, diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, forest density and tree species. What measured in the field sampling are the geometrical characteristics of forest stands including the DBH, tree heights and forest densities. The LiDAR data is considered as the best dataset for the estimation of forest AGB. The main reason is that LiDAR can directly capture geometrical features of forest stands by its range detection capabilities.The remotely sensed dataset, which is capable of direct measurements of forest spatial structures, may serve as a ladder to bridge the scale gaps between the pixel size of regional maps of forest AGB and field sampling plots. Several researches report that TanDEM-X data can be used to characterize the forest spatial structures [7, 8]. In this study, the forest AGB map of northeast China were produced using ALOS/PALSAR data taking TanDEM-X data as a bridges. The TanDEM-X InSAR data used in

  2. Quantitative Field Testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from Metagenomic Samples Isolated Directly from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the β-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil. PMID:22194958

  3. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 3. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, R.M.; Walters, W.H.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-08-01

    A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during April 1979 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Bed sediment, suspended sediment and water samples were collected during unsteady flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, Cs-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. This field sampling effort was the last of a three phase program to collect hydrologic and radiologic data at different flow conditions

  4. Molecular Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ruminant and Donkey Raw Milk Samples and Traditional Dairy Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Momtaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to detect the virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, in animal milk and dairy products in Iran. After E. coli dentification with culture method, PCR assay were developed for detection of pathogenic genes, serotypes and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli. Results showed that out of 719 samples, 102 (14.18% were confirmed to be positive for E. coli and out of 102 positive samples, 17.64% were O26 and 13.72% were O157 and 1.96% were O91 and 1.96% were O145 serotypes. Totally, the prevalence of stx1 and papA genes were the highest while the prevalence of sfaS and fyuA were the lowest in the positive samples. PCR results showed that tetA, tetB were the highest (64.70% and aac(3-IV were the lowest (27.45% antibiotic resistant genes in E. coli positive samples. Our study indicated that the isolated E. coli trains in these regions had a highest antibiotic resistance to tetracycline (58.82% and the lowest to nitrofurantoin (3.92%. tetA gene and E. coli O157 serotype had highest and aac(3-IV gene, and E. coli O145 serotype had a lowest frequency rates of antibiotics resistance genes, in the region.

  5. Determination of extremely low 236U/238U isotope ratios in environmental samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using high-efficiency sample introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    A method by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Icp-Ms) was developed which allows the measurement of 236 U at concentration ranges down to 3 x 10 -14 g g -1 and extremely low 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios in soil samples of 10 -7 . By using the high-efficiency solution introduction system APEX in connection with a sector-field ICP-MS a sensitivity of more than 5000 counts fg -1 uranium was achieved. The use of an aerosol desolvating unit reduced the formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH + /U + down to a level of 10 -6 . An abundance sensitivity of 3 x 10 -7 was observed for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratio measurements at mass resolution 4000. The detection limit for 236 U and the lowest detectable 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratio were improved by more than two orders of magnitude compared with corresponding values by alpha spectrometry. Determination of uranium in soil samples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) resulted in that the 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratio is a much more sensitive and accurate marker for environmental contamination by spent uranium in comparison to the 235 U/ 238 U isotope ratio. The ICP-MS technique allowed for the first time detection of irradiated uranium in soil samples even at distances more than 200 km to the north of Chernobyl NPP (Mogilev region). The concentration of 236 U in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers varied from 2 x 10 -9 g g -1 within radioactive spots close to the Chernobyl NPP to 3 x 10 -13 g g -1 on a sampling site located by >200 km from Chernobyl

  6. Determination of extremely low (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios in environmental samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using high-efficiency sample introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2006-01-01

    A method by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed which allows the measurement of (236)U at concentration ranges down to 3 x 10(-14)g g(-1) and extremely low (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios in soil samples of 10(-7). By using the high-efficiency solution introduction system APEX in connection with a sector-field ICP-MS a sensitivity of more than 5,000 counts fg(-1) uranium was achieved. The use of an aerosol desolvating unit reduced the formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH(+)/U(+) down to a level of 10(-6). An abundance sensitivity of 3 x 10(-7) was observed for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio measurements at mass resolution 4000. The detection limit for (236)U and the lowest detectable (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio were improved by more than two orders of magnitude compared with corresponding values by alpha spectrometry. Determination of uranium in soil samples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) resulted in that the (236)U/(238)U isotope ratio is a much more sensitive and accurate marker for environmental contamination by spent uranium in comparison to the (235)U/(238)U isotope ratio. The ICP-MS technique allowed for the first time detection of irradiated uranium in soil samples even at distances more than 200 km to the north of Chernobyl NPP (Mogilev region). The concentration of (236)U in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers varied from 2 x 10(-9)g g(-1) within radioactive spots close to the Chernobyl NPP to 3 x 10(-13)g g(-1) on a sampling site located by >200 km from Chernobyl.

  7. Detection of Trypanosoma congolense type savannah in field samples of buffy coats of bovins using PCR-ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidibe, I.

    2007-01-01

    PCR-ELISA was set up to detect strain of Trypanosoma congolense type savannah in field samples of buffy coats. Results of PCR-ELISA and PCR were compared and the sensibility and specificity of both techniques were also compared with those of the method of Murray [1] for the detection of TCS in 257 samples. The PCR products were labelling with DIG-dUTP during amplification cycles of the repetitive satellite DNA. A DNA biotinyled capture probe was used to detect the amplicon by ELISA in streptavidine coated microplates. Both of PCR-ELISA and PCR were more sensible and more specific than the method of Murray. Indeed, for the 257 samples analysed by the three techniques, PCR-ELISA and PCR have detected TCS in 98 and 97 samples respectively, whereas the method of Murray has detected TCS in only 39 samples. In addition, PCRELISA and PCR had almost the same sensibility and specificity. So, PCR-ELISA and PCR have respectively detected TCS in 38.62% and 39.22% of all the 334 samples analysed by both techniques during this study. At the end of this study, the cost of analyse by PCR-ELISA of a sample of buffy coat, was evaluated at 1993 FCFA or Euro 3,04. (author) [fr

  8. Estimating wildfire risk on a Mojave Desert landscape using remote sensing and field sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Linn, Peter F.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Inman, Richard D.; Abella, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting wildfires that affect broad landscapes is important for allocating suppression resources and guiding land management. Wildfire prediction in the south-western United States is of specific concern because of the increasing prevalence and severe effects of fire on desert shrublands and the current lack of accurate fire prediction tools. We developed a fire risk model to predict fire occurrence in a north-eastern Mojave Desert landscape. First we developed a spatial model using remote sensing data to predict fuel loads based on field estimates of fuels. We then modelled fire risk (interactions of fuel characteristics and environmental conditions conducive to wildfire) using satellite imagery, our model of fuel loads, and spatial data on ignition potential (lightning strikes and distance to roads), topography (elevation and aspect) and climate (maximum and minimum temperatures). The risk model was developed during a fire year at our study landscape and validated at a nearby landscape; model performance was accurate and similar at both sites. This study demonstrates that remote sensing techniques used in combination with field surveys can accurately predict wildfire risk in the Mojave Desert and may be applicable to other arid and semiarid lands where wildfires are prevalent.

  9. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  10. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  11. Incorporating covariance estimation uncertainty in spatial sampling design for prediction with trans-Gaussian random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter eSpöck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Spock and Pilz [38], demonstratedthat the spatial sampling design problem forthe Bayesian linear kriging predictor can betransformed to an equivalent experimentaldesign problem for a linear regression modelwith stochastic regression coefficients anduncorrelated errors. The stochastic regressioncoefficients derive from the polar spectralapproximation of the residual process. Thus,standard optimal convex experimental designtheory can be used to calculate optimal spatialsampling designs. The design functionals ̈considered in Spock and Pilz [38] did nottake into account the fact that kriging isactually a plug-in predictor which uses theestimated covariance function. The resultingoptimal designs were close to space-fillingconfigurations, because the design criteriondid not consider the uncertainty of thecovariance function.In this paper we also assume that thecovariance function is estimated, e.g., byrestricted maximum likelihood (REML. Wethen develop a design criterion that fully takesaccount of the covariance uncertainty. Theresulting designs are less regular and space-filling compared to those ignoring covarianceuncertainty. The new designs, however, alsorequire some closely spaced samples in orderto improve the estimate of the covariancefunction. We also relax the assumption ofGaussian observations and assume that thedata is transformed to Gaussianity by meansof the Box-Cox transformation. The resultingprediction method is known as trans-Gaussiankriging. We apply the Smith and Zhu [37]approach to this kriging method and show thatresulting optimal designs also depend on theavailable data. We illustrate our results witha data set of monthly rainfall measurementsfrom Upper Austria.

  12. Detection of pesticides residues in water samples from organic and conventional paddy fields of Ledang, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Ishak, Anizan; Nabhan, Khitam Jaber

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Malaysia during the last few decades. Sixteen water samples, collected from paddy fields both organic and conventional, from Ledang, Johor, were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticide residues. GC-ECD instrument was used to identify and determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were detected in conventional fields in the range about 0.036-0.508 µg/L higher than detected in organic fields about 0.015-0.428 µg/L. However the level of concentration of pesticide residues in water sample from both paddy fields are in the exceed limit for human consumption, according to European Economic Commission (EEC) (Directive 98/83/EC) at 0.1 µg/L for any pesticide or 0.5 µg/L for total pesticides. The results that the organic plot is still contaminated with pesticides although pesticides were not use at all in plot possibly from historical used as well as from airborne contamination.

  13. [Traditional nostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.

  14. NGSI FY15 Final Report. Innovative Sample Preparation for in-Field Uranium Isotopic Determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Thomas M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyers, Lisa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Our FY14 Final Report included an introduction to the project, background, literature search of uranium dissolution methods, assessment of commercial off the shelf (COTS) automated sample preparation systems, as well as data and results for dissolution of bulk quantities of uranium oxides, and dissolution of uranium oxides from swipe filter materials using ammonium bifluoride (ABF). Also, discussed were reaction studies of solid ABF with uranium oxide that provided a basis for determining the ABF/uranium oxide dissolution mechanism. This report details the final experiments for optimizing dissolution of U3O8 and UO2 using ABF and steps leading to development of a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for dissolution of uranium oxides on swipe filters.

  15. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  16. Comparison of field-enhanced and pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection techniques for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins using CZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yaling; Guan, Yu; Jia, Li

    2009-04-01

    A new online concentration method, namely pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection (PA-FESI), was developed and compared with FESI for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins by CZE with UV detection. In PA-FESI, negative voltage and positive pressure were simultaneously applied to initialize PA-FESI. PA-FESI uses the hydrodynamic flow generated by the positive pressure to counterbalance the reverse EOF in the capillary column during electrokinetic sample injection, which allowed a longer injection time than usual FESI mode without compromising the separation efficiency. Using the PA-FESI method, the LODs of the vitamins were at ng/mL level based on the S/N of 3 and the RSDs of migration time and peak area for each vitamin (1 microg/mL) were less than 5.1%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  17. Effect of sample container morphology on agglomeration dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Dae Seong; Kim, Hack Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been used extensively in medical and biological applications, and agglomeration of magnetic nanoparticles is employed in the purification of water and proteins. The magnetic weight can be measured with a conventional electronic balance. Details of the experimental setup have been previously reported. That is, complex energy landscape involved in the agglomeration is changing with progress. Simulation of colloidal magnetic particles under magnetic field shows that the chain of particles is energetically more favorable than the ring and that the transition barrier between the chain and the ring is very low. The energy barriers among entangled nanoparticles of the agglomerate seem to be much more complicated than those among colloidal particles. The energy barrier distributions at 1000 min are similar for the two containers; however, the trend of blue shift and broadening is much more evident in the case of conical tube. These results indicate that the potential energy surface for agglomeration is modified more significantly in the conical tube which makes the agglomerate denser.

  18. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  19. A new method to detect and correct sample tilt in scanning transmission electron microscopy bright-field imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.G. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ishikawa, R.; Sánchez-Santolino, G. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Lugg, N.R., E-mail: shibata@sigma.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ikuhara, Y. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Shibata, N. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Important properties of functional materials, such as ferroelectric shifts and octahedral distortions, are associated with displacements of the positions of lighter atoms in the unit cell. Annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is a good experimental method for investigating such phenomena due to its ability to image light and heavy atoms simultaneously. To map atomic positions at the required accuracy precise angular alignment of the sample with the microscope optical axis is necessary, since misalignment (tilt) of the specimen contributes to errors in position measurements of lighter elements in annular bright-field imaging. In this paper it is shown that it is possible to detect tilt with the aid of images recorded using a central bright-field detector placed within the inner radius of the annular bright-field detector. For a probe focus near the middle of the specimen the central bright-field image becomes especially sensitive to tilt and we demonstrate experimentally that misalignment can be detected with a precision of less than a milliradian, as we also confirm in simulation. Coma in the probe, an aberration that can be misidentified as tilt of the specimen, is also investigated and it is shown how the effects of coma and tilt can be differentiated. The effects of tilt may be offset to a large extent by shifting the diffraction plane detector an amount equivalent to the specimen tilt and we provide an experimental proof of principle of this using a segmented detector system. - Highlights: • Octahedral distortions are associated with displacements of lighter atoms. • Annular bright-field imaging is sensitive to light and heavy atoms simultaneously. • Mistilt of the specimen leads to errors in position measurements of lighter elements. • It is possible to detect tilt using images taken by a central bright-field detector. • Tilt may be offset by shifting the diffraction plane detector by an equivalent amount.

  20. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques

  1. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1995-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques. (author) 7 refs.; 5 tabs

  2. Comparison and Field Validation of Binomial Sampling Plans for Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Hass Avocado in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesus R; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, & Abatiello is a foliar pest of 'Hass' avocados [Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)]. The recommended action threshold is 50-100 motile mites per leaf, but this count range and other ecological factors associated with O. perseae infestations limit the application of enumerative sampling plans in the field. Consequently, a comprehensive modeling approach was implemented to compare the practical application of various binomial sampling models for decision-making of O. perseae in California. An initial set of sequential binomial sampling models were developed using three mean-proportion modeling techniques (i.e., Taylor's power law, maximum likelihood, and an empirical model) in combination with two-leaf infestation tally thresholds of either one or two mites. Model performance was evaluated using a robust mite count database consisting of >20,000 Hass avocado leaves infested with varying densities of O. perseae and collected from multiple locations. Operating characteristic and average sample number results for sequential binomial models were used as the basis to develop and validate a standardized fixed-size binomial sampling model with guidelines on sample tree and leaf selection within blocks of avocado trees. This final validated model requires a leaf sampling cost of 30 leaves and takes into account the spatial dynamics of O. perseae to make reliable mite density classifications for a 50-mite action threshold. Recommendations for implementing this fixed-size binomial sampling plan to assess densities of O. perseae in commercial California avocado orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Calibration and field performance of membrane-enclosed sorptive coating for integrative passive sampling of persistent organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Branislav; Paschke, Albrecht; Popp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO) is a miniaturised monitoring device that enables integrative passive sampling of persistent, hydrophobic organic pollutants in water. The system combines the passive sampling with solventless preconcentration of organic pollutants from water and subsequent desorption of analytes on-line into a chromatographic system. Exchange kinetics of chemicals between water and MESCO was studied at different flow rates of water, in order to characterize the effect of variable environmental conditions on the sampler performance, and to identify a method for in situ correction of the laboratory-derived calibration data. It was found that the desorption of chemicals from MESCO into water is isotropic to the absorption of the analytes onto the sampler under the same exposure conditions. This allows for the in situ calibration of the uptake of pollutants using elimination kinetics of performance reference compounds and more accurate estimates of target analyte concentrations. A field study was conducted to test the sampler performance alongside spot sampling. A good agreement of contaminant patterns and water concentrations was obtained by the two sampling techniques. - A robust calibration method of a passive sampling device for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in water is described

  4. Evaluation of field sampling and preservation methods for strontium-90 in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Water from four wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer was sampled as part of the US Geological Survey's quality assurance program to evaluate the effect of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in groundwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Water from each well was filtered through either a 0.45-micrometer membrane or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered samples was preserved in the field with reagent-grade hydrochloric acid and the other set of samples was not acidified. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94% or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that within-laboratory reproducibility for strontium-90 in groundwater at the INEL is not significantly affected by changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collections. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  5. The study of combining Latin Hypercube Sampling method and LU decomposition method (LULHS method) for constructing spatial random field

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater modeling requires to assign hydrogeological properties to every numerical grid. Due to the lack of detailed information and the inherent spatial heterogeneity, geological properties can be treated as random variables. Hydrogeological property is assumed to be a multivariate distribution with spatial correlations. By sampling random numbers from a given statistical distribution and assigning a value to each grid, a random field for modeling can be completed. Therefore, statistics sampling plays an important role in the efficiency of modeling procedure. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is a stratified random sampling procedure that provides an efficient way to sample variables from their multivariate distributions. This study combines the the stratified random procedure from LHS and the simulation by using LU decomposition to form LULHS. Both conditional and unconditional simulations of LULHS were develpoed. The simulation efficiency and spatial correlation of LULHS are compared to the other three different simulation methods. The results show that for the conditional simulation and unconditional simulation, LULHS method is more efficient in terms of computational effort. Less realizations are required to achieve the required statistical accuracy and spatial correlation.

  6. Irreversibility line and magnetic field dependence of the critical current in superconducting MgB sub 2 bulk samples

    CERN Document Server

    Gioacchino, D D; Tripodi, P; Grimaldi, G

    2003-01-01

    The third harmonic components of the ac susceptibility of MgB sub 2 bulk samples have been measured as a function of applied magnetic fields, together with standard magnetization cycles. The irreversibility line (IL) of the magnetic field has been extracted from the onset of the third harmonic components. Using a (1 - t) supalpha glass/liquid best fit where alpha 1.27 IL shows a coherent length xi divergence with exponent nu = 0.63, which indicates a 3D behaviour. Moreover, using the numerical solution of the non-linear magnetic diffusion equation, considering the creep model in a 3D vortex glass, a good description of the vortex dynamics has been obtained. The behaviour of the magnetization amplitude (approx Hz) and the ac susceptibility signals (kHz), at different applied magnetic fields, 3.5 T < H sub d sub c < 4.5 T, and at the reduced temperature 0.86 < t < 0.93 (T = 22 K), shows that the superconducting dynamic response of vortices in the MgB sub 2 samples is not evidently dependent on the f...

  7. Predicting bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils by passive sampling with triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Yuqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.cn; Wang Zijian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Queen' s University Belfast, Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) was used for passive sampling of the fraction of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in 18 field-contaminated soils. The sampling process of PAHs by TECAM fitted well with a first-order kinetics model and PAHs reached 95% of equilibrium in TECAM within 20 h. Concentrations of PAHs in TECAM (C{sub TECAM}) correlated well with the concentrations in soils (r{sup 2} = 0.693-0.962, p < 0.001). Furthermore, concentrations of PAHs determined in the soil solution were very close to the values estimated by C{sub TECAM} and the partition coefficient between TECAM and water (K{sub TECAM-w}). After lipid normalization nearly 1:1 relationships were observed between PAH concentrations in TECAMs and earthworms exposed to the soils (r{sup 2} = 0.591-0.824, n = 18, p < 0.01). These results suggest that TECAM can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils. - Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils.

  8. It's Tradition!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogens, Eva M.; Padilla, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Making ice cream! Dissecting a cow's eye! Spinning glasses of water without spilling a drop! Investigating fingerprints! These are just samples of what elementary children did at the Jersey City Public Schools very first districtwide "Family Science Night." Although there was some stress in preparing for the evening, it turned out to be a…

  9. Experimental study on deformation field evolution in rock sample with en echelon faults using digital speckle correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Ma, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) is one kind of photomechanical deformation measurement method. DSCM could obtain continuous deformation field contactlessly by just capturing speckle images from specimen surface. Therefore, it is suitable to observe high spatial resolution deformation field in tectonophysical experiment. However, in the general DSCM experiment, the inspected surface of specimen needs to be painted to bear speckle grains in order to obtain the high quality speckle image. This also affects the realization of other measurement techniques. In this study, an improved DSCM system is developed and utilized to measure deformation field of rock specimen without surface painting. The granodiorite with high contrast nature grains is chosen to manufacture the specimen, and a specially designed DSCM algorithm is developed to analyze this kind of nature speckle images. Verification and calibration experiments show that the system could inspect a continuous (about 15Hz) high resolution displacement field (with resolution of 5μm) and strain field (with resolution of 50μɛ), dispensing with any preparation on rock specimen. Therefore, it could be conveniently utilized to study the failure of rock structure. Samples with compressive en echelon faults and extensional en echelon faults are studied on a two-direction servo-control test machine. The failure process of the samples is discussed based on the DSCM results. Experiment results show that: 1) The contours of displacement field could clearly indicate the activities of faults and new cracks. The displacement gradient adjacent to active faults and cracks is much greater than other areas. 2) Before failure of the samples, the mean strain of the jog area is largest for the compressive en echelon fault, while that is smallest for the extensional en echelon fault. This consists with the understanding that the jog area of compressive fault subjects to compression and that of extensional fault subjects to

  10. The Consequence of Self-field and Non-uniform Current Distribution on Short Sample Tests of Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    1998-01-01

    Electrical measurements on samples of superconducting cables are usually performed in order to determine the critical current $I_c$ and the n-value, assuming that the voltage U at the transition from the superconducting to the normal state follows the power law, U\\sim($I/I_c$)$^n$. An accurate measurement of $I_c$ and n demands, first of all, good control of temperature and field, and precise measurement of current and voltage. The critical current and n-value of a cable are influenced by the self-field of the cable, an effect that has to be known in order to compare the electrical characteristics of the cable with those of the strands from which it is made. The effect of the self-field is dealt with taking into account the orientation and magnitude of the applied field and the n-value of the strands. An important source of inaccuracy is related to the distribution of the currents among the strands. Non-uniform distributions, mainly caused by non-equal resistances of the connections between the strands of the...

  11. Combination of microsecond and nanosecond pulsed electric field treatments for inactivation of Escherichia coli in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žgalin, Maj Kobe; Hodžić, Duša; Reberšek, Matej; Kandušer, Maša

    2012-10-01

    Inactivation of microorganisms with pulsed electric fields is one of the nonthermal methods most commonly used in biotechnological applications such as liquid food pasteurization and water treatment. In this study, the effects of microsecond and nanosecond pulses on inactivation of Escherichia coli in distilled water were investigated. Bacterial colonies were counted on agar plates, and the count was expressed as colony-forming units per milliliter of bacterial suspension. Inactivation of bacterial cells was shown as the reduction of colony-forming units per milliliter of treated samples compared to untreated control. According to our results, when using microsecond pulses the level of inactivation increases with application of more intense electric field strengths and with number of pulses delivered. Almost 2-log reductions in bacterial counts were achieved at a field strength of 30 kV/cm with eight pulses and a 4.5-log reduction was observed at the same field strength using 48 pulses. Extending the duration of microsecond pulses from 100 to 250 μs showed no improvement in inactivation. Nanosecond pulses alone did not have any detectable effect on inactivation of E. coli regardless of the treatment time, but a significant 3-log reduction was achieved in combination with microsecond pulses.

  12. Gas and Isotope Geochemistry of 81 Steam Samples from Wells in The Geysers Geothermal Field, Sonoma and Lake Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Janik, Cathy J.; Fahlquist, Lynne; Johnson, Linda S.

    1999-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, with about 2000-MW electrical capacity, is the largest geothermal field in the world. Despite its importance as a resource and as an example of a vapor-dominated reservoir, very few complete geochemical analyses of the steam have been published (Allen and Day, 1927; Truesdell and others, 1987). This report presents data from 90 steam, gas, and condensate samples from wells in The Geysers geothermal field in northern California. Samples were collected between 1978 and 1991. Well attributes include sampling date, well name, location, total depth, and the wellhead temperature and pressure at which the sample was collected. Geochemical characteristics include the steam/gas ratio, composition of noncondensable gas (relative proportions of CO2, H2S, He, H2, O2, Ar, N2, CH4, and NH3), and isotopic values for deltaD and delta18O of H2O, delta13C of CO2, and delta34S of H2S. The compilation includes 81 analyses from 74 different production wells, 9 isotopic analyses of steam condensate pumped into injection wells, and 5 complete geochemical analyses on gases from surface fumaroles and bubbling pools. Most samples were collected as saturated steam and plot along the liquid-water/steam boiling curve. Steam-togas ratios are highest in the southeastern part of the geothermal field and lowest in the northwest, consistent with other studies. Wells in the Northwest Geysers are also enriched in N2/Ar, CO2 and CH4, deltaD, and delta18O. Well discharges from the Southeast Geysers are high in steam/gas and have isotopic compositions and N2/Ar ratios consistent with recharge by local meteoric waters. Samples from the Central Geysers show characteristics found in both the Southeast and Northwest Geysers. Gas and steam characteristics of well discharges from the Northwest Geysers are consistent with input of components from a high-temperature reservoir containing carbonrich gases derived from the host Franciscan rocks. Throughout the

  13. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  14. Radiological and chemical studies of the ground water at Enewetak Atoll. 1. Sampling, field measurements, and analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Wong, K.M.; Holladay, G.; Noshkin, V.E.; Buddemeier, R.

    1975-01-01

    A research program to study the ground water on several of the islets in the Enewetak Atoll is being conducted jointly by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and the University of Hawaii under the sponsorship of ERDA Division of Biology and Environmental Research. The purpose is to provide data characterizing the ground water for possible use by returning Marshallese and to investigate the hydrology and recycling of radionuclides in an atoll environment. This first of a series of reports describes the sampling locations, field operations, and methods of analysis

  15. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beals, D.M.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks

  16. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beals, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-07-10

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks.

  17. Precision analysis of 15N-labelled samples with the emission spectrometer NOI-5 for nitrogen balance in field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.

    1984-01-01

    A technique was adapted for the preparation of samples with 15 N to be analyzed with the emission spectrometer NOI-5. This technique is based on methods of analyzing 15 N labelled gas samples in denitrification experiments. Nitrogen released from ammonium compounds by using hypobromite is injected into a repeatedly usable gaseous discharge tube where it is freed from water traces by means of the molecular sieve 5A. The described procedure of activating the molecular sieve allows to record spectra of reproducible quality thus promising an accuracy of analysis of +- 0.003 at% in the range of natural isotope frequency and the possibility of soil nitrogen analysis in field trials with fertilizers of low nitrogen content (3 to 6.5 at%; corresponding with 0.055 to 0.14% N/sub t/ of soils) without being dependent on mass spectrometers. (author)

  18. Influence of high-conductivity buffer composition on field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anres, Philippe; Delaunay, Nathalie; Vial, Jérôme; Thormann, Wolfgang; Gareil, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanism taking place in field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping and micellar EKC (FESI-Sweep-MEKC), with the utilization of two acidic high-conductivity buffers (HCBs), phosphoric acid or sodium phosphate buffer, in view of maximizing sensitivity enhancements. Using cationic model compounds in acidic media, a chemometric approach and simulations with SIMUL5 were implemented. Experimental design first enabled to identify the significant factors and their potential interactions. Simulation demonstrates the formation of moving boundaries during sample injection, which originate at the initial sample/HCB and HCB/buffer discontinuities and gradually change the compositions of HCB and BGE. With sodium phosphate buffer, the HCB conductivity increased during the injection, leading to a more efficient preconcentration by staking (about 1.6 times) than with phosphoric acid alone, for which conductivity decreased during injection. For the same injection time at constant voltage, however, a lower amount of analytes was injected with sodium phosphate buffer than with phosphoric acid. Consequently sensitivity enhancements were lower for the whole FESI-Sweep-MEKC process. This is why, in order to maximize sensitivity enhancements, it is proposed to work with sodium phosphate buffer as HCB and to use constant current during sample injection. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High Field In Vivo 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Li, Shizhe; Shen, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo 13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF) power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo 13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10-65ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH=125-145 Hz). Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ); the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo 13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields (protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo 13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T), where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal spectral resolution are more favorable than lower fields.

  20. Traditional Birth Attendants: A Field Guide to Their Training, Evaluation, and Articulation with Health Services. World Health Organization Offset Publication No. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Guidelines for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of nationwide programs for the training and utilization of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are presented. The guide begins with a chart outlining the steps in the development and evaluation of TBA programs. The next section discusses the formulation of basic policies regarding the…

  1. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Trace determination of five triazole fungicide residues in traditional Chinese medicine samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuping; Yuan, Xucan; Zhao, Pengfei; Sun, Hong; Ye, Xiu; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Longshan

    2017-08-01

    A novel and reliable method for determination of five triazole fungicide residues (triadimenol, tebuconazole, diniconazole, flutriafol, and hexaconazol) in traditional Chinese medicine samples was developed using dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The clean up of the extract was conducted using dispersive solid-phase extraction by directly adding sorbents into the extraction solution, followed by shaking and centrifugation. After that, a mixture of 400 μL trichloromethane (extraction solvent) and 0.5 mL of the above supernatant was injected rapidly into water for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2.0-400 (tebuconazole, diniconazole, and hexaconazole) and 4.0-800 ng/g (triadimenol and flutriafol) with the regression coefficients higher than 0.9958. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the present method were 0.5-1.1 and 1.8-4.0 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 80.2 to 103.2%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of five triazole fungicides in traditional Chinese medicine samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Application of the CometChip platform to assess DNA damage in field-collected blood samples from turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Peter; Chiari, Ylenia; Heaton, Andrew; Moreno, Nickolas; Glaberman, Scott; Sobol, Robert W

    2018-05-01

    DNA damage has been linked to genomic instability and the progressive breakdown of cellular and organismal homeostasis, leading to the onset of disease and reduced longevity. Insults to DNA from endogenous sources include base deamination, base hydrolysis, base alkylation, and metabolism-induced oxidative damage that can lead to single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Alternatively, exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation or ultra-violet light, can also contribute to exogenously derived DNA damage. We previously validated a novel, high through-put approach to measure levels of DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells. This new CometChip Platform builds on the classical single cell gel electrophoresis or comet methodology used extensively in environmental toxicology and molecular biology. We asked whether the CometChip Platform could be used to measure DNA damage in samples derived from environmental field studies. To this end, we determined that nucleated erythrocytes from multiple species of turtle could be successfully evaluated in the CometChip Platform to quantify levels of DNA damage. In total, we compared levels of DNA damage in 40 animals from two species: the box turtle (Terrapene carolina) and the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Endogenous levels of DNA damage were identical between the two species, yet we did discover some sex-linked differences and changes in DNA damage accumulation. Based on these results, we confirm that the CometChip Platform allows for the measurement of DNA damage in a large number of samples quickly and accurately, and is particularly adaptable to environmental studies using field-collected samples. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:322-333, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. First Transmitted Hyperspectral Light Measurements and Cloud Properties from Recent Field Campaign Sampling Clouds Under Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, S.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe Shenandoah; Pistone, Kristina Marie Myers; Schmidt, Sebastian; Cochrane, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    We present a first view of data collected during a recent field campaign aimed at measuring biomass burning aerosol above clouds from airborne platforms. The NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign recently concluded its first deployment sampling clouds and overlying aerosol layer from the airborne platform NASA P3. We present results from the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), in conjunction with the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR). During this deployment, 4STAR sampled transmitted solar light either via direct solar beam measurements and scattered light measurements, enabling the measurement of aerosol optical thickness and the retrieval of information on aerosol particles in addition to overlying cloud properties. We focus on the zenith-viewing scattered light measurements, which are used to retrieve cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase of clouds under a biomass burning layer. The biomass burning aerosol layer present above the clouds is the cause of potential bias in retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius from satellites. We contrast the typical reflection based approach used by satellites to the transmission based approach used by 4STAR during ORACLES for retrieving cloud properties. It is suspected that these differing approaches will yield a change in retrieved properties since light transmitted through clouds is sensitive to a different cloud volume than reflected light at cloud top. We offer a preliminary view of the implications of these differences in sampling volumes to the calculation of cloud radiative effects (CRE).

  5. The psychometric properties of the personality inventory for DSM-5 in an APA DSM-5 field trial sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Ayearst, Lindsay; Chmielewski, Michael; Pollock, Bruce G; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-06-01

    Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a hybrid model of personality pathology, in which dimensional personality traits are used to derive one of seven categorical personality disorder diagnoses. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants to produce a freely available instrument to assess the personality traits within this new system. To date, the psychometric properties of the PID-5 have been evaluated primarily in undergraduate student and community adult samples. In the current investigation, we extend this line of research to a psychiatric patient sample who participated in the APA DSM-5 Field Trial (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health site). A total of 201 psychiatric patients (102 men, 99 women) completed the PID-5 and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The internal consistencies of the PID-5 domain and facet trait scales were acceptable. Results supported the unidimensional structure of all trait scales but one, and the convergence between the PID-5 and analogous NEO PI-R scales. Evidence for discriminant validity was mixed. Overall, the current investigation provides support for the psychometric properties of this diagnostic instrument in psychiatric samples.

  6. Blind identification of full-field vibration modes of output-only structures from uniformly-sampled, possibly temporally-aliased (sub-Nyquist), video measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Dorn, Charles; Mancini, Tyler; Talken, Zachary; Nagarajaiah, Satish; Kenyon, Garrett; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2017-03-01

    Enhancing the spatial and temporal resolution of vibration measurements and modal analysis could significantly benefit dynamic modelling, analysis, and health monitoring of structures. For example, spatially high-density mode shapes are critical for accurate vibration-based damage localization. In experimental or operational modal analysis, higher (frequency) modes, which may be outside the frequency range of the measurement, contain local structural features that can improve damage localization as well as the construction and updating of the modal-based dynamic model of the structure. In general, the resolution of vibration measurements can be increased by enhanced hardware. Traditional vibration measurement sensors such as accelerometers have high-frequency sampling capacity; however, they are discrete point-wise sensors only providing sparse, low spatial sensing resolution measurements, while dense deployment to achieve high spatial resolution is expensive and results in the mass-loading effect and modification of structure's surface. Non-contact measurement methods such as scanning laser vibrometers provide high spatial and temporal resolution sensing capacity; however, they make measurements sequentially that requires considerable acquisition time. As an alternative non-contact method, digital video cameras are relatively low-cost, agile, and provide high spatial resolution, simultaneous, measurements. Combined with vision based algorithms (e.g., image correlation or template matching, optical flow, etc.), video camera based measurements have been successfully used for experimental and operational vibration measurement and subsequent modal analysis. However, the sampling frequency of most affordable digital cameras is limited to 30-60 Hz, while high-speed cameras for higher frequency vibration measurements are extremely costly. This work develops a computational algorithm capable of performing vibration measurement at a uniform sampling frequency lower than

  7. Traditional formwork system sustainability performance: experts’ opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher Al-ashwal, Mohammed; Abdullah, Redzuan; Zakaria, Rozana

    2017-11-01

    The traditional formwork system is one of the commonly used systems in concrete construction. It is considered as one of the least observed activities in term of sustainability performance. In this paper, the sustainability performance of the traditional formwork has been assessed by using a multi-criteria assessment tool to facilitate the decision on the sustainability performance measurement. A quantitative five Likert scale survey study using judgemental sampling is employed in this study. A sample of 93 of engineering construction experts, with different fields including contractors, developers, and consultants in the Malaysian context has made the body of the collected primary data. The results show variety in the distribution of the respondents’ working experience. The sustainability performance is considered moderately sustainable by the experts with only given 40.24 % of the overall total score for the three sustainable categories namely environmental, social and economic. Despite the finding that shows that the economic pillar was rated as the most sustainable aspect in comparison to the environmental and social pillars the traditional formwork system sustainability still needs enhancement. Further incorporation of the social and environmental pillars into the concrete construction the sustainability performance of traditional formwork system could be improved.

  8. Dark Matter Profiles in Dwarf Galaxies: A Statistical Sample Using High-Resolution Hα Velocity Fields from PCWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relatores, Nicole C.; Newman, Andrew B.; Simon, Joshua D.; Ellis, Richard; Truong, Phuongmai N.; Blitz, Leo

    2018-01-01

    We present high quality Hα velocity fields for a sample of nearby dwarf galaxies (log M/M⊙ = 8.4-9.8) obtained as part of the Dark Matter in Dwarf Galaxies survey. The purpose of the survey is to investigate the cusp-core discrepancy by quantifying the variation of the inner slope of the dark matter distributions of 26 dwarf galaxies, which were selected as likely to have regular kinematics. The data were obtained with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, located on the Hale 5m telescope. We extract rotation curves from the velocity fields and use optical and infrared photometry to model the stellar mass distribution. We model the total mass distribution as the sum of a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo along with the stellar and gaseous components. We present the distribution of inner dark matter density profile slopes derived from this analysis. For a subset of galaxies, we compare our results to an independent analysis based on CO observations. In future work, we will compare the scatter in inner density slopes, as well as their correlations with galaxy properties, to theoretical predictions for dark matter core creation via supernovae feedback.

  9. Pulsed TV holography measurement and digital reconstruction of compression acoustic wave fields: application to nondestructive testing of thick metallic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo, C; Doval, A F; Deán-Ben, X L; López-Vázquez, J C; Fernández, J L; Hernández-Montes, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a technique that numerically reconstructs the complex acoustic amplitude (i.e. the acoustic amplitude and phase) of a compression acoustic wave in the interior volume of a specimen from a set of full-field optical measurements of the instantaneous displacement of the surface. The volume of a thick specimen is probed in transmission mode by short bursts of narrowband compression acoustic waves generated at one of its faces. The temporal evolution of the displacement field induced by the bursts emerging at the opposite surface is measured by pulsed digital holographic interferometry (pulsed TV holography). A spatio-temporal 3D Fourier transform processing of the measured data yields the complex acoustic amplitude at the plane of the surface as a sequence of 2D complex-valued maps. Finally, a numerical implementation of the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula is employed to reconstruct the complex acoustic amplitude at other planes in the interior volume of the specimen. The whole procedure can be regarded as a combination of optical digital holography and acoustical holography methods. The technique was successfully tested on aluminium specimens with and without an internal artificial defect and sample results are presented. In particular, information about the shape and position of the defect was retrieved in the experiment performed on the flawed specimen, which indicates the potential applicability of the technique for the nondestructive testing of materials

  10. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Banderas, A.; Porro, J.; Morales, M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm 2 with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy

  11. Field-Amplified Sample Injection-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography for the Determination of Benzophenones in Food Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Félez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A field-amplified sample injection-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (FASI-MEKC method for the determination of 14 benzophenones (BPs in a food simulant used in migration studies of food packaging materials was developed, allowing almost baseline separation in less than 21 min. The use of a 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution as sample matrix was mandatory to achieve FASI enhancement of the analyzed BPs. A 21- to 784-fold sensitivity enhancement was achieved with FASI-MEKC, obtaining limits of detection down to 5.1–68.4 µg/L, with acceptable run-to-run precisions (RSD values lower than 22.3% and accuracy (relative errors lower than 21.0%. Method performance was evaluated by quantifying BPs in the food simulant spiked at 500 µg/L (bellow the established specific migration limit for BP (600 µg/L by EU legislation. For a 95% confidence level, no statistical differences were observed between found and spiked concentrations (probability at the confidence level, p value, of 0.55, showing that the proposed FASI-MEKC method is suitable for the analysis of BPs in food packaging migration studies at the levels established by EU legislation.

  12. Field Air Sampling and Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Livestock Odorants with Sorbent Tube GC-MS/Olfactometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shicheng; Cai Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; Hoff, Steven; Clanton, Charles; Schmidt, David; Jacobson, Larry; Parker, David; Heber, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Characterization and quantification of livestock odorants is one of the most challenging analytical tasks because odor-causing gases are very reactive, polar and often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this research was to develop a novel analytical method for characterization of the livestock odorants including their odor character, odor intensity, and hedonic tone and to apply this method for quantitative analysis of the key odorants responsible for livestock odor. Sorbent tubes packed with Tenax TA were used for field sampling. The automated one-step thermal desorption module coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry system was used for simultaneous chemical and odor analysis. Fifteen odorous VOCs and semi-VOCs identified from different livestock species operations were quantified. Method detection limits ranges from 40 pg for skatole to 3590 pg for acetic acid. In addition, odor character, odor intensity and hedonic tone associated with each of the target odorants are also analyzed simultaneously. We found that the mass of each VOCs in the sample correlates well with the log stimulus intensity. All of the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) are greater than 0.74, and the top 10 correlation coefficients were greater than 0.90.

  13. Characterizing the risk assessment of heavy metals and sampling uncertainty analysis in paddy field by geostatistics and GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingmei; Wu Jianjun; Xu Jianming

    2006-01-01

    For many practical problems in environmental management, information about soil heavy metals, relative to threshold values that may be of practical importance is needed at unsampled sites. The Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou (HJH) Plain has always been one of the most important rice production areas in Zhejiang province, China, and the soil heavy metal concentration is directly related to the crop quality and ultimately the health of people. Four hundred and fifty soil samples were selected in topsoil in HJH Plain to characterize the spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Ordinary kriging and lognormal kriging were carried out to map the spatial patterns of heavy metals and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of heavy metal concentrations higher than their guide value. Cokriging method was used to minimize the sampling density for Cu, Zn and Cr. The results of this study could give insight into risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision-making for agriculture. - Probability maps gave insight into risk assesment of environmental metals in a rice paddy field

  14. Field-amplified sample stacking capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence applied to the determination of illicit drugs on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Gao, Ying; Wei, Hui; Du, Yan; Wang, Erkang

    2006-05-19

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with Ru(bpy)3(2+) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection system was established to the determination of contamination of banknotes with controlled drugs and a high efficiency on-column field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) technique was also optimized to increase the ECL intensity. The method was illustrated using heroin and cocaine, which are two typical and popular illicit drugs. Highest sample stacking was obtained when 0.01 mM acetic acid was chosen for sample dissolution with electrokinetical injection for 6 s at 17 kV. Under the optimized conditions: ECL detection at 1.2 V, separation voltage 10.0 kV, 20 mM phosphate-acetate (pH 7.2) as running buffer, 5 mM Ru(bpy)3(2+) with 50 mM phosphate-acetate (pH 7.2) in the detection cell, the standard curves were linear in the range of 7.50x10(-8) to 1.00x10(-5) M for heroin and 2.50x10(-7) to 1.00x10(-4) M for cocaine and detection limits of 50 nM for heroin and 60 nM for cocaine were achieved (S/N = 3), respectively. Relative standard derivations of the ECL intensity and the migration time were 3.50 and 0.51% for heroin and 4.44 and 0.12% for cocaine, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of heroin and cocaine on illicit drug contaminated banknotes without any damage of the paper currency. A baseline resolution for heroin and cocaine was achieved within 6 min.

  15. Effect of variable rates of daily sampling of fly larvae on decomposition and carrion insect community assembly: implications for forensic entomology field study protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Gaétan

    2013-07-01

    Experimental protocols in forensic entomology successional field studies generally involve daily sampling of insects to document temporal changes in species composition on animal carcasses. One challenge with that method has been to adjust the sampling intensity to obtain the best representation of the community present without affecting the said community. To this date, little is known about how such investigator perturbations affect decomposition-related processes. Here, we investigated how different levels of daily sampling of fly eggs and fly larvae affected, over time, carcass decomposition rate and the carrion insect community. Results indicated that a daily sampling of forensic entomology successional field studies.

  16. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drejer, J.; Thomsen, H.S.; Tanttu, J.

    1995-01-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG)

  17. Low-field MR imaging of the spine. A comparative study of a traditional and a new, completely balanced gradient-echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drejer, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Univ. Copenhagen (Denmark); Tanttu, J. [Picker Nordstar, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    49 patients underwent 53 examinations with both a traditional T1-weighted gradient-echo (PS) sequence and a new completely balanced steady-state 3-D (CBASS3D) sequence; 20 examinations included the cervical spine, 8 the thoracic spine and 25 the lumbar spine. All 106 examinations were reviewed twice regarding visibility of selected structures in the spinal region and diagnostic usefulness. The CBASS3D sequence delineated the medulla, nerve roots, CSF, the intervertebral discs and the posterior longitudinal ligament significantly better than the PS sequence. Disc hernia was also better visualised (p<0.01). There were significantly more artefacts on images obtained with the CBASS3D sequence, but they were usually outside the region of interest and occurred less frequently over time due to increased experience of the staff. Both reviewers found the diagnostic usefulness of CBASS3D to be superior compared to that of PS and excellent for diagnostic purposes. (orig./MG).

  18. Dependence of B1+ and B1- Field Patterns of Surface Coils on the Electrical Properties of the Sample and the MR Operating Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Manushka V; Collins, Christopher M; Sodickson, Daniel K; Brown, Ryan; Wiggins, Graham C; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    In high field MRI, the spatial distribution of the radiofrequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field is usually affected by the presence of the sample. For hardware design and to aid interpretation of experimental results, it is important both to anticipate and to accurately simulate the behavior of these fields. Fields generated by a radiofrequency surface coil were simulated using dyadic Green's functions, or experimentally measured over a range of frequencies inside an object whose electrical properties were varied to illustrate a variety of transmit [Formula: see text] and receive [Formula: see text] field patterns. In this work, we examine how changes in polarization of the field and interference of propagating waves in an object can affect the B 1 spatial distribution. Results are explained conceptually using Maxwell's equations and intuitive illustrations. We demonstrate that the electrical conductivity alters the spatial distribution of distinct polarized components of the field, causing "twisted" transmit and receive field patterns, and asymmetries between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Additionally, interference patterns due to wavelength effects are observed at high field in samples with high relative permittivity and near-zero conductivity, but are not present in lossy samples due to the attenuation of propagating EM fields. This work provides a conceptual framework for understanding B 1 spatial distributions for surface coils and can provide guidance for RF engineers.

  19. Sampling in the Snow: High School Winter Field Experiences Provide Relevant, Real World Connections Between Scientific Practices and Disciplinary Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."

  20. Nanoparticles in natural systems I: The effective reactive surface area of the natural oxide fraction in field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Antelo, Juan; Rahnemaie, Rasoul; van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    fraction of ˜80%. The average mass density of such a NOM-mineral association is ˜1700 ± 100 kg/m 3 (i.e. high-density NOM). The amount of reversibly bound phosphate is rather close to the amount of phosphate that is extractable with oxalate. The phosphate loading varies remarkably ( Γ ≈ 1-3 μmol/m 2 oxide) in the samples. As discussed in part II of this paper series ( Hiemstra et al., 2010), the phosphate loading ( Γ) of field samples is suppressed by surface complexation of NOM, where hydrophilic, fulvic, and humic acids act as a competitor for (an)ions via site competition and electrostatic interaction.

  1. Geostatistical estimation of forest biomass in interior Alaska combining Landsat-derived tree cover, sampled airborne lidar and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Pattison, Robert; Cook, Bruce D.; Morton, Douglas C.; Alonzo, Michael; Nelson, Ross; Gregoire, Timothy; Ene, Liviu; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this research was to develop and examine the performance of a geostatistical coregionalization modeling approach for combining field inventory measurements, strip samples of airborne lidar and Landsat-based remote sensing data products to predict aboveground biomass (AGB) in interior Alaska's Tanana Valley. The proposed modeling strategy facilitates pixel-level mapping of AGB density predictions across the entire spatial domain. Additionally, the coregionalization framework allows for statistically sound estimation of total AGB for arbitrary areal units within the study area---a key advance to support diverse management objectives in interior Alaska. This research focuses on appropriate characterization of prediction uncertainty in the form of posterior predictive coverage intervals and standard deviations. Using the framework detailed here, it is possible to quantify estimation uncertainty for any spatial extent, ranging from pixel-level predictions of AGB density to estimates of AGB stocks for the full domain. The lidar-informed coregionalization models consistently outperformed their counterpart lidar-free models in terms of point-level predictive performance and total AGB precision. Additionally, the inclusion of Landsat-derived forest cover as a covariate further improved estimation precision in regions with lower lidar sampling intensity. Our findings also demonstrate that model-based approaches that do not explicitly account for residual spatial dependence can grossly underestimate uncertainty, resulting in falsely precise estimates of AGB. On the other hand, in a geostatistical setting, residual spatial structure can be modeled within a Bayesian hierarchical framework to obtain statistically defensible assessments of uncertainty for AGB estimates.

  2. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  3. Grain growth competition during thin-sample directional solidification of dendritic microstructures: A phase-field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourret, D.; Song, Y.; Clarke, A.J.; Karma, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive phase-field study of columnar grain growth competition in bi-crystalline samples in two dimensions (2D) and in three dimensions (3D) for small sample thicknesses allowing a single row of dendrites to form. We focus on the selection of grain boundary (GB) orientation during directional solidification in the steady-state dendritic regime, and study its dependence upon the orientation of two competing grains. In 2D, we map the entire orientation range for both grains, performing several simulations for each configuration to account for the stochasticity of GB orientation selection and to assess the average GB behavior. We find that GB orientation selection depends strongly on whether the primary dendrite growth directions have lateral components (i.e. components perpendicular to the axis of the temperature gradient) that point in the same or opposite directions in the two grains. We identify a range of grain orientations in which grain selection follows the classical description of Walton and Chalmers. We also identify conditions that favor unusual overgrowth of favorably-oriented dendrites at a converging GB. We propose a simple analytical description that reproduces the average GB orientation selection from 2D simulations within statistical fluctuations of a few degrees. In 3D, we find a similar GB orientation selection as in 2D when secondary branches grow in planes parallel and perpendicular to the sample walls. Remarkably, quasi-2D behavior is also observed even when those perpendicular sidebranching planes are rotated by a finite azimuthal angle about the primary dendrite growth axis as long as the absolute values of those azimuthal angles are equal in both grains. In contrast, when the absolute values of those azimuthal angles differ markedly, we find that unusual overgrowth events at a converging GB are promoted by a high azimuthal angle in the least-favorably-oriented grain. We also find that diverging GBs can be

  4. Sensitive determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. by field-amplified, sample-stacking, sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Xu, Yi; Mu, Xiuni; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Lv, Junjiang

    2016-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the toxic components in Tussilago farfara L. Due to the lack of standard substances for quantitative analysis and traces of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in total alkaloids, the full quality control of Tussilago farfara L has been limited. In this study, we aimed to solve the difficulty of determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and identify more components in the total alkaloids. An on-line preconcentration method has been applied to improve determining sensitivity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. in which included field-amplified sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The main parameters that affected separation and stacking efficiency were investigated in details. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors obtained by the developed method for the analytes were from 15- to 12-fold, the limits of detection of senkirkine and senecionine were 2∼5 μg/L. Senkirkine and senecionine have been detected in alkaloids (c) of Tussilago farfara L, along ferulic acid methyl ester and methyl caffeate. The developed method was also applied to the analysis of acid extraction (a) of Tussilago farfara L, and senkirkine could be detected directly. The results indicated that the developed method is feasible for the analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L with good recoveries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziain, S.; Bijeon, J.-L.; Adam, P.-M.; Lamy de la Chapelle, M.; Thomas, B.; Deturche, R.; Royer, P.

    2007-01-01

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy

  6. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diziain, S. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Bijeon, J.-L. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: bijeon@utt.fr; Adam, P.-M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Thomas, B. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Deturche, R. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Royer, P. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy.

  7. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  8. Interaction of z component of magnetic field between two samples of GO material in the round rotational single sheet tester (RRSST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorican, Viktor; Hamler, Anton; Jesenik, Marko; Stumberger, Bojan; Trlep, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of two grain-oriented (GO) samples of the same grade were measured under alternating and rotational magnetic flux conditions. Two samples were measured separately and then together in different arrangement to each other. The interaction of magnetic field between two samples were measured by using a coil, which was placed in between. The results show that the H z component influence measured magnetic properties in the x-y plane

  9. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  10. B fields in OB stars (BOB): Low-resolution FORS2 spectropolarimetry of the first sample of 50 massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Langer, N.; Morel, T.; Briquet, M.; Herrero, A.; Przybilla, N.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F.R.N.; de Koter, A.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars" (BOB), we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference magnetic massive stars. Because of the many controversies of magnetic field detections obtained with

  11. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  12. Comparative evaluation of bivalent malaria rapid diagnostic tests versus traditional methods in field with special reference to heat stability testing in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in areas where both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax are co-endemic. Bivalent Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs showed promise as diagnostic tools for P.falciparum and P.vivax. To assist national malaria control programme in the selection of RDTs, commercially available seven malaria RDTs were evaluated in terms of their performance with special reference to heat stability.This study was undertaken in four forested districts of central India (July, 2011- March, 2012. All RDTs were tested simultaneously in field along with microscopy as gold standard. These RDTs were stored in their original packing at 25°C before transport to the field or they were stored at 35°C and 45°C upto 100 days for testing the performance of RDTs at high temperature. In all 2841 patients with fever were screened for malaria of which 26% were positive for P.falciparum, and 17% for P.vivax. The highest sensitivity of any RDT for P.falciparum was 98% (95% CI; 95.9-98.8 and lowest sensitivity was 76% (95% CI; 71.7-79.6. For P.vivax highest and lowest sensitivity for any RDT was 80% (95% CI; 94.9 - 83.9 and 20% (95% CI; 15.6-24.5 respectively. Heat stability experiments showed that most RDTs for P.falciparum showed high sensitivity at 45°C upto 90 days. While for P.vivax only two RDTs maintained good sensitivity upto day 90 when compared with RDTs kept at room temperature. Agreement between observers was excellent for positive and negative readings for both P.falciparum and P.vivax (Kappa >0.6-0.9.This is first field evaluation of RDTs regarding their temperature stability. Although RDTs are useful as diagnostic tool for P.falciparum and P.vivax even at high temperature, the quality of RDTs should be regulated and monitored more closely.

  13. An Undergraduate Research Experience that Integrates Traditional Field Mapping, LiDAR, and 3D Numerical Modeling: Applying Lessons from a Recent Report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in an Intermediate-Level Tectonic Landscapes Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.; Brenner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing efforts to improve undergraduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields focus on increasing active student participation and decreasing traditional lecture-based teaching. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs), which engage students in the work of STEM professionals, are an example of these efforts. A recent report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (Undergraduate Research Experiences for STEM Students: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities; 2017) provides characteristics of UREs, and indicates that participation in UREs increases student interest and persistence in STEM as well as provides opportunities to broaden student participation in these fields. UREs offer an excellent opportunity to engage students in research using the rapidly evolving technologies used by STEM professionals. In the fall of 2016, students in the Tectonic Landscapes class at Pomona College participated in a course-based URE that combined traditional field mapping methods with analysis of high-resolution topographic data (LiDAR) and 3D numerical modeling to investigate questions of active local faulting. During the first ten weeks students developed skills in: creation of fault maps from both field observations (GPS included) and high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), assessment of tectonic activity through analyses of DEMs of hill slope diffusion models and geomorphic indices, and evaluation of fault geometry hypotheses via 3D elastic modeling. Most of these assignments were focused on a single research site. While students primarily used Excel, ArcMap, and Poly3D, no previous knowledge of these was required or assumed. Through this iterative approach, students used increasingly more complex methods as well as gained greater ownership of the research process with time. The course culminated with a 4-week independent research project in which each student investigated a question of their own

  14. A spectroscopic survey of the youngest field stars in the solar neighborhood . II. The optically faint sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, A.; Guillout, P.; Klutsch, A.; Ferrero, R. Freire; Marilli, E.; Biazzo, K.; Gandolfi, D.; Montes, D.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Star formation in the solar neighborhood is mainly traced by young stars in open clusters, associations, and in the field, which can be identified, for example, by their X-ray emission. The determination of stellar parameters for the optical counterparts of X-ray sources is crucial for a full characterization of these stars. Aims: This work extends the spectroscopic study of the RasTyc sample, obtained by the cross-correlation of the Tycho and ROSAT All-Sky Survey catalogs, to stars fainter than V = 9.5 mag and aims to identify sparse populations of young stars in the solar neighborhood. Methods: We acquired 625 high-resolution spectra for 443 presumably young stars with four different instruments in the northern hemisphere. The radial and rotational velocity (vsini) of our targets were measured by means of the cross-correlation technique, which is also helpful to discover single-lined (SB1), double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), and multiple systems. We used the code ROTFIT to perform an MK spectral classification and to determine the atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) and vsini of the single stars and SB1 systems. For these objects, we used the spectral subtraction of slowly rotating templates to measure the equivalent widths of the Hα and Li I 6708 Å lines, which enabled us to derive their chromospheric activity level and lithium abundance. We made use of Gaia DR1 parallaxes and proper motions to locate the targets in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and to compute the space velocity components of the youngest objects. Results: We find a remarkable percentage (at least 35%) of binaries and multiple systems. On the basis of the lithium abundance, the sample of single stars and SB1 systems appears to be mostly ( 60%) composed of stars younger than the members of the UMa cluster. The remaining sources are in the age range between the UMa and Hyades clusters ( 20%) or older ( 20%). In total, we identify 42 very young (PMS-like) stars

  15. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK. Report on Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Klemola, S.; Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Moring, M.

    1994-12-01

    Radionuclide determinations on seventeen field trial test samples were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples, i.e., samples of sea water, grass and biota were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides. 3 H was determined in water, 90 Sr in grass and 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in biota samples. To avoid losses of radionuclides before gamma activity measurements, the sequence of treatments was adjusted considering the unknown radionuclide composition. The radionuclide contents found in the samples were roughly the same or lower than contents in same types of environmental samples in the Northern hemisphere. The ratios of Pu and Am nuclides in two of the biota samples referred to an origin other than the global atmospheric fallout. The work was carried out under Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. (orig.) (21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.)

  16. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System

  17. Whole body traveling wave magnetic resonance imaging at high field strength: homogeneity, efficiency, and energy deposition as compared with traditional excitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Sodickson, Daniel K; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Duan, Qi; Stoeckel, Bernd; Wiggins, Graham C

    2012-04-01

    In 7 T traveling wave imaging, waveguide modes supported by the scanner radiofrequency shield are used to excite an MR signal in samples or tissue which may be several meters away from the antenna used to drive radiofrequency power into the system. To explore the potential merits of traveling wave excitation for whole-body imaging at 7 T, we compare numerical simulations of traveling wave and TEM systems, and juxtapose full-wave electrodynamic simulations using a human body model with in vivo human traveling wave imaging at multiple stations covering the entire body. The simulated and in vivo traveling wave results correspond well, with strong signal at the periphery of the body and weak signal deep in the torso. These numerical results also illustrate the complicated wave behavior that emerges when a body is present. The TEM resonator simulation allowed comparison of traveling wave excitation with standard quadrature excitation, showing that while the traveling wave B +1 per unit drive voltage is much less than that of the TEM system, the square of the average B +1 compared to peak specific absorption rate (SAR) values can be comparable in certain imaging planes. Both systems produce highly inhomogeneous excitation of MR signal in the torso, suggesting that B(1) shimming or other parallel transmission methods are necessary for 7 T whole body imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Trends in newborn umbilical cord care practices in Sokoto and Bauchi States of Nigeria: the where, who, how, what and the ubiquitous role of traditional birth attendants: a lot quality assurance sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Beal, Katherine; Bassi, Amos; Bamidele, Moyosola; Akomolafe, Toyin; Ohanyido, Francis; Umar-Farouk, Olayinka; Danladi, Saba'atu

    2017-11-09

    Neonatal infections caused by unsafe umbilical cord practices account for the majority of neonatal deaths in Nigeria. We examined the trends in umbilical cord care practices between 2012 and 2015 that coincided with the introduction of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel in Bauchi and Sokoto States. We obtained data from three rounds of lot quality assurance samples (LQAS) surveys conducted in 2012, 2013 and 2015. Households were randomly sampled in each round that totaled 1140 and 1311 households in Bauchi and Sokoto States respectively. Mothers responded to questions on cord care practices in the last delivery. Coverage estimates of practice indicators were obtained for each survey period. Local Government Area (LGA) estimates for each indicator were obtained with α ≤ 5%, and β ≤20% statistical errors and aggregated to State-level estimates with finite sample correction relative to the LGA population. Over 75 and 80% of deliveries in Bauchi and Sokoto States respectively took place at home. The proportion of deliveries in public facilities reported by mothers ranged from 19% in 2012 to 22.4% in 2015 in Bauchi State and from 12.9 to 13.2% in 2015 in Sokoto State. Approximately 50% of deliveries in Bauchi and more than 80% in Sokoto States were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or relatives and friends, with little change in the survey periods. In Bauchi and in Sokoto States, over 75% and over 80% of newborn cords were cut with razor blades underscoring the pervasive role of the TBAs in the immediate postpartum period. Use of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel for cord dressing significantly increased to the highest level in 2015 in both States. Health workers who attended deliveries in health facilities switched from methylated spirit to chlorhexidine. There were no observable changes in cord care practices among the TBAs. Unsafe umbilical cord care practices remained prevalent in Bauchi and Sokoto States of Nigeria, although a recent

  19. Use of Homogeneously-Sized Carbon Steel Ball Bearings to Study Microbially-Influenced Corrosion in Oil Field Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Menon, Priyesh; Pinnock, Tijan; Sharma, Mohita; Shen, Yin; Venturelli, Amanda; Voordouw, Johanna; Sexton, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    Microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) contributes to the general corrosion rate (CR), which is typically measured with carbon steel coupons. Here we explore the use of carbon steel ball bearings, referred to as beads (55.0 ± 0.3 mg; Ø = 0.238 cm), for determining CRs. CRs for samples from an oil field in Oceania incubated with beads were determined by the weight loss method, using acid treatment to remove corrosion products. The release of ferrous and ferric iron was also measured and CRs based on weight loss and iron determination were in good agreement. Average CRs were 0.022 mm/yr for eight produced waters with high numbers (10(5)/ml) of acid-producing bacteria (APB), but no sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Average CRs were 0.009 mm/yr for five central processing facility (CPF) waters, which had no APB or SRB due to weekly biocide treatment and 0.036 mm/yr for 2 CPF tank bottom sludges, which had high numbers of APB (10(6)/ml) and SRB (10(8)/ml). Hence, corrosion monitoring with carbon steel beads indicated that biocide treatment of CPF waters decreased the CR, except where biocide did not penetrate. The CR for incubations with 20 ml of a produced water decreased from 0.061 to 0.007 mm/yr when increasing the number of beads from 1 to 40. CRs determined with beads were higher than those with coupons, possibly also due to a higher weight of iron per unit volume used in incubations with coupons. Use of 1 ml syringe columns, containing carbon steel beads, and injected with 10 ml/day of SRB-containing medium for 256 days gave a CR of 0.11 mm/yr under flow conditions. The standard deviation of the distribution of residual bead weights, a measure for the unevenness of the corrosion, increased with increasing CR. The most heavily corroded beads showed significant pitting. Hence the use of uniformly sized carbon steel beads offers new opportunities for screening and monitoring of corrosion including determination of the distribution of corrosion rates, which allows

  20. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ

  1. Petrographic description of calcite/opal samples collected on field trip of December 5-9, 1992. Special report No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed analysis and assessment of the water-deposited minerals of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. Forty-three separate stops were made and 203 samples were collected during the five days of the field trip. This report describes petrographic observations made on the calcite/opal samples

  2. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  3. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  4. Field screening sampling and analysis strategy and methodology for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins: Phase 2, Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipas, A.; Hopkins, A.M.; Wasemiller, M.A.; McCain, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides a sampling/analytical strategy and methodology for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins within the boundaries and requirements identified in the initial Phase II Sampling and Analysis Plan for RCRA Closure of the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

  5. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariano, A.J.; Ryan, E.H.; Huntley, H.S.; Laurindo, L.C.; Coelho, E.; Ozgokmen, TM; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D; Chen, S.S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K.L.; Gough, M; Haus, BK; Haza, A.C.; Hogan, P; Iskandarani, M; Jacobs, G; Kirwan Jr., A.D.; Laxague, N; Lipphardt Jr., B.; Magaldi, M.G.; Novelli, G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Restrepo, J.M.; Smith, C; Valle-Levinson, A.; Wei, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the

  6. Relationship between HCO_3"- concentration to weight of C_6H_6 of environmental isotop "1"4C analysis and its relationship with sampling in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrio; Rasi Prasetio

    2016-01-01

    It has been done the groundwater sampling process of deep aquifer in Jakarta and surrounding areas for the analysis of environmental isotope "1"4C. Groundwater sampling was preceded by calculating the concentration of HCO_3"- (bicarbonate ion) through titration in the field. The number of repetitions of sampling is determined by the concentration data of HCO_3"- which obtained. The Repetition of this sampling will determine the acquisition of a solution of C_6H_6 (benzene) during the synthesis process benzene. In the field, the sampling is done by extracting of 60 liters of water to precipitate BaCO_3. The sampling process is repeated based on data from the bicarbonate ion concentration. The purpose of this study to determine the relationship between the concentration of HCO_3"- to the weights C_6H_6 which obtained in the analysis of environmental isotope "1"4C and evaluate the number of repetitions of the sampling that should be done. Based on the analysis of titration in the field, shows that concentration HCO_3"- ranged between 180 - 600 ppm with the acquisition of benzene between 1.84 to 4.5 grams. There is a strong relationship between the concentration of HCO_3"- and C_6H_6 weights obtained in the process of synthesis of benzene with a correlation of about 0.900. This correlation can be improved by measuring the concentration of HCO_3"- in advance in the laboratory tend to be more accurate than in the field. (author)

  7. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  8. Methodological Comparison between a Novel Automatic Sampling System for Gas Chromatography versus Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Schmithausen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trace gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4, and carbon dioxide (CO2 are climate-related gases, and their emissions from agricultural livestock barns are not negligible. Conventional measurement systems in the field (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR; photoacoustic system (PAS are not sufficiently sensitive to N2O. Laser-based measurement systems are highly accurate, but they are very expensive to purchase and maintain. One cost-effective alternative is gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detection (ECD, but this is not suitable for field applications due to radiation. Measuring samples collected automatically under field conditions in the laboratory at a subsequent time presents many challenges. This study presents a sampling designed to promote laboratory analysis of N2O concentrations sampled under field conditions. Analyses were carried out using PAS in the field (online system and GC in the laboratory (offline system. Both measurement systems showed a good correlation for CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Measured N2O concentrations were near the detection limit for PAS. GC achieved more reliable results for N2O in very low concentration ranges.

  9. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  10. Laboratory Validation and Field Assessment of Petroleum Laboratory Technicians' Dermal Exposure to Crude Oil Using a Wipe Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; Mueller, Will; Arfaj, Ayman M; Llamas, Jose L; Buick, Jennifer; Todd, David; McGonagle, Carolyn

    2018-05-21

    Crude oil may cause adverse dermal effects therefore dermal exposure is an exposure route of concern. Galea et al. (2014b) reported on a study comparing recovery (wipe) and interception (cotton glove) dermal sampling methods. The authors concluded that both methods were suitable for assessing dermal exposure to oil-based drilling fluids and crude oil but that glove samplers may overestimate the amount of fluid transferred to the skin. We describe a study which aimed to further evaluate the wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to crude oil, with this assessment including extended sample storage periods and sampling efficiency tests being undertaken at environmental conditions to mimic those typical of outdoor conditions in Saudi Arabia. The wipe sampling method was then used to assess the laboratory technicians' actual exposure to crude oil during typical petroleum laboratory tasks. Overall, acceptable storage efficiencies up to 54 days were reported with results suggesting storage stability over time. Sampling efficiencies were also reported to be satisfactory at both ambient and elevated temperature and relative humidity environmental conditions for surrogate skin spiked with known masses of crude oil and left up to 4 h prior to wiping, though there was an indication of reduced sampling efficiency over time. Nineteen petroleum laboratory technicians provided a total of 35 pre- and 35 post-activity paired hand wipe samples. Ninety-three percent of the pre-exposure paired hand wipes were less than the analytical limit of detection (LOD), whereas 46% of the post-activity paired hand wipes were less than the LOD. The geometric mean paired post-activity wipe sample measurement was 3.09 µg cm-2 (range 1.76-35.4 µg cm-2). It was considered that dermal exposure most frequently occurred through direct contact with the crude oil (emission) or via deposition. The findings of this study suggest that the wipe sampling method is satisfactory in quantifying

  11. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform-for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. Evaluating Complex Mixtures in the Zebrafish Embryo by Reconstituting Field Water Samples: A Metal Pollution Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen D. G. Michiels

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurately assessing the toxicity of complex, environmentally relevant mixtures remains an important challenge in ecotoxicology. The goal was to identify biological effects after exposure to environmental water samples and to determine whether the observed effects could be explained by the waterborne metal mixture found in the samples. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to water samples of five different sites originating from two Flemish (Mol and Olen, Belgium metal contaminated streams: “Scheppelijke Nete” (SN and “Kneutersloop” (K, and a ditch (D, which is the contamination source of SN. Trace metal concentrations, and Na, K, Mg and Ca concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and were used to reconstitute site-specific water samples. We assessed whether the effects that were observed after exposure to environmental samples could be explained by metal mixture toxicity under standardized laboratory conditions. Exposure to “D” or “reconstituted D” water caused 100% mortality. SN and reconstituted SN water caused similar effects on hatching, swim bladder inflation, growth and swimming activity. A canonical discriminant analysis confirmed a high similarity between both exposure scenarios, indicating that the observed toxicity was indeed primarily caused by metals. The applied workflow could be a valuable approach to evaluate mixture toxicity that limits time and costs while maintaining biological relevance.

  13. Nanoparticles in natural systems I: The effective reactive surface area of the natural oxide fraction in field samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Antelo, J.; Rahnemaie, R.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Information on the particle size and reactive surface area of natural samples is essential for the application of surface complexation models (SCM) to predict bioavailability, toxicity, and transport of elements in the natural environment. In addition, this information will be of great help to

  14. The electric field gradient at 111Cd in ZrZn2 in the samples prepared at 8 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.A.; Ryasny, G.K.; Komissarova, B.A.; Tsvyashchenko, A.V.; Fomichova, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements with the 111 In- 111 Cd nuclear probe embedded into the lattice of the cubic (C15) Laves compound in ZrZn 2 showed that 111 Cd nuclei experienced an axially symmetric electric quadrupole interaction with a frequency v Q = 133.7 MHz at room temperature. The samples were synthesized and doped with the probe at a pressure 8 GPa. The temperature dependence of v Q was shown to be linear: v Q (T) = 147(1 - 0.033 T) MHz. As long as the value of v Q at room temperature was very close to that known for 111 Cd in the hcp lattice of Zn (133.5 MHz), we have checked if it could be assigned to the residual Zn metal in the sample. For the Zn sample melted and doped with 111 In at 8 GPa we have obtained v Q = 117.3 MHz at 300 K and 127 MHz at 80 K - both values considerably lower than that for 111 In-doped Zn samples prepared at an ambient pressure. For the sample re-melted after synthesis at high pressure in the low-pressure Ar atmosphere we have obtained v Q = 131(1) MHz. It can be noted that the value v Q (Zn) at 300 K is close to that obtained earlier in measurements with the sample at a pressure of ≅2 GPa It may be considered as an evidence of incomplete relaxation (at room temperature) of the Zn lattice after melting and quenching at 8 GPa. In the case of Zn sharp precession patterns with zero non-axiality parameter and very low damping were observed only with freshly prepared, or held at LN temperature samples, and after two days exposure at room temperature they suffered a considerable distortion. These data, and the fact that v Q (T) in Zn is known to follow the T 3/2 law, allow us to attribute the v Q value quoted above to 111 Cd nuclei at the substitutional sites with tetrahedral symmetry in the Zn sublattice of ZrZn 2

  15. Bayesian prediction and adaptive sampling algorithms for mobile sensor networks online environmental field reconstruction in space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yunfei; Dass, Sarat; Maiti, Tapabrata

    2016-01-01

    This brief introduces a class of problems and models for the prediction of the scalar field of interest from noisy observations collected by mobile sensor networks. It also introduces the problem of optimal coordination of robotic sensors to maximize the prediction quality subject to communication and mobility constraints either in a centralized or distributed manner. To solve such problems, fully Bayesian approaches are adopted, allowing various sources of uncertainties to be integrated into an inferential framework effectively capturing all aspects of variability involved. The fully Bayesian approach also allows the most appropriate values for additional model parameters to be selected automatically by data, and the optimal inference and prediction for the underlying scalar field to be achieved. In particular, spatio-temporal Gaussian process regression is formulated for robotic sensors to fuse multifactorial effects of observations, measurement noise, and prior distributions for obtaining the predictive di...

  16. Potential, velocity, and density fields from redshift-distance samples: Application - Cosmography within 6000 kilometers per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.; Dekel, A.; Faber, S.M.; Dressler, A.; Burstein, D.

    1990-01-01

    A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively. 65 refs

  17. Potential, velocity, and density fields from redshift-distance samples: Application - Cosmography within 6000 kilometers per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Dressler, Alan; Burstein, David

    1990-12-01

    A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively.

  18. Convergence analysis for Latin-hypercube lattice-sample selection strategies for 3D correlated random hydraulic-conductivity fields

    OpenAIRE

    Simuta-Champo, R.; Herrera-Zamarrón, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique provides a natural method for evaluating uncertainties. The uncertainty is represented by a probability distribution or by related quantities such as statistical moments. When the groundwater flow and transport governing equations are solved and the hydraulic conductivity field is treated as a random spatial function, the hydraulic head, velocities and concentrations also become random spatial functions. When that is the case, for the stochastic simulation of groundw...

  19. Individualized determination of lower margin in pelvic radiation field after low anterior resection for rectal cancer resulted in equivalent local control and radiation volume reduction compared with traditional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Won; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae; Chun, Ho Kyung; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Dae Yong; Lim, Do Hoon; Noh, Young Ju; Lee, Jung Eun

    2000-01-01

    When determining the lower margin of post-operative pelvic radiation therapy field according to the traditional method (recommended by Gunderson), the organs located in the low pelvic cavity and the perineum are vulnerable to unnecessary radiation. This study evaluated the effect of individualized determination of the lower margin at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site on the failure patterns. Authors included 88 patients with modified Astler-Coller (MAC) stages from B2 through C3, who received low anterior resection and post-operative pelvic radiation therapy from Sept. 1994 to May 1998 at Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University. The numbers of male and female patients were 44 and 44, and the median age was 57 years (range: 32-81 years). Three field technique (posterior-anterior and bilateral portals) by 6, 10, 15 MY X-rays was used to deliver 4,500 cGy to the whole pelvis followed by 600 cGy's small field boost to the tumor bed over 5.5 weeks. Sixteen patients received radiation therapy by traditional field margin determination, and the lower margin was set either at the low margin of the obturator foramen or at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, whichever is lower. In 72 patients, the lower margin was set at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, irrespectively of the obturator foramen, by which the reduction of radiation volume was possible in 55 patients (76%). Authors evaluated and compared survival, local control, and disease-free survival rates of these two groups. The median follow-up period was 27 months (range: 7-58 months). MAC stages were B2 in 32 (36%) , B3 in 2 (2%), C1 in 2 (2%), C2 in 50 (57%), and C3 in 2 (2%) patients, respectively. The entire patients' overall survival rates at 2 and 4 years were 94% and 68%, respectively, and disease-free survival rates at 2 and 4 years were 86% and 58%, respectively. The first failure sites were local only in 4, distant only in 14, and combined local and distant in 1 patient, respectively

  20. Analysis of sequences from field samples reveals the presence of the recently described pepper vein yellows virus (genus Polerovirus) in six additional countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Dennis; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Kenyon, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    Polerovirus infection was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 29 pepper plants (Capsicum spp.) and one black nightshade plant (Solanum nigrum) sample collected from fields in India, Indonesia, Mali, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. At least two representative samples for each country were selected to generate a general polerovirus RT-PCR product of 1.4 kb length for sequencing. Sequence analysis of the partial genome sequences revealed the presence of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) in all 13 samples. A 1990 Australian herbarium sample of pepper described by serological means as infected with capsicum yellows virus (CYV) was identified by sequence analysis of a partial CP sequence as probably infected with a potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) isolate.

  1. A general assignment method for oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR of proteins based on the correlation of resonances through heteronuclear dipolar couplings in samples aligned parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George J; Son, Woo Sung; Opella, Stanley J

    2011-04-01

    A general method for assigning oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR spectra of proteins is demonstrated. In principle, this method requires only a single sample of a uniformly ¹⁵N-labeled membrane protein in magnetically aligned bilayers, and a previously assigned isotropic chemical shift spectrum obtained either from solution NMR on micelle or isotropic bicelle samples or from magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR on unoriented proteoliposomes. The sequential isotropic resonance assignments are transferred to the OS solid-state NMR spectra of aligned samples by correlating signals from the same residue observed in protein-containing bilayers aligned with their normals parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. The underlying principle is that the resonances from the same residue have heteronuclear dipolar couplings that differ by exactly a factor of two between parallel and perpendicular alignments. The method is demonstrated on the membrane-bound form of Pf1 coat protein in phospholipid bilayers, whose assignments have been previously made using an earlier generation of methods that relied on the preparation of many selectively labeled (by residue type) samples. The new method provides the correct resonance assignments using only a single uniformly ¹⁵N-labeled sample, two solid-state NMR spectra, and a previously assigned isotropic spectrum. Significantly, this approach is equally applicable to residues in alpha helices, beta sheets, loops, and any other elements of tertiary structure. Moreover, the strategy bridges between OS solid-state NMR of aligned samples and solution NMR or MAS solid-state NMR of unoriented samples. In combination with the development of complementary experimental methods, it provides a step towards unifying these apparently different NMR approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pasteurization: A reliable method for preservation of nutrient in seawater samples for inter-laboratory and field applications

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Anne; Kerouel, Roger; Aminot, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Following previous work, the production of reference material for nutrients in seawater, using pasteurization as a preservation method, was carried out seven times between 2006 and 2010 in the framework of inter-laboratory exercises. The preparation of samples from natural seawater allowed to become depleted in nutrients then spiked, bottled and pasteurized, is described. Five main nutrients are involved in this study: ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate. Bottles are in glass f...

  3. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  4. Optical method for distance and displacement measurements of the probe-sample separation in a scanning near-field optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, L.; Siller, H. R.; Garcia-Ortiz, C. E.; Cortes, R.; Coello, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present an alternative optical method to determine the probe-sample separation distance in a scanning near-field optical microscope. The experimental method is based in a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer and offers a measurement precision deviation of ∼100 nm using digital image processing and numerical analysis. The technique can also be strategically combined with the characterization of piezoelectric actuators and stability evaluation of the optical system. It also opens the possibility for the development of an automatic approximation control system valid for probe-sample distances from 5 to 500 μm.

  5. Optical method for distance and displacement measurements of the probe-sample separation in a scanning near-field optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria, L.; Siller, H. R. [Tecnológico de Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey, N.L., 64849 (Mexico); Garcia-Ortiz, C. E., E-mail: cegarcia@cicese.mx [CONACYT Research Fellow – CICESE, Unidad Monterrey, Alianza Centro 504, Apodaca, NL, 66629 (Mexico); Cortes, R.; Coello, V. [CICESE, Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Alianza Centro 504, Apodaca, NL, 66629 (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we present an alternative optical method to determine the probe-sample separation distance in a scanning near-field optical microscope. The experimental method is based in a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer and offers a measurement precision deviation of ∼100 nm using digital image processing and numerical analysis. The technique can also be strategically combined with the characterization of piezoelectric actuators and stability evaluation of the optical system. It also opens the possibility for the development of an automatic approximation control system valid for probe-sample distances from 5 to 500 μm.

  6. An inverse method for determining the interaction force between the probe and sample using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Win-Jin; Fang, Te-Hua

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a means for calculating the interaction force during the scanning process using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probe. The determination of the interaction force in the scanning system is regarded as an inverse vibration problem. The conjugate gradient method is applied to treat the inverse problem using available displacement measurements. The results show that the conjugate gradient method is less sensitive to measurement errors and prior information on the functional form of quality was not required. Furthermore, the initial guesses for the interaction force can be arbitrarily chosen for the iteration process

  7. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morecroft Michael D

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future.

  8. Remote monitoring field trial. Application to automated air sampling. Report on Task FIN-E935 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.; Ilander, T.; Lehtinen, J.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Toivonen, H.; Ylaetalo, S.; Smartt, H.; Garcia, R.; Martinez, R.; Glidewell, D.; Krantz, K.

    1999-01-01

    An automated air sampling station has recently been developed by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The station is furnished with equipment that allows comprehensive remote monitoring of the station and the data. Under the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards, STUK and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) established a field trial to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies. STUK provided means for real-lime radiation monitoring and sample authentication whereas SNL delivered means for authenticated surveillance of the equipment and its location. The field trial showed that remote monitoring can be carried out using simple means although advanced facilities are needed for comprehensive surveillance. Authenticated measurement data could be reliably transferred from the monitoring site to the headquarters without the presence of authorized personnel in the monitoring site. The operation of the station and the remote monitoring system were reliable. (orig.)

  9. Dynamical implications of sample shape for avalanches in 2-dimensional random-field Ising model with saw-tooth domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2018-03-01

    We study dynamics of a built-in domain wall (DW) in 2-dimensional disordered ferromagnets with different sample shapes using random-field Ising model on a square lattice rotated by 45 degrees. The saw-tooth DW of the length Lx is created along one side and swept through the sample by slow ramping of the external field until the complete magnetisation reversal and the wall annihilation at the open top boundary at a distance Ly. By fixing the number of spins N =Lx ×Ly = 106 and the random-field distribution at a value above the critical disorder, we vary the ratio of the DW length to the annihilation distance in the range Lx /Ly ∈ [ 1 / 16 , 16 ] . The periodic boundary conditions are applied in the y-direction so that these ratios comprise different samples, i.e., surfaces of cylinders with the changing perimeter Lx and height Ly. We analyse the avalanches of the DW slips between following field updates, and the multifractal structure of the magnetisation fluctuation time series. Our main findings are that the domain-wall lengths materialised in different sample shapes have an impact on the dynamics at all scales. Moreover, the domain-wall motion at the beginning of the hysteresis loop (HLB) probes the disorder effects resulting in the fluctuations that are significantly different from the large avalanches in the central part of the loop (HLC), where the strong fields dominate. Specifically, the fluctuations in HLB exhibit a wide multi-fractal spectrum, which shifts towards higher values of the exponents when the DW length is reduced. The distributions of the avalanches in this segments of the loops obey power-law decay and the exponential cutoffs with the exponents firmly in the mean-field universality class for long DW. In contrast, the avalanches in the HLC obey Tsallis density distribution with the power-law tails which indicate the new categories of the scale invariant behaviour for different ratios Lx /Ly. The large fluctuations in the HLC, on the other

  10. TERMITES ENDANGERED TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaukani Syaukani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical  plant that had been attached by the termites.

  11. Natural radioactivity levels in soil samples around the flood affected salt field area, Kelambakkam, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India using gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, A.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Thangam, V.; Jananee, B.

    2018-01-01

    Humans are exposed to natural radiation from external sources, which include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation. Gamma Ray spectroscopic technique was used to assess the natural radioactivity in soils around the flood affected salt field area, Kelambakkam Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. The activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and absorbed dose rate of soil samples were calculated to assess the radiation hazards in the study area

  12. Design of a thermal neutron field by 252Cf source for measurement of 10B concentrations in the blood samples for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A.

    2006-01-01

    10 B concentrations in the blood samples for BNCT has been estimated due to amounts of prompt gamma rays from 10 B in the fields of thermal neutrons from a special guide tube attached to research reactor. A system using radioisotopes as the source of thermal neutron fields has advantages that are convenient and low cost because it doesn't need running of a reactor or an accelerator. The validity of 252 Cf as a neutron source for 10 B concentrations detection system was investigated. This system is composed of D 2 O moderator, Pb reflector/filter, C reflector, and LiF filter. A thermal neutron field with low background gamma-rays is obtained. A large source of 252 Cf is required to obtain a sufficient flux. (author)

  13. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B. F.; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Graham, D. M.; Beck, M.; Bartels, A.; Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 10 12  cm −2 and 9000 cm 2 V −1  s −1 at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m 0 .

  14. Comparison of culture versus quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis in field samples from naturally infected horses in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin-Davis, Susan; Knowles, Margaret K; Burke, Teresa; Böse, Reinhard; Devenish, John

    2015-07-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method (qPCR) was developed and tested for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis. It was shown to have an analytical sensitivity of 5 colony-forming units (CFU) of T. equigenitalis when applied to the testing of culture swabs that mimicked field samples, and a high analytical specificity in not reacting to 8 other commensal bacterial species associated with horses. As designed, it could also differentiate specifically between T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis. The qPCR was compared to standard culture in a study that included 45 swab samples from 6 horses (1 stallion, 5 mares) naturally infected with T. equigenitalis in Canada, 39 swab samples from 5 naturally infected stallions in Germany, and 311 swab samples from 87 culture negative horses in Canada. When the comparison was conducted on an individual sample swab basis, the qPCR had a statistical sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.4%, respectively, and 100% and 99.1% when the comparison was conducted on a sample set basis. A comparison was also made on 203 sample swabs from the 5 German stallions taken over a span of 4 to 9 mo following antibiotic treatment. The qPCR was found to be highly sensitive and at least as good as culture in detecting the presence of T. equigenitalis in post-treatment samples. The work demonstrates that the qPCR assay described here can potentially be used to detect the presence of T. equigenitalis directly from submitted sample swabs taken from infected horses and also for determining T. equigenitalis freedom following treatment.

  15. Determination of Glycol Ethers in Ambient Air by Adsorption Sampling and Thermal Desorption with GC/MS Analysis: Performance Evaluation and Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyo Seo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of glycol ethers, such as 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME and 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE are known to be toxic and classified as hazardous air pollutants in USA, Japan and Germany. In Korea, however, there has been no study conducted so far for these compounds in ambient air. In addition, no clear methodologies for the measurement of glycol ethers have been yet established. We carried out this study to evaluate a sampling and analytical method for the determination of glycol ethers, in ambient air samples collected in specific industrial areas of South Korea. To measure glycol ethers, adsorption sampling and thermal desorption with GC/MS analysis were used in this study. The analytical method showed good repeatability, linearity and sensitivity. The lower detection limits were estimated to be approximately 0.3∼0.5 ppb. Based on storage tests, it was suggested that samples should be analyzed within two weeks. It was also demonstrated that this method can be used for the simultaneous measurement of glycol ethers and other aromatic VOCs such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Field sampling campaign was carried out at 2 sites, located in a large industrial area, from October 2006 to June 2007, and a total of 480 samples were collected seasonally. Among them, 2-ME was not detected from any samples, while 2-EE and 2-Ethyloxyethylacetate (2-EEA were found in 7 and 70 samples, respectively. The measured concentrations of 2-EE and 2-EEA for samples were ranged from 0.7-2.5 ppb and from 0.5-10.5 ppb, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement report for glycol ethers in the ambient atmosphere not only in Korea but also the rest of the world.

  16. Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, Zeinab; Mohamed, Salwa; Hendawy, Mohamed; Rabia, Ibrahim; Attia, Mohy; Shaker, Zeinab; Diab, Tarek M

    2013-02-01

    A field applicable diagnostic technique, the dipstick assay, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing human Schistosoma mansoni infection. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen (AWTA) was employed in dipstick and sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating schistosome antigen (CSA) in both serum and urine samples. Based on clinical and parasitological examinations, 60 S. mansoni-infected patients, 30 patients infected with parasites other than schistosomiasis, and 30 uninfected healthy individuals were selected. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick assay in urine samples were 86.7% and 90.0%, respectively, compared to 90.0% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity of sandwich ELISA. In serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.3% and 91.7% for dipstick assay vs. 91.7% and 95.0% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of dipstick assay in urine and serum samples was 88.3% and 90.0%, while it was 90.8% and 93.3% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic indices of dipstick assay and ELISA either in serum or in urine were statistically comparable (P>0.05). In conclusion, the dipstick assay offers an alternative simple, rapid, non-invasive technique in detecting CSA or complement to stool examinations especially in field studies.

  17. [The assessment of radionuclide contamination and toxicity of soils sampled from "experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A; Kriazheva, E Iu

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale maps (1:25000) of soil contamination with radionuclides, lateral distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, Fe and Mn water-soluble compounds and soil toxicity in "Experimental field" site of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site were charted. At present soils from studied site (4 km2) according to basic sanitary standards of radiation safety adopted in Russian Federation (OSPORB) do not attributed to radioactive wastes with respect to data on artificial radionuclide concentration, but they do in compliance with IAEA safety guide. The soils studied can not be released from regulatory control due to radioactive decay of 137Cs and 90Sr and accumulation-decay of 241Am up to 2106 year according to IAEA concept of exclusion, exemption and clearance. Data on bioassay "increase of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer biomass production in aqueous extract from soils" show that the largest part of soils from the studied site (74%) belongs to stimulating or insignificantly influencing on the algae reproduction due to water-soluble compounds effect. Toxic soils occupy 26% of the territory. The main factors effecting the algae reproduction in the aqueous extracts from soil are Fe concentration and 90Sr specific activity: 90Sr inhibits but Fe stimulates algae biomass production.

  18. Multiple-image authentication with a cascaded multilevel architecture based on amplitude field random sampling and phase information multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Desheng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Pan, Xuemei; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2015-04-10

    A multiple-image authentication method with a cascaded multilevel architecture in the Fresnel domain is proposed, in which a synthetic encoded complex amplitude is first fabricated, and its real amplitude component is generated by iterative amplitude encoding, random sampling, and space multiplexing for the low-level certification images, while the phase component of the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is constructed by iterative phase information encoding and multiplexing for the high-level certification images. Then the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is iteratively encoded into two phase-type ciphertexts located in two different transform planes. During high-level authentication, when the two phase-type ciphertexts and the high-level decryption key are presented to the system and then the Fresnel transform is carried out, a meaningful image with good quality and a high correlation coefficient with the original certification image can be recovered in the output plane. Similar to the procedure of high-level authentication, in the case of low-level authentication with the aid of a low-level decryption key, no significant or meaningful information is retrieved, but it can result in a remarkable peak output in the nonlinear correlation coefficient of the output image and the corresponding original certification image. Therefore, the method realizes different levels of accessibility to the original certification image for different authority levels with the same cascaded multilevel architecture.

  19. Evaluation of Two Lyophilized Molecular Assays to Rapidly Detect Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Directly from Clinical Samples in Field Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, E L A; Armson, B; Madi, M; Kasanga, C J; Kandusi, S; Sallu, R; Chepkwony, E; Siddle, A; Martin, P; Wood, J; Mioulet, V; King, D P; Lembo, T; Cleaveland, S; Fowler, V L

    2017-06-01

    Accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. However, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. These concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect cases of FMD. In this context, FMD virus (FMDV)-specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays, compatible with simple sample preparation methods and in situ visualization, have been developed which share equivalent analytical sensitivity with laboratory-based rRT-PCR. However, the lack of robust 'ready-to-use kits' that utilize stabilized reagents limits the deployment of these tests into field settings. To address this gap, this study describes the performance of lyophilized rRT-PCR and RT-LAMP assays to detect FMDV. Both of these assays are compatible with the use of fluorescence to monitor amplification in real-time, and for the RT-LAMP assays end point detection could also be achieved using molecular lateral flow devices. Lyophilization of reagents did not adversely affect the performance of the assays. Importantly, when these assays were deployed into challenging laboratory and field settings within East Africa they proved to be reliable in their ability to detect FMDV in a range of clinical samples from acutely infected as well as convalescent cattle. These data support the use of highly sensitive molecular assays into field settings for simple and rapid detection of FMDV. © 2015 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  1. Backpacking with a Prayer: Tradition and Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the phenomenon of Israeli backpacking as a function of traditional, observant, and secular population segments. We explored whether and to what degree backpacking features are related to the affinity of backpackers with the Jewish tradition and faith. Our study was based on a sample of 120 Israeli backpackers who had returned…

  2. Effect of planar magnetic field on electron transport properties of n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction and photoluminescence measures in GaAs samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of magnetic fields applied parallel to the interface of an heterojunction n-Al Ga As is studied. A qualitative analysis has shown that this field modifies the Fermi surface of the two dimensional electron gas (2 DEG) confined on the heterojunction. it produces a strong asymmetry on the magnetoresistance of the 2 DEG relative to the two directions of the electric current. This interpretation is confirmed by a self-consistent numerical calculation involving a solution of the Schroedinger and Poisson equations. To verify this result, measurements with samples grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) under magnetic fields up to 13.0 T are performed and the results obtained confirm the asymmetry in the magnetoresistance. Also, a strong negative magnetoresistance attributed to the imperfections of the interface is seen. It can be used to evaluate the quality of the heterojunction interface. The details about the implantation of the photoluminescence measurement system are discussed. Spectra of an asymmetric quantum well and delta-doped Ga As : Si samples at 300 K and 55 K are shown. (author)

  3. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  4. Traditional timber frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text

  5. Microstructure selection in thin-sample directional solidification of an Al-Cu alloy: In situ X-ray imaging and phase-field simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A. J.; Tourret, D.; Song, Y.; Imhoff, S. D.; Gibbs, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    We study microstructure selection during during directional solidification of a thin metallic sample. We combine in situ X-ray radiography of a dilute Al-Cu alloy solidification experiments with three-dimensional phase-field simulations. Here we explore a range of temperature gradient G and growth velocity V and build a microstructure selection map for this alloy. We investigate the selection of the primary dendritic spacing Λ and tip radius ρ. While ρ shows a good agreement between experimental measurements and dendrite growth theory, with ρ~V"-"1"/"2, Λ is observed to increase with V (∂Λ/∂V > 0), in apparent disagreement with classical scaling laws for primary dendritic spacing, which predict that ∂Λ/∂V<0. We show through simulations that this trend inversion for Λ(V) is due to liquid convection in our experiments, despite the thin sample configuration. We use a classical diffusion boundary-layer approximation to semi-quantitatively incorporate the effect of liquid convection into phase-field simulations. This approximation is implemented by assuming complete solute mixing outside a purely diffusive zone of constant thickness that surrounds the solid-liquid interface. This simple method enables us to quantitatively match experimental measurements of the planar morphological instability threshold and primary spacings over an order of magnitude in V. Lastly, we explain the observed inversion of ∂Λ/∂V by a combination of slow transient dynamics of microstructural homogenization and the influence of the sample thickness.

  6. Determination of the spatial resolution of an aperture-type near-field scanning optical microscope using a standard sample of a quantum-dot-embedded polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Kim, D. C.; Nakajima, K.; Mitsui, T.; Aoki, H.

    2010-01-01

    The near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) is a form of scanning probe microscope that achieves, through the use of the near-field, a spatial resolution significantly superior to that defined by the Abbe diffraction limit. Although the term spatial resolution has a clear meaning, it is often used in different ways in characterizing the NSOM instrument. In this paper, we describe the concept, the cautions, and the general guidelines of a method to measure the spatial resolution of an aperture-type NSOM instrument. As an example, a quantum dot embedded polymer film was prepared and imaged as a test sample, and the determination of the lateral resolution was demonstrated using the described method.

  7. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  8. Irradiations under magnetic field. Measurement of resistivity sample irradiations between 100 and 500 deg C in a swimming-pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauleve, J.; Marchand, A.; Blaise, A.

    1964-01-01

    An oven is described which enables the irradiation of small samples in the maximum neutron flux of a swimming-pool reactor of 15 MW (Siloe), at temperatures of between 100 and 500 deg.C defined to ± 0,5 deg.C, The oven is very simple from the technological point of view, and has a diameter of only 27 mm, This permits resistivity measurements to be carried out under irradiation in the reactor, or as another example, it enables irradiations in a magnetic field of 5000 oersteds, created by an immersed solenoid. (authors) [fr

  9. Introduction to Maxxam All-Season Passive Sampling System and Principles of Proper Use of Passive Samplers in the Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmao Tang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxxam all-season passive sampling system (PASS is introduced in this paper. The PASS can be used to quantitatively and accurately monitor SO2 , NO2, O 3, and H2 S in air in all weather conditions with flexible exposure times from several hours to several months. The air pollution detection limits of PASS are very low. They can be from sub ppb to ppt levels. The principles of proper use of passive samplers in the field study are discussed by using the PASS as an example.

  10. Study of the effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on stainless steel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaca, E. J. D. M.; Ueda, M.; Oliveira, R. M.; Pichon, L.

    2014-08-01

    Effects of E × B fields as mechanism to carbon-nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) have been investigated. This magnetic configuration when used in PIII allows obtaining high nitrogen plasma density close to the ion implantation region. Consequently, high ions dose on the target is possible to be achieved compared with standard PIII. In this scenario, nitrogen and carbon ions were implanted simultaneously on stainless steel, as measured by GDOES and detected by X-ray diffraction. Carbon-tape disposed on the sample-holder was sputtered by intense bombardment of nitrogen ions, being the source of carbon atoms in this experiment. The implantation of both N and C caused changes on sample morphology and improvement of the tribological properties of the stainless steel.

  11. Behaviour of Water Droplets Under the Influence of a Uniform Electric Field in Nanocomposite Samples of Epoxy Resin/TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. Bairaktari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nanocomposite samples of epoxy resin and TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated with water droplets on their surface. A uniform electric field was applied and the behaviour of the water droplets was observed. Parameters that were studied were the water conductivity, the droplet volume, the number of droplets and the droplet positioning with respect to (w.r.t. the electrodes. All above mentioned parameters influence the flashover voltage of the samples. It is to be noted that – at least in some cases – the water droplet positioning w.r.t. the electrodes was more important in determining the flashover voltage than the droplet volume.

  12. Linking community tolerance and structure with low metallic contamination: a field study on 13 biofilms sampled across the Seine river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, Lise C; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2014-03-15

    It is difficult to assess the biological consequences of diffuse water contamination by micropollutants which are present in rivers at low, even sublethal levels. River biofilms, which respond quickly to changes of environmental parameters, are good candidates to acquire knowledge on the response of aquatic organisms to diffuse chemical contamination in the field. The study was designed as an attempt to link biofilm metal tolerance and metallic contamination in a field survey covering 13 different sampling sites in the Seine river basin (north of France) with low contamination levels. Cd and Zn tolerance of heterotrophic communities was assessed using a short-term toxicity test based on β-glucosidase activity. Metal tolerance levels varied between sites but there was no obvious correlation between tolerance and corresponding water contamination levels for Cd and Zn. Indeed, metallic contamination at the sampling sites remained subtle when compared to water quality standards (only two sampling sites had either Zn or both Cu and Zn concentrations exceeding the Environmental Quality Standards set by the EU Water Framework Directive). Yet, multivariate analysis of the data using Partial Least Squares Regression revealed that both metallic and environmental parameters were important variables explaining the variability of metal tolerance levels. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) was also performed on both bacterial and eukaryotic biofilm communities from the 13 sampling sites. Multivariate analysis of ARISA fingerprints revealed that biofilms with similar tolerance levels have similar ARISA profiles. Those results confirm that river biofilms are potential indicators of low, diffuse contamination levels of aquatic systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  14. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  15. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  16. Determination of extremely low {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios in environmental samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using high-efficiency sample introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, Sergei F. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: sergei.boulyga@univie.ac.at; Heumann, Klaus G. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    A method by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Icp-Ms) was developed which allows the measurement of {sup 236}U at concentration ranges down to 3 x 10{sup -14} g g{sup -1} and extremely low {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios in soil samples of 10{sup -7}. By using the high-efficiency solution introduction system APEX in connection with a sector-field ICP-MS a sensitivity of more than 5000 counts fg{sup -1} uranium was achieved. The use of an aerosol desolvating unit reduced the formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH{sup +}/U{sup +} down to a level of 10{sup -6}. An abundance sensitivity of 3 x 10{sup -7} was observed for {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio measurements at mass resolution 4000. The detection limit for {sup 236}U and the lowest detectable {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio were improved by more than two orders of magnitude compared with corresponding values by alpha spectrometry. Determination of uranium in soil samples collected in the vicinity of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) resulted in that the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio is a much more sensitive and accurate marker for environmental contamination by spent uranium in comparison to the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio. The ICP-MS technique allowed for the first time detection of irradiated uranium in soil samples even at distances more than 200 km to the north of Chernobyl NPP (Mogilev region). The concentration of {sup 236}U in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers varied from 2 x 10{sup -9} g g{sup -1} within radioactive spots close to the Chernobyl NPP to 3 x 10{sup -13} g g{sup -1} on a sampling site located by >200 km from Chernobyl.

  17. Gas dispersion concentration of trace inorganic contaminants from fuel gas and analysis using head-column field-amplified sample stacking capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Li, Hai-Fang; Li, Meilan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-08-21

    The presence of inorganic elements in fuel gas generally accelerates the corrosion and depletion of materials used in the fuel gas industry, and even leads to serious accidents. For identification of existing trace inorganic contaminants in fuel gas in a portable way, a highly efficient gas-liquid sampling collection system based on gas dispersion concentration is introduced in this work. Using the constructed dual path gas-liquid collection setup, inorganic cations and anions were simultaneously collected from real liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect UV absorbance detection. The head-column field-amplified sample stacking technique was applied to improve the detection limits to 2-25 ng mL(-1). The developed collection and analytical methods have successfully determined existing inorganic contaminants in a real LPG sample in the range of 4.59-138.69 μg m(-3). The recoveries of cations and anions with spiked LPG samples were between 83.98 and 105.63%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 7.19%.

  18. Evaluation of the Radiochemistry of Near-Field Water Samples at the Nevada Test Site Applied to the Definition of a Hydrologic Source Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K

    2002-01-01

    Effective management of available groundwater resources and strategies for remediation of water impacted by past nuclear testing practices depend on knowledge about the migration of radionuclides in groundwater away from the sites of the explosions. A primary concern is to assess the relative mobilities of the different radionuclide species found near sites of underground nuclear tests and to determine the concentration, extent, and speed of this movement. Ultimately the long term transport behavior of radionuclides with half-lives long enough that they will persist for decades, their interaction with groundwater, and the resulting flux of these contaminants is of paramount importance. As part of a comprehensive approach to these assessments, more than three decades of site-specific sites studies have been undertaken at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which have focused on the means responsible for the observed or suspected movement of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests (RNM, 1983). More recently regional and local models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport have been developed as part of a federal and state of Nevada program to assess the long-term effects of underground nuclear testing on human health and environment (e.g., U.S. DOE/NV, 1997a; Tompson et al., 1999; Pawloski et al., 2001). Necessary to these efforts is a reliable measure of the hydrologic source term which is defined as those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise transported by groundwater (Smith et al., 1995). Measurement of radionuclides in waters sampled near the sites of underground nuclear test provides arguably the best opportunity to bound the hydrologic source term. This empirical approach was recognized early and concentration data has been collected annually since mid-1970's. Initially three sites were studied at the NTS; over the years the program has been expanded to include more than fifteen study locations. As part of various field programs, Lawrence Livermore

  19. Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters by capillary electrophoresis: Sensitivity enhancement using field-amplified sample injection and molecular imprinted polymer solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claude, Berengere; Nehme, Reine; Morin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) improves the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis through the online pre-concentration samples. → The cationic analytes are stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. → The limits of quantification are 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. → The presence of salts in the matrix greatly reduces the sensitivity of the FASI/CE-UV method. - Abstract: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been investigated for the analysis of some neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) at nanomolar concentrations in urine. Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) has been used to improve the sensitivity through the online pre-concentration samples. The cationic analytes were stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. Several FASI parameters have been optimized (ionic strength of the running buffer, concentration of the sample protonation agent, composition of the sample solvent and nature of the pre-injection plug). Best results were obtained using H 3 PO 4 -LiOH (pH 4, ionic strength of 80 mmol L -1 ) as running buffer, 100 μmol L -1 of H 3 PO 4 in methanol-water 90/10 (v/v) as sample solvent and 100 μmol L -1 of H 3 PO 4 in water for the pre-injection plug. In these conditions, the linearity was verified in the 50-300 nmol L -1 concentration range for DA, 3-MT and 5-HT with a determination coefficient (r 2 ) higher than 0.99. The limits of quantification (10 nmol L -1 for DA and 3-MT, 5.9 nmol L -1 for 5-HT) were 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. However, if this method is applied to the analysis of neurotransmitters in urine, the presence of salts in the matrix greatly reduces the sensitivity

  20. Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters by capillary electrophoresis: Sensitivity enhancement using field-amplified sample injection and molecular imprinted polymer solid phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claude, Berengere, E-mail: berengere.claude@univ-orleans.fr [Institut de Chimie Organique et Analytique, CNRS FR 2708 UMR 6005, Universite d' Orleans, 45067 Orleans (France); Nehme, Reine; Morin, Philippe [Institut de Chimie Organique et Analytique, CNRS FR 2708 UMR 6005, Universite d' Orleans, 45067 Orleans (France)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) improves the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis through the online pre-concentration samples. {yields} The cationic analytes are stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. {yields} The limits of quantification are 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. {yields} The presence of salts in the matrix greatly reduces the sensitivity of the FASI/CE-UV method. - Abstract: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been investigated for the analysis of some neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) at nanomolar concentrations in urine. Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) has been used to improve the sensitivity through the online pre-concentration samples. The cationic analytes were stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. Several FASI parameters have been optimized (ionic strength of the running buffer, concentration of the sample protonation agent, composition of the sample solvent and nature of the pre-injection plug). Best results were obtained using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-LiOH (pH 4, ionic strength of 80 mmol L{sup -1}) as running buffer, 100 {mu}mol L{sup -1} of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in methanol-water 90/10 (v/v) as sample solvent and 100 {mu}mol L{sup -1} of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in water for the pre-injection plug. In these conditions, the linearity was verified in the 50-300 nmol L{sup -1} concentration range for DA, 3-MT and 5-HT with a determination coefficient (r{sup 2}) higher than 0.99. The limits of quantification (10 nmol L{sup -1} for DA and 3-MT, 5.9 nmol L{sup -1} for 5-HT) were 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. However, if this method is applied to the analysis of

  1. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B. F., E-mail: Ben.Spencer@manchester.ac.uk; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Graham, D. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Beck, M.; Bartels, A. [Laser Quantum GmbH, Max-Stromeyer-Str. 116, 78467 Konstanz (Germany); Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-23

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} and 9000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m{sub 0}.

  2. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  3. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S ampersand A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S ampersand A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S ampersand A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S ampersand A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S ampersand A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S ampersand A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan

  4. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S & A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S & A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S & A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S & A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S & A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S & A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan.

  5. Ultra-sensitive speciation analysis of mercury by CE-ICP-MS together with field-amplified sample stacking injection and dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YiQuan; Cheng, Xian; Mo, Fan; Huang, LiMei; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Yongning; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2016-04-01

    A simple dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) from water sample, and a sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) by using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) with field-amplified sample stacking injection (FASI) were first reported in this study. The DSPE used thiol cotton particles as adsorbent, and is simple and effective. It can be used to extract and preconcentrate ultra-trace mercury compounds in water samples within 30 min with a satisfied recovery and no mercury species alteration during the process. The FASI enhanced the sensitivity of CE-ICP-MS with 25-fold, 29-fold and 27-fold for MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) , respectively. Using FASI-CE-ICP-MS together with DSPE, we have successfully determined ultra-trace MeHg, EtHg and Hg(2+) in tap water with a limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.26-0.45 pg/mL, an RSD (n = 3) mercury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Combination of micelle collapse and field-amplified sample stacking in capillary electrophoresis for determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in animal-originated foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Wan, Qian; Xu, Xiaoying; Duan, Shunshan; Yang, Chunli

    2017-03-15

    An on-line preconcentration method combining micelle to solvent stacking (MSS) with field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) was employed for the analysis of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The optimized experimental conditions were as followings: (1) sample matrix, 10.0mM SDS-5% (v/v) methanol; (2) trapping solution (TS), 35mM H 3 PO 4 -60% acetonitrile (CH 3 CN); (3) running buffer, 30mM Na 2 HPO 4 (pH=7.3); (4) sample solution volume, 168nL; TS volume, 168nL; and (5) 9kV voltage, 214nm UV detection. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for SMZ and TMP were 7.7 and 8.5ng/mL, and they were 301 and 329 times better compared to a typical injection, respectively. The contents of TMP and SMZ in animal foodstuffs such as dairy products, eggs and honey were analyzed, too. Recoveries of 80-104% were acquired with relative standard deviations of 0.5-5.4%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Matrix effect and application of field-amplified sample injection in the analysis of four tetracyclines in waters by capillary electrohoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The system abilities of two chromatographic techniques, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were compared for the analysis of four tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlorotetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline). The pH, concentration of background electrolyte (BGE) were optimized for the analysis of the standard mixture sample, meanwhile, the effects of separation voltage and water matrix (pH value and hardness) effects were investigated. In hydrodynamic injection (HDI) mode, a good quantitative linearity and baseline separation within 9. 0 min were obtained for the four tetracyclines at the optimal conditions; the analytical time was about half of that of HPLC. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0. 28 - 0. 62 mg/L, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n= 6) of migration time and peak area were 0. 42% - 0. 56% and 2. 24% - 2. 95%, respectively. The obtained recoveries spiked in tap water and fishpond water were at the ranges of 96. 3% - 107. 2% and 87. 1% - 105. 2%, respectively. In addition, the stacking method, field-amplified sample injection (FASI), was employed to improve the sensitivity, and the LOD was down to the range of 17.8-35.5 μg/L. With FASI stacking, the RSDs (n=6) of migration time and peak area were 0. 85%-0. 95% and 1. 69%-3.43%, respectively. Due to the advantages of simple sample pretreatment and fast speed, CE is promising in the analysis of the antibiotics in environmental water.

  8. New Product Development in Traditional Industries: Decision-Making Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mikel Zabala-Iturriagagoitia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether decisions considered as common in new product development literature are also valid in a region characterized by traditional industries. The research is grounded on innovative companies in the Valencian Region (Spain. Using the statistical tool of factor analysis, we test if the groups of decisions identified by the literature can be confirmed in our empirical sample. Therewith, we aim to link the theoretical and empirical fields in the context of new product development and product innovation management.

  9. KASTAMONU TRADITIONAL WOMEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.

  10. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1981-04-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.

  11. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  12. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  13. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  14. Healthier Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Millen

    2017-01-01

    The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...

  15. Tradition as an initiator of rural tourism destinations development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is a form of tourism that best illustrates the importance of tradition in the development of tourist destinations. Music, dance, clothing, culinary specialties of local cuisine, unique natural beauty and the very mentality and hospitality of people in rural areas, represent some of the factors that influence the tourist's consciousness when choosing this type of holiday. The research is focused on the main hypothesis that the tradition is an initiator of rural tourism destinations development. Furthermore, this would imply positive effects in the field of tourism and economy in general and the economy of the region. The goal of the paper is to show the importance of tradition in the cultural identity of rural areas and potentials of tradition in the role of initiating rural tourism destinations development. The interview with staff members in Pozarevac Tourism Organization has helped in the SWOT analysis of the observed rural destination. An empirical research is conducted on a random sample of 232 participants in order to highlight the benefits of rural tourism development in Pozarevac and its surrounding area. The data were processed in SPSS program (version 17.0.

  16. A comparison study on a sulfonated graphene-polyaniline nanocomposite coated fiber for analysis of nicotine in solid samples through the traditional and vacuum-assisted HS-SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Alireza; Koonani, Samira; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh; Farhadi, Saeid

    2018-02-05

    A simple, rapid, and reliable headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure, reinforced by applying vacuum in the extraction vial, was developed. It was applied for the extraction of nicotine in solid samples prior to determination by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). First, the surface of a narrow stainless steel wire was made porous and adhesive by platinization to obtain a durable, higher surface area, and resistant fiber. Then, a thin film of sulfonated graphene/polyaniline (Sulf-G/PANI) nanocomposite was synthesized and simultaneously coated on the platinized fiber using the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. It was demonstrated that the extraction efficiency remarkably increased by applying the reduced-pressure condition in the extraction vial. To evaluate the conventional HS-SPME and vacuum-assisted HS-SPME (VA-HS-SPME) platforms, all experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including desorption time and temperature, extraction time and temperature and moisture content of sample matrix were optimized. The highest extraction efficiency was obtained at 60°C, 10min (extraction temperature and time) and 280°C, 2min (desorption condition), for VA-HS-SPME strategy, while for conventional HS-SPME the extraction and desorption conditions found to be 100°C, 30min and 280°C, 2min, respectively. The Sulf-G/PANI coated fiber showed high thermal stability, good chemical/mechanical resistance, and long lifetime. For analysis of nicotine in solid samples using VA-HS-SPME-GC-FID, linear dynamic range (LDR) was 0.01-30μgg -1 (R 2 =0.996), the relative standard deviation (RSD%, n=6), for analyses of 1μgg -1 nicotine was calculated 3.4% and limit of detection (LOD) found to be 0.002μgg -1 . The VA-HS-SPME-GC-FID strategy was successfully carried out for quantitation of nicotine in hair and tobacco real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and Development of Low Cost, Simple, Rapid and Safe, Modified Field Kits for the Visual Detection and Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anjaneyulu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fenton’s reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the ‘nascent’ hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow – H

  18. Quantification of trace arsenic in soils by field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: considerations for sample preparation and measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Chris; Margui Grabulosa, Eva; Pili, Eric; Floor, Geerke H; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-11-15

    Recent technological improvements have led to the widespread adoption of field portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) by governmental agencies, environmental consultancies and research institutions. FP-XRF units often include analysis modes specifically designed for the quantification of trace elements in soils. Using these modes, X-ray tube based FP-XRF units can offer almost "point and shoot" ease of use and results comparable to those of laboratory based instruments. Nevertheless, FP-XRF analysis is sensitive to spectral interferences as well as physical and chemical matrix effects which can result in decreased precision and accuracy. In this study, an X-ray tube-based FP-XRF analyser was used to determine trace (low ppm) concentrations of As in a floodplain soil. The effect of different sample preparation and analysis conditions on precision and accuracy were systematically evaluated. We propose strategies to minimise sources of error and maximise data precision and accuracy, achieving in situ limits of detection and precision of 6.8 ppm and 14.4%RSD, respectively for arsenic. We demonstrate that soil moisture, even in relatively dry soils, dramatically affects analytical performance with a signal loss of 37% recorded for arsenic at 20 wt% soil moisture relative to dry soil. We also highlight the importance of the use of certified reference materials and independent measurement methods to ensure accurate correction of field values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyses of turbulent flow fields and aerosol dynamics of diesel engine exhaust inside two dilution sampling tunnels using the CTAG model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Jason; Yang, Bo; Lipsky, Eric M; Robinson, Allen L; Zhang, K Max

    2013-01-15

    Experimental results from laboratory emission testing have indicated that particulate emission measurements are sensitive to the dilution process of exhaust using fabricated dilution systems. In this paper, we first categorize the dilution parameters into two groups: (1) aerodynamics (e.g., mixing types, mixing enhancers, dilution ratios, residence time); and (2) mixture properties (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, particle size distributions of both raw exhaust and dilution gas). Then we employ the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model to investigate the effects of those parameters on a set of particulate emission measurements comparing two dilution tunnels, i.e., a T-mixing lab dilution tunnel and a portable field dilution tunnel with a type of coaxial mixing. The turbulent flow fields and aerosol dynamics of particles are simulated inside two dilution tunnels. Particle size distributions under various dilution conditions predicted by CTAG are evaluated against the experimental data. It is found that in the area adjacent to the injection of exhaust, turbulence plays a crucial role in mixing the exhaust with the dilution air, and the strength of nucleation dominates the level of particle number concentrations. Further downstream, nucleation terminates and the growth of particles by condensation and coagulation continues. Sensitivity studies reveal that a potential unifying parameter for aerodynamics, i.e., the dilution rate of exhaust, plays an important role in new particle formation. The T-mixing lab tunnel tends to favor the nucleation due to a larger dilution rate of the exhaust than the coaxial mixing field tunnel. Our study indicates that numerical simulation tools can be potentially utilized to develop strategies to reduce the uncertainties associated with dilution samplings of emission sources.

  20. Noodles, traditionally and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.

  1. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  2. Modern vs. Traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  3. Non-Traditional Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

  4. Making Tradition Healthy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/10/2007.

  5. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40–50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL, the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1–1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  6. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  7. Improving snow density estimation for mapping SWE with Lidar snow depth: assessment of uncertainty in modeled density and field sampling strategies in NASA SnowEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Smyth, E.; Small, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial distribution of snow water equivalent (SWE) is not sufficiently monitored with either remotely sensed or ground-based observations for water resources management. Recent applications of airborne Lidar have yielded basin-wide mapping of SWE when combined with a snow density model. However, in the absence of snow density observations, the uncertainty in these SWE maps is dominated by uncertainty in modeled snow density rather than in Lidar measurement of snow depth. Available observations tend to have a bias in physiographic regime (e.g., flat open areas) and are often insufficient in number to support testing of models across a range of conditions. Thus, there is a need for targeted sampling strategies and controlled model experiments to understand where and why different snow density models diverge. This will enable identification of robust model structures that represent dominant processes controlling snow densification, in support of basin-scale estimation of SWE with remotely-sensed snow depth datasets. The NASA SnowEx mission is a unique opportunity to evaluate sampling strategies of snow density and to quantify and reduce uncertainty in modeled snow density. In this presentation, we present initial field data analyses and modeling results over the Colorado SnowEx domain in the 2016-2017 winter campaign. We detail a framework for spatially mapping the uncertainty in snowpack density, as represented across multiple models. Leveraging the modular SUMMA model, we construct a series of physically-based models to assess systematically the importance of specific process representations to snow density estimates. We will show how models and snow pit observations characterize snow density variations with forest cover in the SnowEx domains. Finally, we will use the spatial maps of density uncertainty to evaluate the selected locations of snow pits, thereby assessing the adequacy of the sampling strategy for targeting uncertainty in modeled snow density.

  8. Roadway sampling evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has traditionally required that all sampling : and testing of asphalt mixtures be at the Contractors production facility. With recent staffing cuts, as : well as budget reductions, FDOT has been cons...

  9. On the Bipolar DC Flow Field-Effect-Transistor for Multifunctional Sample Handing in Microfluidics: A Theoretical Analysis under the Debye–Huckel Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present herein a novel method of bipolar field-effect control on DC electroosmosis (DCEO from a physical point of view, in the context of an intelligent and robust operation tool for stratified laminar streams in microscale systems. In this unique design of the DC flow field-effect-transistor (DC-FFET, a pair of face-to-face external gate terminals are imposed with opposite gate-voltage polarities. Diffuse-charge dynamics induces heteropolar Debye screening charge within the diffuse double layer adjacent to the face-to-face oppositely-polarized gates, respectively. A background electric field is applied across the source-drain terminal and forces the face-to-face counterionic charge of reversed polarities into induced-charge electroosmotic (ICEO vortex flow in the lateral direction. The chaotic turbulence of the transverse ICEO whirlpool interacts actively with the conventional plug flow of DCEO, giving rise to twisted streamlines for simultaneous DCEO pumping and ICEO mixing of fluid samples along the channel length direction. A mathematical model in thin-layer approximation and the low-voltage limit is subsequently established to test the feasibility of the bipolar DC-FFET configuration in electrokinetic manipulation of fluids at the micrometer dimension. According to our simulation analysis, an integrated device design with two sets of side-by-side, but upside-down gate electrode pair exhibits outstanding performance in electroconvective pumping and mixing even without any externally-applied pressure difference. Moreover, a paradigm of a microdevice for fully electrokinetics-driven analyte treatment is established with an array of reversed bipolar gate-terminal pairs arranged on top of the dielectric membrane along the channel length direction, from which we can obtain almost a perfect liquid mixture by using a smaller magnitude of gate voltages for causing less detrimental effects at a small Dukhin number. Sustained by theoretical

  10. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  11. A Toolbox for Quantitative Gene Expression in Varroa destructor: RNA Degradation in Field Samples and Systematic Analysis of Reference Gene Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan M Campbell

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is the major pest of Apis mellifera and contributes to the global honey bee health crisis threatening food security. Developing new control strategies to combat Varroa will require the application of molecular biology, including gene expression studies by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Both high quality RNA samples and suitable stable internal reference genes are required for accurate gene expression studies. In this study, ten candidate genes (succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA, NADH dehydrogenase (NADH, large ribsosmal subunit, TATA-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 18S rRNA (18S, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90, cyclophilin, α-tubulin, actin, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes using the geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and comparative ΔCq algorithims. Our study proposes the use of no more than two of the four most stable reference genes (NADH, 18S, SDHA and HSP90 in Varroa gene expression studies. These four genes remain stable in phoretic and reproductive stage Varroa and are unaffected by Deformed wing virus load. When used for determining changes in vitellogenin gene expression, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the relatively unstable genes actin and α-tubulin was much lower than for the stable gene combinations (NADH + HSP90 +18S; NADH + HSP90; or NADH. Using both electropherograms and RT-qPCR for short and long amplicons as quality controls, we demonstrate that high quality RNA can be recovered from Varroa up to 10 days later stored at ambient temperature if collected into RNAlater and provided the body is pierced. This protocol allows the exchange of Varroa samples between international collaborators and field sample collectors without requiring frozen collection or shipping. Our results make important contributions to gene expression studies in Varroa by proposing a validated sampling protocol to obtain high quality Varroa

  12. Sadum: Traditional and Contemporary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Panggabean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.

  13. Reconstruction of pre-instrumental storm track trajectories across the U.S. Pacific Northwest using circulation-based field sampling of Pinus Ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, E.; Dannenberg, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The trajectory of incoming storms from the Pacific Ocean is a key influence on drought and flood regimes in western North America. Flow is typically from the west in a zonal pattern, but decadal shifts between zonal and meridional flow have been identified as key features in hydroclimatic variability over the instrumental period. In Washington and most of the Pacific Northwest, there tend to be lower-latitude storm systems that result in decreased precipitation in El Niño years. However, the Columbia Basin in central Washington behaves in opposition to the surrounding region and typically has average to above-average precipitation in El Niño years due to changing storm-track trajectories and a decreasing rain shadow effect on the leeward side of the Cascades. This direct connection between storm-track position and precipitation patterns in Washington provided an exceptional opportunity for circulation-based field sampling and chronology development. New Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine) tree-ring chronologies were developed from eight sites around the Columbia Basin in Washington and used to examine year-to-year changes in moisture regimes. Results show that these sites are representative of the two distinct climate response areas. The divergence points between these two site responses allowed us to reconstruct changing precipitation patterns since the late-17th century, and to link these patterns to previously reconstructed atmospheric pressure and El Niño indices. This study highlights the potential for using synoptic climatology to inform field-based proxy collection.

  14. Distribution of dead wood volume and mass in mediterranean Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Northern Iberian Peninsula. Implications for field sampling inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, C.; Monleon, V.J.; Gómez, N.; Bravo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to 1) estimate the amount of dead wood in managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands in northern Iberian Peninsula and 2) evaluate the most appropriate volume equation and the optimal transect length for sampling downed wood. Area of study: The study area is the Aralar Forest in Navarra (Northern Iberian Peninsula). Material and methods: The amount of dead wood by component (downed logs, snags, stumps and fine woody debris) was inventoried in 51 plots across a chronosequence of stand ages (0-120 years old). Main results: The average volume and biomass of dead wood was 24.43 m3 ha-1 and 7.65 Mg ha-1, respectively. This amount changed with stand development stage [17.14 m3 ha-1 in seedling stage; 34.09 m3 ha-1 inpole stage; 22.54 m3 ha-1 in mature stage and 24.27 m3 ha-1 in regular stand in regeneration stage], although the differences were not statistically significant for coarse woody debris. However, forest management influenced the amount of dead wood, because the proportion of mass in the different components and the decay stage depended on time since last thinning. The formula based on intersection diameter resulted on the smallest coefficient of variation out of seven log-volume formulae. Thus, the intersection diameter is the preferred method because it gives unbiased estimates, has the greatest precision and is the easiest to implement in the field. Research highlights: The amount of dead wood, and in particular snags, was significantly lower than that in reserved forests. Results of this study showed that sampling effort should be directed towards increasing the number of transects, instead of increasing transect length or collecting additional piece diameters that do not increase the accuracy or precision of DWM volume estimation. (Author)

  15. Aerosol and cloud properties derived from hyperspectral transmitted light in the southeast Atlantic sampled during field campaign deployments in 2016 and 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, S. E.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Pistone, K.; Karol, Y.; Schmidt, S.; Cochrane, S.; Chen, H.; Meyer, K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    We present aerosol and cloud properties collected from airborne remote-sensing measurements in the southeast Atlantic during the recent NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign. During the biomass burning seasons of September 2016 and August 2017, we sampled aerosol layers which overlaid marine stratocumulus clouds off the southwestern coast of Africa. We sampled these aerosol layers and the underlying clouds from the NASA P3 airborne platform with the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). Aerosol optical depth (AOD), along with trace gas content in the atmospheric column (water vapor, NO2, and O3), is obtained from the attenuation in the sun's direct beam, measured at the altitude of the airborne platform. Using hyperspectral transmitted light measurements from 4STAR, in conjunction with hyperspectral hemispheric irradiance measurements from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR), we also obtained aerosol intensive properties (asymmetry parameter, single scattering albedo), aerosol size distributions, cloud optical depth (COD), cloud particle effective radius, and cloud thermodynamic phase. Aerosol intensive properties are retrieved from measurements of angularly resolved skylight and flight level spectral albedo using the inversion used with measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) that has been modified for airborne use. The cloud properties are obtained from 4STAR measurements of scattered light below clouds. We show a favorable initial comparison of the above-cloud AOD measured by 4STAR to this same product retrieved from measurements by the MODIS instrument on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites. The layer AOD observed above clouds will also be compared to integrated aerosol extinction profile measurements from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2).

  16. Predicting Volume and Biomass Change from Multi-Temporal Lidar Sampling and Remeasured Field Inventory Data in Panther Creek Watershed, Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna P. Poudel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using lidar for large-scale forest management can improve operational and management decisions. Using multi-temporal lidar sampling and remeasured field inventory data collected from 78 plots in the Panther Creek Watershed, Oregon, USA, we evaluated the performance of different fixed and mixed models in estimating change in aboveground biomass ( ∆ AGB and cubic volume including top and stump ( ∆ CVTS over a five-year period. Actual values of CVTS and AGB were obtained using newly fitted volume and biomass equations or the equations used by the Pacific Northwest unit of the Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Estimates of change based on fixed and mixed-effect linear models were more accurate than change estimates based on differences in LIDAR-based estimates. This may have been due to the compounding of errors in LIDAR-based estimates over the two time periods. Models used to predict volume and biomass at a given time were, however, more precise than the models used to predict change. Models used to estimate ∆ CVTS were not as accurate as the models employed to estimate ∆ AGB . Final models had cross-validation root mean squared errors as low as 40.90% for ∆ AGB and 54.36% for ∆ CVTS .

  17. Laboratory evaluation of a field-portable sealed source X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for determination of metals in air filter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawryk, Nicholas J; Feng, H Amy; Chen, Bean T

    2009-07-01

    Recent advances in field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP XRF) spectrometer technology have made it a potentially valuable screening tool for the industrial hygienist to estimate worker exposures to airborne metals. Although recent studies have shown that FP XRF technology may be better suited for qualitative or semiquantitative analysis of airborne lead in the workplace, these studies have not extensively addressed its ability to measure other elements. This study involved a laboratory-based evaluation of a representative model FP XRF spectrometer to measure elements commonly encountered in workplace settings that may be collected on air sample filter media, including chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc. The evaluation included assessments of (1) response intensity with respect to location on the probe window, (2) limits of detection for five different filter media, (3) limits of detection as a function of analysis time, and (4) bias, precision, and accuracy estimates. Teflon, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and mixed cellulose ester filter media all had similarly low limits of detection for the set of elements examined. Limits of detection, bias, and precision generally improved with increasing analysis time. Bias, precision, and accuracy estimates generally improved with increasing element concentration. Accuracy estimates met the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion for nearly all the element and concentration combinations. Based on these results, FP XRF spectrometry shows potential to be useful in the assessment of worker inhalation exposures to other metals in addition to lead.

  18. Can smartphones be used to bring computer-based tasks from the lab to the field? A mobile experience-sampling method study about the pace of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Lewetz, David; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-12-06

    Researchers are increasingly using smartphones to collect scientific data. To date, most smartphone studies have collected questionnaire data or data from the built-in sensors. So far, few studies have analyzed whether smartphones can also be used to conduct computer-based tasks (CBTs). Using a mobile experience-sampling method study and a computer-based tapping task as examples (N = 246; twice a day for three weeks, 6,000+ measurements), we analyzed how well smartphones can be used to conduct a CBT. We assessed methodological aspects such as potential technologically induced problems, dropout, task noncompliance, and the accuracy of millisecond measurements. Overall, we found few problems: Dropout rate was low, and the time measurements were very accurate. Nevertheless, particularly at the beginning of the study, some participants did not comply with the task instructions, probably because they did not read the instructions before beginning the task. To summarize, the results suggest that smartphones can be used to transfer CBTs from the lab to the field, and that real-world variations across device manufacturers, OS types, and CPU load conditions did not substantially distort the results.

  19. The patient relationship and therapeutic techniques of the South Sotho traditional healer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkoane, M G; Greeff, M; Williams, M J S

    2005-11-01

    Until 1996 the practice of traditional healers was outlawed in South Africa and not afforded a legal position in the community of health care providers. In 1978 the World Health Organization (WHO) identified traditional healers as those people forming an essential core of primary health care workers for rural people in the Third World Countries. However in 1994 the new South African government identified traditional healers as forming an essential element of primary health care workers. It is estimated that 80% of the black population uses traditional medicine because it is deeply rooted in their culture, which is linked to their religion. The traditional healer shares with the patient a world view which is completely alien to biomedical personnel. Therapeutic techniques typically used in traditional healing conflict with the therapeutic techniques used in biomedicine. The patients' perceptions of traditional healing, their needs and expectations, may be the driving force behind their continuous persistence to consult a traditional healer, even after these patients may have sought the therapeutic techniques of biomedical personnel. The operation of both systems in the same society creates a problem to both providers and recipients of health care. Confusion then arises and the consumer consequently chooses the services closer to her. The researcher aimed at investigating the characteristics of the relationship between the traditional healers and the patients, explored the therapeutic techniques that are used in the South Sotho traditional healing process, and investigated the views of both the traditional healers and the patients about the South -Sotho traditional healing process, to facilitate incorporation of the traditional healers in the National Health Care Delivery System. A qualitative research design was followed. Participants were identified by means of a non-probable, purposive voluntary sample. Data was collected by means of a video camera and semi

  20. Traditional marriage festivals and tourism development | Oluwatoyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field work, observation and oral interview were the research instruments used to gather information from the tourist, host community, tourist product provider, and the government officials present at the 2012 festival. These are the people who will benefit greatly from the festival, if fully harnessed. The traditional marriage is a ...

  1. Scrum in the Traditional Development Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Friis Sommer, Anita

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of years, the application of Scrum as a project management framework has been broadened from initially belonging to the software domain. Now companies within the field of traditional product development are starting to implement Scrum in an attempt to improve...

  2. In the Dirac tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-04-15

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.

  3. In the Dirac tradition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions

  4. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  5. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF A SAMPLE OF 70 μm SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD. II. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Frayer, D. T.; Aussel, H.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Cassata, P.; Le Fevre, O.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, P.; Surace, J.; Yan, L.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S.; Civano, F.; Hasinger, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the morphological properties of a large sample of 1503 70 μm selected galaxies in the COSMOS field spanning the redshift range 0.01 8 IR (8 - 1000 μm) 14 L sun with a median luminosity of 10 11.4 L sun . In general, these galaxies are massive, with a stellar mass range of 10 10 -10 12 M sun , and luminous, with -25 K IR , with the fraction at the highest luminosity (L IR > 10 12 L sun ) being up to ∼50%. We also find that the fraction of spirals drops dramatically with L IR . Minor mergers likely play a role in boosting the infrared luminosity for sources with low luminosities (L IR 11.5 L sun ). The precise fraction of mergers in any given L IR bin varies by redshift due to sources at z > 1 being difficult to classify and subject to the effects of bandpass shifting; therefore, these numbers can only be considered lower limits. At z 1, the fraction of major mergers is lower, but is at least 30%-40% for ULIRGs. In a comparison of our visual classifications with several automated classification techniques we find general agreement; however, the fraction of identified mergers is underestimated due to automated classification methods being sensitive to only certain timescales of a major merger. Although the general morphological trends agree with what has been observed for local (U)LIRGs, the fraction of major mergers is slightly lower than seen locally. This is in part due to the difficulty of identifying merger signatures at high redshift. The distribution of the U - V color of the galaxies in our sample peaks in the green valley ((U - V) = 1.1) with a large spread at bluer and redder colors and with the major mergers peaking more strongly in the green valley than the rest of the morphological classes. We argue that, given the number of major gas-rich mergers observed and the relatively short timescale that they would be observable in the (U)LIRG phase, it is plausible for the observed red sequence of massive ellipticals ( 12 M sun ) to have been

  6. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey | Lech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...

  7. Comparative Economic Analysis of Beekeeping Using Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Tabora and Katavi regions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The overall objective of the study was to undertake a comparative economic analysis of beekeeping using improved or traditional beehives. Data were collected from 198 beekeepers that were randomly selected from a sampling ...

  8. A large sample of shear-selected clusters from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A Wide field mass maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi; Shirasaki, Masato; Koike, Michitaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Umetsu, Keiichi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Okabe, Nobuhiro; More, Surhud; Medezinski, Elinor; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyatake, Hironao; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ota, Naomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

    2018-01-01

    We present the result of searching for clusters of galaxies based on weak gravitational lensing analysis of the ˜160 deg2 area surveyed by Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) as a Subaru Strategic Program. HSC is a new prime focus optical imager with a 1.5°-diameter field of view on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. The superb median seeing on the HSC i-band images of 0.56" allows the reconstruction of high angular resolution mass maps via weak lensing, which is crucial for the weak lensing cluster search. We identify 65 mass map peaks with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio larger than 4.7, and carefully examine their properties by cross-matching the clusters with optical and X-ray cluster catalogs. We find that all the 39 peaks with S/N > 5.1 have counterparts in the optical cluster catalogs, and only 2 out of the 65 peaks are probably false positives. The upper limits of X-ray luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) imply the existence of an X-ray underluminous cluster population. We show that the X-rays from the shear-selected clusters can be statistically detected by stacking the RASS images. The inferred average X-ray luminosity is about half that of the X-ray-selected clusters of the same mass. The radial profile of the dark matter distribution derived from the stacking analysis is well modeled by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile with a small concentration parameter value of c500 ˜ 2.5, which suggests that the selection bias on the orientation or the internal structure for our shear-selected cluster sample is not strong.

  9. Field Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides responses to US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV EPA-M and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Oversite Division (TDEC-O) comments on report ORNL/ER-58, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 consists of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage system downgradient of the major ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed. A strategy for the remedial investigation (RI) of WAG2 was developed in report ES/ER-14 ampersand Dl, Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This strategy takes full advantage of WAG2's role as an integrator of contaminant releases from the ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed, and takes full advantage of WAG2's role as a conduit for contaminants from the ORNL site to the Clinch River. The strategy calls for a multimedia environmental monitoring and characterization program to be conducted in WAG2 while upgradient contaminant sources are being remediated. This monitoring and characterization program will (1) identify and quantify contaminant fluxes, (2) identify pathways of greatest concern for human health and environmental risk, (3) improve conceptual models of contaminant movement, (4) support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, (5) support efforts to prioritize sites for remediation, (6) document the reduction in contaminant fluxes following remediation, and (7) support the eventual remediation of WAG2. Following this strategy, WAG2 has been termed an ''integrator WAG,'' and efforts in WAG2 over the short term are directed toward supporting efforts to remediate the contaminant ''source WAGS'' at ORNL

  10. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  11. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  12. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  13. Spread of Traditional Medicines in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Sugumar, V. Raji

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we have a comprehensive database on usage of AYUSH (acronym for Ayurveda, naturopathy and Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in India at the household level. This article aims at exploring the spread of the traditional medical systems in India and the perceptions of people on the access and effectiveness of these medical systems using this database. The article uses the unit level data purchased from the National Sample Survey Organization, New Delhi. Household is the basic unit of survey and the data are the collective opinion of the household. This survey shows that less than 30% of Indian households use the traditional medical systems. There is also a regional pattern in the usage of particular type of traditional medicine, reflecting the regional aspects of the development of such medical systems. The strong faith in AYUSH is the main reason for its usage; lack of need for AYUSH and lack of awareness about AYUSH are the main reasons for not using it. With regard to source of medicines in the traditional medical systems, home is the main source in the Indian medical system and private sector is the main source in Homeopathy. This shows that there is need for creating awareness and improving access to traditional medical systems in India. By and large, the users of AYUSH are also convinced about the effectiveness of these traditional medicines. PMID:26438717

  14. Response to ``Comment on `Small field behavior of critical current in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 sintered samples' ''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, G.; Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.; Gambardella, U.; Maritato, L.

    1989-05-01

    In our response we would like to point out the fitting of the data has done to account for the shift of the maximum magnetic field dependence of the critical current. This shift on the order of 1 Gauss or less is gener ally observed in all our data and is attributable to the residual external field. Since we used a crude junction model, the self-field effects were not included. (AIP)

  15. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  16. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  17. The traditional knowledge and the intellectual property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle Vasquez, Rosangela

    1999-01-01

    This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme

  18. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  19. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  20. Application of nuclear irradiation to traditional chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jianping; Li Xuehu; Lu Xihong; Tao Lei; Wang Shuyang

    2010-01-01

    The application of nuclear irradiation in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has received much attention. In this paper we reviewed the application of nuclear radiation on the cultivation, breeding and disinfection of traditional Chinese medicine, and pointed out that the combination of radiation-induced mutagenesis and biological technology would promise broad prospects for increasing the cellular mutation rate and speeding up the genetic improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. (authors)

  1. Traditional practices used by infertile women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, S; Efe, S Yaman

    2010-09-01

    Numerous traditional methods are used in the treatment of infertility around the world. To identify the traditional practices of infertile women using one clinic in Ankara, Turkey. The population comprised all women (5700) who attended one infertility outpatient clinic in 2007. The sample was calculated using sample calculation formula and 410 women were included in the study. The survey method was used for data collection. Of the responding women, 27.3% had tried a traditional practice, and 67.8% who tried traditional practices used an herbal mixture. The reason for the women's use of a traditional practice was 'hope' (66.9%), and 15.2% of them had experienced an adverse effect related with traditional practice. Maternal education level, perceived economic status, duration of marriage all significantly affected the use of traditional practices (Pwomen who had received unsuccessful medical treatment for infertility and who had experienced side effects after medical treatment had a higher rate of use of traditional practice (Pwomen who responded to the questionnaire had tried traditional methods, and some experienced adverse effects related to the practice. For couples with infertility problems, educational programmes and consultation services should be organized with respect to their traditional culture. Women should be informed about the hazards of traditional practices and avoidance of harmful practices, and continuous emotional support must be provided for infertile couples. In the future, nursing staff should play a much larger role in these supportive services.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education's environmental survey and site assessment program field sampling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.; Bright, T.L.; Roberts, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters Office, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) compared the documented procedures that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ESSAP use for collecting environmental samples. The project objectives were to review both organizations' procedures applicable to collecting various sample matrices, compare the procedures for similarities and differences, and then to evaluate the reason for any identified procedural differences and their potential impact on ESSAP's sample data quality. The procedures reviewed included those for sampling surface and subsurface soil, surface and groundwater, vegetation, air, and removable surface contamination. ESSAP obtained copies of relevant EPA documents and reviewed and prepared a tabulated summary of each applicable procedure. The methods for collecting and handling each type of sample were evaluated for differences, and where these were identified, the significance and effect of the differences on analytical quality were determined. The results of the comparison showed that, overall, the procedures and methods that EPA and ESSAP use for sample collection are very similar. The number of minor differences noted were the result of restrictions or procedures necessary to ensure sample integrity and prevent the introduction of interfering compounds when samples are to be analyzed for chemical parameters. For most radio nuclide analyses, these additional procedures are not necessary. Another item noted was EPA's inclusion of steps that reduce the potential for sample cross-contamination by preparing (dressing) a location prior to collecting a sample or removing a portion of a sample prior to containerization

  3. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK/II. Second report on task FIN A 847 of the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.; Klemola, S.

    1995-06-01

    Radionuclide determinations of 35 environmental samples of eight different materials were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides, 90 Sr, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu. In most of the samples the found radionuclide contents were roughly at the same levels as in the same types of environmental samples in the northern hemisphere. However, some samples of grass, moss, lichen and sheep faeces showed exceptionally great contents of radionuclides measured. The maximum contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu were found in the sam individual samples. The ratios of nuclide concentrations in these samples also deviated from ratios in other samples. This referred to an origin of these nuclides other than the global fallout. The work was a continuation to the study carried out under the Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguard. (orig.) (1 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  4. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  5. The Hausa Lexicographic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ma Newman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.

    Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en

  6. Ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to reveal and document ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in selected sites of Eastern Hararghie. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and field observation from 9 traditional healers in 4 study sites of Eastern Hararghie. Data were ...

  7. Tradition, modernity and the future of African theology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During my research in the field of African traditional religion and Christianity I .... and their protest against the old is a cry for psychological, social and spiritual ...... B.A.(Theology) Dissertation, University of Malawi, 1996; for the Christian faith,.

  8. Inspiring the Next Generation of Scientists: Building on 52 Years of Tradition in Diatom Research with Open-Source, Web-Based Collaboration Tools and Online Resources in a Field Course for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K. L.; Lee, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Open-source, web-based forums and online resources can be used to develop a collaborative, active-learning approach for engaging and training students in the scientific process. We used the Diatoms of the United States website as an online resource for diatom taxonomy and developed a Google+ class community to serve as a platform for high school students to learn about research in diatom taxonomy, community ecology and diatom applications to the earth sciences. Ecology and Systematics of Diatoms is a field course that has been taught at the undergraduate and graduate levels at the Iowa Lakeside Lab field station for 52 years, beginning with the Diatom Clinic in 1963. Freshwater diatom education at Lakeside Lab has since evolved into a foundational training course attracting budding diatomists from all over the world, and has grown to include a week-long course for high school students. Successful since 2012, the high school course is now offered for college credit (University of Iowa), and covers methods of diatom specimen collection and preparation, microscopy, identification of diatom genera, diatom ecology, applications of diatom research, and an introduction to data analysis incorporating multivariate statistics (ordination) using the R statistical program, as well as primary scientific literature. During the 2015 course, students contributed to a Google+ class community where they posted images, data, and questions. The web-based platform allowed students to easily share information and to give and receive feedback from both peers and instructors. Students collaborated via the Google+ community and used the Diatoms of the United States website to develop a taxonomic reference for a field-based group research project, simulating how an actual diatom research program would develop a region or project-specific flora harmonized across analysts. Students investigated the taxonomy and ecology of diatom epiphytes on the green alga Cladophora from the littoral zone of

  9. Traditional and emerging materials for optical metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Alexander Y.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising and vibrant research areas in nanotechnology has been the field of metasurfaces. These are two dimensional representations of metaatoms, or artificial interfaces designed to possess specialized electromagnetic properties which do not occur in nature, for specific applications. In this article, we present a brief review of metasurfaces from a materials perspective, and examine how the choice of different materials impact functionalities ranging from operating bandwidth to efficiencies. We place particular emphasis on emerging and non-traditional materials for metasurfaces such as high index dielectrics, topological insulators and digital metamaterials, and the potentially transformative role they could play in shaping further advances in the field.

  10. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1512, AUG (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : head- column field-amplified sample stacking * capillary electrophoresis * water plug Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  11. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1512, AUG (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : head-column field-amplified sample stacking * capillary electrophoresis * water plug Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  12. Cross validation of two partitioning-based sampling approaches in mesocosms containing PCB contaminated field sediment, biota, and activated carbon amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Wang, Alice P.; Gidley, Philip T

    2017-01-01

    with multiple thicknesses of silicone and in situ pre-equilibrium sampling with low density polyethylene (LDPE) loaded with performance reference compounds were applied independently to measure polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mesocosms with (1) New Bedford Harbor sediment (MA, USA), (2) sediment and biota......, and (3) activated carbon amended sediment and biota. The aim was to cross validate the two different sampling approaches. Around 100 PCB congeners were quantified in the two sampling polymers, and the results confirmed the good precision of both methods and were in overall good agreement with recently...... published silicone to LDPE partition ratios. Further, the methods yielded Cfree in good agreement for all three experiments. The average ratio between Cfree determined by the two methods was factor 1.4±0.3 (range: 0.6-2.0), and the results thus cross-validated the two sampling approaches. For future...

  13. Reception of the Istrian musical tradition(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Dario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.

  14. Traditionally protected forests and nature conservation in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 920 traditionally protected forests have been found in sample areas in Handeni District (23 villages) and Mwanga District (Usangi and Ugweno Divisions). The size of the forests is between 0.125 and 200 ha. In earlier times sacred forests (one of the seven different types of traditionally protected forests in Handeni) ...

  15. Traditional medicines and alternative practice in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at identifying Ghanaian traditional medicines used for the management of prostate diseases and their constituents. Reviews of studies conducted on them are also presented. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Traditional Medicine samples from consecutive patients with either ...

  16. Volume Tables and Point-Sampling Factors for Shortleaf Pines in Plantation on Abandoned Fields in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley; David R. Bower

    1968-01-01

    The tables and equations published here provide ways to estimate total and merchantable cubic-foot volumes, both inside and outside bark, of shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) planted on abandoned fields in the Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau, Eastern Highland Rim, and Western Highland Rim regions of Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia (fig. 1). There already are...

  17. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, chlorpyrifos completely in 8, 10 and 10 days, respectively, when 20 mg/l chlorpyrifos was supplied as sole source of carbon. Whereas, BG1, BG4 and PD6 took 14, 16 and 16 days, respectively, for complete removal of 50 mg/l chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos degradation rates were found maximum by all three isolates at 2nd day of incubation for both tested concentrations. The results of the present study suggest the need for regular monitoring of pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  18. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  19. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR): Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogy Measurements from Icelandic Mars Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Jacobsen, M.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    In situ exploration of planetary environments allows biochemical analysis of sub-centimeter-scale samples; however, landing sites are selected a priori based on measurable meter- to kilometer-scale geological features. Optimizing life detection mission science return requires both understanding the expected biomarker distributions across sample sites at different scales and efficiently using first-stage in situ geochemical instruments to justify later-stage biological or chemical analysis. Icelandic volcanic regions have an extensive history as Mars analogue sites due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes, in addition to the advantages of geological youth and isolation from anthropogenic contamination. Many Icelandic analogue sites are also rugged and remote enough to create the same type of instrumentation and sampling constraints typically faced by robotic exploration.

  20. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  1. Multielement analysis of Nigerian traditional (black) soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanni, M.S.; Ogugbuaja, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    The element contents of some Nigerian traditional soap samples were determined using thermal neutron activation analysis. The quality control consists of replicate analyses of standard 1632A bituminous coal for precision and accuracy determination. Potassium is found to be the major element in the soaps. While some elements show fairly constant concentration in all samples analyzed, others have high maximum/minimum ratios. The elemental concentration variation in the soaps may likely have effects on their relative foaming capability and such variation is linked to the physical environment where the starting materials are obtained. (author)

  2. Impact of traditional processing methods on some physico chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... 1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of ... need to educate traditional processors on good manufacturing practices, .... Table 3. Physical Contaminants in Fermented Cassava flour (“Kpor Umilin”) Samples.

  3. A Multiwavelength Study of a Sample of 70 μm Selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field : I. Spectral Energy Distributions and Luminosities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Frayer, D. T.; Aussel, H.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Surace, J.; Yan, L.; Brusa, M.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Faure, C.; Hasinger, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lee, N.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C. T.; McCracken, H. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Trump, J.

    We present a large robust sample of 1503 reliable and unconfused 70 μm selected sources from the multiwavelength data set of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. Using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry, we estimate the total infrared (IR) luminosity, L IR (8-1000 μm), by finding the best-fit template

  4. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.; van Ginkel, P.; Benschop, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aim The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these

  5. Cross polarization with phase and amplitude modulation of radio frequency fields in NMR-experiments with sample rotation at magic angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvinskij, S.V.; Chizhik, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    One analyzes cross polarization of nuclei within a rotating system of coordinates as applied to the NMR-experiments with a specimen rotation under the magic angle. One worded a concept of simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation according to which the Hamiltonian form of the restored dipole interaction persisted if inversion of difference of radiofrequency field amplitudes occurred simultaneously with phase inversion. One presents a theoretical substantiation in terms of the average Hamiltonian theory. The concept is demonstrated both experimentally and by means of numerical analysis for a number of special cases. Phase periodic inversion in cross polarized experiments is shown to result into practically important advantage of suppression of interactions of chemical shift and influence of effects of coarse adjustment of radiofrequency field parameters [ru

  6. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Viabilidade econômica do sistema de adubação diferenciado comparado ao sistema de adubação convencional em lavoura cafeeira: um estudo de caso Economic viability of the variable rate technology compared to the traditional system of fertilization in a coffee field: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. E S. Ferraz

    2011-10-01

    were applied fertilizer in variable rates in the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 harvests. The precision agriculture was characterized by the georeferenced soil sampling and the application of phosphorus and potassium in variable rates. The conventional fertilization costs were obtained by simulations considering the traditional soil sampling performed at these areas. In order to compare the two fertilization systems, it was considered the operations and the amount of fertilizer necessary in each of the fertilization system. It was realized differences in the elements and in the amount that should be applied between the two systems. The variable rate fertilization was more profitable to the area of 22 ha and 10.52 ha in the two harvests studied and to the area of 6.23 ha was profitable (less prejudice only to the last crop.

  8. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  9. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  10. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  11. Toxoplasma gondii and pre-treatment protocols for polymerase chain reaction analysis of milk samples: a field trial in sheep from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping. The pre-treatment protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Tris-HCl to remove casein gave the best results in the least amount of time compared to the others on spiked milk samples. One sample of 21 collected from sheep farms was positive on one-step PCR, real time PCR and resulted in a Type I genotype at one locus (SAG3. Milk usually contains a low number of tachyzoites and this could be a limiting factor for molecular identification. Our preliminary data has evaluated a rapid, cost-effective and sensitive protocol to treat milk before DNA extraction. The results of the present study also confirm the possibility of T. gondii transmission through consumption of raw milk and its unpasteurised derivatives.

  12. Lab-scale development of a high temperature aerosol particle sampling probe system for field measurements in thermochemical conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, M.; Malik, A.; Pagels, J.; Sanati, M. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology

    2010-07-01

    Thermochemical conversion of biomass requires both combustion in an oxygen rich environment and gasification in an oxygen deficient environment. Therefore, the mass concentration of fly ash from combustion processes is dominated by inorganic compounds, and the particulate matter obtained from gasification is dominated by carbonaceous compounds. The fine fly ash particles can initiate corrosion and fouling and also increases emissions of fine particulates to the atmosphere. This study involved the design of a laboratory scale setup consisting of a high temperature sampling probe and an aerosol generation system to study the formation of fine particle from biomass gasification processes. An aerosol model system using potassium chloride (KCl) as the ash compound and Di Octyl Sebacate oil (DOS) as the volatile organic part was used to test the high temperature sampling probe. Tests conducted at 200 degrees C showed good reproducibility of the aerosol generator. The tests also demonstrated suitable dilution ratios which enabled the denuder to absorb all of the gaseous organic compounds in the set up, thus enabling measurement of only the particle phase. Condensable organic concentrations of 1-68 mg/m{sup 3} were easily handled by the high temperature sampling probe system, indicating that the denuder worked well. Additional tests will be performed using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMST) to verify that the denuder can capture all of the gaseous organic compounds also when condensed onto agglomerated soot particles. 6 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  13. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  14. Mapping geomorphic process domains to predict hillslope sediment size distribution using remotely-sensed data and field sampling, Inyo Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, S.; Sklar, L. S.; Genetti, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The size distribution of sediments produced on hillslopes and supplied to channels depends on the geomorphic processes that weather, detach and transport rock fragments down slopes. Little in the way of theory or data is available to predict patterns in hillslope size distributions at the catchment scale from topographic and geologic maps. Here we use aerial imagery and a variety of remote sensing techniques to map and categorize geomorphic landscape units (GLUs) by inferred sediment production process regime, across the steep mountain catchment of Inyo Creek, eastern Sierra Nevada, California. We also use field measurements of particle size and local geomorphic attributes to test and refine GLU determinations. Across the 2 km of relief in this catchment, landcover varies from bare bedrock cliffs at higher elevations to vegetated, regolith-covered convex slopes at lower elevations. Hillslope gradient could provide a simple index of sediment production process, from rock spallation and landsliding at highest slopes, to tree-throw and other disturbance-driven soil production processes at lowest slopes. However, many other attributes are needed for a more robust predictive model, including elevation, curvature, aspect, drainage area, and color. We combine tools from ArcGIS, ERDAS Imagine and Envi with groundtruthing field work to find an optimal combination of attributes for defining sediment production GLUs. Key challenges include distinguishing: weathered from freshly eroded bedrock, boulders from intact bedrock, and landslide deposits from talus slopes. We take advantage of emerging technologies that provide new ways of conducting fieldwork and comparing field data to mapping solutions. In particular, cellphone GPS is approaching the accuracy of dedicated GPS systems and the ability to geo-reference photos simplifies field notes and increases accuracy of later map creation. However, the predictive power of the GLU mapping approach is limited by inherent uncertainty

  15. Traditional uses of herbal vapour therapy in Manipur, North East India: an ethnobotanical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Potsangbam, Kumar Singh; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta

    2013-05-02

    Vapour-based medicines are an aspect of traditional medicine in North East India. However, no collective studies on this therapy in the region have been attempted. With the changing perception of traditional knowledge, documenting these herbal preparations and the subsequent development of baseline data for applications in further ethnopharmacological research are needed. To survey and document the plant species associated with vapour therapy in Manipur, North East India, and to evaluate these traditional practices. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the Meitei community in the Imphal valley and the Jiribam area in Manipur. Traditional disease concepts were studied along with their corresponding medical terminologies. Plant samples collected from fields, healers' private collections and home gardens were identified. Evaluation of the ethnobotanical data was performed with a modified fidelity level index. In the study, 41 traditional disease complexes were treated by 13 different routes of administration using 48 mono-ingredient and 17 multi-ingredient compositions. Preparation methods included boiling in water (28%), burning the materials (48%), crushing the materials to release the aroma (21%) and slight heating of the materials (3%). Some of the mono-ingredient recipes reported in the study were observed to have similar uses in other parts of the world, whereas polyherbal remedies were found to be unique without any similar report. Many compositions mentioned in the paper are still used by the Meitei community. Traditional healers follow their own criteria for selecting medicinal plants. Plants recorded in this ethnobotanical study can suggest methods for selecting and identifying potentially effective plants for future drug candidates. Scientific characterisation of the herbal remedies can contribute to the endorsement of traditional vapour-based therapies in the modern health care systems. Findings from these "new usage

  16. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  17. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  19. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  20. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...

  2. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  3. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  4. TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamak, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...

  5. Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Tavlas

    1998-01-01

    In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...

  6. Electronic commerce versus traditional commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...

  7. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  8. Simultaneous determination and method validation of difenoconazole, propiconazole and pyraclostrobin in pepper and soil by LC-MS/MS in field trial samples from three provinces, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sizhuo; Zhang, Haizhen; Zheng, Kunming; Meng, Banghua; Wang, Fei; Cui, Ying; Zeng, Song; Zhang, Kankan; Hu, Deyu

    2018-02-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simple and accurate detection of the fungicides difenoconazole, propiconazole and pyraclostrobin in peppers and soil. Three fungicides residues were extracted from samples by acetonitrile and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction before instrumental analysis. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated by conducting an intra- and inter-day recovery experiment. The limits of quantification and detection of difenoconazole, propiconazole and pyraclostrobin in pepper and soil were 0.005 and 0.0015 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were investigated by spiking pepper and soil at three levels, and were found to be in the ranges 79.62-103.15% for difenoconazole, 85.94-103.35% for propiconazole and 80.14-97.69% for pyraclostrobin, with relative standard deviations pyraclostrobin were 5.3-11.5 days in peppers and 6.1-32.5 days in soil. At harvest, pepper samples were found to contain difenoconazole, propiconazole and pyraclostrobin well below the maximum residue limits of European Union at the interval of 21 days after last application following the recommended dosage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Schütz, C.

    2010-01-01

    and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using......To establish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for non-resectable liver metastases and for in vitro experiments at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz, Germany, it is necessary to have a reliable dose monitoring system. The in vitro experiments are used to determine the relative......-calculations for mixed radiation fields and the Hansen & Olsen alanine detector response model. With the acquired data about the background dose and charged particle spectrum, and with the acquired information of the neutron flux, we are capable of calculating the dose to the tissue. Conclusion. Monte Carlo simulation...

  10. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  11. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  12. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  13. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  14. Ngat is Dead. Studying Mortuary Traditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    in mortuary ceremonies, whose form and content are passionately contested by different groups of relatives. Through prolonged negotiations, Ton learns how Baluan people perform and transform their traditions and not least what role he plays himself. The film is part of long-term field research, in which...... insights prompted by filmmaking grounded in long-term familiarity and involvement with a community. It also demonstrates the benefits of an anthropologically trained film crew. … As an ethnographic film that demonstrates the value and developing insights of long-term fieldwork,this is excellent.” — Mike...

  15. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  16. Toward a Rapid Synthesis of Field and Desktop Data for Classifying Streams in the Pacific Northwest: Guiding the Sampling and Management of Salmonid Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprak, A.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.; Weber, N. P.; Trahan, N. C.; Jordan, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    River managers often seek to understand habitat availability and quality for riverine organisms within the physical template provided by their landscape. Yet the large amount of natural heterogeneity in landscapes gives rise to stream systems which are highly variable over small spatial scales, potentially complicating site selection for surveying aquatic habitat while simultaneously making a simple, wide-reaching management strategy elusive. This is particularly true in the rugged John Day River Basin of northern Oregon, where efforts as part of the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program to conduct site-based surveys of physical habitat for endangered steelhead salmon (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are underway. As a complete understanding of the type and distribution of habitat available to these fish would require visits to all streams in the basin (impractical due to its large size), here we develop an approach for classifying channel types which combines remote desktop GIS analyses with rapid field-based stream and landscape surveys. At the core of this method, we build off of the River Styles Framework, an open-ended and process-based approach for classifying streams and informing management decisions. This framework is combined with on-the-ground fluvial audits, which aim to quickly and continuously map sediment dynamics and channel behavior along selected channels. Validation of this classification method is completed by on-the-ground stream surveys using a digital iPad platform and by rapid small aircraft overflights to confirm or refine predictions. We further compare this method with existing channel classification approaches for the region (e.g. Beechie, Montgomery and Buffington). The results of this study will help guide both the refinement of site stratification and selection for salmonid habitat monitoring within the basin, and will be vital in designing and prioritizing restoration and management strategies tailored to the distribution of river styles found

  17. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training.

  18. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  19. Determinants of a traditional agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Borysiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to define the landscape determinants as certificates of natural and cultural heritage which identify the young glacial landscape under traditional agricultural management. These studies were conducted in the upper Parsęta basin (Pomerania, Poland covered by the many annual environmental monitoring programs since 1994. The aim of this monitoring is to observe changes in geoecosystems of the temperate climate zone. The parameters of the abiotic landscape subsystem have been monitored in a wide range of terms, whereas biotic elements and cultural resources only in a very limited way. This was the reason for undertaking complementary studies. The paper presents the so-called “zero-state” for 2014, which will be a reference point from which to track the direction of landscape changes in the future. The abiotic, geobotanical, and cultural determinants of this state chosen have been characterized on the basis of field mapping data and the available literature. They were chosen based on the methodology of landscape audit to define the specificity of the traditional agricultural landscape. They were selected on the basis of assessment criteria for landscape structure: complexity (diversification of land use and cover, naturalness (syngenesis of plant communities, hydrochemical properties of surface waters, coherence of composition with natural conditions, stewardship (intensity of use, crop weeds, ecological succession, fallows, anthropogenic denudation, aesthetic and visual perception, historicity (continuity of natural landscape elements, continuation of traditional agricultural use, architectural objects, and disharmonious elements.

  20. Corporate Foresight: An Emerging Field with a Rich Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Battistella, Cinzia; Huizingh, Eelko

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this introductory article to the Special Issue on Corporate Foresight is to provide an overview of the state of the art, major challenges and to identify development trajectories. We define corporate foresight as an ability that permits an organization to lay the foundation for a future...... of them on corporate foresight. Based on these articles and those in this Special Issue, we identify four main themes. Two more mature themes, namely ‘organizing corporate foresight’, and ‘individual and collective cognition’, and two emerging themes ‘corporate foresight in networked organizations...

  1. Corporate foresight : An emerging field with a rich tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrbeck, René; Battistella, Cinzia; Huizingh, Eelko

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this introductory article to the Special Issue on Corporate Foresight is to provide an overview of the state of the art, major challenges and to identify development trajectories. We define corporate foresight as a practice that permits an organization to lay the foundation for a

  2. Network Sampling with Memory: A proposal for more efficient sampling from social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, Ted; Verdery, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques for sampling from networks have grown into an important area of research across several fields. For sociologists, the possibility of sampling from a network is appealing for two reasons: (1) A network sample can yield substantively interesting data about network structures and social interactions, and (2) it is useful in situations where study populations are difficult or impossible to survey with traditional sampling approaches because of the lack of a sampling frame. Despite its appeal, methodological concerns about the precision and accuracy of network-based sampling methods remain. In particular, recent research has shown that sampling from a network using a random walk based approach such as Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) can result in high design effects (DE)—the ratio of the sampling variance to the sampling variance of simple random sampling (SRS). A high design effect means that more cases must be collected to achieve the same level of precision as SRS. In this paper we propose an alternative strategy, Network Sampling with Memory (NSM), which collects network data from respondents in order to reduce design effects and, correspondingly, the number of interviews needed to achieve a given level of statistical power. NSM combines a “List” mode, where all individuals on the revealed network list are sampled with the same cumulative probability, with a “Search” mode, which gives priority to bridge nodes connecting the current sample to unexplored parts of the network. We test the relative efficiency of NSM compared to RDS and SRS on 162 school and university networks from Add Health and Facebook that range in size from 110 to 16,278 nodes. The results show that the average design effect for NSM on these 162 networks is 1.16, which is very close to the efficiency of a simple random sample (DE=1), and 98.5% lower than the average DE we observed for RDS. PMID:24159246

  3. Do the venous blood samples replicate malaria parasite densities found in capillary blood? A field study performed in naturally-infected asymptomatic children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeu, Maurice M; Bayibéki, Albert N; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Diallo, Diadier; Berry, Antoine; Texier, Gaétan; Morlais, Isabelle

    2017-08-17

    The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films. The blood source may then impact the success of mosquito feeding experiments and investigations are needed for the implementation of DMFAs under natural conditions. Thick blood smears were prepared from blood obtained from asymptomatic children attending primary schools in the vicinity of Mfou (Cameroon) over four transmission seasons. Parasite densities were determined microscopically from capillary and venous blood for 137 naturally-infected gametocyte carriers. The effect of the blood source on gametocyte and asexual stage densities was then assessed by fitting cumulative link mixed models (CLMM). DMFAs were performed to compare the infectiousness of gametocytes from the different blood sources to mosquitoes. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages among asymptomatic children aged from 4 to 15 years was 51.8% (2116/4087). The overall prevalence of P. falciparum gametocyte carriage was 8.9% and varied from one school to another. No difference in the density of gametocyte and asexual stages was found between capillary and venous blood. Attempts to perform DMFAs with capillary blood failed. Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite densities do not differ between capillary and venous blood in asymptomatic subjects for both gametocyte and trophozoite stages. This finding suggests that the blood source should not interfere with transmission efficiency in DMFAs.

  4. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Dirk J; van Ginkel, Patrick; Benschop, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these different methods reach similar or dissimilar segments of the non-dependent opiate-using population. Using ethnographic fieldwork (EFW) and targeted canvassing (TARC; small newspaper advertisements and website announcements), supplemented by snowball referrals, we recruited and interviewed 127 non-dependent opiate users (lifetime prevalence of use 5-100 times; 86.6% had used heroin and 56.7% opium). Average age was 39.0; 66.1% were male and 33.9% female. In addition to opiates, many respondents had wide experience with other illicit drugs. The majority had non-conventional lifestyles. Both EFW and TARC yielded only limited numbers of snowball referrals. EFW requires specific skills, is labour-intensive, thus expensive, but allows unsuitable candidates to be excluded faster. Respondents recruited through EFW were significantly more likely to have experience with opium and various drugs other than opiates. TARC resulted in larger percentages of women and respondents with conventional lifestyles. TARC is less labour-intensive but requires more time for screening candidates; its cost-effectiveness depends on the price of advertising for the recruitment. Different methods reach different segments of the population of non-dependent opiate users. It is useful to employ a multi-method approach to reduce selectivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  6. Evaluation of FTA cards as a laboratory and field sampling device for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and serotyping by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Madhanmohan; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Ralla, Kumar; Villuppanoor, Srinivasan A

    2008-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for serodiagnosis pose a major problem in a tropical country like India, where there is maximum temperature fluctuation. Inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of FMDV samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. Such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valuable epidemiological data. The present study evaluated the usefulness of FTA Classic Cards for the collection, shipment, storage and identification of the FMDV genome by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. The stability of the viral RNA, the absence of infectivity and ease of processing the sample for molecular methods make the FTA cards a useful option for transport of FMDV genome for identification and serotyping. The method can be used routinely for FMDV research as it is economical and the cards can be transported easily in envelopes by regular document transport methods. Live virus cannot be isolated from samples collected in FTA cards, which is a limitation. This property can be viewed as an advantage as it limits the risk of transmission of live virus.

  7. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  8. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...

  9. Successful application of FTA Classic Card technology and use of bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase for large-scale field sampling and cloning of complete maize streak virus genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owor, Betty E; Shepherd, Dionne N; Taylor, Nigel J; Edema, Richard; Monjane, Adérito L; Thomson, Jennifer A; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2007-03-01

    Leaf samples from 155 maize streak virus (MSV)-infected maize plants were collected from 155 farmers' fields in 23 districts in Uganda in May/June 2005 by leaf-pressing infected samples onto FTA Classic Cards. Viral DNA was successfully extracted from cards stored at room temperature for 9 months. The diversity of 127 MSV isolates was analysed by PCR-generated RFLPs. Six representative isolates having different RFLP patterns and causing either severe, moderate or mild disease symptoms, were chosen for amplification from FTA cards by bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase using the TempliPhi system. Full-length genomes were inserted into a cloning vector using a unique restriction enzyme site, and sequenced. The 1.3-kb PCR product amplified directly from FTA-eluted DNA and used for RFLP analysis was also cloned and sequenced. Comparison of cloned whole genome sequences with those of the original PCR products indicated that the correct virus genome had been cloned and that no errors were introduced by the phi29 polymerase. This is the first successful large-scale application of FTA card technology to the field, and illustrates the ease with which large numbers of infected samples can be collected and stored for downstream molecular applications such as diversity analysis and cloning of potentially new virus genomes.

  10. Sampling in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim Harry; Petersen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    A basic knowledge of the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and a set of only eight sampling unit operations is all the practical sampler needs to ensure representativeness of samples extracted from all kinds of lots: production batches, - truckloads, - barrels, sub-division in the laboratory, sampling...... in nature and in the field (environmental sampling, forestry, geology, biology), from raw materials or manufactory processes etc. We here can only give a brief introduction to the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) and these eight Sampling Unit Operations (SUO’s). Always respecting FSP and invoking only...... the necessary SUO’s (dependent on the practical situation) is the only prerequisite needed for eliminating all sampling bias and simultaneously minimizing sampling variance, and this is in addition a sure guarantee for making the final analytical results trustworthy. No reliable conclusions can be made unless...

  11. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOME TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOBRINAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the characterization of six traditional meat products: smoked file, smoked bacon, pork sausages, sausage prepared from swine’s entrails, pork pastrami, sheep sausages. Organoleptic tests (the aspect and shape, the aspect of freshly cut in the section, smell, taste and consistency, physico-chemical and microbiological determinations (NTG, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were performed. These analyzes are a part of quality control that must be done in order to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture for a traditional product. After identification of H2S and starch and according to fat oxidation degree it was concluded that analyzed samples didn’t contain counterfeiters and all parameters analyzed are within the maximum limits allowed by law. Considering all the procedures for manufacturing, characteristics of raw and auxiliary materials, organoleptic properties of final products analyzed in this study, it can be concluded that analyzed meat specialties meet the requirements of Ministry Order no. 690/28.09.2004 for the traditional products certification.

  12. Recent Advances in Traditional Chinese Medicine for Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yifei; Menon, Madhav C; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; He, John Cijiang

    2015-09-01

    Because current treatment options for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited, many patients seek out alternative therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence from large clinical trials to support the use of traditional medicines in patients with CKD. Many active components of traditional medicine formulas are undetermined and their toxicities are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify active compounds from traditional medicines and understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds, as well as their potential toxicity, and subsequently perform well-designed, randomized, controlled, clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of their use in patients with CKD. Significant progress has been made in this field within the last several years. Many active compounds have been identified by applying sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, and more mechanistic studies of these compounds have been performed using both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, several well-designed, large, randomized, clinical trials have recently been published. We summarize these recent advances in the field of traditional medicines as they apply to CKD. In addition, current barriers for further research are also discussed. Due to the ongoing research in this field, we believe that stronger evidence to support the use of traditional medicines for CKD will emerge in the near future. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  14. Appraisal of traditional technologies i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jobo

    A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...

  15. Active Learning versus Traditional Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand,  active learning  changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class;  moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections  in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant  difference between active  learning and traditional  teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting  active  learning to  traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.

  16. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instr