WorldWideScience

Sample records for traditional botanical knowledge

  1. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  2. Mr Napite's botanical knowledge: bridging farmers' and scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though his broad and detailed botanical knowledge is recognised by other local experts, this does not provide him any particular social status. Although he received extensive formal training, his botanical knowledge draws largely on personal and traditional concepts. Clear morphological characteristics, other than the ...

  3. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marcela Meneghetti; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coelho-de-Souza, Gabriela; Ritter, Mara Rejane

    2013-07-30

    This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district's insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

  4. Review of the use of botanicals for epilepsy in complementary medical systems--Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fenglai; Yan, Bo; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Dong

    2015-11-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy. We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed. We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs. More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Botanical drugs in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2016-12-24

    China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  6. [Study on botanical pesticides and its application in production of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Dong, Lin-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-10-01

    The issues including excessive pesticide residues and heavy metal contamination have become the bottle-neck in the development of Chinese herbal medicines. Compared with traditional chemical pesticides, biological pesticides, especially botanical pesticides, are more safe and environment-friendly, which were beneficial to the quality improvement Chinese medicinal materials. Though there exists a weak basic research and it is hard for promotion and regulation, the policy of good and the desire for botanical pesticides will accelerate its development, and replace traditional chemical pesticides gradually. This paper reviews the current situation of botanical pesticides, and gives some pertinence suggestions according to the existing problems and challenges. Research on botanical pesticides will become the key point to solve the problem of excessive pesticides residues and heavy metal contamination, and promote the healthy development of Chinese materia medica. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. [Discussion about traditional Chinese medicine pharmacokinetics study based on first botanical drug approved by FDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fanghua

    2010-04-01

    Pharmacokinetics study is one of main components of pharmaceuticals development. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Veregen as the first botanical drug in 2006. This article introduced FDA's requirement on pharmacokinetics study of botanical drug and pharmacokinetics studies of Veregen, summarized current requirement and status quo of pharmacokinetics study on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural medicine in China, and discussed about pharmacokinetics study strategy for TCM and natural medicine.

  8. Use of Traditional Botanical Medicines During Pregnancy in Rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Jason; Asanti, Daniel; Nsabimana, Damien; Anastos, Kathryn; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin; Sirotin, Nicole; Nathan, Lisa M

    To evaluate the perceptions of healthcare and traditional medicine providers regarding the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of traditional medicine use amongst pregnant women in a rural Rwandan population. Six focus groups with physicians, nurses, and community health workers and four individual in-depth interviews with traditional medicine providers were held. Qualitative data was gathered using a structured questionnaire querying perceptions of the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of use of traditional medicines in pregnancy. The healthcare provider groups perceived a high prevalence of traditional botanical medicine use by pregnant women (50-80%). All three groups reported similar indications for use of the medicines and the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women who use them. The traditional medicine providers and the healthcare providers both perceived that the most commonly used medicine is a mixture of many plants, called Inkuri. The most serious side effect reported was abnormally bright green meconium with a poor neonatal respiratory drive. Thirty-five traditional medicines were identified that are used during pregnancy. Perceptions of high prevalence of use of traditional medicines during pregnancy with possible negative perinatal outcomes exist in areas of rural Rwanda.

  9. Intracultural Differences in Local Botanical Knowledge and Knowledge Loss among the Mexican Isthmus Zapotecs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Saynes-Vásquez

    Full Text Available This study reports on the socio-demographic and locality factors that influence ethnobiological knowledge in three communities of Zapotec indigenous people of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. It uses local botanical nomenclature as a proxy for general ethnobiological knowledge. In each of these communities (one urban and two rural, 100 adult men were interviewed aided with a field herbarium. Fifty had a background in farming, and 50 worked in the secondary or tertiary sector as their main economic activity, totaling 300 interviews. Using a field herbarium with samples of 30 common and rare wild regional species, we documented visual recognition, knowledge of the local life form, generic and specific names and uses (five knowledge levels measuring knowledge depth. The relationship between sociodemographic variables and knowledge was analyzed with simple correlations. Differences between the three communities and the five knowledge levels were then evaluated with a discriminant analysis. A general linear analysis identified factors and covariables that influenced the observed differences. Differences between the groups with different economic activities were estimated with a t-test for independent samples. Most of the relationships found between sociodemographic variables and plant knowledge were expected: age and rurality were positively related with knowledge and years of formal schooling was negatively related. However, the somewhat less rural site had more traditional knowledge due to local circumstances. The general linear model explained 70-77% of the variation, a high value. It showed that economic activity was by far the most important factor influencing knowledge, by a factor of five. The interaction of locality and economic activity followed. The discriminant analysis assigned interviewees correctly to their localities in 94% of the cases, strengthening the evidence for intracultural variation. Both sociodemographic and historic

  10. Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethnobotany in South-Eastern Europe is gaining the interest of several scholars and stakeholders, since it is increasingly considered a key point for the re-evaluation of local bio-cultural heritage. The region of Gollobordo, located in Eastern Albania and bordering the Republic of Macedonia, is of particular interest for conducting ethnobiological studies, since it remained relatively isolated for the larger part of the 20th Century and is traditionally inhabited by a majority of ethnic Macedonians and a minority of Albanians (nowadays both sharing the Muslim faith). Methods An ethnobotanical survey focused on local food, medicinal, and veterinary plant uses was conducted with 58 participants using open and semi-structured interviews and via participant observation. Results We recorded and identified 115 taxa of vascular plants, which are locally used for food, medicinal, and veterinary purposes (representing 268 total plant reports). The Macedonian Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) was greater than the Albanian TEK, especially in the herbal and ritual domains. This phenomenon may be linked to the long socio-cultural and linguistic isolation of this group during the time when the borders between Albania and the former Yugoslavia were completely closed. Moreover, the unusual current food utilisation of cooked potatoes leaves, still in use nowadays among Macedonians, could represent the side effect of an extreme adaptation that locals underwent over the past century when the introduction of the potato crop made new strategies available for establishing stable settlements around the highest pastures. Additionally, the difference in use of Helichrysum plicatum, which is popular in the local Macedonian folk medicine but absent among Albanians, confirms the particular significance of this taxon as it relates to the yellow colour of its flowers in South Slavic folklore. Conclusion Botanical studies with an ethnographic approach are crucial for

  11. Practical uses of botanicals in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed.

  12. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  13. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mostacero León

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5, Anacardiaceae (2, Annonaceae (2, Asteraceae (2, Berberidaceae (2, Rosaceae (2, and Solanaceae (2. Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam. Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  14. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-12-18

    Abstract : Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species : Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana , and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  15. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E.; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries. PMID:29258279

  16. An ethno botanical perspective of traditional medicinal plants from the Khattak tribe of Chonthra Karak, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khalid; Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Mubark Ali; Ullah, Zahid; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-05-13

    The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Botanic garden as an environment for informal education: experience of Kaunas Botanical Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkonis, Nerijus

    2017-01-01

    According to Willison (1994), botanic gardens have an obvious and vital role to play in conserving plants, but conservation cannot succeed without education. Kaunas botanical garden (KBG) of Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania has experience in a diverse range of education activities: from traditional guided excursions which present botanical collections, to informal education for preschoolers and schoolchildren. KBG is a partner in the Lithuanian Academy of Science’s project for the ‘Devel...

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.

  19. Alpine ethnobotany in Italy: traditional knowledge of gastronomic and medicinal plants among the Occitans of the upper Varaita valley, Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Giusti, Maria Elena

    2009-11-06

    A gastronomic and medical ethnobotanical study was conducted among the Occitan communities living in Blins/Bellino and Chianale, in the upper Val Varaita, in the Piedmontese Alps, North-Western Italy, and the traditional uses of 88 botanical taxa were recorded. Comparisons with and analysis of other ethnobotanical studies previously carried out in other Piemontese and surrounding areas, show that approximately one fourth of the botanical taxa quoted in this survey are also known in other surrounding Occitan valleys. It is also evident that traditional knowledge in the Varaita valley has been heavily eroded. This study also examined the local legal framework for the gathering of botanical taxa, and the potential utilization of the most quoted medicinal and food wild herbs in the local market, and suggests that the continuing widespread local collection from the wild of the aerial parts of Alpine wormwood for preparing liquors (Artemisia genipi, A. glacialis, and A. umbelliformis) should be seriously reconsidered in terms of sustainability, given the limited availability of these species, even though their collection is culturally salient in the entire study area.

  20. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies used by agro-pastoralists of Fafan zone, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyera, Teka; Mekonnen, Endalkachew; Wakayo, Befekadu Urga; Assefa, Solomon

    2017-08-09

    In Ethiopia, plant based remedies are still the most important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics in the management of livestock diseases. However, documentation of this indigenous knowledge of therapeutic system still remains at a minimum level. The aim of this study was, thus, to document the traditional knowledge of botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in the agro-pastoral communities of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study employed a cross-sectional participatory survey. Purposive sampling technique was applied to select key respondents with desired knowledge in traditional animal health care system. Data were gathered from a total of 24 (22 males and 2 females) ethnoveterinary practitioners and herbalists using an in-depth-interview complemented with group discussion and field observation. The current ethnobotanical survey indicated that botanical ethnoveterinary therapies are the mainstay of livestock health care system in the studied communities. A total of 49 medicinal plants belonging to 21 families, which are used by traditional healers and livestock raisers for the treatment of 29 types of livestock ailments/health problems, were identified in the study area. The major plant parts used were leaves (43%) followed by roots (35%). In most cases, traditional plant remedies were prepared by pounding the remedial plant part and mixing it with water at room temperature. The various types of identified medicinal plants and their application in ethnoveternary practice of Fafan zone agro pastoralists indicate the depth of indigenous knowledge in ethnobotanical therapy. The identified medicinal plants could be potentially useful for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

  1. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic ( Allium sativum L.), gentian ( Gentiana lutea L.), lovage ( Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle ( Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose ( Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica ( Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle ( Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  2. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kozlowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., garlic (Allium sativum L., gentian (Gentiana lutea L., lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, and lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor L.. While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose (Viburnum opulus L. and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica (Angelica archangelica L. and carline thistle (Carlina acaulis L.. The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  3. Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Jiratchariyakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

  4. Botanical-drug interactions: a scientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei

    2012-09-01

    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. A general lack of knowledge of the interaction potential together with an under-reporting of botanical use poses a challenge for the health care providers and a safety concern for patients. Botanical-drug interactions increase the patient risk, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., warfarin, cyclosporine, and digoxin). Examples of case reports and clinical studies evaluating botanical-drug interactions of commonly used botanicals in the US are presented. The potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic bases of such interactions are discussed, as well as the challenges associated with the interpretation of the available data and prediction of botanical-drug interactions. Recent FDA experiences with botanical products and interactions including labeling implications as a risk management strategy are highlighted. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Scientific Opinion on a Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    preparation for QPS status, it has been possible to develop a structured assessment scheme that provides a practical method for assessing botanicals and botanical preparations for which an adequate body of knowledge exists and therefore without the need for further testing. Reiterative applications...... in the development of a comprehensive, systematic and transparent methodology. The Scientific Committee recommends its use as an extension of the 2009 EFSA guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended to be used in food supplements....

  6. A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstein, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei

    2018-04-01

    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. Consumers often self-administer botanical products without informing their health care providers. The perceived safety of botanical products with lack of knowledge of the interaction potential poses a challenge for providers and both efficacy and safety concerns for patients. Botanical-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when botanical constituents modulate drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters impacting the systemic or tissue exposure of concomitant drugs. Examples of pertinent scientific literature evaluating the interaction potential of commonly used botanicals in the US are discussed. Current methodologies that can be applied to advance our efforts in predicting drug interaction liability is presented. This review also highlights the regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions and labeling implications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlaif Rasha B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank, six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI, were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26

  8. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...

  9. Protecting traditional knowledge - Does secrecy offer a solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their traditional knowledge. This paper reviews the concerns that may arise when holders of traditional knowledge attempt to rely on claiming unfair competition and contract laws to protect their traditional knowledge. Keywords: Traditional knowledge; TRIPS Agreement; unfair competition; confidential information; secrecy.

  10. Conserving Local Knowledge in Traditional Healing through Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lah Salasiah Che

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Local knowledge (LK basically refers to the knowledge that people in a given community have developed over time, and continues to develop, through practices and based on experiences. Local beliefs pertaining to ilmu, a central concept in Malay culture that refers to knowledge, is essential among the traditional healers. The vast repository of knowledge and its relevance to locality and local situation makes the conservation of LK a necessity.However, due to the dominance of modern knowledge, diminished inter-generational knowledge transfer has led to LK being threatened with extinction. The fact that LK is practiced by only a few these days could be due to lack of knowledge transfer to the younger generations from the traditional healers who are knowledgeable in the communities. The common transfer mode of local knowledge, usually via words of mouth, may not be sustainable because the LK could vanish when knowledgeable elders die before it is transferred or during resettlements of individuals or communities. The need to conserve LK through knowledge transfer is also pertinent for the continued sustenance of their culture by recognizing, protecting and enforcing the rights of local communities to have continued access to biological resources as well as by protecting their LK, acquired over thousand of years of experimentation and experience, about the uses of these biological resources in traditional healing. Therefore, it is important to have a governance framework to effectively protect this LK of the local communities for the continued sustenance of their culture. This conceptual paper attempts to highlight the significance of conserving LK in traditional healing via effective knowledge transfer method, which should thereafter be translated into a working governance framework that protects the knowledge as well as the holders of such knowledge.

  11. Expanding the role of botanical gardens in the future of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, the world’s more than 3,000 botanical gardens cultivate approximately one-third of known plant species in living collections, and contribute valuable information on plant identification, geographic distributions, morphology, reproduction, and traditional uses. Further, each year botan...

  12. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In ethnobotanical research, the investigation into traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the context of migration has been of increasing interest in recent decades since it is influenced and changed by new environmental and social conditions. It most likely undergoes transformation processes to match the different living circumstances in the new location. This study compares the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants held by Tyroleans – and their descendants – who emigrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru at different time scales. The study’s findings allow a discussion of the complexities and dynamics that influence this knowledge within the context of long-distance migration. Methods Information was obtained from 65 informants by free-listing, semi-structured interviews and non-participatory observation in Tyrol (Austria) and the migrants’ countries: Australia, Brazil and Peru. The collected data was analysed using different quantitative approaches, including statistical tests, and compared between the countries of investigation. Results All respondents in all four investigation areas claimed that they had knowledge and made use of medicinal plants to treat basic ailments in their day-to-day lives. Informants made 1,139 citations of medicinal plants in total in free lists, which correspond to 164 botanical taxa (genus or species level) in Tyrol, 87 in Australia, 84 in Brazil and 134 in Peru. Of all the botanical taxa listed, only five (1.1%) were listed in all four countries under investigation. Agreement among informants within free lists was highest in Tyrol (17%), followed by Peru (12.2%), Australia (11.9%) and Brazil (11.2%). The proportion of agreement differs significantly between informants in Australia and Tyrol (p = 0.001), Brazil and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and Peru and Tyrol (p = 0.001) and is similar between informants in the migrant countries, as indicated by statistical tests. We recorded 1,286 use citations

  13. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

    2014-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis.

  14. Approaches in fostering quality parameters for medicinal botanicals in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pooja D; Daswani, Poonam G; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2014-01-01

    India is among the important megabiodiversity centers of the world with nearly 45,000 known plant species. This diversity coupled with a rich heritage of traditional knowledge has made India a home to several important time-honored systems of health care such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Herbal medicines, however, are associated with a number of shortcomings including uniform efficacy and lack of appropriate quality control measures at various stages of product development. The review intends to outline the importance of fostering quality parameters towards standardization and manufacturing of botanicals for India to emerge as a leader in global market of herbal products. Literature survey was carried out on important parameters for processing and manufacturing of botanicals. The review highlights that there have been constant efforts for developing state of the art technologies in the field of herbal research. It also reflects that Government authorities have also taken a number of initiatives to formulate appropriate guidelines from standardization of raw materials to obtaining botanical products. However, in the Indian context, there exist certain lacunae in the current regulatory mechanisms which need to be strengthened and stringently implemented to ensure safety, purity and efficacy of herbal medicines. Towards this the approaches being developed globally can be adopted. Based on the literature reviewed, in our opinion, four areas viz., benefit sharing, investment by industry, standardization and national/international networking structure need immediate attention for strengthening Traditional Systems of Medicine in India.

  15. Traditional medicine and childcare in Western Africa: mothers' knowledge, folk illnesses, and patterns of healthcare-seeking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Towns

    Full Text Available In spite of the strong role of traditional medicine in childcare in the pluralistic healthcare system in Western Africa, little information is known on mothers' domestic plant knowledge. Identifying local perspectives and treatments of children's illnesses, including folk illnesses, is essential to having a comprehensive understanding of how mothers make healthcare treatment decisions. We aimed to identify which infant illnesses Beninese and Gabonese mothers knew to treat with medicinal plants and for which illnesses they sought biomedical care or traditional healers.We conducted 81 questionnaires with mothers in Bénin and Gabon and made 800 botanical specimens of cited medicinal plants. We calculated the number of species cited per illness and the proportion of participants knowledgeable on at least one herbal remedy per illness. Using qualitative data, we described folk illnesses in each country and summarized responses on preferences for each of the three healthcare options.Participants from both countries were most knowledgeable on plants to treat respiratory illnesses, malaria, diarrhea, and intestinal ailments. Mothers also frequently mentioned the use of plants to encourage children to walk early, monitor the closure of fontanels, and apply herbal enemas. Major folk illnesses were atita and ka in Bénin and la rate and fesses rouges in Gabon. Traditional healers were reported to have specialized knowledge of cultural bound illnesses. Malaria was frequently cited as an illness for which mothers would directly seek biomedical treatment.Mothers largely saw the three systems as complementary, seamlessly switching between different healing options until a remedy was found. Folk illnesses were found to give insight into local treatments and may reveal important neglected diseases. Due to high reported levels of knowledge on treating top statistical causes of infant mortality and folk illnesses, mothers' medicinal plant knowledge should be

  16. Protecting traditional knowledge from the grassroots up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arugomedo, Alejandro [ANDES Association (Peru); Pant, Ruchi [Ecoserve (India); Vedavathy, S. [Herbal Folklore Reseach Centre (India); Munyi, Peter [International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (Kenya); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya); Herrera, Heracilo [Dobbo Yala Foundation (Panama); Song, Yinching; Li, Jingsong [Centre of Chinese Agricultural Policy (China); Swiderska, Krystyna

    2009-06-15

    For indigenous peoples round the world, traditional knowledge based on natural resources such as medicinal herbs forms the core of culture and identity. But this wealth of knowledge is under pressure. Indigenous communities are increasingly vulnerable to eviction, environmental degradation and outside interests eager to monopolise control over their traditional resources. Intellectual property rights such as patents, however, sit uneasily with traditional knowledge. Their commercial focus wars with fundamental indigenous principles such as resource access and sharing. Local customary law offers a better fit, and findings in China, India, Kenya, Panama and Peru show how this pairing can work in practice. The research has identified common elements, and key differences, in customary law that should be informing policy on traditional knowledge and genetic resources.

  17. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man

    2011-06-01

    With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Botanical Drugs and Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez More, Gina Paola; Cardenas, Paola Andrea; Costa, Geison M; Simoes, Claudia M O; Aragon, Diana Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Botanical drugs contain plant extracts, which are complex mixtures of compounds. As with conventional drugs, it is necessary to validate their efficacy and safety through preclinical and clinical studies. However, pharmacokinetic studies for active constituents or characteristic markers in botanical drugs are rare. The objective of this review was to investigate the global state of the art in pharmacokinetic studies of active ingredients present in plant extracts and botanical drugs. A review of pharmacokinetics studies of chemical constituents of plant extracts and botanical drugs was performed, with a total of 135 studies published between January 2004 and February 2015 available in recognized scientific databases. Botanical preparations were mainly found in the form of aqueous extracts of roots and rhizomes. The most widely studied species was Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, and the compound most frequently used as a pharmacokinetic marker was berberine. Most studies were performed using the Sprague Dawley rat model, and the preparations were mainly administered orally in a single dose. Quantification of plasma concentrations of pharmacokinetic markers was performed mainly by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector. In conclusion, in recent years there has been an increasing interest among researchers worldwide in the study of pharmacokinetics of bioactive compounds in botanical drugs and plant extracts, especially those from the Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities.

  20. Assessment of traditional ecological knowledge and beliefs in the utilisation of important plant species: The case of Buhanga sacred forest, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyambo Irakiza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional ecological knowledge is an integrated part of the African people and indeed the Rwandese for cultural purpose. Buhanga sacred forest is a relict forest of tremendous ecological importance to Rwandan society located in Musanze District. The aim of this study was to assess the traditional ecological knowledge and belief in the utilisation of some important plant species for the conservation of Buhanga sacred forest. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal and traditional practices were collected following structured questionnaire through interview involving eight traditional healers and three focus group discussions. Data were collected from the natural habitats, home gardens, farmlands and roadsides of Buhanga sacred forest. A total of 45 botanical taxa belonging to 28 families were reported to be used by the local community. Species such as Brillantaisia cicatricosa and Senna septemtrionalis were the popular species cited by traditional healers to treat human and animal diseases and ailments, respectively. The results of the study indicated that because of the cultural norms and values associated with the sacred forest, this has led to non-exploitation. The study presents key sites and plant species in which their use and belief can lead to their conservation. However, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge for biocultural conservation motives but there is also need to train traditional healers on how to domesticate indigenous species as conservation measure because some species have become susceptible to extinction. Conservation implications: Highlighting indigenous species investigated in this research will provide a powerful tool for ensuring biodiversity conservation through community participation in a country of high population density in Africa. Some plant species that provided satisfactory Local Health Traditions among communities surrounding Buhanga can contribute as good material for further

  1. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  2. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L

    2016-10-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  3. Oral (Systemic) Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnik, Benjamin; Sharma, Divya; Alban, Joseph; Sivamani, Raja

    2017-06-01

    Patients with psoriasis often use botanical therapies as part of their treatment. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the current evidence regarding these agents as they treat patients. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE database for randomized clinical trials assessing the use of botanical therapeutics for psoriasis. The search included the following keywords: "psoriasis" and "plant" or "herbal" or "botanical." Citations within articles were also reviewed to identify relevant sources. The results were then further refined by route of administration, and the oral (systemic) botanical agents are reviewed herein. A total of 12 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of oral, systemic botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review. While overall evidence is limited in quantity and quality, HESA-A, curcumin, neem extract, and, to a lesser degree, Traditional Chinese Medicine seem to be the most efficacious agents. The literature addresses a large amount of studies in regards to botanicals for the treatment of psoriasis. While most agents appear to be safe, further research is necessary for evidence-based recommendation of oral botanical agents to psoriasis patients.

  4. [Different philosophical traditions for knowledge development in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ariane; Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Gendron, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    doctoral studies in nursing engage a critical reflections about philosophical traditions inherent to knowledge development. critical realism, hermeneutics, postmodernism and poststructuralism refer to philosophical traditions that are generally less explored in nursing, although they are attracting greater attention. this paper offers an introductory presentation to these traditions as the authors also reflect upon their contribution to nursing knowledge development in. for each tradition, ontological and epistemological properties are presented to provide an overview of their main features. Contributions to nursing knowledge development are then discussed. ontology refers to stratified, fixed and changing, or multiple realities, depending on the philosophical tradition. Likewise, epistemology emphasizes the explanatory power of knowledge, intersubjectivity, or inherent power dynamics. the diversity of philosophical traditions represents an asset that can significantly contribute to the advancement of the nursing discipline. clarification of the philosophical dimensions that underlie knowledge development is essential for doctoral nursing students in the process of developing their research projects and future programmes of research.

  5. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  6. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  7. The traditional knowledge and the intellectual property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle Vasquez, Rosangela

    1999-01-01

    This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme

  8. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  9. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude And Perception Of Epilepsy Among Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The poor knowledge of epilepsy among traditional healers is due to cultural prejudices and environment. The resultant deep-rooted misconceptions and myths negatively affect the attitudes and encourage traditional care with high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the study were to assess knowledge of epilepsy ...

  11. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...... plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour....

  12. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  13. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Pieroni, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20-75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under

  14. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed, Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  15. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  16. Secular trends on traditional ecological knowledge: An analysis of different domains of knowledge among Tsimane' men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Luz, Ana C; Gueze, Maximilien; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research provides contradictory evidence of the loss of traditional ecological knowledge across societies. Researchers have argued that culture, methodological differences, and site-specific conditions are responsible for such contradictory evidences. We advance and test a third explanation: the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge systems. Specifically, we test whether different domains of traditional ecological knowledge experience different secular changes and analyze trends in the context of other changes in livelihoods. We use data collected among 651 Tsimane' men (Bolivian Amazon). Our findings indicate that different domains of knowledge follow different secular trends. Among the domains of knowledge analyzed, medicinal and wild edible knowledge appear as the most vulnerable; canoe building and firewood knowledge seem to remain constant across generations; whereas house building knowledge seems to experience a slight secular increase. Our analysis reflects on the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge, highlighting how changes in this knowledge system respond to the particular needs of a society in a given point of time.

  17. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

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    Kumar Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as

  18. Recent research advances and ethno-botanical history of miang, a traditional fermented tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica of northern Thailand

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    Chartchai Khanongnuch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Miang is an ethnic fermented tea leaf (Camellia sinensis var. assamica from northern Thailand. It has a long history of sociocultural relationship with northern Thai people. Unlike other types of tea, miang is a unique product that is known as chewing tea or eating tea. In addition, it is also a specific food for traditional religious ceremonies and funerals. Although chewing of miang has become less popular among younger generations, there remains a demand for miang in specific areas of northern Thailand. The traditional fermentation mechanism for miang has not been well documented and the information is now being developed. Current studies indicated that the astringent miang possessed higher phenolic metabolites especially epigallocatechin gallate than the sour miang and fresh tea leaf used for making miang in general. The chemical constituents in miang are of interest and the scientific advances to understand and develop this ethnic tea product are rapidly emerging. Miang has many potential benefits and is proposed to be used for many applications such as foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Other valuable chemical constituents have not yet been widely reported and require further research. The current understanding of miang has been developed from literature on historic and sociocultural relationships of miang, current evidence scientific evidence, and personal interviews with local miang producers. From the plantation areas close to miang production, physiological, chemical, and microbiological analysis of miang were undertaken and integrated with current scientific literature and community surveys to build an evolving body of new knowledge. This paper provides important historic background of miang and its ethno-botanical relationship with northern Thai people. Traditional production of miang and its chemical and physical properties make miang different from other fermented tea leaves. Therefore, this unique miang with ethnic roots

  19. FROM TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTING TO KNOWLEDGE BASED ACCOUNTING ORGANIZATIONS

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    NICOLETA RADNEANTU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may observe that the rules of traditional economy have changed. The new economy – the knowledge based economy determine also major change in organizations resources, structure, strategic objectives, departments, accounting, goods. In our research we want to underline how the accounting rules, regulations and paradigms have changed to cope with political, economic and social challenges, as well as to the emergence of knowledge based organization. We also try to find out where Romanian accounting is on the hard road of evolution from traditional to knowledge based.

  20. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    intellectual property rights laws. 5 into traditional knowledge areas, in turn, has ... range of innovations in industrial, agricultural, environment and health ... Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2008 ..... Ghosh 2003 Colum J Asian L 106. 80 ..... Management'" 1998 Mich Law Rev 462-556.

  1. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

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    Ashok Kumar Panda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

  2. The convergence and convenience of talent, traditional knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The convergence and convenience of talent, traditional knowledge and performance in the Chewa drumming tradition. ... the elements that constitute the Chewa art of drumming, the application of this art in the traditional medium of music and dance, and the adaptation of the art by Malawi's contemporary music performers.

  3. Legal and Ethical Issues around Incorporating Traditional Knowledge in Polar Data Infrastructures

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    Teresa Scassa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge of the polar region is a unique blend of Western scientific knowledge and local and indigenous knowledge. It is increasingly recognized that to exclude Traditional Knowledge from repositories of polar data would both limit the value of such repositories and perpetuate colonial legacies of exclusion and exploitation. However, the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within repositories that are conceived and designed for Western scientific knowledge raises its own unique challenges. There is increasing acceptance of the need to make these two knowledge systems interoperable but in addition to the technical challenge there are legal and ethical issues involved. These relate to ‘ownership’ or custodianship of the knowledge; obtaining appropriate consent to gather, use and incorporate this knowledge; being sensitive to potentially different norms regarding access to and sharing of some types of knowledge; and appropriate acknowledgement for data contributors. In some cases, respectful incorporation of Traditional Knowledge may challenge standard conceptions regarding the sharing of data, including through open data licensing. These issues have not been fully addressed in the existing literature on legal interoperability which does not adequately deal with Traditional Knowledge. In this paper we identify legal and ethical norms regarding the use of Traditional Knowledge and explore their application in the particular context of polar data. Drawing upon our earlier work on cybercartography and Traditional Knowledge we identify the elements required in the development of a framework for the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within data infrastructures.

  4. African Traditional Knowledge Systems and Biodiversity Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a link between African Traditional Knowledge Systems and the management of Biodiversity. These have been passed over from one generation to the next through oral tradition. The lack of documentation of these systems of managing biodiversity has led to the existence of a gap between the scientifi cally based ...

  5. Traditional ecological knowledge: Applying principles of sustainability to wilderness resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy C. Ratner; Davin L. Holen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge within specific cultural and geographical contexts was explored during an interactive session at the 8th World Wilderness Congress to identify traditional principles of sustainability. Participants analyzed the traditional knowledge contained in ten posters from Canada and Alaska and identified and discussed the traditional principles...

  6. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119

  7. Credentialing of practitioners of botanical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric; Abascal, Kathy; Greenfield, Russell Howard; Romm, Aviva; Sudberg, Sidney

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how practitioners, regardless of other professional licenses they may hold, could be credentialed in botanical medicine. The article reviews the field of clinical botanical medicine and the history and modern status of botanical medicine, as well as organizations currently involved in botanical medicine credentialing. Many different types of professionals prescribe botanical medicines, and the potential for collaboration among them is great. The current trend treats botanical medicine as a narrow subdivision of allopathic medicine and does not acknowledge the breadth, depth, and diversity of botanical medicine and ultimately will not provide maximum benefits for patients. An alternative approach that instead credentials practitioners skilled in the use of a wide variety of botanical medicines in a responsible, scientific fashion is presented.

  8. Education Function of Botanical Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhugül Özge Ocak; Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan

    2015-01-01

    Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and o...

  9. Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Ecological Science: a Question of Scale

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    Catherine A. Gagnon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and challenges of integrating traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge have led to extensive discussions over the past decades, but much work is still needed to facilitate the articulation and co-application of these two types of knowledge. Through two case studies, we examined the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge by emphasizing their complementarity across spatial and temporal scales. We expected that combining Inuit traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge would expand the spatial and temporal scales of currently documented knowledge on the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus and the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica, two important tundra species. Using participatory approaches in Mittimatalik (also known as Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada, we documented traditional ecological knowledge about these species and found that, in fact, it did expand the spatial and temporal scales of current scientific knowledge for local arctic fox ecology. However, the benefits were not as apparent for snow goose ecology, probably because of the similar spatial and temporal observational scales of the two types of knowledge for this species. Comparing sources of knowledge at similar scales allowed us to gain confidence in our conclusions and to identify areas of disagreement that should be studied further. Emphasizing complementarities across scales was more powerful for generating new insights and hypotheses. We conclude that determining the scales of the observations that form the basis for traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge represents a critical step when evaluating the benefits of integrating these two types of knowledge. This is also critical when examining the congruence or contrast between the two types of knowledge for a given subject.

  10. Sustaining plants and people: traditional Q'eqchi' Maya botanical knowledge and interactive spatial modeling in prioritizing conservation of medicinal plants for culturally relative holistic health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Todd; Abramiuk, Marc; Garagic, Denis; Fini, Nick; Meerman, Jan; Cal, Victor

    2009-03-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted to locate culturally important, regionally scarce, and disappearing medicinal plants via a novel participatory methodology which involves healer-expert knowledge in interactive spatial modeling to prioritize conservation efforts and thus facilitate health promotion via medicinal plant resource sustained availability. These surveys, conducted in the Maya Mountains, Belize, generate ethnobotanical, ecological, and geospatial data on species which are used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers in practice. Several of these mountainous species are regionally scarce and the healers are expressing difficulties in finding them for use in promotion of community health and wellness. Based on healers' input, zones of highest probability for locating regionally scarce, disappearing, and culturally important plants in their ecosystem niches can be facilitated by interactive modeling. In the present study, this is begun by choosing three representative species to train an interactive predictive model. Model accuracy was then assessed statistically by testing for independence between predicted occurrence and actual occurrence of medicinal plants. A high level of accuracy was achieved using a small set of exemplar data. This work demonstrates the potential of combining ethnobotany and botanical spatial information with indigenous ecosystems concepts and Q'eqchi' Maya healing knowledge via predictive modeling. Through this approach, we may identify regions where species are located and accordingly promote for prioritization and application of in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to protect them. This represents a significant step toward facilitating sustained culturally relative health promotion as well as overall enhanced ecological integrity to the region and the earth.

  11. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to reveal and document ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in selected sites of Eastern Hararghie. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and field observation from 9 traditional healers in 4 study sites of Eastern Hararghie. Data were ...

  13. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  14. Drug-botanical interactions: a review of the laboratory, animal, and human data for 8 common botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shord, Stacy S; Shah, Kanan; Lukose, Alvina

    2009-09-01

    Many Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to prevent or alleviate common illnesses, and these medicines are commonly used by individuals with cancer.These medicines or botanicals share the same metabolic and transport proteins, including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), with over-the-counter and prescription medicines increasing the likelihood of drug-botanical interactions.This review provides a brief description of the different proteins, such as CYPs, UGTs, and Pgp.The potential effects of drug-botanical interactions on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug or botanical and a summary of the more common models used to study drug metabolism are described.The remaining portion of this review summarizes the data extracted from several laboratory, animal, and clinical studies that describe the metabolism, transport, and potential interactions of 8 selected botanicals. The 8 botanicals include black cohosh, Echinacea, garlic, Gingko biloba, green tea, kava, milk thistle, and St John's wort; these botanicals are among some of the more common botanicals taken by individuals with cancer.These examples are included to demonstrate how to interpret the different studies and how to use these data to predict the likelihood of a clinically significant drug-botanical interaction.

  15. Using Indigenous Knowledge in Traditional Agricultural Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the role of indigenous knowledge in traditional agriculture and its potential in contributing to food security, poverty and hunger eradication, and increased employment in South Africa. It is noted that indigenous knowledge can inform rural agricultural production, storage, processing, marketing, and food

  16. chemistry in indigenous african knowledge and traditional practices1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    chemistry in life, the role of the adult as teacher, educator, and facilitator of learning, reference book for ... Chemistry was not an abstract idea to me, rather a practice, knowledge about doing certain things ... classroom with a trained teacher. .... indigenous traditional knowledge as well as in modern scientific knowledge.

  17. Some Tax Implications of Traditional Knowledge Under Conventional Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Gutuza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed incorporation of traditional intellectual property into the definition of copyright, trade-marks and designs as defined in the Copyright Act 98 of 1978, the Trade Marks Act 94 of 1993 and the Designs Act 195 of 1993 may affect the income tax liability of parties where traditional knowledge is the object of such a transaction. The aim of this contribution is to consider the potential income tax consequences of this incorporation for those receiving income and incurring expenditure in relation to the use or disposal of traditional knowledge.

  18. Process Philosophy and the Text-Image Interface: A Study of Three Western Australian Botanical Illustrators

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    John Charles Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical illustration combines scientific knowledge and artistic technique. However, whereas illustrated botanical images record static visual qualities, such as form and color, written botanical narratives supply crucial sensory, ecological, historical, and cultural contexts that complement visual representation. Understanding the text-image interface—where images and words intersect—contributes to humanities-based analyses of botanical illustration and illustrators. More specifically, a process philosophy perspective reveals the extent to which botanical representations engage the temporality, cyclicality, and contextuality of the living plants being illustrated. This article takes up these themes through a comparative theoretical study of three female Western Australian botanical illustrators, Georgiana Leake (1812–1869, Emily Pelloe (1877–1941, and Philippa Nikulinsky (born 1942, whose lives together span the 183 year history of the Swan River Colony and the state of Western Australia. I apply a processist framework to examine the text-image interface of their works. All three illustrators use some form of textuality: marginalia, annotations, written accompaniments, introductory statements, and other narrative materials. In examining their written commentaries and traces, I identify the emergence of a process mode of botanical illustration that represents plants as ecological, historical, cultural, and temporal organisms.

  19. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

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    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  20. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Kozlowska; Charles Wagner; Charles Wagner; Erin M. Moore; Erin M. Moore; Adam Matkowski; Slavko Komarnytsky; Slavko Komarnytsky

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval cen...

  1. Fungal profiles in various milk thistle botanicals from US retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H; Rivera Calo, J; Sapp, C

    2013-06-03

    Milk thistle (MT) dietary supplements are widely consumed due to their possible beneficial effect on liver health. As botanicals, they can be contaminated with a variety of fungi and their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. This study was conducted in an effort to determine the mycological quality of various MT botanical supplements from the US market. Conventional plating methods were used for the isolation and enumeration of fungi, while conventional microscopy as well as molecular methods were employed for the speciation of the isolated strains. Results showed that a high percentage of the MT samples tested were contaminated with fungi. Total counts ranged between Aspergillus sections Flavi and Nigri as well as Eurotium, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species were isolated from MT supplements. The predominant molds were Eurotia (E. repens, E. amstelodami and E. rubrum), A. flavus, A. tubingensis, A. niger and A. candidus. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting on fungal contamination profiles of MT botanicals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. [Literature survey on botanical origin and clinical application of traditional Tibetan medicine "Shengdeng"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Dao; Meng, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Ying-Shan; Chen, Gen-Ping; Huang, Yu-Lan

    2012-10-01

    "Shengdeng" is its Tibetan transliteration referring to many medicines. Tibetan doctors and pharmacists in different areas use different drugs in formulation and clinical application, which are easily confused. In order to grasp the formula and clinical application accurately, we conduct a literature survey on history and current state of botanical origin and clinical application of "Shengdeng", making clear the application of various herbs named "Shengdeng" and providing reference to all Tibetan researchers and clinical workers in formulation and clinical application.

  3. Old tropical botanical collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...

  4. Does secrecy provide ample protection for traditional knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    combined with the economic imperative to acquire exclusive rights over .... through independent development such as reverse engineering. Where ..... commercial activity with their traditional knowledge in the ordinary course of events,.

  5. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  6. The use of traditional ecological knowledge in sustainable use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of plant resource through a community-based and participatory ... traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and scientific knowledge, with the aim of defining criteria for sustainable ...... resources. World Bank Technical Paper.

  7. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The papers in this volume were selected from presentations made in a number of special sessions on Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), which were held as ... concepts, provide case studies, and confirm once again the importance and, as yet, unrealized potential of TEK in resource and environmental management.

  8. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly ...

  9. Multitarget botanical pharmacotherapy in major depression: a toxic brain hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siu W; Tang, Wayne H; Leonard, Brain E

    2017-11-01

    A significant number of patients with major depression do not respond optimally to current antidepressant drugs. As depression is likely to be a heterogeneous disorder, it is possible that existing neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs do not fully address other pathologies that may exist in certain cases. Biological pathologies related to depression that have been proposed and studied extensively include inflammation and immunology, hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, and impaired angiogenesis. Such pathologies may induce neurodegeneration, which in turn causes cognitive impairment, a symptom increasingly being recognized in depression. A neurotoxic brain hypothesis unifying all these factors may explain the heterogeneity of depression as well as cognitive decline and antidepressant drug resistance in some patients. Compared with neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs, many botanical compounds in traditional medicine used for the treatment of depression and its related symptoms have been discovered to be anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-infection, antioxidative, and proangiogenic. Some botanical compounds also exert actions on neurotransmission. This multitarget nature of botanical medicine may act through the amelioration of the neurotoxic brain environment in some patients resistant to neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs. A multitarget multidimensional approach may be a reasonable solution for patients resistant to neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs.

  10. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.

  12. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  13. Overview of Taiwan's indigenous ethnopharmacology in the perspective of traditional knowledge protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-jing; Pan, Wei; Chen, Mei-wan; Wang, Chun-ming; Wang, Yi-tao

    2015-12-01

    Ethnopharmacology, the study of ethnic use of drugs, opens up the crucial gateway to understanding and promoting traditional medicine in the new age. Taiwan is a unique region where traditional medicine and herbal therapeutics have been benefiting its people of multiple races for centuries. This article overviews Taiwan's indigenous traditional medicine and the emerging status of ethnopharmacology study, and outlines the global scenario of the inheritance and development of traditional medicine. In such a scope of knowledge protection, this article particularly highlights the challenges with bioprospecting and biopiracy, and summarizes the current measures for protection of traditional knowledge in Taiwan. Finally, based upon these analyses, we propose rational strategies for promoting Taiwan's ethnopharmacology, from multiple angles of resource, economy, policy and law. We conclude that four measures, namely (1) protecting the natural environment of biodiversity, (2) avoiding unnecessary conflicts caused by bioprospecting and biopiracy, (3) strengthening the international collaboration, and (4) upgrading the legal system of traditional intelligence, would be the right paths for Taiwan to protect its invaluable heritage of traditional medicine and the knowledge of ethnopharmacology therein.

  14. Botanical drugs, synergy, and network pharmacology: forth and back to intelligent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Jürg

    2011-07-01

    For centuries the science of pharmacognosy has dominated rational drug development until it was gradually substituted by target-based drug discovery in the last fifty years. Pharmacognosy stems from the different systems of traditional herbal medicine and its "reverse pharmacology" approach has led to the discovery of numerous pharmacologically active molecules and drug leads for humankind. But do botanical drugs also provide effective mixtures? Nature has evolved distinct strategies to modulate biological processes, either by selectively targeting biological macromolecules or by creating molecular promiscuity or polypharmacology (one molecule binds to different targets). Widely claimed to be superior over monosubstances, mixtures of bioactive compounds in botanical drugs allegedly exert synergistic therapeutic effects. Despite evolutionary clues to molecular synergism in nature, sound experimental data are still widely lacking to support this assumption. In this short review, the emerging concept of network pharmacology is highlighted, and the importance of studying ligand-target networks for botanical drugs is emphasized. Furthermore, problems associated with studying mixtures of molecules with distinctly different pharmacodynamic properties are addressed. It is concluded that a better understanding of the polypharmacology and potential network pharmacology of botanical drugs is fundamental in the ongoing rationalization of phytotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Traditional use and management of medicinal and magical plants in the Sibundoy Valley, High Putumayo, and their relationship with local processes of environmental construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Echeverry, John James

    2010-01-01

    This study generated ethno-botanical knowledge and community experience that contribute to local processes of environmental construction processes from the recognition, evaluation and strengthening of traditional forms of use and handling of medicinal and magical plants among Inga, kamentza and quillacinga ethnics that live in the Valle de Sibundoy, high Putumayo, Colombia. It was referenced the Environmental Building Model used by the three ethnic groups, from traditional use and management of medicinal and magical plants in the Chagra agro-ecosystem, model based on the traditional medical system and everyday practices involving environmental assessment, practices that facilitate the preservation and dynamics of flora and indigenous traditional knowledge. Finally, this important environmental information contributes to the quality of the actions of regional planning.

  16. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  17. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge with western science for optimal natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been recognized within indigenous communities for millennia; however, traditional ecological knowledge has received growing attention within the western science (WS) paradigm over the past twenty-five years. Federal agencies, national organizations, and university programs dedicated to natural resource management are beginning...

  18. Cultural Transmission of Traditional Knowledge in two populations of North-western Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Mariana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we have investigated the cultural transmission of two types of traditional plant knowledge in two communities of North-western Patagonia, Argentina. In the Pilcaniyeu community, we studied the transmission of traditional knowledge related to horticultural practices in home-gardens, greenhouses and gardens; while in the community of Cuyin Manzano, we studied wild plant gathering customs. Methods Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, in which we investigated which plants are used, at what life history phase was learned, modes of transmission and who the principal transmitters were in childhood and adulthood. In both communities, each of this three aspects related to cultural transmission were categorized and the frequencies of each category were obtained. The total number of species recorded in each community was also calculated. Frequencies were analyzed with the Chi-square test of independence. Results and discussion In both communities, transmission of traditional plant knowledge begins at an early age, as a family custom, in which women play a predominant role. Wild plant use and horticultural knowledge continue to be learned during adulthood. This was particularly registered associated with horticultural learning, which receives greater influence from extension agents who are introducing new practices and technology. This outside influence, which implies novelty, could imply syncretism but also traditional knowledge loss. Conclusion Given the remarkable acculturation processes occurring at present in rural communities of Northwestern Patagonia, it might be of vital importance to document traditional knowledge of ancient practices. Moreover, it could be interesting to share our results with both populations in order to encourage participatory activities within the communities which could enhance traditional knowledge horizontal transmission, particularly among

  19. Traditional knowledge and patient protection: conflicting views on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. ... And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global ... as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge.

  20. Introduction: The Growing Importance of Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; John A. Parrotta

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge, innovations, and practices of local and indigenous communities have supported their forest-based livelihoods for countless generations. The role of traditional knowledge—and the bio-cultural diversity it sustains—is increasingly recognized as important by decision makers, conservation and development organizations, and the scientifi c community. However...

  1. Traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of Sierra Madre Del Sur, Oaxaca. Does it represent a base for plant resources management and conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-José Azucena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional classification systems represent cognitive processes of human cultures in the world. It synthesizes specific conceptions of nature, as well as cumulative learning, beliefs and customs that are part of a particular human community or society. Traditional knowledge has been analyzed from different viewpoints, one of which corresponds to the analysis of ethnoclassifications. In this work, a brief analysis of the botanical traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of the municipality of San Agustin Loxicha, Oaxaca was conducted. The purposes of this study were: a to analyze the traditional ecological knowledge of local plant resources through the folk classification of both landscapes and plants and b to determine the role that this knowledge has played in plant resource management and conservation. The study was developed in five communities of San Agustín Loxicha. From field trips, plant specimens were collected and showed to local people in order to get the Spanish or Zapotec names; through interviews with local people, we obtained names and identified classification categories of plants, vegetation units, and soil types. We found a logic structure in Zapotec plant names, based on linguistic terms, as well as morphological and ecological caracteristics. We followed the classification principles proposed by Berlin [6] in order to build a hierarchical structure of life forms, names and other characteristics mentioned by people. We recorded 757 plant names. Most of them (67% have an equivalent Zapotec name and the remaining 33% had mixed names with Zapotec and Spanish terms. Plants were categorized as native plants, plants introduced in pre-Hispanic times, or plants introduced later. All of them are grouped in a hierarchical classification, which include life form, generic, specific, and varietal categories. Monotypic and polytypic names are used to further classify plants. This holistic classification system plays an important role

  2. Traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of Sierra Madre Del Sur, Oaxaca. Does it represent a base for plant resources management and conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-José, Azucena de Lourdes; Aguilar, Beatriz Rendón

    2012-07-12

    Traditional classification systems represent cognitive processes of human cultures in the world. It synthesizes specific conceptions of nature, as well as cumulative learning, beliefs and customs that are part of a particular human community or society. Traditional knowledge has been analyzed from different viewpoints, one of which corresponds to the analysis of ethnoclassifications. In this work, a brief analysis of the botanical traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of the municipality of San Agustin Loxicha, Oaxaca was conducted. The purposes of this study were: a) to analyze the traditional ecological knowledge of local plant resources through the folk classification of both landscapes and plants and b) to determine the role that this knowledge has played in plant resource management and conservation. The study was developed in five communities of San Agustín Loxicha. From field trips, plant specimens were collected and showed to local people in order to get the Spanish or Zapotec names; through interviews with local people, we obtained names and identified classification categories of plants, vegetation units, and soil types. We found a logic structure in Zapotec plant names, based on linguistic terms, as well as morphological and ecological caracteristics. We followed the classification principles proposed by Berlin [6] in order to build a hierarchical structure of life forms, names and other characteristics mentioned by people. We recorded 757 plant names. Most of them (67%) have an equivalent Zapotec name and the remaining 33% had mixed names with Zapotec and Spanish terms. Plants were categorized as native plants, plants introduced in pre-Hispanic times, or plants introduced later. All of them are grouped in a hierarchical classification, which include life form, generic, specific, and varietal categories. Monotypic and polytypic names are used to further classify plants. This holistic classification system plays an important role for local people in many

  3. Paradoxes of traditional industrial work in knowledge society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Helle; Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Kamp, Annette

    Traditional industry, where work is repetitive and submitted to a comprehensive machine system, did not disappear with the rise of ‘knowledge society’, not even in the developed western societies.An illustrative case is the Danish food industry, which employed 85,353 in 1997and 65,842 in 2008. Even...... though the number of employees has been falling, the food industry is still a significant sector in the relatively small Danish labour market. However, traditional industry is marked by the principles of work organizations supposed to belong to ‘knowledge society’: functional flexibility, flexibility...... of time, team organisation, project organisation, and value management. The way working conditions are influenced by these new principles of organisations was studied in two case factories. The two factories, one producing biscuits and the other producing sweets, have similar production systems. Both...

  4. Visualization of DNA in highly processed botanical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengfei; Rubinsky, Maria; Babajanian, Silva; Zhang, Yanjun; Chang, Peter; Swanson, Gary

    2018-04-15

    DNA-based methods have been gaining recognition as a tool for botanical authentication in herbal medicine; however, their application in processed botanical materials is challenging due to the low quality and quantity of DNA left after extensive manufacturing processes. The low amount of DNA recovered from processed materials, especially extracts, is "invisible" by current technology, which has casted doubt on the presence of amplifiable botanical DNA. A method using adapter-ligation and PCR amplification was successfully applied to visualize the "invisible" DNA in botanical extracts. The size of the "invisible" DNA fragments in botanical extracts was around 20-220 bp compared to fragments of around 600 bp for the more easily visualized DNA in botanical powders. This technique is the first to allow characterization and visualization of small fragments of DNA in processed botanical materials and will provide key information to guide the development of appropriate DNA-based botanical authentication methods in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Botanical Gardens and Collecting of Plants in the Light of the Metamorphosis of Botanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Unetič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the late 18th and early 19th century, the collecting of exotic plants became a fashion that took hold of European courts, and was followed by many noblemen, intellectuals, gardeners and others. It was not only popular to grow new plants in gardens, collecting them in herbaria or illustrating and enumerating them in catalogues, but was also important to develop botanical knowledge to enable the owners of the plants to use and present them. In Carniola we can observe this interest in botany in the cases of Baron Joseph Erberg, Barons Žiga and Karl Zois, Jesuit Gabriel Gruber as well as many others. Baron Erberg's activity is recorded in archives which include lively correspondence concerning plant collecting, the exchange and purchase of plants and other botanical matters. So we can see that among plant lovers in Carniola foreign plants such as pelargonium, agave and hydrangea were popular and that they had a special role in gardens devoted especially to exotic plants. The collecting of exotic plants is not just a phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but can be traced back to early civilisations such the Assyrians and ancient Chinese and was also notable in a the 16th and 17th centuries with their cabinets of curiosities. But studying the botanical collection of exotic and new (or newly defined plants gardens of the late 18th and early 19th centuries shows us that although we can recognize some of the old “habits” in the process of collecting (collecting of rare, fascinating plants or collecting plants to demonstrate imperial power the social changes in the 18th century left their trace also in this aspect of human activity. Thus we can understand plant collecting of this time as a decline and metamorphosis of the former natural cabinets of curiosities. In botanical gardens of the late 18th and early 19th century we see the development of science of botany, the rise of the amateur botanist, a different perception of nature

  6. Traditional forest-related knowledge and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Mauro Agnoletti

    2012-01-01

    The holders and users of traditional forest-related knowledge are on the front lines of global efforts to deal with climate change and its impacts. Because of their close connection with, and high dependence on, forest ecosystems and landscapes, indigenous and local communities are among the fi rst to witness, understand, and experience the impacts of climate change on...

  7. Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Moller

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of traditional ecological knowledge and science to monitor populations can greatly assist co-management for sustainable customary wildlife harvests by indigenous peoples. Case studies from Canada and New Zealand emphasize that, although traditional monitoring methods may often be imprecise and qualitative, they are nevertheless valuable because they are based on observations over long time periods, incorporate large sample sizes, are inexpensive, invite the participation of harvesters as researchers, and sometimes incorporate subtle multivariate cross checks for environmental change. A few simple rules suggested by traditional knowledge may produce good management outcomes consistent with fuzzy logic thinking. Science can sometimes offer better tests of potential causes of population change by research on larger spatial scales, precise quantification, and evaluation of population change where no harvest occurs. However, science is expensive and may not always be trusted or welcomed by customary users of wildlife. Short scientific studies in which traditional monitoring methods are calibrated against population abundance could make it possible to mesh traditional ecological knowledge with scientific inferences of prey population dynamics. This paper analyzes the traditional monitoring techniques of catch per unit effort and body condition. Combining scientific and traditional monitoring methods can not only build partnership and community consensus, but also, and more importantly, allow indigenous wildlife users to critically evaluate scientific predictions on their own terms and test sustainability using their own forms of adaptive management.

  8. Expert knowledge maps for knowledge management: a case study in Traditional Chinese Medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Yang, Shuo; Yu, Tong; Yang, Ce; Gao, Yonghong; Zhu, Haiyan

    2013-10-01

    To design a model to capture information on the state and trends of knowledge creation, at both an individual and an organizational level, in order to enhance knowledge management. We designed a graph-theoretic knowledge model, the expert knowledge map (EKM), based on literature-based annotation. A case study in the domain of Traditional Chinese Medicine research was used to illustrate the usefulness of the model. The EKM successfully captured various aspects of knowledge and enhanced knowledge management within the case-study organization through the provision of knowledge graphs, expert graphs, and expert-knowledge biography. Our model could help to reveal the hot topics, trends, and products of the research done by an organization. It can potentially be used to facilitate knowledge learning, sharing and decision-making among researchers, academicians, students, and administrators of organizations.

  9. The unique character of traditional forest-related knowledge: threats and challenges ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; John A. Parrotta; Mauro Agnoletti; Vladimir Bocharnikov; Suzanne A. Feary; Monica Gabay; Christian Gamborg; Jesus García Latorre; Elisabeth Johann; Andrey Laletin; Hin Fui Lim; Alfred Oteng-Yeboah; Miguel A. Pinedo-Vasquez; P.S. Ramakrishnan; Yeo-Chang. Youn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter refl ects on the major fi ndings of the lead authors of this book regarding traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) using five criteria for distinguishing the unique character of traditional knowledge: (1) its attention to sustainability; (2) relationships to land; (3) identity; (4) reciprocity; and (5) limitations on market involvement. Following an...

  10. Preserving traditional medical knowledge through modes of transmission: A post-positivist enquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Adekannbi

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the role which the mode of transmission plays in the preservation of traditional medical knowledge. Method: A post-positivist methodology was adopted. A purposive sampling technique was used to select three communities from each of the six states in South-Western Nigeria. The snowball technique was used in selecting 228 traditional medical practitioners, whilst convenience sampling was adopted in selecting 529 apprentices and 120 children who were not learning the profession. A questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale, key-informant interviews and focus-group discussions were used to collect data. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics whilst qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results: The dominant mode of knowledge transmission was found to be oblique (66.5% whilst vertical transmission (29.3% and horizontal transmission (4.2% occurred much less. Conclusion: Traditional medical knowledge is at risk of being lost in the study area because most of the apprentices were children from other parents, whereas most traditional medical practitioners preferred to transmit knowledge only to their children.

  11. Laggards or Leaders: Conservers of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Jere L.; Thomas, Justin L.; Valdivia, Corinne; Yucra, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…

  12. Batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation of botanical drug products using multivariate statistical analysis of the chromatographic fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X; Qu, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T(2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.

  13. Some tax implications of traditional knowledge under conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this contribution is to consider the potential income tax consequences of this incorporation for those receiving income and incurring expenditure in relation to the use or disposal of traditional knowledge. List of keywords: Deductions, expenses, exempt income, gross income, income, person, tax consequences, ...

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  15. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-eastern Spain. ... This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in ...

  16. Risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in botanical containing products present on the Chinese market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Jia; Cui, Xin Yue; Kong, Xiang Nan; Tang, Yi Fei; Wulandari, Riana; Chen, Lu; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market

  17. Herbarium data: Global biodiversity and societal botanical needs for novel research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shelley A; Soltis, Pamela S; Belbin, Lee; Chapman, Arthur D; Nelson, Gil; Paul, Deborah L; Collins, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Building on centuries of research based on herbarium specimens gathered through time and around the globe, a new era of discovery, synthesis, and prediction using digitized collections data has begun. This paper provides an overview of how aggregated, open access botanical and associated biological, environmental, and ecological data sets, from genes to the ecosystem, can be used to document the impacts of global change on communities, organisms, and society; predict future impacts; and help to drive the remediation of change. Advocacy for botanical collections and their expansion is needed, including ongoing digitization and online publishing. The addition of non-traditional digitized data fields, user annotation capability, and born-digital field data collection enables the rapid access of rich, digitally available data sets for research, education, informed decision-making, and other scholarly and creative activities. Researchers are receiving enormous benefits from data aggregators including the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), Integrated Digitized Biocollections (iDigBio), the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA), and the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL), but effective collaboration around data infrastructures is needed when working with large and disparate data sets. Tools for data discovery, visualization, analysis, and skills training are increasingly important for inspiring novel research that improves the intrinsic value of physical and digital botanical collections.

  18. Integrating Biodiversity Data into Botanic Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Today's species names are entry points into a web of publicly available knowledge and are integral parts of legislation concerning biological conservation and consumer safety. Species information usually is fragmented, can be misleading due to the existence of different names and might even be biased because of an identical name that is used for a different species. Safely navigating through the name space is one of the most challenging tasks when associating names with data and when decisions are made which name to include in legislation. Integrating publicly available dynamic data to characterise plant genetic resources of botanic gardens and other facilities will significantly increase the efficiency of recovering relevant information for research projects, identifying potentially invasive taxa, constructing priority lists and developing DNA-based specimen authentication. To demonstrate information availability and discuss integration into botanic collections, scientific names derived from botanic gardens were evaluated using the Encyclopedia of Life, The Catalogue of Life and The Plant List. 98.5% of the names could be verified by the combined use of these providers. Comparing taxonomic status information 13 % of the cases were in disagreement. About 7 % of the verified names were found to be included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, including one extinct taxon and three taxa with the status "extinct in the wild". As second most important factor for biodiversity loss, potential invasiveness was determined. Approximately 4 % of the verified names were detected using the Global Invasive Species Information Network, including 208 invasive taxa. According to Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe around 20 % of the verified names are European alien taxa including 15 of the worst European invasive taxa. Considering alternative names in the data recovery process, success increased up to 18 %.

  19. Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Marie O'Brien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Serena Heckler, ed. 2009. Berghahn Books, New York. Pp. 304, 21 illustrations, bibliography, index. $95.00 (hardback. ISBN 978-1-84545-549-1

  20. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  1. Major achievements of evidence-based traditional Chinese medicine in treating major diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Verpoorte, Robert; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pao, Li-Heng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2017-09-01

    A long history of use and extensive documentation of the clinical practices of traditional Chinese medicine resulted in a considerable number of classical preparations, which are still widely used. This heritage of our ancestors provides a unique resource for drug discovery. Already, a number of important drugs have been developed from traditional medicines, which in fact form the core of Western pharmacotherapy. Therefore, this article discusses the differences in drug development between traditional medicine and Western medicine. Moreover, the article uses the discovery of artemisinin as an example that illustrates the "bedside-bench-bedside" approach to drug discovery to explain that the middle way for drug development is to take advantage of the best features of these two distinct systems and compensate for certain weaknesses in each. This article also summarizes evidence-based traditional medicines and discusses quality control and quality assessment, the crucial steps in botanical drug development. Herbgenomics may provide effective tools to clarify the molecular mechanism of traditional medicines in the botanical drug development. The totality-of-the-evidence approach used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for botanical products provides the directions on how to perform quality control from the field throughout the entire production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developments in Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In order to protect indigenous/traditional knowledge, intellectual property law must be leveraged in a way that is responsive to the dynamic inter-relationships between law, society and culture. Over the last decade, increased attention to Indigenous concerns has produced a wealth of literature and prompted recognition of the diverse needs of…

  3. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  4. The use of botanical products and vitamins in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Gabriela; Leo, Micheal; Ma, Brian; Johal, Ritika S; Ma, Thomas; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-11-18

    The use of botanical products and vitamins in skin care creams and sunscreens is prevalent. Herein we conduct an evaluation of sunscreens to quantitatively assess how often sunscreens incorporate botanically derived products and vitamins. The most commonly used botanicals products and vitamins are identified and stratified based on the sunscreen sun protection factor (SPF). The overall prevalence for the use of botanical agents and vitamins was 62% and 79%, respectively. Aloe vera and licorice root extracts were the most common botanical agents used in sunscreens. Retinyl palmitate was the most common vitamin derivative utilized in sunscreens. The prices of sunscreens significantly increased when more than one botanical product was added. Botanical products and vitamins are widely utilized in sunscreens and more research is needed to assess how their inclusion may enhance or alter the function of sunscreens.

  5. Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

  6. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  7. Patent Law and the invisibility of traditional knowledge: the case of Bauhinia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinício Chein Feres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss patent law and the issue of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity through an empirical qualitative study. In this context, we resort to the critical approach developed by Zenon Bankowski on Law and love as well as Charles Taylor’s analysis of modern identity. The study was composed of an analysis of international treaties and domestic laws as well as data collected at the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization website regarding the plant Bauhinia sp. and its therapeutic use. In addition, by analyzing the data collected in the course of the empirical study, we drew descriptive and casual inferences about the research question and the hypothesis, emphasizing the indispensability of the protection of traditional knowledge associated with traditional people. Finally, supported by the data collected in the study, it is possible to state that international agreements should be reviewed and, specifically, the interpretation of what traditional knowledge is should be modified, in order to avoid biopiracy and the invisibility of traditional peoples. 

  8. Botanical Literature in India 1973-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswarappa, B. S.; Nagaraju, A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that used bibliometrics to examine botanical research activity in India. The findings discussed include the growth of botanical literature, authorship patterns and collaborative research, important research centers and their rankings, journals preferred by Indian botanists, subfields of research, and the applicability of…

  9. Knowledge-based-ness and synthesis of indigenous knowledge with climate in traditional architecture: Evidence from Naeen city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zangi Abadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of indigenous knowledge is an example of knowledge-based-ness considered as the main agenda in most current urban and climate planning as well as geographical studies. It is one of the interesting topics in research on the role of climate on human dwelling and immediate environment. Indeed, building ecology emphasizes the ability to combine climate and environmental factors and rendering them to spatial qualities and structural comfort. This paper investigates the application of indigenous knowledge and the correspondence between traditional texture of Naeen city and its climate. In this regard, the climatic conditions in Naeen were studied in terms of temperature, humidity, wind and tourist comfort index (TCI of climatourism. The data was collected from Isfahan Meteorology Website over the period 1985-2005. Subsequently, the traditional texture of Naeen, construction materials and building styles were studied through considering the special architectural conditions and compatible materials. Eventually, the correspondence between architectural styles and climatic conditions was studied. The results show that traditional architecture based on indigenous knowledge was consistent with climatic conditions. In this regard, using such materials as mud bricks and thatch with suitable heat capacity as well as using wind catchers, high walls around houses, dome construction, southward direction of houses were consistent with east-west wind direction. In addition, concentration of the traditional texture of the city, wall thickness, corridors, long hallways, courtyard ponds and roofed alleys are evidence of the effect of climatic conditions on urban texture in order to provide comfort in different seasons.

  10. The effects of the botanical estrogen, isoliquiritigenin on delayed spatial alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Payel; Neese, Steven L; Bandara, Suren; Monaikul, Supida; Helferich, William G; Doerge, Daniel R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Schantz, Susan L

    Age-related declines in cognitive function can impair working memory, reduce speed of processing, and alter attentional resources. In particular, menopausal women may show an acceleration in the rate of cognitive decline as well as an increased vulnerability to brain diseases as estrogens may play a neuroprotective and neurotrophic role in the brain. To treat menopausal symptoms, many women turn to botanical estrogens that are promoted as a safe and natural alternative to traditional hormone replacement therapy. However, the majority of these compounds have not been systematically evaluated for efficacy and safety. The current study investigated the efficacy of the commercially available botanical estrogenic compound isoliquiritigenin (ISL) to alter performance on an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA). ISL is a compound found in licorice root that has been shown to have a wide range of effects on different biological systems, including estrogenic properties. This botanical is currently being used in over the counter dietary supplements. Middle-aged (12-month old) Long-Evans female rats were ovariectomized and orally dosed with either 0 mg, 6 mg, 12 mg or 24 mg of ISL 60 min before testing on the DSA task. The DSA task required the rat to alternate its responses between two retractable levers in order to earn food rewards. Random delays of 0, 3, 6, 9 or 18 s were imposed between opportunities to press. ISL treatment failed to alter DSA performance. Previous work from our research group has found that estrogenic compounds, including 17β-estradiol and the botanical estrogen genistein impair performance on the DSA task. The goal of our botanical estrogens research is to find compounds that offer some of the beneficial effects of estrogen supplementation, without the harmful effects. This work suggests that ISL may not carry the cognitive risks associated with most other estrogenic compounds tested to date. Copyright © 2018

  11. Knowledge discovery in traditional Chinese medicine: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Zhongmei; Fan, Weiyu

    2006-11-01

    As a complementary medical system to Western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of diseases over thousands of years. Confronted with the increasing popularity of TCM and the huge volume of TCM data, historically accumulated and recently obtained, there is an urgent need to explore these resources effectively by the techniques of knowledge discovery in database (KDD). This paper aims at providing an overview of recent KDD studies in TCM field. A literature search was conducted in both English and Chinese publications, and major studies of knowledge discovery in TCM (KDTCM) reported in these materials were identified. Based on an introduction to the state of the art of TCM data resources, a review of four subfields of KDTCM research was presented, including KDD for the research of Chinese medical formula, KDD for the research of Chinese herbal medicine, KDD for TCM syndrome research, and KDD for TCM clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the current state and main problems in each subfield were summarized based on a discussion of existing studies, and future directions for each subfield were also proposed accordingly. A series of KDD methods are used in existing KDTCM researches, ranging from conventional frequent itemset mining to state of the art latent structure model. Considerable interesting discoveries are obtained by these methods, such as novel TCM paired drugs discovered by frequent itemset analysis, functional community of related genes discovered under syndrome perspective by text mining, the high proportion of toxic plants in the botanical family Ranunculaceae disclosed by statistical analysis, the association between M-cholinoceptor blocking drug and Solanaceae revealed by association rule mining, etc. It is particularly inspiring to see some studies connecting TCM with biomedicine, which provide a novel top-down view for functional genomics research. However, further developments

  12. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  13. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc; Koh, Byung Hee

    2011-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora. PMID:21949669

  14. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  15. Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

  16. A hybridized membrane-botanical biofilter for improving air quality in occupied spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, David; Darlington, Alan; van Ras, Niels; Kraakman, Bart; Dixon, Mike

    Botanical biofilters have been shown to be effective in improving indoor air quality through the removal of complex mixtures of gaseous contaminants typically found in human-occupied environments. Traditional, botanical biofilters have been comprised of plants rooted into a thin and highly porous synthetic medium that is hung on vertical surfaces. Water flows from the top of the biofilter and air is drawn horizontally through the rooting medium. These botanical biofilters have been successfully marketed in office and institutional settings. They operate efficiently, with adequate contaminant removal and little maintenance for many years. Depending on climate and outdoor air quality, botanical biofiltration can substantially reduce costs associated with ventilation of stale indoor air. However, there are several limitations that continue to inhibit widespread acceptance: 1. Current designs are architecturally limiting and inefficient at capturing ambient light 2. These biofilters can add significant amounts of humidity to an indoor space. This water loss also leads to a rapid accumulation of dissolved salts; reducing biofilter health and performance 3. There is the perception of potentially actively introducing harmful bioaerosols into the air stream 4. Design and practical limitations inhibit the entrance of this technology into the lucrative residential marketplace This paper describes the hybridization of membrane and botanical biofiltration technologies by incorporating a membrane array into the rootzone of a conventional interior planting. This technology has the potential for addressing all of the above limitations, expanding the range of indoor settings where botanical biofiltration can be applied. This technology was developed as the CSA-funded Canadian component an ESA-MAP project entitled: "Biological airfilter for air quality control of life support systems in manned space craft and other closed environments", A0-99-LSS-019. While the project addressed a

  17. Ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in the North-Western Ligurian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; La Rocca, Arianna; Terrizzano, Luca; Dente, Fulvio; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio

    2014-08-08

    The ethnobotany of European alpine regions is much diversified and scarcely investigated. These regions retain a well-developed heritage culture and botanical traditional knowledge, favored by the isolated montane location. We carried out a study of therapeutic and traditional uses of native plants of a poorly explored area of the Western Italian Alps in the Ligurian region (NW Italy). The area has been the object of human activities since prehistoric ages, and an obliged crossroad for people moving across Provence, Liguria and Piemonte. The investigation was conducted in the upper Tanarello and Arroscia Valleys by using semi-structured, open interviews. Data were summarized by different indices--Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Value Index (CV), Ethnobotanicity Index (EI) and Informant Consensus Factor (Fic). A group of 65 informants were interviewed, yielding an inventory of 199 botanical taxa from 64 families, and a total of 2661 citations. A total of 13 categories of use were found, of which the most frequent ones were medicinal and food. In addition, 12 main medicinal subcategories were recorded. Botanicals were mainly used to treat digestive system, respiratory system, and the skin. A relevant role was played by plants with digestive and remineralizing properties. On the basis of quantitative analysis (RFC and CV indices) among the 30 most relevant plants are included rare and/or protected species, such as Achillea ligustica, Arnica montana, Gentiana ligustica, Gentiana lutea, and Achillea erba-rotta. An exhaustive prospect of the ethnobotanical knowledge in North-Western Ligurian Alps has been achieved through the recording of a large number of data. About 50% of the recorded uses have survived in the area. A great traditional importance is retained by species such as Artemisia absinthium, Lavandula angustifolia and Arnica montana which were formerly cultivated and marketed for their therapeutic virtues. A substantial role is also attributable

  18. The Contribution of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Practices to Forest Management: The Case of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the potential applicability of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia, including China, Japan, and South Korea. In ancient Northeast Asia, forest policies and practices were based on Fengshui (an old Chinese concept regarding the flow of vital forces, with which forests were managed under community forestry. However, these traditional systems diminished in the twentieth century owing to the decline of traditional livelihood systems and extreme deforestation. Recently, legacies from traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry have been revisited and incorporated into forest policies, laws, and management practices because of growing needs for sustainable forest use in China, Japan, and Korea. This reevaluation of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry has provided empirical data to help improve forestry systems. Although traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia have been scarcely theorized, they play a significant role in modifying forest management practices in the face of socioeconomic changes.

  19. Brazilian Red Propolis—Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Daugsch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea, but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L Taub. (Leguminosae to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  20. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, R.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: - the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; - the intended use and consequent exposure; - history of use and exposure; - product comparison(s); - toxicological information gathering; - Risk characterisation/safety assessment; As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented

  1. Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students' knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Silmara; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Furquim de Andrade, Claudia Regina

    2013-02-25

    Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students' prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students' performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students' short and long-term knowledge retention.

  2. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug-botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements.

  3. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  4. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Winijchaiyanan, Piyawan; Sukkho, Treetip; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Pongamornkul, Wittaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-10-28

    We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Graham, James G; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2017-11-22

    This article reviews and develops a perspective for the meaning of authenticity in the context of quality assessment of botanical materials and the challenges associated with discerning adulterations vs. contaminations vs. impurities. Authentic botanicals are by definition non-adulterated, a mutually exclusive relationship that is confirmed through the application of a multilayered set of analytical methods designed to validate the (chemo)taxonomic identity of a botanical and certify that it is devoid of any adulteration. In practice, the ever-increasing sophistication in the process of intentional adulteration, as well as the growing number of botanicals entering the market, altogether necessitate a constant adaptation and reinforcement of authentication methods with new approaches, especially new technologies. This article summarizes the set of analytical methods - classical and contemporary - that can be employed in the authentication of botanicals. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. An NMR-based untargeted metabolomic model is proposed as a rapid, systematic, and complementary screening for the discrimination of authentic vs. potentially adulterated botanicals. Such analytical model can help advance the evaluation of botanical integrity in natural product research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. An empirical comparison of knowledge and skill in the context of traditional ecological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightley, Eric P; Reyes-García, Victoria; Demps, Kathryn; Magtanong, Ruth V; Ramenzoni, Victoria C; Thampy, Gayatri; Gueze, Maximilien; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-10-16

    We test whether traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about how to make an item predicts a person's skill at making it among the Tsimane' (Bolivia). The rationale for this research is that the failure to distinguish between knowledge and skill might account for some of the conflicting results about the relationships between TEK, human health, and economic development. We test the association between a commonly-used measure of individual knowledge (cultural consensus analysis) about how to make an arrow or a bag and a measure of individual skill at making these items, using ordinary least-squares regression. The study consists of 43 participants from 3 villages. We find no association between our measures of knowledge and skill (core model, p > 0.5, R2 = .132). While we cannot rule out the possibility of a real association between these phenomena, we interpret our findings as support for the claim that researchers should distinguish between methods to measure knowledge and skill when studying trends in TEK.

  7. Botanic gardens should lead the way to create a “Garden Earth” in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. Cannon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength and expertise that botanic gardens bring to conservation are based on their detailed knowledge and understanding of the care, management, and biology of a diversity of plant species. This emphasis on the organism has led to many ex-situ and in-situ conservation programs aimed at protecting endangered species, restoring threatened populations, and establishing living plant and seed collections of endangered species. In China, the scale and pace of change in land and resource use, often leading to environmental degradation, has created a strong emphasis on improving environmental conditions. If done properly, being “green” can be a surprisingly complex issue, because it should encompass and exploit the whole of plant diversity and function. Unfortunately, ‘green’ often includes a small portion of this whole. Earth's rich plant diversity presents considerable opportunity but requires expertise and knowledge for stable and beneficial management. With the dawning of the Anthropocene, we should strive to live on a “Garden Earth”, where we design and manage our environments, both built and natural, to create a healthy, beneficial living landscape for people and other organisms. The staff of botanic gardens worldwide and the living collections they maintain embody the best examples of sustainable, beautiful, and beneficial environments that thrive on plant diversity. This expertise should be a fundamental resource for agencies in all sectors responsible for managing and designing “green” infrastructure. Botanic gardens should actively engage and contribute to these opportunities, from large public infrastructure projects to small private conservation efforts. Here, we discuss several ongoing conservation efforts, primarily in China, and attempt to identify areas where botanic gardens could make a significant and meaningful difference.

  8. Phytochemical and Botanical Therapies for Rosacea: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Whitney A; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-10-01

    Botanical and cosmeceutical therapies are commonly used to treat symptoms of rosacea such as facial erythema, papules/pustule counts, and telangiectasia. These products may contain plant extracts, phytochemicals, and herbal formulations. The objective of this study was to review clinical studies evaluating the use of botanical agents for the treatment of rosacea. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for clinical studies evaluating botanical therapies for rosacea. Major results were summarized, and study methodology was analyzed. Several botanical therapies may be promising for rosacea symptoms, but few studies are methodologically rigorous. Several plant extract and phytochemicals effectively improved facial erythema and papule/pustule counts caused by rosacea. Many studies are not methodologically rigorous. Further research is critical, as many botanicals have been evaluated in only one study. Botanical agents may reduce facial erythema and effectively improve papule/pustule counts associated with rosacea. Although promising, further research in the area is imperative. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Ticuna traditional knowledge on chagra agriculture and innovative mechanisms for its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Acosta Muñoz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of indigenous peoples to the global market is a reality and it sets strategies of appropriation of traditional knowledge, without any rule mediating the restitution of rights that knowledge holders have, while indigenous people are asking a sui generis system for protection and equitable participation in these markets. The paper presents the results of a participatory research carried out with Ticuna communities of the south of the Colombian Amazon, in the border with Brazil and Peru, in the upper part of the Amazon River. From the knowledge about the use and management of chagra agriculture, the research analyzes how the productive chain of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz is structured. It also explains how indigenous people discuss the intellectual property rights they have on it, and how the geographical indications and the collective trademarks can help to protect traditional knowledge associated to biodiversity.

  10. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, D P

    2007-06-05

    The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,), hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria), sambhar (Cervus unicolor) were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.

  11. Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students’ knowledge retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondon Silmara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Methods Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students’ prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method, short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students’ performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Results Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. Conclusions The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students’ short and long-term knowledge retention.

  12. Constipation and Botanical Medicines: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Carla; Capasso, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    Constipation affects 14% of the adult population globally, mainly women, and significantly impacts on health-related quality of life. The causes of constipation are mainly three: lifestyle related (functional constipation), disease related, and drug induced. Constipation can generate considerable suffering, including abdominal pain and distension, anorexia, and nausea. The value of some therapeutic measures such as increased fluid intake, physical activity, diet rich in fiber, and nutritional supplements recommended for the relief of constipation is still questionable. The treatment of constipation can be carried out not only with traditional drugs but also with herbal medicines or with nutraceuticals, which are used to prevent or treat the disorder. We have reviewed the most common botanical laxatives such as senna, cascara, frangula, aloe, and rhubarb and their use in the treatment of constipation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of a Research-Infused Botanical Curriculum on Undergraduates’ Content Knowledge, STEM Competencies, and Attitudes toward Plant Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H. David; Horton, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education initiative, we infused authentic, plant-based research into majors’ courses at a public liberal arts university. Faculty members designed a financially sustainable pedagogical approach, utilizing vertically integrated curricular modules based on undergraduate researchers’ field and laboratory projects. Our goals were to 1) teach botanical concepts, from cells to ecosystems; 2) strengthen competencies in statistical analysis and scientific writing; 3) pique plant science interest; and 4) allow all undergraduates to contribute to genuine research. Our series of inquiry-centered exercises mitigated potential faculty barriers to adopting research-rich curricula, facilitating teaching/research balance by gathering publishable scholarly data during laboratory class periods. Student competencies were assessed with pre- and postcourse quizzes and rubric-graded papers, and attitudes were evaluated with pre- and postcourse surveys. Our revised curriculum increased students’ knowledge and awareness of plant science topics, improved scientific writing, enhanced statistical knowledge, and boosted interest in conducting research. More than 300 classroom students have participated in our program, and data generated from these modules’ assessment allowed faculty and students to present 28 contributed talks or posters and publish three papers in 4 yr. Future steps include analyzing the effects of repeated module exposure on student learning and creating a regional consortium to increase our project's pedagogical impact. PMID:25185223

  14. BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IN MELONS FROM FAMILY FARMING IN THE STATE OF MARANHÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE DE SOUZA MACÊDO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform botanical identification and to estimate genetic diversity in two sequential inbred generations (progenies S1 and S2 of melon accessions from traditional agriculture in the state of Maranhão, in order to generate useful information for commercial melon breeding. Two field experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block, using four replicates of 15 accessions from a first selfing cycle in 2013, and three replicates of 25 subaccessions (generation S2 in 2014. Flower and fruit descriptors were measured to obtain quantitative and qualitative data, in addition to a systematized photographic documentation of fruit for visually comparing the progenies S1 and S2. Distance matrices for quantitative and qualitative data were obtained and used to perform a joint analysis and UPGMA method. Large genetic diversity was found in the accessions analysed, since the presence of melon progenies was observed in the Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis, with its botanical varieties momordica and conomom, and of the Cucumis melo ssp. melo, with the botanical varieties cantalupensis and chandalak. Divergence analysis showed the formation of three groups in generation S1 and four groups in S2. However, the groups were not separated either by subspecies or by botanical variety. Thus, in addition to the large genetic diversity among and within melon accessions from family farming in the state of Maranhão, the progenies presented a large introgression of traits of the different subspecies and their botanical varieties due to the reproductive system and seed management of these species.

  15. Interculturallity and traditional knowledge about the moon in teacher training at the/of rural education

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    Rodrigo dos Santos Crepalde

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The treatment given to traditional knowledge by school science tends to devalue it, subjecting it to naive, common sense, and even mythological vision. As a way of promoting dialogue and exchange between different cultures, which populate the classroom, interculturallity assumes that science education should be considered as the acquisition of yet another culture, without overcoming the validity of the others. This article presents a concrete case of teaching and learning of the physical sciences as an example of promoting the recognition of traditional knowledge about the Moon in a context of intercultural rural science teacher education. They are discussed representative excerpts of written productions of undergraduate rural education, major in natural sciences, conducted in the discipline of Introduction to Physics that aimed to argue about how scientific and traditional knowledge are related to the Moon and its implications for science teaching. It is noted that traditional knowledge is strongly intertwined with the social practices of communities of these graduates, pointing out the necessary inclusion of this knowledge in the intercultural rural science teacher education that stimulates the exchange and mutual enrichment.

  16. Knowledge and Practices of Medical And Traditional Emergency Contraception among Married Women in Odemis

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    Zeynep Daşıkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to determine medical and traditional knowledge and practices of emergency contraception among married women after unprotected sexual intercourse.\tMaterials and Methods: The present study was carried out as a descriptive study on 367 married women registered to Primary Health Center number one in Odemis County of Izmir City between the dates 12.05.2005 and 20.06.2005. The data were collected through a questionnaire consisting of characteristic desciriptive, reproductive data and knowledge and use of medical and traditional emergency contraception. For collecting data, face-to-face interview technique was used. Data were evaluated by as number, percentage and chi-square tests on the SPSS version 12.0.\tResults: It was found that 25.1% of the women knew medical methods of emergency contraception and 1.4% of them (n = 5 used morning after pills. It was also found that 50.1% of the women knew at least one traditional practice for contraception and 19.3% of them used traditional practice at least for one time, and the most frequently used traditional practice was vaginal douche with rate of 75.7%. Conclusions: It was concluded that rate of having knowledge on and using medical emergency contraceptive methods was lower for contraception from unintended pregnancies whereas rate of having knowledge on and using traditional contraceptive practice was higher among married women in Odemis. The women should be informed on emergency contraceptive methods and they should be given counselling.

  17. Science Academies Refresher Course on Traditional and Modern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. In collaboration with. Botanical Garden & Herbarium, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore from 15 to 29 November. 2012. A Refresher Course on Traditional and Modern Approaches in Plant Taxonomy for postgraduate college/university teachers and research ...

  18. Changing resource management paradigms, traditional ecological knowledge, and non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iain J. Davidson-Hunt; Fikret. Berkes

    2001-01-01

    We begin this paper by exploring the shift now occurring in the science that provides the theoretical basis for resource management practice. The concepts of traditional ecological knowledge and traditional management systems are presented next to provide the background for an examination of resilient landscapes that emerge through the work and play of humans. These...

  19. South African Helichrysum species: a review of the traditional uses, biological activity and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, A C U; Viljoen, A M; van Heerden, F R

    2008-10-28

    In South Africa, the genus Helichrysum is widely used in traditional medicine. The uses are well documented although renaming of species and the resulting confusing taxonomic nomenclature may cause uncertainty as to which specific species was referred to in some reports. The aim of this paper is to present a collated and coherent overview of the documented traditional uses of Helichrysum species and to update the botanical identity of previously studied species. Databases (Scifinder, ISI Web of Knowledge) and several books were used to collect in information on South African Helichrysum species. The traditional uses, chemistry and biological activity of Helichrysum species have been summarized. It was attempted to give clarity as to exactly which species is refer to in the ethnobotanical literature. Although a large number of ethnopharmacological uses have been documented and the chemistry of the genus has been studied extensively, only a few South African species have been investigated for their biological activity.

  20. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,, hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.

  1. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ethnomedical survey and safety evaluation of traditional eye medicines used in Misungwi district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maregesi, Sheila M; Messo, Charles W; Mathias, Juma

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at documenting products used as traditional eye medicine (TEM) in Misungwi district, Tanzania, and performing preliminary analysis on safety status. Ethnomedical study was conducted in Misungwi district. Information was sourced by face-to-face interview with traditional healers, traditional medicine vendors, and knowledgeable people guided by a well-structured questionnaire. Safety was evaluated by determining pH using pH meter and mineral analysis using the Delta, Portable X-ray fluorescence equipment, and qualitative chemical tests. A total of 23 TEM products were recorded from botanical (79%) and zoological (21%) sources including animal excreta. Liquid preparation ranked highest among dosage forms. Safety evaluation showed that only one product possessed the pH value of 7.4 as recommended for topical ophthalmic medicines. Fourteen minerals were detected and quantified in three samples; some of these minerals are known for their negative effects to the eyes, of medical interest is strontium used for the management of benign eye tumors. Information providers were unaware of health risks associated with the use of TEM. This study has revealed the common use of TEM in Misungwi district. The majority of the products are from the botanical source. Although literature provides supporting data for the application to some of the recorded TEM, safety evaluation by pH and mineral analysis in this study have indicated possible ophthalmological medical problems that could result from using such products. Extensive scientific studies including animal experiments and identification of bioactive compounds are essential to develop safe TEMs.

  3. Comparison of outcome expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-07-01

    Although initially developed for medical purposes, synthetic cannabinoids have also been consumed for recreational purposes. To evaluate whether agreement with positive and negative outcome expectancies differed for synthetic cannabinoids versus botanical marijuana, and assess reported reasons for using synthetic cannabinoids. Using a web-based recruitment and data collection procedure, 186 adults who had used both synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana and 181 adults who had used botanical marijuana but not synthetic cannabinoids, completed measures of outcome expectancies and other relevant questionnaires. A significant interaction revealed that participants who had used both synthetic cannabinoids and botanical marijuana indicated lower agreement with positive expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids, and higher agreement with positive expectancies for botanical marijuana, than did those participants who used only botanical marijuana. There was no interaction between type of drug and use history on agreement with negative expectancies, and participants agreed more strongly with negative outcome expectancies for synthetic cannabinoids than for botanical marijuana whether they had used one or both types of these drugs. The most frequently provided reasons for using synthetic cannabinoids included availability, perceived legality, cost, curiosity, and social interaction. Given growing public acceptance of recreational and medical marijuana, coupled with negative perceptions and increasing regulation of synthetic cannabinoid compounds, botanical marijuana is likely to remain more available and more popular than synthetic cannabinoids.

  4. Traditional Knowledge: Considerations for Protecting Water in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McGregor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, the water crisis increasingly felt around the world is being experienced primarily in small, usually Indigenous, communities. At the heart of this issue lies an ongoing struggle to have Indigenous voices heard in the decision-making processes that affect their lives, lands, and waters. As part of ancient systems of Traditional Knowledge (TK, Indigenous people bear the knowledge and the responsibility to care for the waters upon which they depend for survival. A series of internationally developed documents has supported Indigenous peoples’ calls for increased recognition of the importance of TK in resolving environmental crises, including those involving water. Ontario provincial and Canadian federal governments have been developing legislative and regulatory documents to help fend off further water-related catastrophes within their jurisdictions. Despite such efforts, a number of barriers to the successful and appropriate involvement of TK in water management remain. Based on years of community-based and policy-related research with First Nations people involved in water-related undertakings, this article highlights progress made to date, and provides Indigenous viewpoints on what further steps need to be taken. Key among these steps are the need to restore and maintain Indigenous access to traditional territories and ways of life, and the requirement for mutually respectful collaboration between TK and Western science.

  5. Traditional and local ecological knowledge about forest biodiversity in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; A. Paige Fischer; Eric T. Jones

    2008-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity in Pacific Northwest forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest biodiversity conservation efforts. We address four topics: (1) views and values people have relating to biodiversity, (2) the resource use and management...

  6. Forensic botany: species identification of botanical trace evidence using a multigene barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Beduschi, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidence during criminal investigations. However, it is still an underutilized field of investigation with its most common application limited to identifying specific as well as suspected illegal plants. The ubiquitous presence of plant species can be useful in forensics, but the absence of an accurate identification system remains the major obstacle to the present inability to routinely and correctly identify trace botanical evidence. Many plant materials cannot be identified and differentiated to the species level by traditional morphological characteristics when botanical specimens are degraded and lack physical features. By taking advantage of a universal barcode system, DNA sequencing, and other biomolecular techniques used routinely in forensic investigations, two chloroplast DNA regions were evaluated for their use as "barcoding" markers for plant identification in the field of forensics. We therefore investigated the forensic use of two non-coding plastid regions, psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF, to create a multimarker system for species identification that could be useful throughout the plant kingdom. The sequences from 63 plants belonging to our local flora were submitted and registered on the GenBank database. Sequence comparison to set up the level of identification (species, genus, or family) through Blast algorithms allowed us to assess the suitability of this method. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our botanic universal multimarker assay in forensic investigations.

  7. Medicinal folk recipes used as traditional phyto therapies in district Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, S.K.; Rehman, F.; Khan, M.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of an ethno medicinal research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) District, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK), Pakistan, during May 2006 to March 2007. The study was focused for documentation of traditional knowledge of local people about the use of medicinal folk recipes of native plants. During field survey, questionnaires were used to interview the local inhabitants, older people including men and women both, who were familiar with traditional uses of indigenous plants. In total 40 new medicinal folk recipes of 26 plant species, belonging to 19 families were recorded. These folk recipes are used as traditional phyto therapies in the area. Plant specimens were identified, preserved and vouchers were deposited in the Department of Botany, Quaid-i-University Islamabad for future references. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by medicinal folk recipes. English name, local name, family name and voucher no., were listed. (author)

  8. A model on how to obtain data from botanical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Siegward M

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenge on how to obtain information from practitioners with experience in using medicinal plants. Collecting information on medicinal uses of plants is very challenging; since botanical remedies are used within the context of multiple differing medical systems, practitioners differ in training from Western physicians and scientists, and active ingredients of botanicals vary with preparation method, growth, and harvest conditions. A model on how useful data on safety and efficacy can be obtained from botanical practitioners is presented, based on methods developed by the association of anthroposophic physicians in Europe, a system of integrative medicine which includes the use of botanicals and is practiced mostly by medical doctors. Decades of experience by hundreds of practitioners are summarized and made accessible in a manual, which alphabetically lists the most commonly used botanicals and describes the most successful therapeutic experiences which could be confirmed by several of the contributing practitioners. This approach of continuous, multilingual systematic collection of successful therapeutic experiences within a community of practitioners with similar goals and a common therapeutic framework can be used not only for the training of successful future botanical practitioners, but also for helping to identify promising botanicals for scientific research and to further their development, and could support their official registration with governing bodies in countries of their use. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A. Robbins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well. Perhaps most importantly, traditional knowledge and Indigenous spirituality hinges on the maintenance and renewal of relationships to the land.Indigenous land bases and the environment as a whole remain vitally important to the practice of traditional healing.A focus on Indigenous healing, when discussing Indigenous knowledge systems and spirituality, is paramount today due to the large scale suppression of Indigenous cultural expressions during the process of colonization. With respect to policy, there appears to be a historical progression of perception or attitude towards Indigenous traditional healing in Canada from one of disfavour to one favour. There are nevertheless continuing challenges for traditional healing. Mainstream perceptions and subsequent policy implementations sometimes still reflect attitudes that were formulated during the decline of traditional healing practice during colonization processes. As a consequence the ability for particular communities to maintain and use their specific understandings ofIndigenous knowledge continues encounter obstacles. Indigenous Knowledge systems are living entities and not relics of the past. Today, these knowledge systems are still greatly being applied to help Indigenous communities and Indigenous people recover fromintergenerational pain and suffering endured during the colonization process. Future policy development and implementation should aim to support Indigenous peoples and communities when

  10. Topical Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnik, Benjamin; Sharma, Divya; Alban, Joseph; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psoriasis often enquire about the use of numerous botanical therapeutics. It is important for dermatologists to be aware of the current evidence regarding these agents. We conducted a systematic literature search using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials that assessed the use of topical botanical therapeutics for psoriasis. The search included the following keywords: 'psoriasis' and 'plant' or 'herbal' or 'botanical'. We also reviewed citations within articles to identify additional relevant sources. We then further refined the results by route of administration and the topical botanical agents are reviewed herein. A total of 27 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of topical botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review. We found that the most highly studied and most efficacious topical botanical therapeutics were Mahonia aquifolium, indigo naturalis, aloe vera, and, to a lesser degree, capsaicin. The most commonly reported adverse effects were local skin irritation, erythema, pruritus, burning, and pain. However, the overall evidence for these therapeutics remains limited in quantity and quality. The literature addresses a large number of studies in regard to botanicals for the treatment of psoriasis. While most agents appear to be safe, further research is necessary before topical botanical agents can be consistently recommended to patients.

  11. Traditional and Local Knowledge Practices for Disaster Risk Reduction in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsioh Macnight Ngwese

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to deal with recurrent disasters, like floods and droughts coupled with the limited adaptive capacity, in the semiarid regions of Northern Ghana, local communities have no choice but to apply traditional and local knowledge practices. This study seeks to identify such practices employed in selected rural communities in Northern Ghana and to investigate their effectiveness. Data were collected through key informant interviews, household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions, and participant observations. The findings indicated that although diverse practices were applied to predict and manage local disaster events, skepticism prevailed among locals toward these practices regarding their effectiveness. Due to the lack of science-based tools and systems for disaster prediction and management, local communities continually depended on these knowledge systems and practices. Integrating local and traditional disaster risk reduction (DRR efforts into modern scientific knowledge should be encouraged in order to reduce the vulnerability of local communities to disasters with thorough effectiveness evaluation protocols.

  12. Botanicals as Modulators of Neuroplasticity: Focus on BDNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sangiovanni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in different central nervous system (CNS diseases suggests that this neurotrophin may represent an interesting and reliable therapeutic target. Accordingly, the search for new compounds, also from natural sources, able to modulate BDNF has been increasingly explored. The present review considers the literature on the effects of botanicals on BDNF. Botanicals considered were Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell, Coffea arabica L., Crocus sativus L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea, Ginkgo biloba L., Hypericum perforatum L., Olea europaea L. (olive oil, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Rhodiola rosea L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Vitis vinifera L., Withania somnifera (L. Dunal, and Perilla frutescens (L. Britton. The effect of the active principles responsible for the efficacy of the extracts is reviewed and discussed as well. The high number of articles published (more than one hundred manuscripts for 14 botanicals supports the growing interest in the use of natural products as BDNF modulators. The studies reported strengthen the hypothesis that botanicals may be considered useful modulators of BDNF in CNS diseases, without high side effects. Further clinical studies are mandatory to confirm botanicals as preventive agents or as useful adjuvant to the pharmacological treatment.

  13. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  14. The centenary of the School Botanical Garden from Blaj

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1982-01-01

    The development of the first school-botanical garden from Blaj is strongly connected with the development of botanical research at the University and Agronomy Insitute from Cluj-Napoca. The first curators of the garden A. Uilacan, A. Cheteanu, Al. Borza and I. Popu-Cimpeanu studied in Cluj. Prof. Al. Borza developed the medicinal and crop plant collections in collaboration with B. Pater, former head of our agrobotanical garden. Later the botanical garden of the University, became famous under...

  15. Culturally Sensitive Counselling in Nunavut: Implications of Inuit Traditional Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2003-01-01

    The success of the Inuit people of Canada in seeking political autonomy resulted in the creation of the Nunavut territory. The new Government of Nunavut (GN) has instituted Inuit Quajimajatiqangit (IQ), the values, norms, and traditional knowledge of the Inuit, as formal policy to guide the delivery of health, social, and civil services in order…

  16. Searching for Synergy: Integrating Traditional and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Robin Wall

    2012-01-01

    Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…

  17. Traditional Knowledge, Biological Resources and Intellectual Property Rights in Asia: The Example of the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Antons, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights has become a topic for intensive debates at the national level, in various international settings and within and among different UN agencies, including the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), UNESCO, UNCTAD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). However, a consensus on a definition of traditional knowledge has yet to emerge due to persisten...

  18. Traditional medicines and alternative practice in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    main business district of Accra, were visited and traditional medicines for the management of prostate diseases ac- ... This was the constituent in four products (Uro 500®, UR-Quick mixture®, Prostacure® ... Herbal medicine, botanical medicine or phytomedicine ... along with quality clinical research supporting the value.

  19. Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world's botanic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross; Smith, Paul; Brockington, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, an estimated 76% of species absent from living collections are tropical in origin. Furthermore, phylogenetic bias ensures that over 50% of vascular genera, but barely 5% of non-vascular genera, are conserved ex situ. While botanic gardens are discernibly responding to the threat of species extinction, just 10% of network capacity is devoted to threatened species. We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity.

  20. Synergy Between Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Conservation Science Supports Forest Preservation in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dustin Becker

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the desires of individuals while sustaining ecological "public goods" is a central challenge in natural resources conservation. Indigenous communities routinely make common property decisions balancing benefits to individuals with benefits to their communities. Such traditional knowledge offers insight for conservation. Using surveys and field observations, this case study examines aspects of indigenous institutions and ecological knowledge used by rural Ecuadorians to manage a forest commons before and after interacting with two U.S.-based conservation NGOs: Earthwatch Institute and People Allied for Nature. The rural farming community of Loma Alta has legal property rights to a 6842-ha watershed in western Ecuador. This self-governing community curtailed destruction of their moist forest commons, but not without the influence of modern scientific ecological knowledge. When Earthwatch Institute scientists provided evidence that forest clearing would reduce water supply to the community, villagers quickly modified land allocation patterns and set rules of use in the forest establishing the first community-owned forest reserve in western Ecuador. This case demonstrates that synergy between traditional knowledge and western knowledge can result in sustaining both ecosystem services and biodiversity in a forest commons.

  1. Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Mingorría, Sara; Reyes-García, Victoria; Calvet, Laura; Montes, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Researchers and conservation managers largely agree on the relevance of traditional ecological knowledge for natural resource management in indigenous communities, but its prevalence and role as societies modernize are contested. We analyzed the transmission of traditional knowledge among rural local people in communities linked to protected areas in Doñana, southwestern Spain. We studied changes in knowledge related to local practices in agriculture and livestock farming among 198 informants from three generations that cover the period in which the area transited from an economy strongly dependent on local ecosystem services to a market economy with intensified production systems. Our results suggest an abrupt loss of traditional agricultural knowledge related to rapid transformations and intensification of agricultural systems, but maintenance of knowledge of traditional livestock farming, an activity allowed in the protected areas that maintains strong links with local cultural identity. Our results demonstrate the potential of protected areas in protecting remaining bodies of traditional ecological knowledge in developed country settings. Nevertheless, we note that strict protection in cultural-landscape-dominated areas can disrupt transmission of traditional knowledge if local resource users and related practices are excluded from ecosystem management.

  2. Transmitting Ainu traditional food knowledge from mothers to their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki-Goodman, Masami

    2017-11-01

    Since 2004, research has been conducted in the Ainu Indigenous community of the Saru River Region of Biratori in Northern Japan examining traditional food use knowledge. The purpose was to improve the socio-cultural environment for the Ainu People by implementing interventions meant to reintroduce traditional Ainu food use, so that they can live with dignity and in harmony with non-Ainu people in the heterogeneous community where Japanese cultural values dominate. Ten years after the start of this research, a series of interviews was conducted with Ainu mothers and daughters active in the community to evaluate the result of the interventions because, in accordance with culturally established Ainu gender roles, the Ainu women prepare the Ainu dishes. The interviews indicated that the community of both Ainu and non-Ainu people shared traditional Ainu food as a communal food at community events organized by the Ainu members of the community. The people in the community now identify traditional Ainu dishes with Ainu names, indicating the establishment of culinary and linguistic boundaries between Ainu traditional food and mainstream Japanese food. This also signals that the Ainu People have begun to establish a basis for reconstructing their unique ethnic identity, once suppressed by the government's former assimilation policy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Althoug...

  4. Text mining for traditional Chinese medical knowledge discovery: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Peng, Yonghong; Liu, Baoyan

    2010-08-01

    Extracting meaningful information and knowledge from free text is the subject of considerable research interest in the machine learning and data mining fields. Text data mining (or text mining) has become one of the most active research sub-fields in data mining. Significant developments in the area of biomedical text mining during the past years have demonstrated its great promise for supporting scientists in developing novel hypotheses and new knowledge from the biomedical literature. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a distinct methodology with which to view human life. It is one of the most complete and distinguished traditional medicines with a history of several thousand years of studying and practicing the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. It has been shown that the TCM knowledge obtained from clinical practice has become a significant complementary source of information for modern biomedical sciences. TCM literature obtained from the historical period and from modern clinical studies has recently been transformed into digital data in the form of relational databases or text documents, which provide an effective platform for information sharing and retrieval. This motivates and facilitates research and development into knowledge discovery approaches and to modernize TCM. In order to contribute to this still growing field, this paper presents (1) a comparative introduction to TCM and modern biomedicine, (2) a survey of the related information sources of TCM, (3) a review and discussion of the state of the art and the development of text mining techniques with applications to TCM, (4) a discussion of the research issues around TCM text mining and its future directions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  6. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  7. Maternal health, war, and religious tradition: authoritative knowledge in Pujehun District, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambai, A; MacCormack, C

    1996-06-01

    In Sierra Leone constraints to ideal maternal health require a primary health care approach that includes collaboration with traditional midwives. They are authoritative figures embedded within local political structures and a powerful women's religion. The local causes of maternal risk are described, including civil war and refugee camp life. Traditional midwives provide vital services in the camp, are respected for their social status, and learn additional skills. Biomedical and traditional systems of authoritative knowledge, based on different kinds of legitimacy to heal, are in a complementary relationship.

  8. Exploring the role of traditional ecological knowledge in climate change initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Vinyeta; Kathy. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous populations are projected to face disproportionate impacts as a result of climate change in comparison to nonindigenous populations. For this reason, many American Indian and Alaska Native tribes are identifying and implementing culturally appropriate strategies to assess climate impacts and adapt to projected changes. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK...

  9. Characterisation of false-positive observations in botanical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Errors in botanical surveying are a common problem. The presence of a species is easily overlooked, leading to false-absences; while misidentifications and other mistakes lead to false-positive observations. While it is common knowledge that these errors occur, there are few data that can be used to quantify and describe these errors. Here we characterise false-positive errors for a controlled set of surveys conducted as part of a field identification test of botanical skill. Surveys were conducted at sites with a verified list of vascular plant species. The candidates were asked to list all the species they could identify in a defined botanically rich area. They were told beforehand that their final score would be the sum of the correct species they listed, but false-positive errors counted against their overall grade. The number of errors varied considerably between people, some people create a high proportion of false-positive errors, but these are scattered across all skill levels. Therefore, a person’s ability to correctly identify a large number of species is not a safeguard against the generation of false-positive errors. There was no phylogenetic pattern to falsely observed species; however, rare species are more likely to be false-positive as are species from species rich genera. Raising the threshold for the acceptance of an observation reduced false-positive observations dramatically, but at the expense of more false negative errors. False-positive errors are higher in field surveying of plants than many people may appreciate. Greater stringency is required before accepting species as present at a site, particularly for rare species. Combining multiple surveys resolves the problem, but requires a considerable increase in effort to achieve the same sensitivity as a single survey. Therefore, other methods should be used to raise the threshold for the acceptance of a species. For example, digital data input systems that can verify

  10. The quest for knowledge transfer efficacy: blended teaching, online and in-class, with consideration of learning typologies for non-traditional and traditional students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Judy R.; Van Doorn, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The pedagogical paradigm shift in higher education to 24-h learning environments composed of teaching delivery methods of online courses, blended/hybrid formats, and face-to-face (f2f) classes is increasing access to global, lifelong learning. Online degrees have been offered at 62.4% of 2800 colleges and universities. Students can now design flexible, life-balanced course schedules. Higher knowledge transfer rates may exist with blended course formats with online quizzes and valuable class time set for Socratic, quality discussions and creative team presentations. Research indicates that younger, traditional students exhibit heightened performance goal orientations and prefer entertaining professors who are funny, whereas non-traditional students exhibit mastery profiles and prefer courses taught by flexible, yet organized, professors. A 5-year study found that amongst 51,000 students taking both f2f and online courses, higher online failure rates occurred. Competing life roles for non-traditional students and reading and writing needs for at-risk students suggest that performance may be better if programs are started in f2f courses. Models on effective knowledge transfer consider the planning process, delivery methods, and workplace application, but a gap exists for identifying the diversity of learner needs. Higher education enrollments are being compromised with lower online retention rates. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to delineate disparate learning styles and present a typology for the learning needs of traditional and non-traditional students. Secondly, psychology as a science may need more rigorous curriculum markers like mapping APA guidelines to knowledge objectives, critical assignments, and student learning outcomes (SLOs) (e.g., online rubric assessments for scoring APA style critical thinking essays on selected New York Times books). Efficacious knowledge transfer to diverse, 21st century students should be the Academy's focus. PMID

  11. The quest for knowledge transfer efficacy: blended teaching, online and in-class, with consideration of learning typologies for non-traditional and traditional students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Rouse Van Doorn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogical paradigm shift in higher education to 24-hour learning environments composed of teaching delivery methods of online courses, blended/hybrid formats, and face-to-face (f2f classes is increasing access to global, lifelong learning. Online degrees have been offered at 62.4% of 2,800 colleges and universities. Students can now design flexible, life-balanced course schedules. Higher knowledge transfer rates may exist with blended course formats with online quizzes and valuable class time set for Socratic, quality discussions and creative team presentations. Research indicates that younger, traditional students exhibit heightened performance goal orientations and prefer entertaining professors who are funny, whereas non-traditional students exhibit mastery profiles and prefer courses taught by flexible, yet organized, professors. A 5-year study found that amongst 51,000 students taking both f2f and online courses, higher online failure rates occurred. Competing life roles for non-traditional students and reading and writing needs for at-risk students suggest that performance may be better if programs are started in f2f courses. Models on effective knowledge transfer consider the planning process, delivery methods, and workplace application, but a gap exists for identifying the diversity of learner needs. Higher education enrollments are being compromised with lower online retention rates. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to delineate disparate learning styles and present a typology for the learning needs of traditional and non-traditional students. Secondly, psychology as a science may need more rigorous curriculum markers like mapping APA guidelines to knowledge objectives, critical assignments, and student learning outcomes (SLOs (e.g. online rubric assessments for scoring APA style critical thinking essays on selected New York Times books. Efficacious knowledge transfer to diverse, 21st century students should be the

  12. The quest for knowledge transfer efficacy: blended teaching, online and in-class, with consideration of learning typologies for non-traditional and traditional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Judy R; Van Doorn, John D

    2014-01-01

    The pedagogical paradigm shift in higher education to 24-h learning environments composed of teaching delivery methods of online courses, blended/hybrid formats, and face-to-face (f2f) classes is increasing access to global, lifelong learning. Online degrees have been offered at 62.4% of 2800 colleges and universities. Students can now design flexible, life-balanced course schedules. Higher knowledge transfer rates may exist with blended course formats with online quizzes and valuable class time set for Socratic, quality discussions and creative team presentations. Research indicates that younger, traditional students exhibit heightened performance goal orientations and prefer entertaining professors who are funny, whereas non-traditional students exhibit mastery profiles and prefer courses taught by flexible, yet organized, professors. A 5-year study found that amongst 51,000 students taking both f2f and online courses, higher online failure rates occurred. Competing life roles for non-traditional students and reading and writing needs for at-risk students suggest that performance may be better if programs are started in f2f courses. Models on effective knowledge transfer consider the planning process, delivery methods, and workplace application, but a gap exists for identifying the diversity of learner needs. Higher education enrollments are being compromised with lower online retention rates. Therefore, the main purpose of this review is to delineate disparate learning styles and present a typology for the learning needs of traditional and non-traditional students. Secondly, psychology as a science may need more rigorous curriculum markers like mapping APA guidelines to knowledge objectives, critical assignments, and student learning outcomes (SLOs) (e.g., online rubric assessments for scoring APA style critical thinking essays on selected New York Times books). Efficacious knowledge transfer to diverse, 21st century students should be the Academy's focus.

  13. Selection and authentication of botanical materials for the development of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S

    2013-05-01

    Herbal products, for example botanical dietary supplements, are widely used. Analytical methods are needed to ensure that botanical ingredients used in commercial products are correctly identified and that research materials are of adequate quality and are sufficiently characterized to enable research to be interpreted and replicated. Adulteration of botanical material in commerce is common for some species. The development of analytical methods for specific botanicals, and accurate reporting of research results, depend critically on correct identification of test materials. Conscious efforts must therefore be made to ensure that the botanical identity of test materials is rigorously confirmed and documented through preservation of vouchers, and that their geographic origin and handling are appropriate. Use of material with an associated herbarium voucher that can be botanically identified is always ideal. Indirect methods of authenticating bulk material in commerce, for example use of organoleptic, anatomical, chemical, or molecular characteristics, are not always acceptable for the chemist's purposes. Familiarity with botanical and pharmacognostic literature is necessary to determine what potential adulterants exist and how they may be distinguished.

  14. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica)

    OpenAIRE

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-01-01

    Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog perform...

  15. Adapting the botanical landscape of Melbourne Gardens (Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria in response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Entwisle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water

  16. Review of the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Wang, Zenghui; Huang, Linfang; Zheng, Sihao; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Haitao; Yang, Shihai

    2014-09-01

    Astragalus membranaceus is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. It is used as immune stimulant, tonic, antioxidant, hepatoprotectant, diuretic, antidiabetic, anticancer, and expectorant. The current paper reviews the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragali Radix. Information on Astragali Radix was gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Medline Plus, CNKI, and Web of Science) as well as from libraries and local books. More than 100 compounds, including flavonoids, saponins, polysaccharides, and amino acids, have so far been identified, and the various biological activities of the compounds have been reported. As an important traditional Chinese medicine, further studies on Astragali Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapies for various diseases. The improvement of its utilization should be studied further. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyungseop

    2017-03-01

    Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which have constituents with healthenhancing or medicinal activities. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry. Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards for approving drug sales vary by countries. And also, thorough standardization, certification, clinical studies and data of these will be required as well as data confirming safety and effectiveness. Meanwhile, as an international exchange in botanical drug market continues, the importance of plant resources was emphasized. Thus countries' ownership of domestic natural resources became vital. Not only establishing a systematic method to secure domestic plant resources, but also cooperation with other countries on sharing natural resources is essential to procure natural resources effectively. Korea started to show visible results with botanical drugs, and asthma/COPD treatment made out of speedwell is one example. Sufficient investment and government's active support for basic infrastructure for global botanical drugs will bring Korea to much higher level of botanical drug development. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(3): 111-116].

  18. Botanical and phytochemical therapy of acne: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Whitney A; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-08-01

    Acne is prevalent among adolescents and adults with significant psychological effects. Standard oral and topical therapies can have significant side effects including skin irritation, gastrointestinal upset, and the development of drug-resistant bacteria. The use of botanicals and phytochemicals in dermatological products is increasingly popular, and many patients are turning to these alternative therapies for treatment of acne. This study aimed to systematically review clinical studies that have investigated the use of botanical agents in the treatment of acne. PubMed and Embase databases were searched in March 2013 for trials assessing botanical therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Data from these trials are presented, and methodology of each study is assessed. Twenty-three trials met inclusion criteria. Interventions included plant extracts, herbal formulations, and phytochemicals. All studies reported favorable results, and several showed equal or superior treatment to standard therapies. No serious adverse events were reported. Few studies were methodologically rigorous. Each botanical was studied in only one or two trials. Botanicals are promising therapies for acne vulgaris although further research is warranted, especially with regard to severe acne and acne resistant to conventional therapy. There is a need for standardized methods for grading acne and assessing therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Engagement with indigenous peoples and honoring traditional knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Julie; Bennett, Bull; Chief, Karletta; Cochran, Patricia; Cozetto, Karen; Gough, Bob; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret M.; Lynn, Kathy; Maynard, Nancy; Voggesser, Garrit

    2016-01-01

    The organizers of the 2014 US National Climate Assessment (NCA) made a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with Indigenous peoples, resulting in the most comprehensive information to date on climate change impacts to Indigenous peoples in a US national assessment. Yet, there is still much room for improvement in assessment processes to ensure adequate recognition of Indigenous perspectives and Indigenous knowledge systems. This article discusses the process used in creating the Indigenous Peoples, Land, and Resources NCA chapter by a team comprised of tribal members, agencies, academics, and non-governmental organizations, who worked together to solicit, collect, and synthesize traditional knowledges and data from a diverse array of Indigenous communities across the US. It also discusses the synergy and discord between traditional knowledge systems and science and the emergence of cross-cutting issues and vulnerabilities for Indigenous peoples. The challenges of coalescing information about climate change and its impacts on Indigenous communities are outlined along with recommendations on the types of information to include in future assessment outputs. We recommend that future assessments – not only NCA, but other relevant local, regional, national, and international efforts aimed at the translation of climate information and assessments into meaningful actions – should support integration of Indigenous perspectives in a sustained way that builds respectful relationships and effectively engages Indigenous communities. Given the large number of tribes in the US and the current challenges and unique vulnerabilities of Indigenous communities, a special report focusing solely on climate change and Indigenous peoples is warranted.This article is part of a special issue on “The National Climate Assessment: Innovations in Science and Engagement” edited by Katharine Jacobs, Susanne Moser, and James Buizer.

  20. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable.

  1. Knowledge and uses of African pangolins as a source of traditional medicine in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Kwame Boakye

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana's Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685, that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and

  2. Ethno-botanical remedies used by pastoralists for the treatment of livestock diseases in Cholistan desert, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Muhammad Asif; Younas, Muhammad; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Account of the traditional plant based viz. ethno-botanical remedies used by the pastoralists of Cholistan desert, Pakistan, for the control and treatment of livestock diseases and ailments. The study was conducted across five locations in Cholistan desert, Pakistan, using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 100 livestock farmers (LF) and 20 livestock healers (LH). From correlation analyses 3 least correlated variables were identified among 5, which were representative of LFs. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of these 3 variables and LFs were grouped into 3 logically different clusters. Kruskal-Wallis test and crosstab analyses were used to detect significant differences between clusters and effects of various variables on their use of ethno-botanical remedies. Most of the male only interviewees (LF 78%; LH 70%) were married and illiterate (LF 66%; LH 70%). LH had larger herds (average 109 animals) than LF (average 85 animals) and were more experienced in livestock husbandry and management. LF spent about 162.5 Euros annually on the treatment of their livestock, but there was great variability in expenditures. Average animal treatment experience of LH was 29 years; all were experts in treatment of all types of diseases (100%) and animal species (70%). Eighty-six traditional remedies based on 64 plants belonging to 43 families were used. Capparaceae was the botanical family with the largest number of used species (4), followed by Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae and Zygophyllaceae (3). Aerial parts (43%), leaves (26%), fruits (9%), seeds and seed oils (9%) were frequently used parts, while flowers, roots, bulbs and pods were less frequently used (medicinal plants against the most prevalent livestock diseases should be evaluated, in order to recommend effective preparations and treatments to this poor population group. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. The Evolving Role of Botanical Gardens and Natural Areas: A Floristic Case Study from Royal Botanical Gardens, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A. GALBRAITH; Natalie E. IWANYCKI; Brechann V. McGOEY; Jamie McGREGOR; James S. PRINGLE; Carl J. ROTHFELS; Tyler W. SMITH

    2011-01-01

    As leaders calling for the conservation of the world's plants, botanical gardens protect plants within living collections. Many also study, manage and restore plants in natural habitats. Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario,Canada) has integrated both horticultural and natural heritage in its mission for decades. Envisioned by municipal leaders in the 1920s as a combination of nature sanctuaries and civic gardens, RBG now includes forests, wetlands and other habitats, gardens and built spaces. Today RBG is Canada's largest botanical garden on the basis of area.In the 1950s RBG began to inventory plant diversity. The checklist of spontaneous vascular plants now exceeds 1 170 species, of which 752 are native. This is 37% of Ontario's native vascular plants and 19% of the native vascular flora of Canada. The RBG nature sanctuaries are among the richest locations in Canada for species-level diversity.We examine the history of fioristic exploration within RBG and compare plant species-area relationships among protected natural areas in Ontario. This comparison supports the contention that the nature sanctuaries, and in particular Cootes Paradise, could be considered an important area for plants in Canada, and relative to the nation's flora, a biodiversity hotspot. The fact that a candidate vascular plant hotspot for Canada lies within a major botanical garden presents opportunities for raising public awareness of the importance of plant diversity, as well as focusing attention on the scientific and conservation biology needs of communities and individual species in this area.

  4. Tribal Archives, Traditional Knowledge, and Local Contexts: Why the “s” Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Christen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the landscape of tribal or Indigenous archival management as it relates to digital assets and, more specifically, how these might help us reimagine the intellectual property needs of local, traditional, and indigenous communities, libraries, archives, and museums as they seek to manage, preserve, and reuse their digital cultural heritage. The colonial collecting project was a destructive mechanism by which Native materials were unhinged from their local places and knowledge and at the same time used as markers of Native erasure. As part of a practical solution to contemporary intellectual property dilemmas faced by Indigenous peoples globally due in large part to the residue of the colonial landscape, I will introduce the Local Contexts project and the Traditional Knowledge License and Label platform (www.localcontexts.org as one intervention into the sometimes-confusing arena of Indigenous intellectual property rights and the digital commons.

  5. Subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge: Implications for alternatively and traditionally trained biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravgiala, Rebekah Rae

    Theories regarding the development of expertise hold implications for alternative and traditional certification programs and the teachers they train. The literature suggests that when compared to experts in the field of teaching, the behaviors of novices differ in ways that are directly attributed to their pedagogical content knowledge. However, few studies have examined how first and second year biology teachers entering the profession from traditional and alternative training differ in their demonstration of subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge. The research problem in this multicase, naturalistic inquiry investigated how subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge was manifested among first and second year biology teachers in the task of transforming subject matter into forms that are potentially meaningful to students when explicit formal training has been and has not been imparted to them as preservice teachers. Two first year and two second year biology teachers were the subjects of this investigation. Allen and Amber obtained their certification through an alternative summer training institute in consecutive years. Tiffany and Tricia obtained their certification through a traditional, graduate level training program in consecutive years. Both programs were offered at the same northeastern state university. Participants contributed to six data gathering techniques including an initial semi-structured interview, responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Science questionnaire (Hewson & Hewson, 1989), three videotaped biology lessons, evaluation of three corresponding lesson plans, and a final semi-structured interview conducted at the end of the investigation. An informal, end-of-study survey intended to offer participants an opportunity to disclose their thoughts and needs as first year teachers was also employed. Results indicate that while conceptions of teaching science may vary slightly among participants, there is no evidence to suggest that

  6. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  7. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use a Latin name made up of the genus and species of the plant. Under this system ... form of a botanical preparation also play important roles in its safety. Teas, tinctures, and extracts have ...

  8. EPA Helps Botanic Garden Blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the keys to the continued transformation of abandoned mine lands into a world-class botanic garden near Pittsburgh is an innovative rainwater system financed by EPA’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  9. Bioactivity-Guided Identification of Botanical Inhibitors of Ketohexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MyPhuong T; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Cicerchi, Christina M; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Hunter, Brandi L; Rivard, Christopher J; Randolph, R Keith; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. As a major constituent of added sugars, fructose has been shown to cause a variety of adverse metabolic effects, such as impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that ketohexokinase isoform C is the key enzyme responsible in fructose metabolism that drive's fructose's adverse effects. The objective of this study was to identify botanical ingredients with potential for inhibitory activity against ketohexokinase-C and fructose-induced metabolic effects by using a series of in vitro model systems. Extracts from 406 botanicals and 1200 purified phytochemicals were screened (initial concentration of 50 μg/mL and 50 μM, respectively) for their inhibitory activity using a cell free, recombinant human ketohexokinase-C assay. Dose response evaluations were conducted on botanical extracts and phytochemicals that inhibited ketohexokinase-C by > 30% and > 40%, respectively. Two different extract lots of the top botanical candidates were further evaluated in lysates of HepG2 cells overexpressing ketohexokinase-C for inhibition of fructose-induced ATP depletion. In addition, extracts were evaluated in intact Hep G2 cells for inhibition of fructose-induced elevation of triglyceride and uric acid production. Among the botanical extracts, phloretin (Malus domestica) extracts were the most potent (IC50: 8.9-9.2 μg/mL) followed by extracts of Angelica archangelica (IC50: 22.6 μg/mL-57.3 μg/mL). Among the purified phytochemicals, methoxy-isobavachalcone (Psoralea corylifolia, IC50 = 0.2 μM) exhibited the highest potency against ketohexokinase isoform C activity followed by osthole (Angelica archangelica, IC50 = 0.7 μM), cratoxyarborenone E (Cratoxylum prunifolium, IC50 = 1.0 μM), and

  10. Bioactivity-Guided Identification of Botanical Inhibitors of Ketohexokinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, Brandi L.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Randolph, R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objective In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. As a major constituent of added sugars, fructose has been shown to cause a variety of adverse metabolic effects, such as impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have shown that ketohexokinase isoform C is the key enzyme responsible in fructose metabolism that drive’s fructose's adverse effects. The objective of this study was to identify botanical ingredients with potential for inhibitory activity against ketohexokinase-C and fructose-induced metabolic effects by using a series of in vitro model systems. Methods Extracts from 406 botanicals and 1200 purified phytochemicals were screened (initial concentration of 50 μg/mL and 50 μM, respectively) for their inhibitory activity using a cell free, recombinant human ketohexokinase-C assay. Dose response evaluations were conducted on botanical extracts and phytochemicals that inhibited ketohexokinase-C by > 30% and > 40%, respectively. Two different extract lots of the top botanical candidates were further evaluated in lysates of HepG2 cells overexpressing ketohexokinase-C for inhibition of fructose-induced ATP depletion. In addition, extracts were evaluated in intact Hep G2 cells for inhibition of fructose-induced elevation of triglyceride and uric acid production. Results Among the botanical extracts, phloretin (Malus domestica) extracts were the most potent (IC50: 8.9–9.2 μg/mL) followed by extracts of Angelica archangelica (IC50: 22.6 μg/mL—57.3 μg/mL). Among the purified phytochemicals, methoxy-isobavachalcone (Psoralea corylifolia, IC50 = 0.2 μM) exhibited the highest potency against ketohexokinase isoform C activity followed by osthole (Angelica archangelica, IC50 = 0.7 μM), cratoxyarborenone E (Cratoxylum prunifolium, IC

  11. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  12. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating traditional knowledge when it appears to conflict with conservation: lessons from the discovery and protection of sitatunga in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana M. McPherson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultural traditions can conflict with modern conservation goals when they promote damage to fragile environments or the harvest of imperiled species. We explore whether and how traditional, culturally motivated species exploitation can nonetheless aid conservation by examining the recent "discovery" in Avu Lagoon, Ghana, of sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii gratus, a species familiar to locals, but not previously scientifically recorded in Ghana and regionally assumed extinct. Specifically, we investigate what role traditional beliefs, allied hunting practices, and the associated traditional ecological knowledge have played in the species' discovery and subsequent community-based conservation; how they might influence future conservation outcomes; and how they may themselves be shaped by conservation efforts. Our study serves to exemplify the complexities, risks, and benefits associated with building conservation efforts around traditional ecological knowledge and beliefs. Complexities arise from localized variation in beliefs (with cultural significance of sitatunga much stronger in one village than others, progressive dilution of traditional worldviews by mainstream religions, and the context dependence, both culturally and geographically, of the reliability of traditional ecological knowledge. Among the benefits, we highlight (1 information on the distribution and habitat needs of species that can help to discover, rediscover, or manage imperiled taxa if appropriately paired with scientific data collection; and (2 enhanced sustainability of conservation efforts given the cultivation of mutual trust, respect, and understanding between researchers and local communities. In turn, conservation attention to traditional ecological knowledge and traditionally important species can help reinvigorate cultural diversity by promoting the persistence of traditional belief and knowledge systems alongside mainstream worldviews and religions.

  14. In chemico skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-03-24

    Skin sensitization risk assessment of botanical ingredients is necessary for consumers' protection and occupational hazard identification. There are currently very few available alternative methods that can assist in the evaluation of complex mixtures. Chemical methods can provide essential information in a timely manner and thus help to reduce the need for in vivo testing, and they can complement and facilitate targeted in vitro assays. In the present work, the applicability of the high-throughput screening with dansyl cysteamine (DCYA) method for the systematic evaluation of skin sensitization of complex botanicals was explored. Botanical ingredients of four unrelated plant species were obtained and tested with the high-throughput fluorescence method at three concentrations. To illustrate the minimal matrix effects of the tested extracts on the developed method, the least DCYA-reactive extract (Rosa canina) was spiked with known sensitizers at different concentrations. The data obtained from the four plant extracts and the spiking experiments with known sensitizers, suggest that the high-throughput screening-DCYA method can be successfully applied for estimating the skin sensitization potential of complex botanical matrices. This is the first report of an attempt to develop a versatile in chemico method for the rapid detection of reactive skin sensitizers in complex botanical extracts, which could complement the battery of existing validated, non-animal methods. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cefalu, William T; Chilton, Floyd H; Farnsworth, Norman R; Raskin, Ilya; van Breemen, Richard B; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-01-01

    There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several of the centers specialize in fractionation and high-throughput evaluation to identify the individual bioactive agent or a combination of agents. Some centers are using DNA microarray analyses to determine the effects of botanicals on gene transcription with the goal of uncovering the important biochemical pathways they regulate. Other centers focus on bioavailability and uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the phytochemicals as for all xenobiotics. Because phytochemicals are often complex molecules, synthesis of isotopically labeled forms is carried out by plant cells in culture, followed by careful fractionation. These labeled phytochemicals allow the use of accelerator mass spectrometry to trace the tissue distribution of 14C-labeled proanthocyanidins in animal models of disease. State-of-the-art proteomics and mass spectrometry are also used to identify proteins in selected tissues whose expression and posttranslational modification are influenced by botanicals and dietary supplements. In summary, the skills needed to carry out botanical centers’ research are extensive and may exceed those practiced by most NIH investigators. PMID:18258642

  16. Traditional knowledge for promotion of socioeconomic inclusion of local communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemiro Francisco Sorte Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role played by public research institutes for promoting socioeconomic inclusion of local communities based on traditional knowledge and traditional medicine. Nongovernmental organizations and cooperatives have had an important role in raising financial resources, being involved with advocacy of local communities and advancing legislation changes. But strict best manufacturing practices regulations imposed by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency on the requirements for approval and commercialization of drugs based on herbal medicine products call for the involvement of strong public research institutes capable of supporting community-based pharmacies. Thus, public research institutes are pivotal as they can conduct scientific research studies to evidence the efficacy of herbal medicine products and help building the capacity of local communities to comply with current regulations.

  17. The changing role of botanic gardens and the experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt is here made to review the origin, role and status of botanic gardens ... The published literature on gardens is enormous and begins with what are known ... Key words/phrases: Botanic Garden, Ethiopia, Gullele, History, Importance, ...

  18. The study of penetration of energetic ions in botanic samples with transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.G.; Chen, Q.Z.; Xue, J.M.; Du, G.H.; Qin, H.L; Zhang, W.M.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Botanic samples (onion endocuticles, kidney bean slices) were exposed to energetic ions. By recording transmission spectra, we studied the energy loss in such samples. Individual protrusion-like damage produced in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate allowed us to analyze the mass density of the samples by scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The experimental results showed that the botanic sample is inhomogeneous in mass density, some incident ions lose only a small part of their energy after being stopped by a layer of botanic sample. Additionally, about 10 -7 of the incident ions with energy of tens of keV can penetrate through the botanic slice with a thickness of 50 μm. The dynamic change of the transmission spectrum of MeV heavy ions through a layer of botanic slice showed that the penetration ability of the incident ions increases with increasing ion fluence. These experimental results indicate that the inhomogeneousity of mass density of botanic samples and irradiation damage are the main reasons of the ultra-depth penetration of low-energy ions in such kind of botanic samples

  19. Traditional knowledge hiding in plain sight - twenty-first century ethnobotany of the Chácobo in Beni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua Zambrana, Narel Y; Bussmann, Rainer W; Hart, Robbie E; Moya Huanca, Araceli L; Ortiz Soria, Gere; Ortiz Vaca, Milton; Ortiz Álvarez, David; Soria Morán, Jorge; Soria Morán, María; Chávez, Saúl; Chávez Moreno, Bertha; Chávez Moreno, Gualberto; Roca, Oscar; Siripi, Erlin

    2017-10-10

    The Chácobo are a Panoan speaking tribe of about 1000 members (300+ adults) in Beni, Bolivia. Originally nomadic, the Chácabo were relocated to their current main location in the 1960s. Researchers have visited the Chácabo since 1911. A first more detailed anthropological report exists from the late 1960s, and ecological-ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. The presented work represents a complete ethnobotanical inventory of the entire adult Chácobo population, with interviews and plant collection conducted directly by Chácobo counterparts. Based on previous reports and our preliminary studies, we hypothesized that twenty-first century Chácobo plant use centered on income generation, and that traditional plant use related to household utensils, medicine and traditional crop varieties had almost disappeared. To test this hypothesis, we started the "Chácobo Ethnobotany Project," training 10 indigenous Chácobo participants in ethnobotanical interview and plant collection techniques, in order to more fully document Chácobo knowledge and avoid the influence of foreign interviewers. Our study found 331 useful plant species in 241genera of 95 plant families, with leaves, roots and bark being the most commonly used plant parts The comprehensive documentation that these methods enabled completely nullified our initial hypothesis of knowledge loss. Traditional crop varieties are still widely grown and traditional knowledge is alive. Moreover, it is being actively recuperated in certain domains by the younger generation. Most Chácobo know, and can name, traditional utensils and tools, although only the older generation has still the skills to manufacture them. While many Chácobo still know the names and uses of medicinal species, the younger generation is however often unsure how to identify them. In this paper we illustrate the complexity of perspectives on knowledge at different ages, and the persistence of knowledge over almost a century

  20. Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

  1. Miscellaneous botanical Notes X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1960-01-01

    Through the kind assistance of Prof. Dr D. K. Zerov large photographs were obtained of type specimens of two dozen Verbenaceae which have been described by Turczaninow and are preserved in his Herbarium of the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R. at Kiew. These have

  2. Rural Schools and Traditional Knowledge: Representing Alternatives to a Consumer-Dependent Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Given the present pace of educational globalization, educators--especially in rural schools--will benefit from an awareness of traditional knowledge as a significant contributor to sustainability. Many countries operate through a system whereby major decision making, especially in such areas as education and health, emanate from state levels of…

  3. Regulation of inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Denzler

    Full Text Available Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals, limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses. Using botanogenomics (or herbogenomics, this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs (Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata and an immunosuppressive herb (Urtica dioica, the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation. Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses.

  4. Effects of a research-infused botanical curriculum on undergraduates' content knowledge, STEM competencies, and attitudes toward plant sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jennifer Rhode; Clarke, H David; Horton, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education initiative, we infused authentic, plant-based research into majors' courses at a public liberal arts university. Faculty members designed a financially sustainable pedagogical approach, utilizing vertically integrated curricular modules based on undergraduate researchers' field and laboratory projects. Our goals were to 1) teach botanical concepts, from cells to ecosystems; 2) strengthen competencies in statistical analysis and scientific writing; 3) pique plant science interest; and 4) allow all undergraduates to contribute to genuine research. Our series of inquiry-centered exercises mitigated potential faculty barriers to adopting research-rich curricula, facilitating teaching/research balance by gathering publishable scholarly data during laboratory class periods. Student competencies were assessed with pre- and postcourse quizzes and rubric-graded papers, and attitudes were evaluated with pre- and postcourse surveys. Our revised curriculum increased students' knowledge and awareness of plant science topics, improved scientific writing, enhanced statistical knowledge, and boosted interest in conducting research. More than 300 classroom students have participated in our program, and data generated from these modules' assessment allowed faculty and students to present 28 contributed talks or posters and publish three papers in 4 yr. Future steps include analyzing the effects of repeated module exposure on student learning and creating a regional consortium to increase our project's pedagogical impact. © 2014 J. R. Ward et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http

  5. Sandalwood Album Oil as a Botanical Therapeutic in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ronald L; Levenson, Corey

    2017-10-01

    Many skin conditions and diseases are characterized by inflammation, infection, and hyperplasia. Safe and effective topical treatment options that can be used long-term are needed. Traditional botanical medicines, which are often complex mixtures that exert their biological activities via multiple mechanisms of action, are being studied as potential new active ingredients in dermatology. Sandalwood album oil (SAO), also known as East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO), is an essential oil distilled from the Santalum album tree and has demonstrated biological activity as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-proliferative agent. Sandalwood album oil has also shown promise in clinical trials for treatment of acne, psoriasis, eczema, common warts, and molluscum contagiosum. The favorable safety profile, ease of topical use, and recent availability of pharmaceutical-grade sandalwood album oil support its broader use as the basis of novel therapies in dermatology.

  6. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  8. Fertilization of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal: effects on botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term effects of nitrogen, phosphate and lime on change in botanical composition and utilisation under grazing of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal are presented. Nitrogen, phosphate, lime and type of nitrogen affected botanical composition significantly. Generally, fertilisation had the same effect on species ...

  9. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Forest Botanical Products § 223.278 Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. The responsible Forest Officer shall...

  10. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  11. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  12. Concordance between botanical groups and genetic diversity in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Pinheiro Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to characterize peanut accessions of germplasm collection of the CCA/UFC and check consistency between the pre-existing botanical groups to estimates of genetic diversity. For this were conducted a trial with 43 accessions of peanut in a randomized block design with three replications. To characterization were used 21 morphological descriptors, where revealed large genetic variation. The mass hundred grains trait showed the main discriminating factors, with relative percentage of 22.1%. The cluster obtained with the linkage complete method, it was possible to view the dendrogram the formation of seven groups based on the Mahalanobis distance. By principal components analysis was identified phenotypic diversity among genotypes. The first three components explained 81% of the total variation. Subsequently, built a three-dimensional scatter chart for access of visualization, eight groups being formed. There was medium magnitude of agreement between the botanical groups and genetic diversity, both by the dendrogram and graphic dispersion proving the dissimilarity between genotypes of different botanic groups. Therefore, crossings between group access botanical Spanish or Valencia with those belonging to the Virginia group should generate segregating populations with high genetic potential.

  13. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  14. Indigenous knowledge management to enhance community resilience to tsunami risk: lessons learned from Smong traditions in Simeulue island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Sakurai, A.; Munadi, K.

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge accumulation and production embedded in communities through social interactions meant that the Smong tradition of indigenous knowledge of tsunami risk successfully alerted people to the 2004 tsunami, on the island of Simeulue, in Aceh, Indonesia. Based on this practical example, an indigenous management model was developed for Smong information. This knowledge management method involves the transformation of indigenous knowledge into applicable ways to increase community resilience, including making appropriate decisions and taking action in three disaster phases. First, in the pre-disaster stage, the community needs to be willing to mainstream and integrate indigenous knowledge of disaster risk reduction issues into related activities. Second, during disasters, the Smong tradition should make the community able to think clearly, act based on informed decisions, and protect themselves and others by using their indigenous knowledge. Last, in the post-disaster phase, the community needs to be strong enough to face challenges and support each other and “building back better” efforts, using local resources. The findings for the Smong tradition provide valuable knowledge about community resilience. Primary community resilience to disasters is strongly related to existing knowledge that triggers appropriate decisions and actions during pre-disaster, disaster, and post-disaster phases.

  15. Mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Wang Sixue; Du Guanghua; Yan Sha; Zhao Weijiang

    2002-01-01

    The authors present experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism of long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples. In the 100 keV Ar + ion transmission measurement, the result confirmed that low-energy ions could penetrate at least 60 μm thick kidney bean slices with the probability of about 1.0 x 10 -5 . The energy spectrum of 1 MeV He + ions penetrating botanic samples has shown that there is a peak of the count of ions with little energy loss. The probability of the low-energy ions penetrating the botanic sample is almost the same as that of the high-energy ions penetrating the same samples with little energy loss. The results indicate that there are some micro-regions with mass thickness less than the projectile range of low-energy ions in the botanic samples and they result in the long-range penetration of low-energy ions in botanic samples

  16. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

  17. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned......) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals....

  18. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Implementing a "quality by design" approach to assure the safety and integrity of botanical dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhlas A; Smillie, Troy

    2012-09-28

    Natural products have provided a basis for health care and medicine to humankind since the beginning of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 80% of the world population still relies on herbal medicines for health-related benefits. In the United States, over 42% of the population claimed to have used botanical dietary supplements to either augment their current diet or to "treat" or "prevent" a particular health-related issue. This has led to the development of a burgeoning industry in the U.S. ($4.8 billion per year in 2008) to supply dietary supplements to the consumer. However, many commercial botanical products are poorly defined scientifically, and the consumer must take it on faith that the supplement they are ingesting is an accurate representation of what is listed on the label, and that it contains the purportedly "active" constituents they seek. Many dietary supplement manufacturers, academic research groups, and governmental organizations are progressively attempting to construct a better scientific understanding of natural products, herbals, and botanical dietary supplements that have co-evolved with Western-style pharmaceutical medicines. However, a deficiency of knowledge is still evident, and this issue needs to be addressed in order to achieve a significant level of safety, efficacy, and quality for commercial natural products. The authors contend that a "quality by design" approach for botanical dietary supplements should be implemented in order to ensure the safety and integrity of these products. Initiating this approach with the authentication of the starting plant material is an essential first step, and in this review several techniques that can aid in this endeavor are outlined.

  20. The current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the "prokaryotic" and the "botanical" code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Ventura, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Cyanobacterial taxonomy developed in the botanical world because Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta have traditionally been identified as algae. However, they possess a prokaryotic cell structure, and phylogenetically they belong to the Bacteria. This caused nomenclature problems as the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; the "Botanical Code") differ from those of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP; the "Prokaryotic Code"). While the ICN recognises names validly published under the ICNP, Article 45(1) of the ICN has not yet been reciprocated in the ICNP. Different solutions have been proposed to solve the current problems. In 2012 a Special Committee on the harmonisation of the nomenclature of Cyanobacteria was appointed, but its activity has been minimal. Two opposing proposals to regulate cyanobacterial nomenclature were recently submitted, one calling for deletion of the cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is regulated by the ICNP, the second to consistently apply the rules of the ICNP to all cyanobacteria. Following a general overview of the current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the two codes we present five case studies of genera for which nomenclatural aspects have been discussed in recent years: Microcystis, Planktothrix, Halothece, Gloeobacter and Nostoc.

  1. Research and development for botanical products in medicinals and food supplements market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Mancari, Ferdinando; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2013-01-01

    Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU) and United States (US) policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  2. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Miroddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU and United States (US policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  3. Phytotherapeutics: The Emerging Role of Intestinal and Hepatocellular Transporters in Drug Interactions with Botanical Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Ullah, Naveed; Mukhtar, Farah; Nawazish, Shamyla; Muneer, Saiqa

    2017-10-21

    In herbalism, botanical supplements are commonly believed to be safe remedies, however, botanical supplements and dietary ingredients interact with transport and metabolic processes, affecting drug disposition. Although a large number of studies have described that botanical supplements interfere with drug metabolism, the mode of their interaction with drug transport processes is not well described. Such interactions may result in serious undesired effects and changed drug efficacy, therefore, some studies on interaction between botanical supplement ingredients and drug transporters such as P-gp and OATPs are described here, suggesting that the interaction between botanical supplements and the drug transporters is clinically significant.

  4. Palikur traditional roundwood construction in eastern French Guiana: ethnobotanical and cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeron, Clémence; Odonne, Guillaume; Cristinoi, Antonia; Engel, Julien; Grenand, Pierre; Beauchêne, Jacques; Clair, Bruno; Davy, Damien

    2018-04-24

    Palikur Amerindians live in the eastern part of French Guiana which is undergoing deep-seated changes due to the geographical and economic opening of the region. So far, Palikur's traditional ecological knowledge is poorly documented, apart from medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to document ethnobotanical practices related to traditional construction in the region. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Thirty-nine Palikur men were interviewed in three localities (Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, Regina and Trois-Palétuviers) between December 2013 and July 2014. Twenty-four inventories of wood species used in traditional buildings were conducted in the villages, as well as ethnobotanical walks in the neighboring forests, to complete data about usable species and to determine Linnaean names. After an ethnographic description of roundwood Palikur habitat, the in situ wood selection process of Palikur is precisely described. A total of 960 roundwood pieces were inventoried in situ according to Palikur taxonomy, of which 860 were beams and rafters, and 100 posts in 20 permanent and 4 temporary buildings. Twenty-seven folk species were identified. Sixty-three folk species used in construction were recorded during ethnobotanical walks. They correspond to 263 botanical species belonging to 25 families. Posts in permanent buildings were made of yawu (Minquartia guianensis) (51%) and wakap (Vouacapoua americana) (14%). Beams and rafters were made of wood from Annonaceae (79%) and Lecythidaceae (13%) families. The most frequently used species were kuukumwi priye (Oxandra asbeckii), kuukumwi seyne (Pseudoxandra cuspidata), and pukuu (Xylopia nitida and X. cayennensis). Although the Palikur's relationship with their habitat is undergoing significant changes, knowledge about construction wood is still very much alive in the Oyapock basin. Many people continue to construct traditional buildings alongside modern houses, using a wide array of species

  5. An Indigenous Academic Perspective to Preserving and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge and Traditions: A Fiji Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Wahab

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…

  6. Participatory Geographic Information Systems as an organizational platform for the integration of traditional and scientific knowledge in contemporary fire and fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Balauf McBride; Fernando Sanchez-Trigueros; Stephen J Carver; Alan E Watson; Linda Moon Stumpff; Roian Matt; William T. Borrie

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge about fire and its effects held by indigenous people, who are connected to specific landscapes, holds promise for informing contemporary fire and fuels management strategies and augmenting knowledge and information derived from western science. In practice, however, inadequate means to organize and communicate this traditional knowledge with...

  7. Knowledge and perceptions of cancer and cancer prevention among Malaysian traditional healers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Abdulghani, Mahfoudh Al-Musali Mohammed; Rammohan, Subramanian; Al-Jashamy, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian tradition healers towards cancer and cancer prevention. A total of 25 participants agreed to participate in this qualitative study during the period from 20th July 2011 until 24th of September 2011. The proposal of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Management and Science University (MSU). Once the participant agreed to be interviewed, date, time and place of the interviews were determined. Consent form was obtained from participants before the interview began. Participants were briefed about the study and its purpose, and after asking their permission, their replies were recorded. The data was organized into themes and analyzed manually. Twenty-five Malaysian traditional healers participated in this qualitative study. The age of participants ranged between 26 to 78 years old. The majority were in the age group of 31-60 years old, male, Chinese, degree holders with a monthly income ranging from 1,000-5,000 Ringgit Malaysia (RM) and were married (56%, 80%, 48%, 52%, 68%, 84% respectively). The majority defined cancer as having high cholesterol or abscess accumulation. A few of them defined cancer as a type of cell growth. The majority mentioned that food and unhealthy lifestyles are the primary causes of cancer. Surprisingly some of them mentioned that cancer is caused by interference by ghosts. Regarding the diagnosis of cancer, the majority mentioned that they refer their patients to modern physicians' medical report when it comes to diagnosing or treating patients with cancer. The most common cancers that many patients came to seek treatment were breast cancers, followed by colon cancers, liver and lung cancers. Despite good knowledge about the causes of cancer among traditional healers, misconceptions still exist. Insufficient knowledge about the definition of cancer was noted among the traditional healers. This urges immediate action by the Ministry of Health

  8. Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don in the Southern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houessou Laurent G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs. This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Methods Data was collected through 210 structured interviews. Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. albidum were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency citation of plant parts. Results Four categories of use (food, medicine, firewood and timber were recorded for C. albidum. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants. Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. albidum in the region. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. albidum. However, significant difference existed between genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Conclusions C. albidum is well integrated in the traditional agroforestry system of the southern Benin. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region. Considering the current threat of habitat degradation, action is needed in order to ensure the long term

  9. Traditional knowledge and patent protection: conflicting views on international patent standards

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, A

    2010-01-01

    As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is ...

  10. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2018-01-10

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  11. Research Notes Use of the dry-weight-rank method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When used in combination with the double sampling (or comparative yield) method of yield estimation, the dry-weight-rank method of botanical analysis provides a rapid non-destructive means of estimating botanical composition. The composition is expressed in terms of the contribution of individual species to total herbage ...

  12. Space botanic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, K.M.; Kordyum, Se.L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic results of investigations in the field of space botanics are considered, starting with the effect of cosmic radiation on quiet spores and seeds and ending with the modern stage of complex study of lower plants, growing and developing within various periods of time under conditions of a real space flight in special chambers and growing systems. The possibility of using different investigation methods such as luminooptic, electronomicroscopic, biochemical, biophysical, physiological and others to estimate the effect of factors of an orbital flight on plants, are discussed [ru

  13. Ethno-diversity within current ethno-pharmacology as part of Israeli traditional medicine – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Efraim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Holy Land has absorbed millions of immigrants in recent centuries: Jews from East and West, Druze, Circassians, Muslim and Christian Arabs. The land is unique and diverse in geographical location and ethnic groups, and also in its cultural characteristics, including traditional medicine and use of materia medica. However, these traditions have waned over the years. The young state of Israel adopted a "melting pot" approach to fashion Jews from all over the world into Israelis. The traditional medicine and materia medica of different ethnic groups (Yemenite, Iranian, and Iraqi Jews are reviewed in this paper, as well as the ethno-botanical survey (first conducted in the 1980s, covering Bedouins, Druze, Circassians, and Muslim and Christian Arabs, and the matching ethno-pharmacological survey (conducted in the late 1990s covering the medicines sold in stores. Present-day healers are usually not young and are believed to be the end of the chain of traditional medical knowledge. The ethno-diversity of Israel is becoming blurred; modernity prevails, and ethnic characteristics are fading. The characteristic lines of traditional medicine and materia medica have hardly lasted three generations. A salient former dividing line between ethnic groups, namely their use of different medicinal substances, paradoxically becomes a bridge for conservative users of all groups and religions. Shops selling these substances have become centers for "nostalgia" and preserving the oriental heritage, traditional medicine, and medicinal substances!

  14. Toxins in botanical dietary supplements: blue cohosh components disrupt cellular respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Mahdi, Fakhri; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jekabsons, Mika B; Khan, Ikhlas A; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-24

    Certain botanical dietary supplements have been associated with idiosyncratic organ-specific toxicity. Similar toxicological events, caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, have forced the withdrawal or U.S. FDA "black box" warnings of major pharmaceuticals. To assess the potential mitochondrial liability of botanical dietary supplements, extracts from 352 authenticated plant samples used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbal medicine were evaluated for the ability to disrupt cellular respiration. Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) methanol extract exhibited mitochondriotoxic activity. Used by some U.S. midwives to help induce labor, blue cohosh has been associated with perinatal stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, multiple organ injury, and neonatal shock. The potential link between mitochondrial disruption and idiosyncratic herbal intoxication prompted further examination. The C. thalictroides methanol extract and three saponins, cauloside A (1), saponin PE (2), and cauloside C (3), exhibited concentration- and time-dependent mitochondriotoxic activities. Upon treatment, cell respiration rate rapidly increased and then dramatically decreased within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that C. thalictroides constituents impair mitochondrial function by disrupting membrane integrity. These studies provide a potential etiological link between this mitochondria-sensitive form of cytotoxicity and idiosyncratic organ damage.

  15. Toxins in Botanical Dietary Supplements: Blue Cohosh Components Disrupt Cellular Respiration and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Mahdi, Fakhri; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Certain botanical dietary supplements have been associated with idiosyncratic organ-specific toxicity. Similar toxicological events, caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, have forced the withdrawal or U.S. FDA “Black Box” warnings of major pharmaceuticals. To assess the potential mitochondrial liability of botanical dietary supplements, extracts from 352 authenticated plant samples used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbal medicine were evaluated for the ability to disrupt cellular respiration. Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) methanol extract exhibited mitochondriotoxic activity. Used by some U.S. midwives to help induce labor, blue cohosh has been associated with perinatal stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, multiple organ injury, and neonatal shock. The potential link between mitochondrial disruption and idiosyncratic herbal intoxication prompted further examination. The C. thalictroides methanol extract and three saponins, cauloside A (1), saponin PE (2), and cauloside C (3) exhibited concentration- and time-dependent mitochondriotoxic activities. Upon treatment, cell respiration rate rapidly increased and then dramatically decreased within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that C. thalictroides constituents impair mitochondrial function by disrupting membrane integrity. These studies provide a potential etiological link between this mitochondria-sensitive form of cytotoxicity and idiosyncratic organ damage. PMID:24328138

  16. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification

  17. Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Jivanti): Botanical, Agronomical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Biotechnological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Anuradha, Maniyam

    2017-06-19

    Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin. However, most biological studies on L. reticulata are restricted to crude extracts, and many biologically active compounds are yet to be identified in order to base the traditional uses of L. reticulata on evidence-based data. At present, L. reticulata is a threatened endangered plant because of overexploitation, unscientific harvesting, and habitat loss. The increased demand from pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and veterinary industries has prompted its large-scale propagation. However, its commercial cultivation is hampered because of the non-availability of genuine planting material and the lack of knowledge about its agronomical practices. In this regard, micropropagation techniques will be useful to obtain true-to-type L. reticulata planting materials from an elite germplasm to meet the current demand. Adopting other biotechnological approaches such as synthetic seed technology, cryopreservation, cell culture, and genetic transformation can help conservation as well as increased metabolite production from L. reticulata. The present review summarizes scientific information on the botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects of L

  18. Ecological community traits and traditional knowledge shape palm ecosystem services in northwestern South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rainforest ecosystems support the maximum expression of biocultural diversity on Earth and preserving them requires understanding and working with the needs of their inhabitants. Here, we com- bine traditional knowledge with ecological data to quantify cross-scale variation in the ecosys...

  19. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ON THE CLIMATIC PREDICTORS IN THE AGRICULTURE OF THE LLANOS DE SERDAN, PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Miranda-Trejo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge on the environment constitutes a part of the elements that peasants use to make decisions about their agricultural activities, mainly to reduce risks and optimize the existent resources. Part of this knowledge that has been accumulated is on the life cycle of plants in response to weather conditions, and on the effects of Lunar phases in activities such as sowing, harvesting and pruning, amongst others. Because of the importance that represents to systematize this knowledge to integrate further strategies of agropecuary development, the present research had as objective to register traditional knowledge about those plant species employed by peasants in weather forecast (phytoindicators, and on astronomical observations linked to agriculture practices in the Llanos de Serdán Puebla, México. A total of 83 interview cards were applied in the municipalities of Chalchicomula de Sesma y Tlachichuca, Estado de Puebla, México. Six species of trees and bushes were identified by 58.5% of the peasants as predictors of the quality of the incoming rain season; accordingly to their signals, they may carry out actions such as to sow earlier,  increase sowing-plant density, and apply supplies, if the rain season comes favorable. In regard to the astronomical observations, 81.5% of the peasants observe the Moon to set date of the beginning of the sowing. The Moon phases considered for this were waxing crescent, first quarter, and full moon. This was the most traditional knowledge used by the peasants of the Llanos de Serdán. It is important to acknowledge the value of these experiences in the design of rural development strategies. By doing so, the accumulated knowledge of preceding generations will be used to create options more suitable to the conditions of the peasant agriculture.

  20. A novel botanical formula prevents diabetes by improving insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Juntao; Velliquette, Rodney A; Grann, Kerry; Burns, Charlie R; Scholten, Jeff; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Gui, Min

    2017-07-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades to epidemic proportions in China. Individually, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed, mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) root can improve glycemia in various animal models and humans with impaired glucose metabolism and T2DM. The aim of this study was to design an optimized botanical formula containing these herbal extracts as a nutritional strategy for the prevention of insulin resistance and T2DM. Cell-free α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme assays were used to determine inhibitory potential of extracts. Glucose uptake was examined in differentiated human adipocytes using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided and glycemia balanced into 5 groups: two controls (naïve and model) and three doses of the botanical test formula containing standardized fenugreek seed, mulberry leaf and American ginseng extracts (42.33, 84.66 and 169.33 mg/kg BW). Insulin resistance and T2DM was induced by feeding animals a high fat diet and with an alloxan injection. Glucose tolerance was examined by measuring serum glucose levels following an oral glucose load. Fenugreek seed and mulberry leaf dose dependently inhibited α-amylase (IC50 = 73.2 μg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 111.8 ng/mL), respectively. All three botanical extracts improved insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in human adipocytes, which lead to the design of an optimized botanical test formula. In a rat model of insulin resistance and T2DM, the optimized botanical test formula improved fasting serum glucose levels, fasting insulin resistance and the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The reduction in epididymal adipose tissue GLUT4 and PDK1 expression induced by high fat diet and alloxan was blunted by the botanical test formula. A novel botanical formula containing standardized

  1. Development of Botanical Composition in Maribaya Pasture, Brebes, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, N.; Ngadiyono, N.; Panjono; Agus, F. N.; Shirothul, H. M.; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Hendrawati, Y.; Subroto, I.

    2018-02-01

    The research was aimed to observe the development of botanical composition in Maribaya pastures. The sampling method was cluster random sampling. The observed variables were the type of forages and the botanical composition in the pasture. Botanical composition was measured by using Line Intercept method and the production was measured by the estimation of botany production for each square meter using its dry matter measurement. The botani sampling was performed using square with size of 1×1 m2. The observation was performed before the pasture made (at 2015) and after the pasture made (at 2017). Based on the research result, it was found that there was significant difference between the forage type in the pasture at 2015 and at 2017. It happens due to the adjustment for the Jabres cattle feed.

  2. Use of Traditional Weather/Climate Knowledge by Farmers in the South-Western Free State of South Africa: Agrometeorological Learning by Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gugulethu Zuma-Netshiukhwi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The variety of natural indicators, associated with weather forecasting and climate prediction, as used by farmers in the South-Western Free State province of South Africa, is described. Most farmers in this area were not familiar with the application of weather forecasts/climate predictions for agricultural production, or with other science-based agrometeorological products. They relied almost fully on their experience and traditional knowledge for farming decision making. The indicators for traditional knowledge are demonstrated here in broad terms, relying on the stories and indications from observations and years of experience of their use by the farmers. These means of engagement with the natural environment, are skills not well understood by most scientists, but useful to the farmers. They range from the constellation of stars, animal behavior, cloud cover and type, blossoming of certain indigenous trees, appearance and disappearance of reptiles, to migration of bird species and many others. It is suggested that some short-term traditional forecasts/predictions may be successfully merged with science-based climate predictions. The traditional knowledge and its use, reported on in this paper, is what scientists learned from farmers. Berkes was right that scholars have wasted too much time and effort on a science versus traditional knowledge debate; we should reframe it instead as a science and traditional knowledge dialogue and partnership. The complications of a changing climate make this even more necessary.

  3. Polyphenols as Possible Markers of Botanical Origin of Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašić, Uroš M; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the botanical and geographical origin of food has become an important topic in the context of food quality and safety, as well as consumer protection, in accordance with international standards. Finding chemical markers, especially phytochemicals, characteristic for some kind of food is the subject of interest of a significant number of researchers in the world. This paper is focused on the use of polyphenols as potential markers for the determination of botanical origin of honey. It includes a review of the polyphenols present in various honey samples and the methods for their separation and identification. Special emphasis in this paper is placed on the identification of honey polyphenols using advanced LC-MS techniques in order to find specific markers of botanical origin of honey. In this regard, this study gives an overview of the literature that describes the use of LC-MS techniques for the isolation and determination of honey polyphenols. This review focuses on the research performed in the past two decades.

  4. The hidden Mediterranean diet: wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed in the Gargano area, Apulia, SE Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nello Biscotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive bio-scientific literature concerning the Mediterranean diet, which emerged in the last three decades, systematic ethnography-centered investigations on a crucial portion of this food system, linked to the traditional consumption of non-cultivated vegetables, are still largely lacking in many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. In this research, an ethnobotanical field study focusing on wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed locally, was conducted in a few centers and villages located in the Gargano area, northern Apulia, SE Italy, by interviewing twenty-five elderly informants. The folk culinary uses of seventy-nine botanical taxa of wild vascular plants, belonging to nineteen families, were recorded, thus showing a remarkable resilience of traditional environmental knowledge (TEK related to wild food plants. In particular, approximately one-fourth of the recorded wild vegetables are still very commonly gathered and consumed nowadays, while ten taxa have never been reported in previous ethnobotanical studies conducted in Southern Italy. These findings demonstrate the crucial cultural role played by folk cuisines in preserving TEK, despite significant socio-economic changes that have affected the study area during the past four decades.

  5. Inquiry into the Indigenous, Cultural and Traditional Astronomical Knowledge: A case of the Lamba land of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpemba, Prospery C.

    2015-08-01

    Indigenous astronomy in the context of Zambia is the oral astronomy knowledge, culture and beliefs which relate to celestial bodies, astronomy events and related behaviour that are held by the elderly persons and passed on to younger generations. Much is not written down and with the passing away of the custodians, this knowledge is threatened to be extinct. A mini study of the astronomical beliefs and culture of the ancient Zambian community during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 revealed that such knowledge existed. A comprehensive study assesses cultural and traditional knowledge on astronomy and to ascertain how much of this knowledge has been passed on to the younger generations. Open-ended interviews were conducted using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Respondents were identified by snowball sampling of the elderly people and random sampling of the middle aged and young. Nine randomly sampled districts of the Copperbelt Province were considered. The collected data has been analysed using MAXQDA software. Knowledge of traditional astronomy is high among the elderly people and declining with age hence the need for documenting and introducing it in the school curriculum and regular public discourse.

  6. Ethno-botanical studies of economically important plants from mountainous region of gilgit-baltistan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.R.; Khan, A.; Jamal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ethno botanical studies of economically important plants from Gilgit-Baltistan were conducted during 2003-2006. Extensive field trips were conducted for collection of plants according to their flowering and fruiting period and ethno-botanical data obtained during field trips. This area has many ecological zones, lies between 3000ft to 29000ft above sea level. Due to difference in soil, climate, moisture contents, latitude, longitude, altitude and topography, great diversity of plants of economic importance were found in these areas. Locals belonging to different ethnic groups, like, sayed, Gujjar, Mughal, Sheen, Yaskuin, Wakhi, Tajik, Khowar, etc., are settled there. They have distinct life styles, beliefs, traditions, life style and culture. There is a great shortage medical treatment therefore locals use indigenous plants for treatment of various diseases at local level. Folklore treatment is considered the cheapest source of curing diseases at local level. Information regarding ethno-medicinal importance was obtained from local inhabitants of old age. These plants have been utilised over many generations by various ethnic groups. It was found that indigenous medicinal flora of the area is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. It is expected that this paper will be beneficial for locals, students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public alike. (author)

  7. Survey of traditional use of medicinal plants in peasant livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural substances of plant origin, which provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics, antibacterials and insecticides, were used by the respondents to kill or repel parasitic arthropods on livestock. There had been a good effort by the rural farmers to solve their own problems through indigenous knowledge systems and ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  9. Photoprotective effect of botanicals and vitamins: A systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuong, William; Kuo, Sandy; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to solar radiation is a major contributor to skin cancer development and premature skin aging. Botanical extracts and vitamins may represent novel photoprotective agents. We sought to systemically review clinical evidence for the use of botanically derived agents and vitamins as photoprotective agents. We systematically searched Embase and PubMed databases. Two independent reviewers reviewed abstracts for inclusion. Additional relevant studies were identified by a manual review of reference lists. Data from eligible studies were extracted independently and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. A total of 51 studies met inclusion criteria. Limited available evidence indicates that several botanical agents and vitamins in topical or oral forms may have promising photoprotective effects. However, generalizability of results is limited by small sample sizes. Botanical extracts and vitamins may add to the armamentarium of sun-protective agents. Additional high-quality trials are needed to strengthen support for their use.

  10. Level of use and safety of botanical products for itching vulvar dermatoses. Are patch tests useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Toni, Giulia; Minghetti, Sara; Tiengo, Silvia; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Topical remedies based on botanical ingredients are popular. To assess: (i) the usage of botanical substances in subjects affected with itching and chronic vulvar complaints; (ii) the incidence of side-effects associated with their use and the frequency of contact allergy; (iii) the diagnostic usefulness of patch testing. Sixty-six patients were provided with a questionnaire to assess the prevalence and type of topical botanical preparations used and the occurrence of adverse reactions. Patients were patch tested with (i) the Italian baseline series, (ii) a topical medicament series, and (iii) a botanical series. Forty-two patients (63.6%) reported the use of natural topical products on the vulva. Seven (16.7%) noted adverse reactions; 27 showed positive reactions with the baseline series; 14 (21.2%) had at least one relevant reaction, mainly to allergens in topical products and cosmetics; and 2 (3%) showed positive reactions to the botanical series. Of the 7 patients complaining of adverse effects of botanical products, 3 (42.8%) showed relevant sensitization. The use of natural topical products is widespread among women affected with itching vulvar diseases. Contact dermatitis is a possible adverse effect. Botanical series are of questionable usefulness, owing to the wide variety of botanical ingredients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Visiting motivation and satisfaction of visitors to Chinese botanical gardens

    OpenAIRE

    He He; Jin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Botanical gardens (BGs) have attracted millions of visitors worldwide; therefore, BGs have become important sites for displaying and education for biodiversity. Understanding garden visitors’ motivations and their traveling satisfactory degree is crucial for BG management and its role in public education. In this study, we conducted survey in five Chinese BGs, i.e., Xiamen BG, Wuhan BG of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing BG, Kunming BG of CAS and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Gar...

  12. The effects of a novel botanical agent on lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ah; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Yong-Wook; Chang, Sun-Hwa; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su; Kim, Young-Joon

    2013-08-01

    The development of host-modulatory agents with low risk of adverse effects has been needed to treat periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease. A botanical mixture of extracts from two natural substances, Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, was developed as a novel botanical agent synthesized with anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the botanical mixture on the release of inflammatory cytokines and its inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss (ABL) in a rat model. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and hGF cells were cultured to assay tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, respectively. Microcomputed tomography analysis and immunofluoresence analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the botanical mixture to inhibit the destruction of alveolar bone and connective tissue in a rat model. The botanical mixture is cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 2.5 mg/mL (P botanical mixture to be used in all subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The botanical mixture reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from human monocytic cells and hGF cells in a dose-dependent manner (P botanical mixture significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in a rat model (P botanical mixture, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was detected along the alveolar bone crest (ABC), but not around the gingival connective tissue, while in the group with LPS-induced ABL, pronounced expression of MMP-9 around the ABC, periodontal ligament, and gingival connective tissue was found. The botanical mixture showed a potential adjunctive effect in the treatment of periodontitis. However, the present findings are obtained in vitro and in a rat model, so further clinical study is needed

  13. The Botanical Expedition to New Spain, 1786-1803: Mexico City's Botanical Garden and Pro­fessorship in Botany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Maldonado Polo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Thís work is about a  scientific enterprise carried out by  the Spanish Crown during the illustrated period, as a part of the ex­peditionary project to the overseas  territories. It describes the details and circumstances in which the Botanical Expedition be­gan, considering the prevailing intellectual environment at the time and the people who took a Ieading role in the cultural life of  the  incipient but  vigorous New Spain scientific community. After describing this background, the  author considers one of the Expedition's main results: the creation of  Mexico City's Botanical Garden and  Professorship in Botany,  which was the first of its kind in the American continent and contributed toes­ establish the study of Botany and related sciences in New Spain.

  14. Revitalizing traditional ecological knowledge: a study in an Alpine rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.

  15. Revitalizing Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Study in an Alpine Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.

  16. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroli DP; Mahawar Madan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medi...

  17. Traditional Knowledge and Benefit Sharing After the Nagoya Protocol: Three Cases from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chennells

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD has finally produced a negotiated framework intended to significantly advance the achievement of its core objectives, chief amongst them benefit sharing with indigenous and local communities who are holders of traditional knowledge related to genetic resources. The interpretation, in particular of central concepts contained in the Protocol, namely traditional knowledge (TK, community, and ownership of TK, and the practical application thereof by governments, are key to the success of the emerging access and benefit sharing regime. This article examines the manner in which the South African Biodiversity Act deals with these concepts. Three recent case studies are described, namely the Hoodia, Sceletium and Pelargonium cases, in which a range of issues relating to holders of TK were resolved, including the question of who the indigenous knowledge holders are. Moreover the debate on the question as to whether the intellectual property rights of TK holders are property rights as such, leads to the author’s suggestion that TK rights are a sui generis form of property rights, and that the legal principles contained in the law of equity provide useful and accessible guidance towards resolution of potentially competing claims of TK rights by indigenous peoples.

  18. Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Grace F; Shupe, Emily Stave; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2017-10-01

    The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n = 2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n = 178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ≥5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.

  19. Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants of Paddar Valley of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Sharma, O M Prakash; Raina, Narinder Singh; Sehgal, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate region comprising typical vegetation which disappears completely on the eastern slopes, dominated by a variety of economical species which play an important role in the rural life. The inhabitants are dependent on plant resources for food, fuel, timber, shelter, fodder/forage, household articles and traditional medicines in treating diseases like malaria, cancer, gastro-intestinal ailments, etc. This paper deals with the observations on traditional therapeutic application by the inhabitants of Paddar Valley. The ethno-botanical information on medicinal plants would not only be useful in conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity but also community health care and drug development. Exploration survey in Paddar Valley has revealed that people collect and sell these medicinal species through local intermediaries / contractors to earn their livelihood. But the scientific cultivation and appropriate post-harvest management would improve employment opportunity and income of local farmers in the region.

  20. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hyland; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-09-01

    New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?" We assessed the top anti-aging creams currently on the market specifically evaluating their botanical ingredients. Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera (grape seed extract), Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis (evening primrose), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice extract), Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin (wild yam), N6 furfuryladenine (kinetin), and Ergothioneine. Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Learning from Traditional Knowledge of Non-timber Forest Products: Penan Benalui and the Autecology of Aquilaria in Indonesian Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Donovan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, promoted to make conservation and development more relevant and socially acceptable, is shown to have an important role in identifying critical research needs in tropical ecology. Botanists, foresters, and phytochemists, among others, from many countries have sought for decades to understand the process of resin formation in the genus Aquilaria, a tropical forest tree of South and Southeast Asia. Not every tree develops the resin and, despite extensive scientific research, this process remains poorly understood. Attempts at cultivating the valuable aromatic resin, gaharu, have been uneven at best. Thus, gaharu remains largely a natural forest product, increasingly under threat as the trees are overexploited and forest is cleared. In this paper, we compare scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge of the Penan Benalui and other forest product collectors of Indonesian Borneo. Although limited management of wildlings failed to bring the resin-producing species under cultivation, we found that the Penan recognize the complex ecology of resin formation involving two, or maybe three, living organisms - the tree, one or more fungi, and possibly an insect intermediary. Developing a sustainable production system for this resource will require a clear understanding of how these various natural elements function, separately and synergistically. Traditional knowledge can help fill gaps in our information base and identify promising areas for future research. Both correspondence and gaps in knowledge support the call for a greater role for ethnobiological research and interdisciplinary cooperation, especially between ethnobiologists and foresters, in developing sustainable management systems for this traditional resource and its natural habitat.

  2. Interactive wood combustion for botanical tree models

    KAUST Repository

    Pirk, Sö ren; Jarząbek, Michał; Hadrich, Torsten; Michels, Dominik L.; Palubicki, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method for the combustion of botanical tree models. Tree models are represented as connected particles for the branching structure and a polygonal surface mesh for the combustion. Each particle stores biological and physical

  3. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog performing as part of a ritual involving other animals and cultivated crops, suggesting that the Botanical Frog was associated with agriculture. ESPAÑOL: El arte de la cultura mochica de la costa norte del Perú presenta plantas y animales mostrando rasgos sobrenaturales. Uno de los animales es una rana con elementos felinos y asociada con tubérculos, ramas y plantas de yuca. La Rana Botánica probablemente tiene su origen en Leptodactylus pentadactylus, una rana carnívora de la selva amazónica. La Rana Botánica copula con felinos y, en vasijas pintadas con líneas finas o con escenarios representados en bajorrelieve, toma parte en ceremonias involucrando a otros animales y cosechas domésticas. Parece ser que la Rana Botánica era un ser sobrenatural asociado con la agricultura.

  4. Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy (HT) has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women’s health, could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future. PMID:23408273

  5. An exploration of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Xhosa men concerning traditional circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froneman, Salome; Kapp, Paul A

    2017-10-13

    The practice of traditional circumcision is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, yet there is a paucity of literature that provides an understanding of the cultural values that influence men to choose traditional rather than medical circumcision.The aim of this study was to better understand the culture surrounding traditional circumcision, with a view to addressing morbidity and mortality rates associated with the Xhosa male initiation rituals.We explored Xhosa men's perceptions regarding the need for the risks and the social pressure to undergo traditional circumcision, the impact of non-initiation or failed initiation and the perceived barriers to obtaining medical help for the complications of traditional circumcisions. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 purposively sampled teenagers and adult men. The interviews were recorded, translated, transcribed and analysed using the framework method. Traditional circumcision was seen as essential to Xhosa culture. Participants rationalised many reasons for participating, including personal growth and development, family and peer pressure, independence and knowledge gained, a connection with ancestors and initiation into manhood. Despite publicity of the dangers of traditional circumcision and the hardships they have to endure, most young men still saw this process as necessary and worthwhile. Traditional initiation and circumcision are here to stay. The majority of boys still trust the elders and supernatural processes to guide them. However, some participants welcomed government initiatives to reduce human error causing unnecessary death and suffering. Current systems to prevent morbidity and mortality are insufficient and should be prioritised.

  6. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.

  7. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieqiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu; Agarwal, Rajiv; Moore, Christine M V; Chen, Shaw T; Tong, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  8. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  9. A Content Analysis of U.S. Botanical and Horticultural Library Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michele M.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an introductory analysis of the content of the Web sites of botanical and horticultural libraries in the United States to determine what types of resources and information is included, whether or not information is organized and accessible, and to what extent botanical and horticultural libraries are using…

  10. Use of the dry-weight-rank method of botanical analysis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry-weight-rank method of botanical analysis was tested in the highveld of the Eastern Transvaal and was found to be an efficient and accurate means of determining the botanical composition of veld herbage. Accuracy was increased by weighting ranks on the basis of quadrat yield, and by allocation of equal ranks to ...

  11. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: a Population Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan J. Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse

  12. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant extracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  13. Poor practice and knowledge among traditional birth attendants in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Siddig, M F

    2012-11-01

    To identify and understand knowledge and practice among traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a total of 111 TBAs were interviewed at Kassala, Eastern Sudan between March and April 2011. Hand-washing prior to the delivery was a universal practice but only 25.2% of the interviewed TBAs used sterilised equipment. TBAs in this study appeared to have a low level of awareness about when a mother should be referred to hospital, and lacked basic information on family planning and HIV/AIDS. None of these 111 TBAs knew or used equipment for neonatal resuscitation (such as bag, tube and mask) or knew neonatal signs that needed extra attention such as change in skin colour, weak suckling and respiratory distress, and nearly one-third (28.8%) of the respondents believed in a few days delay in milk production. Thus, substantial effort is needed to improve the knowledge and practice among TBAs in Eastern Sudan, including training programmes, and this might be the best hope to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  14. Environmental Sustainability and Traditional Knowledge in Management in the Amazon Pirarucu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina Cruz Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of fisheries is in a causal or programmed human intervention directly from the wild or in captivity, with the aim of promoting the maintenance, recovery or control of fish stocks, contributing to the stability of ecosystems, ecological processes or systems production. Objective of this work is to study and establish the relationship between the conservation of biodiversity in the context of sustainability through traditional knowledge based on the management of the Amazon arapaima. In this sense the disentangling of this problem was theoretical research object, using the deductive method and bibliographic.

  15. Evolution of Student Knowledge in a Traditional Introductory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2008-10-01

    In the physics education research community, a common format for evaluation is pre- and post-tests. In this study, we collect student test data many times throughout a course, allowing for the measurement of the changes of student knowledge with a time resolution on the order of a few days. The data cover the first two quarters (mechanics, E&M) of a calculus-based introductory sequence populated primarily by first- and second-year engineering majors. To avoid the possibility of test-retest effects, separate and quasi-random subpopulations of students are evaluated every week of the quarter on a variety of tasks. Unsurprisingly for a traditional introductory course, there is little change on many conceptual questions. However, the data suggest that some student ideas peak and decay rapidly during a quarter, a pattern consistent with memory research yet unmeasurable by pre-/post-testing.

  16. Zein Nanoparticles as Eco-Friendly Carrier Systems for Botanical Repellents Aiming Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jhones L de; Campos, Estefânia V R; Pereira, Anderson E S; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Grillo, Renato; Andrade, Daniel Junior de; Santos, Fabiano Aparecido Dos; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2018-02-14

    Botanical repellents represent one of the main ways of reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and the contamination of soil and hydric resources. However, the poor stability and rapid degradation of these compounds in the environment hinder their effective application in the field. Zein nanoparticles can be used as eco-friendly carrier systems to protect these substances against premature degradation, provide desirable release characteristics, and reduce toxicity in the environment and to humans. In this study, we describe the preparation and characterization of zein nanoparticles loaded with the main constituents of the essential oil of citronella (geraniol and R-citronellal). The phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and insect activity of the nanoparticles toward target and nontarget organisms were also evaluated. The botanical formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) in the nanoparticles, good physicochemical stability, and effective protection of the repellents against UV degradation. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the botanical repellents decreased their toxicity. Repellent activity tests showed that nanoparticles containing the botanical repellents were highly repellent against the Tetranychus urticae Koch mite. This nanotechnological formulation offers a new option for the effective use of botanical repellents in agriculture, reducing toxicity, protecting against premature degradation, and providing effective pest control.

  17. Modern systematics, a further botanical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1948-01-01

    As noted in Dr L.G.M. Baas Becking’s Postscript to Mr van Bemmel’s article in Chronica Naturae Vol. 104, part 4, the new systematics has not been entirely neglected by botanists. I would like to put a further botanical vieuwpoint on this subject. Firstly, I suggest that there is no sharp distinction

  18. Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Baumgart, I.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Kossou, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a

  19. The traditional knowledge and the sustainable development - A distant world as much in the past as in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona Maya, Sergio Ivan

    2000-01-01

    In this text, is discussed about of the traditional knowledge and the sustainable development. The central invitation is to meditate about the consistency of a speech that manipulates the call traditional knowledge as an instrument of legitimating of a development system that seeks to fill the current necessities as the sustainable, by means of the use of the natural resources in a careful way, technique, rational and balanced, for not to deteriorate them or to drain them, without committing the capacity that the future generations can satisfy their own necessities

  20. Verifying the botanical authenticity of commercial tannins through sugars and simple phenols profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Mario; Nardin, Tiziana; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Commercial tannins from several botanical sources and with different chemical and technological characteristics are used in the food and winemaking industries. Different ways to check their botanical authenticity have been studied in the last few years, through investigation of different analytical parameters. This work proposes a new, effective approach based on the quantification of 6 carbohydrates, 7 polyalcohols, and 55 phenols. 87 tannins from 12 different botanical sources were analysed following a very simple sample preparation procedure. Using Forward Stepwise Discriminant Analysis, 3 statistical models were created based on sugars content, phenols concentration and combination of the two classes of compounds for the 8 most abundant categories (i.e. oak, grape seed, grape skin, gall, chestnut, quebracho, tea and acacia). The last approach provided good results in attributing tannins to the correct botanical origin. Validation, repeated 3 times on subsets of 10% of samples, confirmed the reliability of this model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-Authenticated Licorice Botanicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Gauthier, Laura; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species. G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata exhibit marked metabolite differences in terms of flavanones (Fs), chalcones (Cs), and other phenolic constituents. The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were performed on 1H NMR spectra and area under the curve values obtained from UHPLC-UV chromatograms, respectively. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers. This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements. PMID:26244884

  2. Application of nanotechnology for the encapsulation of botanical insecticides for sustainable agriculture: prospects and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Bakshi, Mansi; Abhilash, P C; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    This review article discusses the use of nanotechnology in combination with botanical insecticides in order to develop systems for pest control in agriculture. The main types of botanical insecticides are described, together with different carrier systems and their potential uses. The botanical insecticides include those based on active principles isolated from plant extracts, as well as essential oils derived from certain plants. The advantages offered by the systems are highlighted, together with the main technological challenges that must be resolved prior to future implementation of the systems for agricultural pest control. The use of botanical insecticides associated with nanotechnology offers considerable potential for increasing agricultural productivity, while at the same time reducing impacts on the environment and human health.

  3. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable: challenging assumptions about treatment-seeking behaviour in rural and peri-urban Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariève

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap using household survey data collected from 571 households in three rural and peri-urban sites in Nepal in 2012. Questions encompassed household socioeconomic characteristics, illness characteristics, and treatment-seeking behaviour. Treatment choice was investigated through bivariate analyses. Results show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour. PMID:26130610

  4. The genus Lycium as food and medicine: A botanical, ethnobotanical and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-02-15

    Lycium is widely distributed in the arid to semi-arid environments of North and South America, Africa, and Eurasia. In recent years, Lycium barbarum and L. chinense have been advertised as "superfood" with healthy properties. Despite of its popularity, there is a lack of an integrated and critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the use of Lycium. There is a need to understand: 1) Which species were used and how the uses of Lycium developed spatially and over time, 2) how uses differ among regions with different culture backgrounds, and 3) how traditional and current therapeutic and preventive health claims correlate with pharmacological findings. Information was retrieved from floras, taxonomic, botanical, and ethnobotanical databases, research articles, recent editions of historical Chinese herbals over the last 2000 years, and pharmacopoeias. Of totally 97 species, 31 have recorded uses as food and/or medicine worldwide. Usually the fruits are used. While 85% of the Lycium species occur in the Americas and Africa, 26% of them are used, but 9 out of 14 species in Eurasia. In China, seven species and two varieties of the genus Lycium occur, of which four species have been used by different ethnic groups. Only L. barbarum and L. chinense have been transformed into globally traded commodities. In China, based on the name ", their use can be traced back over the last two millennia. Lycium fruits for anti-aging, improving eyesight and nourishment were documented already in 500C.E. (Mingyi Bielu). Recent findings explain the pharmacological foundations of the traditional uses. Especially polysaccharides, zeaxanthin dipalmitate, vitamins, betaine, and mixed extracts were reported to be responsible for anti-aging, improving eyesight, and anti-fatigue effects. The integration of historical, ethnobotanical, botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological data has enabled a detailed understanding of Lycium and its wider potential. It highlights that the focus so far has

  5. Property regime concerning genetic resources and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Nemogá Soto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an historical account of the changes that have taken place regarding ownership, control and access over genetic resources. Once considered the common heritage of humanity, rights over genetic resources, it is argued, have undergone radical transformations. The global legal framework regarding genetic resources has shifted to legitimize and promote their appropriation and monopolization. This transformation embraced the expansion of intellectual property rights over genetic material and information, including living organisms, through the World Trade Organization´s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs. This was coupled by the adoption of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which recognizes sovereign rights of the countries of origin over their genetic resources and, at the same time, obligates them to permit access to those resources. The Colombian Constitution of 1991 and unparalleled judicial decisions during the last decade reaffirmed sovereign rights over genetic resources in Colombia. Conversely, the genetic resources and the traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities continue to be freely accessible resources within the current Colombian legal framework.

  6. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Grdiša, Martina; Gršić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems....

  7. Efficacy of Nigeria-Derived Diatomaceous Earth, Botanicals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Bularafa diatomaceous earth (DE), Riverbed Sand, and combinations of the two botanicals with Bularafa DE and Riverbed Sand were evaluated as protectants of wheat seed against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.).

  8. Use of physiologically based kinetic modelling facilitated read-across in risk assessment of botanical food-borne alkenylbenzenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations have become widely available on the market in the form of food supplements and other food preparations. In Europe the safety of botanicals and derived food products placed on the market has to comply with the general requirements set out in regulation (EC) No

  9. Keeping the local local : recalibrating the status of science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van M.W.; Roth, W.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The debate on the status of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in science curricula is currently centered on a juxtaposition of two incompatible frameworks: multiculturalism and universalism. The aim of this paper is to establish a framework that overcomes this opposition between

  10. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  11. Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin of Red Propolis, a New Type of Brazilian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red propolis is a new type of Brazilian propolis. This material, as well as the secretions of 20 plant species that are often mentioned as its probable botanical source, have been investigated by RP-HPTLC. Phytochemical evidence based on UV-VIS spectra, RP-HPLC and GC-MS, showed Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L. Taub. to be the main source of red propolis in Alagoas state. The propolis and plant resin showed high relative percentages of the isoflavonoids 3-Hydroxy-8,9-dimethoxypterocarpan and medicarpin. To our knowledge this is the first report of the secretion of a leguminous species being the source of propolis.

  12. Possibilities of Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Bárnet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 16-23 ISSN 1313-2563 Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) 2B08049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : botanical insecticides * plant exctracts * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  13. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH. Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities,  a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  14. Side-effects of cowpea treatment with botanical insecticides on two parasitoids of Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Almeida, de R.P.; Boer, de P.W.M.; Jeong, G.S.; Kossou, D.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the protective effect of botanical products against pest insects have infrequently been extended to side-effects on natural enemies. Indirect effects of botanicals on the storability of seeds could occur through their possible negative impact on biological control agents. Four plant

  15. The botanical activities of George Edward Post (1838-1909).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Lytton John

    2006-01-01

    George Edward Post wrote the first flora of the Middle East in English. His other botanical activities are less familiar. In addition to the flora, this paper discusses his teaching, fieldwork, contribution to Bible dictionaries, relations with the Boissier Herbarium in Geneva, establishment of the herbarium, and letters. Those letters are used here for the first time. Post corresponded with botanical luminaries of his day including Autran, Baker, Balfour, Barbey, Boissier, Bornmüller, Carruthers, Denslow, Haussknecht, Hooker, Schweinfurth, Thistleton-Dyer, Torrey, and Winkler. His long-term relationship with the herbarium at Geneva is highlighted. In addition, some of the lesser understood aspects of his life including chaplaincy during the American Civil War, and missionary to Syria are discussed.

  16. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  17. Comparative environmental law and orientalism : reading beyond the 'text' of traditional knowledge protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeylen, Saskia Anna Filip

    2015-01-01

    This article uses traditional knowledge as a case study to address multiple discussions in the field of comparative law. First, it addresses the theoretical challenge of the role of comparative law as a critical research tool in the development of environmental law. Second, within the context of transnational legal processes, it questions the extent to which comparative law as a method can further the relationship between different levels of law making by distinct legal actors. It is timely t...

  18. Botanical environmental monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Botanical samples were used as monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic. Euphorbia terracina and Calotropis procera were the botanical monitors used in this work. Zinc concentrations were reported alongside a motorway stretch of 50 km. Variations in concentration with respect to the perpendicular distance from the roadside were also reported. The effect of wind turbulence and the wind direction on the concentrations is discussed. In addition, differences between open areas and confined areas with respect to the elemental uptake were also discussed. INAA, using reactor neutrons, was employed for the determination of Zn concentrations in the samples. (author)

  19. Cyclic polyalcohols: fingerprints to identify the botanical origin of natural woods used in wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alañón, M Elena; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto, Ignacio J; Vila-Lameiro, Pablo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2011-02-23

    Cyclic polyalcohol composition of 80 natural wood samples from different botanical species, with the majority of them used in the oenology industry for aging purposes, has been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after its conversion into their trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. Each botanical species showed a different and specific cyclic polyalcohol profile. Oak wood samples were characterized by the richness in deoxyinositols, especially proto-quercitol. Meanwhile, other botanical species showed a very low content of cyclic polyalcohols. The qualitative and quantitative study of cyclic polyalcohols was a useful tool to characterize and differentiate woods of different botanical origin to guarantee the authenticity of chips used in the wine-aging process. Monosaccharide composition was also analyzed, showing some quantitative differences among species, but cyclic polyalcohols were the compounds that revealed the main differentiation power.

  20. Traditional Knowledge and Social Science on Trial: Battles over Evidence in Indigenous Rights Litigation in Canada and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Ray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge and oral traditions history are crucial lines of evidence in Aboriginal claims litigation and alternative forms of resolution, most notably claims commissions. This article explores the ways in which these lines of evidence pose numerous challenges in terms of how and where they can be presented, who is qualified to present it, questions about whether this evidence can stand on its own, and the problems of developing appropriate measures to protect it from inappropriate use by outsiders while not unduly restricting access by the traditional owners.

  1. Impacts of the Climate Change on Agricultural Food Security, Traditional Knowledge and Agroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on both impacts of the climate change on agriculture and food security, and multidisciplinary scientific assessment and recommendations for sustainable agro ecological solutions including traditional knowledge responding to these impacts. The climate change will very likely affect four key dimensions of the food security including availability, accessibility, utilization and sustainability of the food, due to close linkage between food and water security and climate change. In one of the most comprehensive model studies simulating impacts of global climate change on agriculture to date, it was estimated that by 2080, in a business-as-usual scenario, climate change will reduce the potential output of global agriculture by more than 3.2 per cent. Furthermore, developing countries will suffer the most with a potential 9.1 per cent decline in agricultural output, for example with a considerable decrease of 16.6 per cent in Africa. Some comprehensive studies pointed out also that all regions may experience significant decreases in crop yields as well as significant increases, depending on emission scenarios and the assumptions on effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2 fertilization. One of the tools that would ensure the food security by making use of local sources and traditional knowledge is agroecology. Agroecology would contribute to mitigation of the anthropogenic climate change and cooling down the Earth’s increasing surface and lower atmospheric air temperatures, because it is mainly labour-intensive and requires little uses of fossil fuels, energy and artificial fertilisers. It is also necessary to understand the ecological mechanisms underlying sustainability of traditional farming systems, and to translate them into ecological principles that make locally available and appropriate approaches and techniques applicable to a large number of farmers.

  2. XVII International Botanical Congress. 100 years after the II IBC in Vienna 1905. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.; Hesse, M.; Stuessy, T.; Greimler, J.; Bohar-Nodenkampf, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The program of XVII IBC 2005 includes all aspects of basic and applied botanical research. Progress in the different sub-disciplines is revealed through plenary talks, general lectures, symposia, and poster sessions. This conference emphasizes the newest developments in the botanical sciences worldwide. (botek)

  3. Phytochemical analysis and botanical origin of Apis mellifera bee pollen from the municipality of Canavieiras, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Negri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An Apis mellifera bee pollen sample from Bahia state in Brazil was studied to evaluate its botanical origin and phytochemical composition. The bee pollen sample was collected in the municipality of Canavieiras, in an area with a very high predominance of Cocos nucifera L (Aracaceae, which was identified as the major taxon (99%, thus being the possible botanical origin of this pollen. The main constituents found in the non-polar extract analysed by GC-EI-MS were saturated fatty acids and long chain esters, together with phytosterols such as ergosta-5,24(28-dien-3-ol, campesterol and sitosterol, detected in smaller quantities. Flavonoid glycosides, as well as hydroxycinnamic acid amide derivatives were detected in the polar extract analysed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid amide derivatives, fatty acids and phytosterols have been reported in many bee pollen taxa. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study of the chemical composition of bee pollen from C. nucifera , which is cultivated for its coconut fruit.

  4. The Regulatory Framework Across International Jurisdictions for Risks Associated with Consumption of Botanical Food Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teng Yong; Wong, Kwok Onn; Yap, Adelene L.L.; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including those containing botanical ingredients and botanical-derived compounds, have been marketed to consumers globally for many decades. However, the legislative framework for such products remains inconsistent across jurisdictions internationally. This study aims to

  5. 36 CFR 223.277 - Forest botanical products definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., boughs, bryophytes, bulbs, burls, cones, ferns, fungi (including mushrooms), forbs, grasses, mosses, nuts, pine straw, roots, sedges, seeds, shrubs, transplants, tree sap, and wildflowers. Forest botanical products are not animals, animal parts, Christmas trees, fence material, firewood, insects, mine props...

  6. Botanical Criterions of Quchan Baharkish pastureland in Khorasan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Botanical Criterions of Quchan Baharkish pastureland in Khorasan Razavi Province,. Iran. *1SAEED, JAHEDI POUR 2ALIREZA, KOOCHEKI 3MEHDI, NASSIRI. MAHALLATI 4PARVIZ REZVANI MOGHADDAM. 1Department of Agroecology and Plant Breeding, Ferdowsi. University of Mashhad International Campus, ...

  7. Traditional knowledge and formulations of medicinal plants used by the traditional medical practitioners of bangladesh to treat schizophrenia like psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Nasir; Kabidul Azam, Md Nur

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia.

  8. Traditional Knowledge and Formulations of Medicinal Plants Used by the Traditional Medical Practitioners of Bangladesh to Treat Schizophrenia Like Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasir Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species’ to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia.

  9. The severity of toxic reactions to ephedra: comparisons to other botanical products and national trends from 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Alan D; Watson, William A; Smolinske, Susan; Litovitz, Toby

    2005-01-01

    Ephedra is a botanical product widely used to enhance alertness, as a weight loss aide, and as a decongestant. Its reported adverse effects led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ban ephedra-containing products in the United States in 2004. This study's purpose was to compare toxicity from botanical products containing ephedra to nonephedra products. The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS), a national poison center database, was utilized to determine the number and outcomes of cases involving botanical products reported from 1993-2002. Cases listing both a botanical product and any other drugs or chemicals were excluded a priori. Ten-year hazard rates (moderate outcomes + major outcomes + deaths per 1000 exposures) were used to compare botanical product categories. There were 21,533 toxic exposures with definitive medical outcomes reported over the 10 yrs where a botanical product was the only substance involved. Of these, 4306 (19.9%) had moderate or major medical outcomes and there were two deaths, for an overall hazard score of 200 per 1000 exposures. The number of ephedra reports to poison centers increased 150-fold over the 10-yr period. The hazard rate for products that contained only ephedra was 250 per 1000 exposures and 267 per 1000 exposures for products that contained ephedra and additional ingredients; whereas the hazard score for only nonephedra botanical products was 96 per 1000 exposures. The rate ratios for multibotanical products with ephedra (RR 1.33; 95% C.I. 1.27-1.40) and for single-ingredient ephedra products (RR 1.25; 95% C.I. 1.11-1.40) were both two to six times higher than those of other common botanical products. Yohimbe-containing products had the highest hazard score (417) and rate ratio (2.08; 95% C.I. 1.59-2.80). Ephedra-containing botanical products accounted for a significant number of toxic exposures with severe medical outcomes reported to poison centers. Hazard rate analysis suggests poison center-reported events

  10. Risk, society and environment: the case of cooperative ecological production and the global management over biodiversity and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Francisco Waterloo Radomsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches biodiversity and traditional knowledge, having the notion of risk as its background. The data presented come from an ethnographic study carried out among a network of ecological farmers, Ecovida, in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Ecovida is an agro-ecological network of farm producers, consumers and intermediaries. The paper aims to show that in the global context of the advent of the intellectual property regime, especially the provisions on cultivars (plant variety and seed breeding, biodiversity and farming traditional knowledge, as well as their modes of plant breeding, suffer a double "erosion": the decrease on the availability of crop varieties; and it creates a uniformity and depleting of local knowledge. The potential standardization of seeds and knowledge entices new risks to both rural production and social sustainability. Our argument is that all these social actors -- that compose the so called ecological network -- in their activities, seeking to carry on the multiplication and variability of seeds and promote the diversity of knowledge, are also creating collective strategies of social resistance vis a vis nature and knowledge modes of control.  As a political outcome of the collective efforts, the network of participatory certification works revealing the risk homogenization and corporate control over crop production.

  11. The implementation of research recommendations at the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martie Mearns

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study Biodiversity is not a static phenomenon and many variables have an effect on accelerated biodiversity loss. While most of the variables affecting biodiversity loss are caused by humankind, many species are affected by more than one variable simultaneously. Six fundamental causes for biodiversity loss have been identifi ed, namely unsustainable population growth and associated increased pressure on natural resources; a reduced spectrum of agricultural, forestry and fishery products; failure of economic systems to attach appropriate economic value to the environment and resources; inequality in ownership, flow and management of the benefits and utilisation of resources; insufficient knowledge in the application and use of resources; and legislation and institutional systems that promote unsustainable abuse of the environment (Middleton 2003:250. The worldwide loss of biodiversity makes the management of protected areas more important than ever. Protected areas are under increasing pressure to become economically viable and independent of state grants. Tourism creates the mechanism and opportunities for protected areas to increase their economic viability while advancing the appreciation of nature. The management of these protected areas therefore includes the management of visitors. South Africa is the third most bio diverse country in the world. Amongst a variety of nature conservation endeavours nine national botanical gardens are managed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI. One of the nine national gardens is the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden situated in Roodekrans towards the west of Johannesburg. A study was launched to determine preferences of visitors to the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden by making use of semi-structured interviews. The purpose of the study was threefold. Firstly the study was launched to determine whether visitors to the garden had an increased awareness

  12. Folk food and medicinal botanical knowledge among the last remaining Yörüks of the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the current lifestyle of the last remaining Balkan Yörüks, a small and isolated group found within the Republic of Macedonia, and the modern representatives of an important portion of the Balkan nomads. The aim of this study was to document knowledge concerning local wild food plants and wild and cultivated medicinal plants, and to compare the Yörük ethnobotany with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups occurring in the Balkan region (Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Turkey in order to assess how cultural adaptation processes may have affected Yörük plant folklore. We conducted this study by means of detailed, semi-structured interviews with 48 key informants. Sixty-seven plant taxa were recorded from 55 genera, based on the compilation of more than 150 reports relating to medicinal, food, forage, ornamental, and dye plants, as well as some elements relating to animals and minerals. Our field study data show several major ethnic boundary markers that contribute to the homogeneity of the community and also distinguish it sufficiently from the surrounding society: (i well-isolated locality; (ii local dialect and endogamy; (iii casual clothing worn by women; (iv ceremonial jewelry: a necklace of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum; (v Sempervivum marmoreum as an only ornamental plant which also has a medicinal use; and (vi Mentha spicata as the dominant culinary herb, which has a medicinal use too. Comparison of the collected ethnobotanical data with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups in the Balkan region shows that overlapping taxa include mainly plants whose fresh fruit are used; both nuts as well as edible greens. These plants are simultaneously used for medicinal purposes too, as home remedies, but in very different ways to other ethnic groups. Yörüks represent a remarkable cultural group in the Balkans. This community has nomadic traditions, but nowadays the people have a settled

  13. Botanical and molecular evidences of landraces from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Botanical descriptors, total seed proteins, isozymes and RAPD markers were applied to identify landraces from indigenous lentil germplasm exclusively collected from the province of Baluchistan,. Pakistan. The Germplasm revealed the prevalence of landraces, especially on the basis of isozymes.

  14. Organisation of the Botanical Survey of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1963-01-01

    From the new (quarto 2-column) journal ”Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India”, initiated to supplement the ’Records’ and ’Annual Reports’ and to e cited as Bull. Bot. Surv. India, we are now informed about the shape of the studies of the Indian flora, since the reorganisation in 1954-55. Three

  15. Traditional ecological knowledge reveals the extent of sympatric lake trout diversity and habitat preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Marin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches to conservation have become increasingly important in northern regions. Because many First Nations communities have relied on freshwater fish populations for essential food over millennia, community members often possess traditional ecological knowledge (TEK. We consulted Cree First Nation fishers to collate TEK for one of Canada's most important subsistence fishes (lake trout in Québec's largest lake (Mistassini, 2335 km2. We further integrated TEK with what was regionally known scientifically about the species, toward effective fisheries conservation. Cree fishers described a richer diversity of sympatric lake trout forms than did scientific research that was conducted simultaneously, based on color, size, fin accent patterns, scale texture and depth, and spatial preferences. Traditional ecological knowledge also provided descriptions of lake trout seasonal movements, spawning locations, and reproductive timing that were not captured by scientific research, and highlighted several concerns or temporal changes of import to future management initiatives. Our study highlights the wealth of TEK on harvested species in First Nations communities. It further illustrates how TEK can reveal not only distinctions within species of relevance to natural resource management and taxonomy, but also informs upon the extent of such population differentiation, thereby providing important conservation benefits for remote and northern regions.

  16. Composition of some botanical mixtures as potential feed additives for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varzaru Iulia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of four botanical mixtures (AFC: AFC 1 (containing red corn, pumpkin pulp and marigold, AFC 2 (containing alfalfa meal, pumpkin pulp and marigold, AFC 3 (containing kale, alfalfa meal, marigold and spinach leaves, AFC 4 (containing buckthorn, red corn, pumpkin pulp and marigold, in terms of proximate analysis (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, amino acid (AA profile, vitamin E concentration and lutein and zeaxanthin content, in order to determine the potential of AFCs as feed additives in laying hens nutrition. The crude protein content for the analysed botanical mixtures ranged between 9.07-18.18% DM, and crude fiber between 10.41-30.83% DM. The amino acid profile of the mixture AFC 4 revealed a content of limiting essential amino acids required for laying hens: lysine 5.719% CP, methionine 1.058% CP and threonine 4.415% CP. The highest content of lutein and zeaxanthin was found in the mixture AFC 4 (66.659 mg/100 g, which also had the highest amount of vitamin E (640.93 mg/kg. With regard to safety of the botanical mixtures, lead and cadmium concentrations were determined. Concentration of lead ranged from 0.28-0.75 µg/g DM and 0.06-0.09 µg/g DM for concentration of cadmium, which was within the legislation of maximal limits of EU regulations. It can be concluded that the botanical mixture AFC 4 had the highest concentration of lutein, zeaxanthin and vitamin E, with an adequate content of essential amino acids. Furthermore, all four botanical mixtures had high amounts of xantophylls and should be tested in laying hens trials in order to establish their effects on lutein and zeaxanthin concentration in egg yolk.

  17. Using Patents to Protect Traditional Knowledge on the Medicinal Uses of Plants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The movement towards the protection of traditional knowledge particularly on the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP in South Africa reflects a global albeit belated interest in the protection of traditional knowledge associated with biological resources. Hence, it was not surprising South Africa like most developing nation, sought in response to instances of the misappropriation of its TKMUP and other TK associated with its biological resources, to provide a measure of protection for such knowledge using the intellectual property (IP system. This is evident in the adoption of the Policy Framework for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge through the Intellectual Property System in 2008 which identified patent as one of the major IP tools in the protection of the TK. The Policy Framework represents a paradigmatic shift from South Africa’s earlier sceptical and dialectical approach to, and experience with the IP system in context of TK. This paper therefore examines the benefits and challenges involved in using the patent system in the protection of TK particularly those relating to the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP. Such examination became necessary as South Africa’s natural capital of biological diversity, together with its wealth of indigenous TK, has been recognised as an important resource base for promoting economic growth through biological innovations under the recently adopted Bio-economy Strategy. It finds that patents offer a great potential in not only protecting TKMUP from misappropriation, but also in promoting the commercialisation of innovative TKMUP or inventions based on or derived from TKMUP in South Africa. However, this can only be possible if the challenges identified in this paper can be successfully navigated.

  18. Resolving whether botanic gardens are on the road to conservation or a pathway for plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Philip E

    2015-06-01

    A global conservation goal is to understand the pathways through which invasive species are introduced into new regions. Botanic gardens are a pathway for the introduction of invasive non-native plants, but a quantitative assessment of the risks they pose has not been performed. I analyzed data on the living collections of over 3000 botanic gardens worldwide to quantify the temporal trend in the representation of non-native species; the relative composition of threatened, ornamental, or invasive non-native plant species; and the frequency with which botanic gardens implement procedures to address invasive species. While almost all of the world's worst invasive non-native plants occurred in one or more living collections (99%), less than one-quarter of red-listed threatened species were cultivated (23%). Even when cultivated, individual threatened species occurred in few living collections (7.3), while non-native species were on average grown in 6 times as many botanic gardens (44.3). As a result, a botanic garden could, on average, cultivate four times as many invasive non-native species (20) as red-listed threatened species (5). Although the risk posed by a single living collection is small, the probability of invasion increases with the number of botanic gardens within a region. Thus, while both the size of living collections and the proportion of non-native species cultivated have declined during the 20th century, this reduction in risk is offset by the 10-fold increase in the number of botanic gardens established worldwide. Unfortunately, botanic gardens rarely implement regional codes of conduct to prevent plant invasions, few have an invasive species policy, and there is limited monitoring of garden escapes. This lack of preparedness is of particular concern given the rapid increase in living collections worldwide since 1950, particularly in South America and Asia, and highlights past patterns of introduction will be a poor guide to determining future

  19. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  20. Building the Knowledge Base to Support the Automatic Animation Generation of Chinese Traditional Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gongjin; Bai, Weijing; Yin, Meifang; Zhang, Songmao

    We present a practice of applying the Semantic Web technologies in the domain of Chinese traditional architecture. A knowledge base consisting of one ontology and four rule bases is built to support the automatic generation of animations that demonstrate the construction of various Chinese timber structures based on the user's input. Different Semantic Web formalisms are used, e.g., OWL DL, SWRL and Jess, to capture the domain knowledge, including the wooden components needed for a given building, construction sequence, and the 3D size and position of every piece of wood. Our experience in exploiting the current Semantic Web technologies in real-world application systems indicates their prominent advantages (such as the reasoning facilities and modeling tools) as well as the limitations (such as low efficiency).

  1. Efficacy of botanical extracts and entomopathogens on control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... active secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, herbicides and pesticides. ... Bacillus subtilis (BCB-19), Bacillus megaterium (SB-9), Serratia mercescens ... of the botanicals on the PGP bacteria and fungus, except Datura with B. subtilis ...

  2. Validation of botanical origins and geographical sources of some Saudi honeys using ultraviolet spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Ali; Adgaba, Nuru; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Gad, Haidy A; Roshan, Abdulrahman; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Kolyali, Sevgi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims at distinguishing honey based on botanical and geographical sources. Different floral honey samples were collected from diverse geographical locations of Saudi Arabia. UV spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis including Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) were used to classify honey samples. HCA and PCA presented the initial clustering pattern to differentiate between botanical as well as geographical sources. The SIMCA model clearly separated the Ziziphus sp. and other monofloral honey samples based on different locations and botanical sources. The results successfully discriminated the honey samples of different botanical and geographical sources validating the segregation observed using few physicochemical parameters that are regularly used for discrimination.

  3. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

    2009-12-01

    Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

  5. 28 - 34 DAMBATTA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    NIGERIA, THEIR KNOWLEDGE AND USES BY TRADITIONAL HEALERS. *Sani H. Dambatta ... An ethno botanical survey of major ethnomedicinal plants was carried out in the study area ... Concoction was the major method of preparation of.

  6. Traditional knowledge and use of wild mushrooms by Mixtecs or Ñuu savi, the people of the rain, from Southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Faustino Hernández; Moreno, Jesús Pérez; Cázares, Beatriz Xoconostle; Suárez, Juan José Almaraz; Trejo, Enrique Ojeda; de Oca, Gerardo Mata Montes; Aguilar, Irma Díaz

    2016-09-05

    Mexico is an important global reservoir of biological and cultural richness and traditional knowledge of wild mushrooms. However, there is a high risk of loss of this knowledge due to the erosion of traditional human cultures which is related with the rapid acculturation linked to high migration of rural populations to cities and the U.S.A., and the loss of natural ecosystems. The Mixtec people, the third largest native group in Mexico only after the Nahua and the Maya, maintain ancient traditions in the use and knowledge of wild mushrooms. Paradoxically, there are few studies of the Mixtec ethnomycology. This study shows our ethnomycological research, mainly focused on knowledge and use of wild mushrooms in communities of the Mixteca Alta, in southeastern Mexico. We hypothesized that among the studied communities those with a combination of higher vegetation cover of natural pine and oak forests, lower soil erosion and higher economic margination had a greater richness and knowledge of wild mushrooms. Our study therefore aimed to record traditional knowledge, use, nomenclature and classification of wild mushrooms in four Mixtec communities and to analyze how these aspects vary according to environmental and cultural conditions among the studied communities. In order to analyze the cultural significance of wild mushrooms for the Mixtec people, 116 non-structured and semi-structured interviews were performed from 2009 to 2014. Information about the identified species, particularly the regional nomenclature and classification, their edibility, toxicity and ludic uses, the habitat of useful mushrooms, traditional recipes and criteria to differentiate between toxic and edible species, and mechanisms of knowledge transmission were studied. The research had the important particularity that the first author is Mixtec, native of the study area. A comparative qualitative analysis between the richness of fungal species used locally and the official information of the natural

  7. Cultural change and loss of ethnoecological knowledge among the Isthmus Zapotecs of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saynes-Vásquez, Alfredo; Caballero, Javier; Meave, Jorge A; Chiang, Fernando

    2013-06-11

    Global changes that affect local societies may cause the loss of ecological knowledge. The process of cultural change in Zapotec communities of the Oaxacan Isthmus intensified during the first years of the 20th century due to industrial and agro-industrial modernization projects and an increase in the level of formal schooling. Based on the case of the Oaxacan Isthmus, this study assesses the relationship between cultural change and the loss of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Three hundred male heads of family were interviewed from three municipalities in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico selected to span a wide range of cultural change. Each participant was shown herbarium specimens and photographs of a sample of 30 species drawn from a pool of 94 representing local plant diversity. Visual recognition of each species, knowledge of plant form, generic name, specific name, and local uses were scored. The sum of the five scores provided an index of global knowledge which we used as a proxy for TEK. Analysis of variance revealed differences between groups of economic activities. We collected socio-demographic data from the interviewees such as age, level of schooling, and competency in the local language. With these data we ran a principal component analysis and took the first axis as an index of cultural change, and correlated it with the scores obtained each respondent. We found statistically significant differences between groups of people with different economic activities, as well as a highly significant negative relationship between the Index of cultural change and ecological knowledge at all levels, with regression coefficients between 81.2% and 88.3%, indicating that cultural change is affecting traditional botanical knowledge. Our results shown that cultural change, as indicated by occupational activity, level of formal schooling, and competence in the indigenous language, is negatively associated with the loss of Zapotec ethnobotanical

  8. Probability of identification (POI): a statistical model for the validation of qualitative botanical identification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A qualitative botanical identification method (BIM) is an analytical procedure which returns a binary result (1 = Identified, 0 = Not Identified). A BIM may be used by a buyer, manufacturer, or regulator to determine whether a botanical material being tested is the same as the target (desired) mate...

  9. Botanical seed technology at the US Potato Genebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on botanical seed technology have potential payoffs for genebank in-house operations as well as promoting efficient use of the germplasm by cooperators. When we tested the effects of soil fertilization, mother plants with extra fertilizer produced more fruit and seeds, but those extra seeds ...

  10. Botanical compounds and their regulation of nuclear receptor action: the case of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Bonneton, François; Chen, Xiao Yong; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-02-05

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are major pharmacological targets that allow an access to the mechanisms controlling gene regulation. As such, some NRs were identified as biological targets of active compounds contained in herbal remedies found in traditional medicines. We aim here to review this expanding literature by focusing on the informative articles regarding the mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). We exemplified well-characterized TCM action mediated by NR such as steroid receptors (ER, GR, AR), metabolic receptors (PPAR, LXR, FXR, PXR, CAR) and RXR. We also provided, when possible, examples from other traditional medicines. From these, we draw a parallel between TCMs and phytoestrogens or endocrine disrupting chemicals also acting via NR. We define common principle of action and highlight the potential and limits of those compounds. TCMs, by finely tuning physiological reactions in positive and negative manners, could act, in a subtle but efficient way, on NR sensors and their transcriptional network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Botanical insecticides in controlling Kelly's citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on organic grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-12-01

    Kelly's citrus thrips, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was first recorded in Cyprus in 1996 and became an economic citrus pest. In Cyprus, Kelly's citrus thrips larvae cause feeding damage mainly on immature lemon and grapefruit fruits. Use of botanical insecticides is considered an alternative tool compared with synthetic chemicals, in offering solutions for healthy and sustainable citrus production. During 2008-2010, the efficacy of the botanical insecticides azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W and Oikos 10 EC), garlic extract (Alsa), and pyrethrins (Vioryl 5%SC) was evaluated in field trials against Kelly's citrus thrips larval stage I and II aiming at controlling the pest's population and damage to organic grapefruit fruits. In each of the trial years treatments with pyrethrins and azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W) were the most effective against Kelly's citrus thrips compared with the untreated control (for 2008: P extract showed the lowest effect from all the botanicals used compared with the untreated control.

  12. Influence of botanic origin and amylose content on the morphology of starch nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCorre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2011-12-01

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are crystalline platelets resulting from the disruption of the semi-crystalline structure of starch granules by the acid hydrolysis of amorphous parts. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of botanic origin and amylose content of native starches on the morphology and properties of resulting nanoparticles. SNC were prepared from five different starches normal maize, high amylose maize, waxy maize, potato, and wheat; covering three botanic origins, two crystalline types, and three range of amylose content (0, 25, and 70%) for maize starch. Different types of nanocrystals were obtained with a thickness ranging between 4 and 8 nm and diameter from about 50 to 120 nm depending on the source. The comparison of their morphology, crystallinity, and rheological properties is proposed for the first time. For the same amylose content, maize, potato, and wheat resulted in rather similar size and crystallinity of SNC proving the limited influence of the botanic origin. For the same botanic origin (maize), differences in size were more important indicating the influence of the amylopectin content. Also, particles tended to show square shapes with increasing native starch's amylopectin content and A-type crystalinity. Thus, only high amylose content starches should be avoided to prepare SNC.

  13. Influence of botanic origin and amylose content on the morphology of starch nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCorre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are crystalline platelets resulting from the disruption of the semi-crystalline structure of starch granules by the acid hydrolysis of amorphous parts. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of botanic origin and amylose content of native starches on the morphology and properties of resulting nanoparticles. SNC were prepared from five different starches normal maize, high amylose maize, waxy maize, potato, and wheat; covering three botanic origins, two crystalline types, and three range of amylose content (0, 25, and 70%) for maize starch. Different types of nanocrystals were obtained with a thickness ranging between 4 and 8 nm and diameter from about 50 to 120 nm depending on the source. The comparison of their morphology, crystallinity, and rheological properties is proposed for the first time. For the same amylose content, maize, potato, and wheat resulted in rather similar size and crystallinity of SNC proving the limited influence of the botanic origin. For the same botanic origin (maize), differences in size were more important indicating the influence of the amylopectin content. Also, particles tended to show square shapes with increasing native starch’s amylopectin content and A-type crystalinity. Thus, only high amylose content starches should be avoided to prepare SNC.

  14. HIV/AIDS in a Puerto Rican/Dominican Community: A Collaborative Project with a Botanical Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melvin; Santiago, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of the literature concerning HIV/AIDS in Latino communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. Discusses the presence of botanical shops (where herbal medicines and other healing paraphernalia can be purchased) in Latino culture. Describes Projecto Cooperacion, a project that utilized botanical shops as a means of…

  15. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  16. Ethnobotany in Intermedical Spaces: The Case of the Fulni-ô Indians (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Taboada Soldati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the Fulni-ô medical system and introduced its intermedical character based on secondary data published in the literature. Then we focused on the medicinal plants known to the ethnic group, describing the most important species, their therapeutic uses and the body systems attributed to them. We based this analysis on the field experience of the authors in the project Studies for the Environmental and Cultural Sustainability of the Fulni-ô Medical System: Office of Medicinal Plant Care. This traditional botanical knowledge was used to corroborate the hybrid nature of local practices for access to health. We show that intermedicality is a result not only of the meeting of the Fulni-ô medical system with Biomedicine but also of its meeting with other traditional systems. Finally, we discuss how traditional botanical knowledge may be directly related to the ethnogenesis process led by the Fulni-ô Indians in northeastern Brazil.

  17. Ethnobotany in Intermedical Spaces: The Case of the Fulni-ô Indians (Northeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Paulino de Albuquerque, Ulysses

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the Fulni-ô medical system and introduced its intermedical character based on secondary data published in the literature. Then we focused on the medicinal plants known to the ethnic group, describing the most important species, their therapeutic uses and the body systems attributed to them. We based this analysis on the field experience of the authors in the project Studies for the Environmental and Cultural Sustainability of the Fulni-ô Medical System: Office of Medicinal Plant Care. This traditional botanical knowledge was used to corroborate the hybrid nature of local practices for access to health. We show that intermedicality is a result not only of the meeting of the Fulni-ô medical system with Biomedicine but also of its meeting with other traditional systems. Finally, we discuss how traditional botanical knowledge may be directly related to the ethnogenesis process led by the Fulni-ô Indians in northeastern Brazil. PMID:21961025

  18. “Smart fish that can see at a distance”: Traditional ichthyological knowledge in the Chapada Diamantina region, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the traditional ichthyological knowledge of a community of fishermen that live in the Marimbus-Iraquara environmental protection area (Bahia, Brazil. Data were collected using open and semi-structured interviews and field observation. Also, zoological materials were collected. Knowledge about the behavior of 21 fish species is reported. The ethological phenomena perceived by the fishermen were divided into 17 ethological categories related to reproduction, flight behavior, predation, social behavior, or response to artificial stimuli. The results of the study indicate the existence of a broad local ecological knowledge about species and ecosystems, particularly in relation to fish species.

  19. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  20. Evaluating urban eco-tourism resources and environment: a case study in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Yin, Jie

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, China has been selected as the study area. The overall status and the development conditions of resources and environment have been analyzed for the park. The eco-tourism resources and environment of Chenshan Botanical Garden were further evaluated synthetically by using expert analysis and questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation system including 16 indices has been initially established from three aspects of tourism resource element value, resource development condition and eco-environment condition. The characteristics of eco-tourism resources and the score of each indicator for Chenshan Botanical Garden have subsequently been generated. The results show that the comprehensive evaluation score of eco-tourism resources and environment for Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden is 72.06, which belongs to third level of excellent tourism resources and environment. Finally, five suggestions are proposed for future development of its eco-tourism resources and environment.

  1. Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X.; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many ...

  2. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  3. Evaluation of botanicals for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    the highest effect in reducing thrips pest population in year one, though was on par with that of dimethoate, did ... From among the botanicals tested, tree tobacco had the best ... Moreover, as most smallholder famers may not afford the ever.

  4. Business Process Management – A Traditional Approach Versus a Knowledge Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paiano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise management represents a heterogeneous aggregate of both resources and assets that need to be coordinated and orchestrated in order to reach the goals related to the business mission. Influences and forces that may influence this process, and also for that they should be considered, are not concentrated in the business environment, but they are related to the entireoperational context of a company. For this reason, business processes must be the most versatile and flexible with respect to the changes that occur within the whole operational context of a company.Considering the supportive role that information systems play in favour of Business Process Management - BPM, it is also essential to implement a constant, continuous and quick mechanism for the information system alignment with respect to the evolution followed by business processes.In particular, such mechanism must intervene on BPM systems in order to keep them aligned and compliant with respect to both the context changes and the regulations. In order to facilitate this alignment mechanism, companies are already referring to the support offered by specific solutions, such as knowledge bases. In this context, a possible solution might be the approach we propose, which is based on a specific framework called Process Management System. Our methodology implements a knowledge base support for business experts, which is not limited to the BPM operating phases, but includes also the engineering and prototyping activities of the corresponding information system. This paper aims to compare and evaluate a traditional BPM approach with respect to theapproach we propose. In effect, such analysis aims to emphasize the lack of traditional methodology especially with respect to the alignment between business processes and information systems, along with their compliance with context domain and regulations.

  5. Treatment of Athlete's Plantar Warts Using a Botanical Blend: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik O; Kozin, Adam F; Ruiz, Guillermo; Lasku, Arben; Langland, Jeffrey O

    2017-05-01

    Context • Viral plantar warts, or verruca plantaris, are a benign epithelial tumor caused by various strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV). Current treatments have had mixed degrees of success, are moderately invasive, and are often incompatible with participation in sports. Objective • The study intended to examine the benefits of treating plantar warts with a topical, botanical blend that has had clinical success treating herpes simplex virus cold sores. Methods • A synergistic botanical blend was applied topically. Setting • The case report was completed at the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine (Tempe, Arizona, USA). Participant • The participant was a 24-y-old male soccer player, 177.8 cm tall, and weighing 69 kg with previously diagnosed, viral mosaic warts. Intervention • The patient used a pumice stone during bathing for the first week to remove dead tissue and ensure sufficient contact and entry of the botanical gel into infected tissue. After drying the area, the patient applied the botanical gel blend 1 to 2 times daily postshower, spreading it evenly across the surface of the entire lesion. The patient discontinued the exfoliation technique after the first week. Results • Within the first week of treatment, the patient noted changes to the infected area of the hallux epidermal tissue. The combination of exfoliation and application of the gel caused marked, visible differences in presentation by the fifth day of treatment. At 1-mo postintervention, or day 90, the epidermal tissue was asymptomatic and devoid of petechiae, malformations, or visible infection. Conclusions • The results of the current case study directly contrast with the drawbacks of commonly accepted, first-line interventions in the treatment of viral plantar warts and, in many respects, demonstrate better efficacy and fewer side effects than the standard of care. The positive results also highlight the necessity for additional study in the fields of sports

  6. The influence of socioeconomic factors on traditional knowledge: a cross scale comparison of palm use in northwestern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narel Y. Paniagua-Zambrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered data on palm uses from 2050 informants in 53 communities and four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia . We performed multilevel statistical analyses, which showed that the influence of each socioeconomic factor differed depending on whether the analysis was performed on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. At the general palm knowledge level, gender was the only factor that had a significant association in all five subregions, and showed that men had more knowledge than women, and age had a positive significant association only in the lowlands. Most of the analyzed socioeconomic factors had a greater influence on the lowland ecoregions of the Amazon and Chocó, although there were mixed trends in these ecoregions. Our results show that there are no regional patterns in the predictive power of socioeconomic factors and that their influence on palm-use knowledge is highly localized. We can conclude that (1 conservation strategies of traditional knowledge of palm use in the region should be developed mainly at the local level, and (2 large-scale comparable ethnoecological studies are necessary to understand indigenous communities' livelihoods at different scales.

  7. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  8. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  9. Risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in botanical containing products present on the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jia; Cui, XinYue; Kong, XiangNan; Tang, YiFei; Wulandari, Riana; Chen, Lu; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2018-03-15

    In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market were quantified and the combined estimated daily intake (EDI) was determined using dose additivity. The combined EDI values obtained assuming equal potency of all alkenylbenzenes detected in the PFS, TCM and herbal teas were 0.3 to 14.3, 0.05 to 539.4 and 0.04 to 42.5 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. Calculating combined EDI values taking into account the toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach, the values for PFS, TCM and herbal teas were 0.3 to 7.7, 0.05 to 278.0 and 0.02 to 16.5 μg estragole equivalents/kg bw/day, respectively. The MOE values resulting from consumption of these PFS, TCM and one cup of herbal tea per day during life-time were generally lower than 10 000, suggesting a potential priority for risk management. For short-term exposure such as two weeks consumption, applying Haber's rule, only one TCM 6 () still had an MOE value below 10 000. It is concluded that selected consumption of Chinese botanical preparations raise a concern because of exposure to alkenylbenzenes, especially when exposure is for longer periods of time. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, Paola; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , NH 4 + , Cl − , Br − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , PO 4 3− ) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. -- Highlights: •Analysis by IC of honeys from two areas with different environmental pollution (Italy and Balkans). •Chemometric techniques such as PCA and HCA used. •In Balkans area higher Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− due to industrial and agricultural activities. •Discrimination of honey botanical origin and authenticity on the base of IC data. •Honey ionic profiles as indicators of environmental pollution and botanical origin. -- Capsule: Ionic profiles of honey could be potential indicators of environmental pollution (industrial and agricultural), botanical origin and authenticity

  11. Warburgia: a comprehensive review of the botany, traditional uses and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carmen M; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2015-05-13

    The genus Warburgia (Canellaceae) is represented by several medicinal trees found exclusively on the African continent. Traditionally, extracts and products produced from Warburgia species are regarded as important natural African antibiotics and have been used extensively as part of traditional healing practices for the treatment of fungal, bacterial and protozoal infections in both humans and animals. We here aim to collate and review the fragmented information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Warburgia species and present recommendations for future research. Peer-reviewed articles using "Warburgia" as search term ("all fields") were retrieved from Scopus, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Google Scholar with no specific time frame set for the search. In addition, various books were consulted that contained botanical and ethnopharmacological information. The ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activity of Warburgia are reviewed. Most of the biological activities are attributed to the drimane sesquiterpenoids, including polygodial, warburganal, muzigadial, mukaadial and ugandensial, flavonoids and miscellaneous compounds present in the various species. In addition to anti-infective properties, Warburgia extracts are also used to treat a wide range of ailments, including stomach aches, fever and headaches, which may also be a manifestation of infections. The need to record anecdotal evidence is emphasised and conservation efforts are highlighted to contribute to the protection and preservation of one of Africa's most coveted botanical resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of Lemongrass, Garlic, and Tree Marigold as Botanical Insecticides in Controlling of Cocoa Mirid,Helopeltis antonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Control of cocoa mirid, Helopeltis antoniiso far uses chemicalinsecticides as the main alternative. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the environment friendly control techniques. Lemongrass, garlic, and tree marigold have been known as an efectiveness botanical insecticides for horticulture. A research with aim to study the effectiveness of lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus, garlic (Allium sativum and tree marigold (Tithonia diversifoliafor controlling H. antoniihave been carried out in cocoa plantation at Kaliwining experimental garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in split plot design in three replication, with the main plot infestation time of H. antoniiand sub-plot kind of botanical insecticides. Concentration of botanical insecticides used in this study was 5% and applied on 12 cm cocoa pod in length by using knapsack sprayer. Infestation of H. antonii nymphes were conducted before and after insecticide applications. Observation was conducted on the mortality and the lesion of H. antonii. The results of orthogonal contrast test on feeding activity based on the number of lesion and percentage of mortality of H. antoniishowed that there were significantly different between insecticide treatment and control, between chemical insecticide and botanical insecticides, but there was no significant different on kind of botanical insecticides. The lowest number of lesion due to H. antonii was shown by chemical insecticide with an average 34.0, followed by garlic and lemongrass botanical insecticide with number of lesion were 51.2 and 64.7 respectively, whereas the number of lesion in the control reached 84.2. The highest percentage mortality of H. antoniiwas shown by chemical insecticide with active ingredient teta-cypermethrin at 84.3%, followed by garlic, lemon grass and tree marigold botanical insecticide were 65.8%; 65.0%; and 63.8% respectively and significantly different with control by 8

  13. Work on mapping the Landscape Arboretum in the Skripchinsky Stavropol Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko Yuliya Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the steps of mapping the landscape arboretum. Landscape Arboretum is the core of the botanical garden, which includes all variety of introduced tree species. Graphic documents showing the location of each individual are an important factor in the conservation of biological diversity. The Botanical Garden archive stored topographical plans scale 1: 500, in the form of handwritten copies. They are the basis for mapping the territory. The mapping involves several stages: production of the paper base, field and office work. Visual and digital deliverable plans, are important to inventory of wood collections in the future.

  14. Selection of Coffea canephora parents from the botanical varieties Conilon and Robusta for the production of intervarietal hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Nicolino Lamarão de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to quantify the genetic divergence of potential Coffea canephora parents, with the goal of developing progenies that associate the best traits of the Conilon and Robusta botanical varieties for hybrid vigor expression. Thus, 10 morphological and productive characteristics of 130 clones of Conilon and Robusta botanical varieties and their intervarietal hybrids were evaluated over 2 years. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of four plants per plot. For selection of parents, the main component analysis was used to associate values with reference points obtained from the average of each botanical variety. The first two principal components allowed for the separation of the botanical varieties representing the variability contained in the original data with 76% for the first year and 69% for the second year. Although, the genotype × years interaction had significant effects, there were minor differences in the grouping from one year to the next, which is associated with the higher repeatability estimates observed in this study. It was observed that crosses with the 16-1-81I, 9-1-82L, and 13-1-61I parents of the botanical variety Robusta and the 167I, 890E, and 130I parents of the Conilon botanical variety presented greater potential for obtaining selection gains.

  15. [Analysis of difficult problems on European Union laws and regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zou, Wen-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Registration of Chinese patent medicine in European Union (EU) is of great significance to the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine as EU market acts as an important position in the global botanical market. In retrospect, the domestic studies on EU regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products have been conducted for more than 10 years, but there is still some cognitive bias and lack of research. In this paper, a review of the relevant research progress and the main misunderstanding problems about Directive 2004/24/EC, like the centralized and decentralized supervision system of traditional herbal medicinal products in the EU, marketing authorization procedures for traditional herbal medicinal products, Community Herbal Monograph and List Entries, would be systematically analyzed, so as to provide reference for the registration of Chinese patent medicine in EU. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Traditional practices, beliefs and uses of medicinal plants in relation to maternal-baby health of Criollo woman in central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gustavo J

    2008-12-01

    to present information on traditional practices and medicinal uses of plants for treating health diseases related to the reproductive cycle of Criollo women living in the hills of the province of Córdoba; and to interpret these uses in the context of this population's folk medicine. data were collected during several field trips to the study area based on the guidelines of a research project that included ethnographic and ethnobotanical aspects of the study area. a rural community of central Argentina. a total of 62 peasants were interviewed on the basis of a semi-structured system. Repeated open and extensive interviews were also undertaken with seven women who had previously worked as midwives in areas of difficult access. this study found that 12 different female diseases and complaints are treated using a total of 48 plant species belonging to 27 botanical families, with 71 different medicinal uses. The traditional beliefs and practices associated with maternal-baby health care in rural areas highlights the existing combination of principles reformulated from humoral medicine, the use of analogical reasoning, and ontological and functional interpretations of morbid processes. The principle of Hypocratical opposition and hot-cold categorisation are significant criteria that rule over the practices of mother and child health care during birth and puerperium. consequences of traditional knowledge on the health care of peasant women are discussed, based on the analysis of traditional practices from a peasant's point of view.

  17. SOIL VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT LANDSCAPE POSITIONS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE BOTANICAL GARDEN, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Luís Fernando da; Nascimento,Paulo César do; Inda,Alberto Vasconcellos; Silva,Edsleine Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTKnowledge of soil characteristics in areas where activities related to the environment are developed, such as Porto Alegre Botanical Garden (JB-PoA), is a fundamental condition for the sustainable use of this natural resource. The objective of this study was to characterize, classify and evaluate some issues about soil formation in Porto Alegre Botanical Garden, as well as relate their distribution on the landscape according to environmental characteristics. For the morphological desc...

  18. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  19. Neural networks applied to discriminate botanical origin of honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ofélia; Iglesias, Carla; Peres, Fátima; Martínez, Javier; García, Ángela; Taboada, Javier

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work is develop a tool based on neural networks to predict the botanical origin of honeys using physical and chemical parameters. The managed database consists of 49 honey samples of 2 different classes: monofloral (almond, holm oak, sweet chestnut, eucalyptus, orange, rosemary, lavender, strawberry trees, thyme, heather, sunflower) and multifloral. The moisture content, electrical conductivity, water activity, ashes content, pH, free acidity, colorimetric coordinates in CIELAB space (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)) and total phenols content of the honey samples were evaluated. Those properties were considered as input variables of the predictive model. The neural network is optimised through several tests with different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and also with different input variables. The reduced error rates (5%) allow us to conclude that the botanical origin of honey can be reliably and quickly known from the colorimetric information and the electrical conductivity of honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing Algorithmic Skills in Traditional and Non-Traditional Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Máth, János; Abari, Kálmán

    2015-01-01

    The Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills (TAaAS) project was launched in the 2011/2012 academic year to test first year students of Informatics, focusing on their algorithmic skills in traditional and non-traditional programming environments, and on the transference of their knowledge of Informatics from secondary to tertiary education. The…

  1. A multiple biomarker assay for quality assessment of botanical drugs using a versatile microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Hao; Ai, Ni; Yu, Lawrence X; Qian, Zhong-Zhi; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2017-09-25

    Quality control is critical for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of drugs. Current quality control method for botanical drugs is mainly based on chemical testing. However, chemical testing alone may not be sufficient as it may not capture all constituents of botanical drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a bioassay correlating with the drug's known mechanism of action to ensure its potency and activity. Herein we developed a multiple biomarker assay to assess the quality of botanicals using microfluidics, where enzyme inhibition was employed to indicate the drug's activity and thereby evaluate biological consistency. This approach was exemplified on QiShenYiQi Pills using thrombin and angiotensin converting enzyme as "quality biomarkers". Our results demonstrated that there existed variations in potency across different batches of the intermediates and preparations. Compared with chromatographic fingerprinting, the bioassay provided better discrimination ability for some abnormal samples. Moreover, the chip could function as "affinity chromatography" to identify bioactive phytochemicals bound to the enzymes. This work proposed a multiple-biomarker strategy for quality assessment of botanical drugs, while demonstrating for the first time the feasibility of microfluidics in this field.

  2. Monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phramaha Somdet Wongtham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation, monk development experts: Using traditional knowledge to manage community development by monks in Isan, is a qualitative study with three primary aims:To study the background of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand, to study the current state of community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand and to outline a set of guidelines for community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected and was composed of nine communities in Northeastern Thailand. Results show that monks have been involved in community development since Buddhism first arrived in North-eastern Thailand and their role is now primarily separated into three areas: Faith, knowledge and practice. The results of this investigation can be considered by local temples, communities, government institutions and individual monks when deciding how to manage and administer community development by monks in Northeastern Thailand.

  3. Practical Uses of Botanicals in Skin Care

    OpenAIRE

    Stallings, Alison F.; Lupo, Mary P.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medic...

  4. The nutritive value, yield and botanical composition of irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of grass and grass/legume swards at three levels of nitrogen were compared under irrigation over a three-year period. The swards were grazed by dairy cows and the influence of nitrogen on dry matter yield, protein content, protein yield and botanical composition was measured. Keywords: ...

  5. Botanical composition, yield and nutritional quality of grassland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production contributes to the livelihoods of the Ethiopian people; however, the productivity of the livestock subsector in the highlands is low due to malnutrition. Therefore, this study assessed the botanical composition, dry matter (DM) yield, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of the ...

  6. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  7. The Role of Traditional Knowledge and Crop Varieties in Adaptation to Climate Change and Food Security in SW China, Bolivian Andes and coastal Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah; Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong; Mutta, Doris; Ongugo, Paul; Pakia, Mohamed; Oros, Rolando; Barriga, Sandra

    2011-09-15

    Paper prepared for the UNU-IAS workshop on Indigenous Peoples, Marginalised Populations and Climate Change: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Traditional Knowledge, Mexico, July 2011. Indigenous peoples and local communities often live in harsh natural environments, and have had to cope with extreme weather and adapt to environmental change for centuries in order to survive. They have done this using long standing traditions and practices – or traditional knowledge (TK) – relating to adaptive ecosystem management and sustainable use of natural resources. The three case studies presented provide evidence of the crucial role of traditional crop varieties, knowledge and practices in enabling adaption to changes in climate. The question is whether the climatic changes observed in these cases are human induced climate change or just natural changes. The findings show that indigenous farmers in SW China, coastal Kenya and the Bolivian Andes are already severely impacted by changes in climate, including drought, with serious consequences for crop production and food security. The scale of the changes, and the fact that they have occurred quite recently (in the last 10 or 20 years), suggests that they may be the result of human induced climate change.

  8. [Remy Willemet (1735-1807), naturalist, professor of natural history and chairman of the botanical garden of Nancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Rémy Willemet is above all a local botanist whose first work was selected by the academy of Nancy in 1766. His notoriety began when another work with Jean-François Coste was chosen by the academy of Lyon ten years later. He published then in many papers and was elected in numerous academies and scientific societies. During the Revolution, he was a professor of the Ecole centrale de la Meurthe and of the Société de santé, and he became the chairman of the botanical garden. Willemet wrote some botanical books. Today, what is the memory of his researchs and papers? Fairly few things because he never undertook botanical travels in order to discover and compare pharmaceutical plants. However, Willemetia was the name used to denominate some species and honour his family. His name was also engraved on the wall of some university buidings and it was chosen some years ago to entitle a botanical paper in Lorraine.

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF SYNTHETIC AND BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST SUCKING INSECT PEST AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES ON COTTON CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Synthetic and botanical insecticides are relatively safer for environment and beneficial insects. The study was conducted in Rahim Yar Khan during the cotton cropping season 2014 to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two Synthetic insecticides i.e. Nitenpyram (Jasper 10% SL and Pyriproxyfen (Bruce 10.8% EC and two botanical extracts of Calotropic procera and Azadirachta indica, against sucking insect pest complex of cotton and their natural enemies. Upon reaching economic thresholds, the recommended field doses of all the insecticides were applied on cotton cultivar MNH-886. Data against sucking pests and their natural enemies was recorded 24 hours prior to insecticidal application and then 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after insecticidal application. Results revealed that Nitenpyram was much toxic against sucking pests followed by Pyriproxyfen as compared to two botanical extracts. On the other hand, the synthetic insecticides did not prove safer for natural enemies as compared to botanical extracts. It was concluded that as an Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy, botanical extracts can be used at low infestation levels so that ecosystem service of biological control may be sustained.

  10. Valorizing the 'Irulas' traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newmaster Steven G

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mounting body of critical research is raising the credibility of Traditional Knowledge (TK in scientific studies. These studies have gained credibility because their claims are supported by methods that are repeatable and provide data for quantitative analyses that can be used to assess confidence in the results. The theoretical importance of our study is to test consensus (reliability/replicable of TK within one ancient culture; the Irulas of the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest (KRF, India. We calculated relative frequency (RF and consensus factor (Fic of TK from 120 Irulas informants knowledgeable of medicinal plants. Our research indicates a high consensus of the Irulas TK concerning medicinal plants. The Irulas revealed a diversity of plants that have medicinal and nutritional utility in their culture and specific ethnotaxa used to treat a variety of illnesses and promote general good health in their communities. Throughout history aboriginal people have been the custodians of bio-diversity and have sustained healthy life-styles in an environmentally sustainable manner. However this knowledge has not been transferred to modern society. We suggest this may be due to the asymmetry between scientific and TK, which demands a new approach that considers the assemblage of TK and scientific knowledge. A greater understanding of TK is beginning to emerge based on our research with both the Irulas and Malasars; they believe that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment. These aboriginal groups chose to share this knowledge with society-at-large in order to promote a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability.

  11. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  12. Tanzanian Botanical Derivatives in the Control of Malaria Vectors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper report on assessment of the chemicals derived from Tanzanian botanical resource as a viable source of safe, environmentally friendly and low cost mosquitocidal agents, but has yet to be developed into simple blends and formulations to be used in malaria control campaigns. Selection of bioactive plant species ...

  13. High-Throughput Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Inhibition Assay for Assessing Drug-Drug and Drug-Botanical Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  15. Extraction of DNA from honey and its amplification by PCR for botanical identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Arun Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiochemical and biological properties of honey are directly associated to its floral origin. Some current commonly used methods for identification of botanical origin of honey involve palynological analysis, chromatographic methods, or direct observation of the bee behavior. However, these methods can be less sensitive and time consuming. DNA-based methods have become popular due to their simplicity, quickness, and reliability. The main objective of this research is to introduce a protocol for the extraction of DNA from honey and demonstrate that the molecular analysis of the extracted DNA can be used for its botanical identification. The original CTAB-based protocol for the extraction of DNA from plants was modified and used in the DNA extraction from honey. DNA extraction was carried out from different honey samples with similar results in each replication. The extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using plant specific primers, confirming that the DNA extracted using the modified protocol is of plant origin and has good quality for analysis of PCR products and that it can be used for botanical identification of honey.

  16. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Current knowledge of burn injury first aid practices and applied traditional remedies: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Abdullah E; AlShomer, Feras; Alhujayri, Abdulaziz K; Addar, Abdullah; Aljerian, Albaraa

    2016-01-01

    Burn first aid awareness has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a report on the knowledge and practices of the Saudi population with regard to burn first aid and the application of traditional remedies. An internet-based survey was conducted to assess the public's knowledge on first aid practices and home remedies applied for burn injuries among Saudi adults. A total of 2758 individuals responded to the survey. There were 1178 (42.7 %) respondents who had previously received burn first aid information. One thousand five hundred fifty respondents had a history of burn exposure in which burn injury first aid was applied as follows: 1118 (72.1 %) removed clothing and accessories from the injured area; water was applied by 990 (63.9 %); among those who applied water, 877 (88.6 %) applied cold water; and only 57 (5.8 %) did so for more than 15 min. Wrapping the burn area was performed by 526 (33.9 %), and 985 (63.5 %) sought medical assistance. When it comes to traditional remedies, 2134 (77.4 %) knew of and/or implemented these remedies as first aid or to treat burns. Honey and toothpaste were the commonest among these remedies with 1491 (69.9 %) and 1147 (53.7 %), respectively. This was associated with female gender ( r  = 0.87, P  first aid. Proper burn first aid is a simple, cheap, and accessible means of managing burns initially. Although the majority of the respondents were university graduates (51.1 %), knowledge and implementation of burn first aid was very poor. Major healthcare agencies should review and promote a consistent guideline for burn first aid in an effort to tackle and minimize the effect of this grave injury.

  18. Traditional Knowledge of Local Wisdom of Ammatoa Kajang Tribe (South Sulawesi) about Environmental Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtikanti, H. K.; Syulasmi, A.; Ramdhani, N.

    2017-09-01

    Education may improve the knowledge how to build the people attitude especially environmental aware surrounding it. The aim was to study about environmental education of the local wisdom people in conserving their environment. The method was qualitative descriptive using second document, questioner/interview instrument and field observation. This research is done in local wisdom of Ammatoa Kajang village (South Sulawesi). The respondens were eldery people (tetua adat), local governmentand people(15 adult couplesand 15children). The majority of local people was educated at elementary school. Environmental education is studied in school, however informal education is heritated from eldery people. The field study showed that the people keep the environment wisely. It can be proved with the presence of sacred forest, waste recycle, moor (tegalan) maintainance, mutual cooperation, no natural resource exploitation, keep clean, etc. The people submissive customs rules and believe that people will get punishment form environment itself. In conclusion, traditional knowledge from community is implemented in caring the environment

  19. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and...

  20. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

  1. Probability of identification: a statistical model for the validation of qualitative botanical identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBudde, Robert A; Harnly, James M

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative botanical identification method (BIM) is an analytical procedure that returns a binary result (1 = Identified, 0 = Not Identified). A BIM may be used by a buyer, manufacturer, or regulator to determine whether a botanical material being tested is the same as the target (desired) material, or whether it contains excessive nontarget (undesirable) material. The report describes the development and validation of studies for a BIM based on the proportion of replicates identified, or probability of identification (POI), as the basic observed statistic. The statistical procedures proposed for data analysis follow closely those of the probability of detection, and harmonize the statistical concepts and parameters between quantitative and qualitative method validation. Use of POI statistics also harmonizes statistical concepts for botanical, microbiological, toxin, and other analyte identification methods that produce binary results. The POI statistical model provides a tool for graphical representation of response curves for qualitative methods, reporting of descriptive statistics, and application of performance requirements. Single collaborator and multicollaborative study examples are given.

  2. Ecological Resource and its realization in the Botanical Garden of the Voronezh State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Andrey Alekseevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers components of environmental resource of the Botanical Garden of Voronezh State University in connection with its introductional activity and scientific and educational process. The components include collections, expositions, area of natural vegetation typical of forest-steppe zone. The article provides examples of ecological resource use that is study of vascular plants flora, mosses, lichens, fungi, fauna and of ecological and biological characteristics of collection plants, with priority for rare and endangered species. There is also description of field training and work practices, excursions, talks. Special attention is given to Botanical Garden potential in tourist and excursion arrangement as well as development of ecological vision. 13 items of environmental and educational path were identified and described which include all natural ecosystems and old dendrology collections, fallow lands. The excursions themes for all other collections of the Botanical Garden were named. Real perspectives for science research were defined.

  3. DECONSTRUCTING THE IDEOLOGY OF RESISTANCE SHOWN BY THE PEOPLE LIVING AT CANDIKUNING VILLAGE TO THE MANAGEMENT OF EKA KARYA BALI BOTANICAL GARDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sujana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The people living at Candikuning Village are not involved in the management of the Eka Karya Bali Botanical Garden; however, they intend to enjoy the retribution which is received by the Botanical Garden, for which they show their resistance to the management. This article is intended to understand the ideology which has inspired the local people to argue that they are entitled to the retribution received by the Eka Karya Bali Botanical Garden.  The data were collected through in-depth interview, observation, and documentation techniques. The data were critically analyzed using the deconstruction method. Based on the analysis of the facts which had inspired the resistance shown by the local people living at Candi Kuning Village to the management of the Bali Eka Karya Botanical Garden, it could be understood that the geopolitical ideology was used as the basis of the resistance. Therefore, the management of the Bali Eka Karya Botanical Garden should give some of the retribution they received to the local people. The Botanical garden is located at Candikuning Village or part of the area of Candikuning Village. However, the village had never received any retribution from the Botanical Garden. The management should remember the proverb “di mana bumi dipijak di situ langit dijunjung” (we should adjust ourselves to the environment where we stay, based on the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana, meaning that the management should give retribution to the temple located at the area of the Botanical Garden.

  4. Amerindian and Afro-American perceptions of their traditional knowledge in the Chocó biodiversity hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camara Leret, Rodrigo; Copete Maturana, Juan; Balslev, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The Chocó biodiversity hotspot is one of the most biodiverse and threatened regions on Earth, yet the traditional knowledge (TK) of its inhabitants about biodiversity remains little studied. The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) aims to integrate different...... knowledge systems, including scientific and TK, to assess the state of the planet's biodiversity. We documented the TK of three ethnic groups: Afro-Colombians (n=86 participants), and Amerindian Emberá (n=88) and Tsa’chila (n=52), focusing on their perceptions about (i) the most important palms, (ii...... use, palm materials were absent in Afro-Colombian and Tsa’chila homes, and were being increasingly replaced in Emberá homes. In all three cultures, it was generally believed that TK was not being transmitted to the younger generations. In aggregate, the current perceptions of decreasing transmission...

  5. Active ingredients from natural botanicals in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W-L; Zhu, L; Jiang, J-G

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is considered as a chronic disease that can induce a series of comorbidities and complications. Chinese medicine has long clinical experiences in the treatment of obesity. This review summarizes the natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that are reported to have anti-obesity effects in the past two decades. Botanic TCM comprises 90% of total Chinese crude drugs, and generally contains various active ingredients, in which the effective anti-obesity ingredients identified can be divided into saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, polyphenols and others. Astragaloside IV, glycyrrhizin, macrostemonoside A, berberine, betaine, capsaicin, matrine, methyl piperate, piperine, rutaecarpine, asimilobine, epigallocatechingallate, magnolol, resveratrol, soybean-isoflavone, α-linolenic acid, emodin, geniposide, phillyrin, salidroside and ursolic acid are specified in this review, and their sources, models, efficacy are described. It is concluded that the mechanisms of these components for the treatment of obesity include: (i) suppression of appetite, increase of satiety, reduction of energy intake; (ii) reduction in the digestion and absorption of exogenous lipid; (iii) attenuation of the synthesis of endogenous lipid; (iv) promotion of the oxidation and expenditure of lipid and (v) improvement of lipid metabolism disorder. Authors believe that the effective compounds from TCM will provide an alternative and hopeful way for the treatment of obesity. © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. The Use of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Forest Management: an Example from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Rist

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many forest communities possess considerable knowledge of the natural resources they use. Such knowledge can potentially inform scientific approaches to management, either as a source of baseline data to fill information gaps that cannot otherwise be addressed or to provide alternative management approaches from which scientists and managers might learn. In general, however, little attention has been given to the relevance of quantitative forms of such knowledge for resource management. Much discussion has focused on the integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK into management, but less attention has been paid to identifying specific areas where it is most useful and where it may be most problematic. We contrasted scientific data with information from TEK in the context of a threat to the sustainable harvesting of a nontimber forest product (NTFP of livelihood importance in southern India, specifically, a fruit tree infected by mistletoe. The efficiency of deriving information from NTFP harvesters compared to scientific field studies was assessed. We further evaluated the potential of TEK to provide novel solutions to the management problem in question, the degree to which TEK could provide quantitative information, and the biases that might be associated with information derived from TEK. TEK complemented previously gathered ecological data by providing concordant and additional information, but also contradicted some results obtained using a scientific approach. TEK also gave a longer-term perspective with regard to NTFP harvesting patterns. Combining information on historical and current harvesting trends for the NTFP with official data suggests that current assessments of sustainability may be inaccurate and that the use of diverse information sources may provide an effective approach to assessing the status of harvested resources.

  7. A history of shaker nurse-herbalists, health reform, and the american botanical medical movement (1830-1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Martha M

    2009-12-01

    During the mid 19th century, herbal remedies were the platform for a major health reform movement in America known as the Botanical Medical Movement (BMM). A number of histories have been written on the BMM from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. This article describes the history of nurse-herbalism during the period and the impact that Shaker nurses, in particular, had on the BMM. The article traces the history and findings of a triangulated case study. Shaker nurses used herbs extensively in their caring and curing practices. They applied the botanical remedies recommended by BMM leaders. The nurses were also expert herbal medicine makers who used their own remedies in patient care. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' behind-the-scenes research and development laboratory for the Shaker herbal cottage industry, which ultimately developed into an international, entrepreneurial endeavor. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' organized proving ground for the implementation of the botanical health reforms of the mid 19th century. The nurse-herbalists' contribution to the promotion and production of herbal remedies had a significant impact on the success of botanical health reform in America.

  8. Anylisis of botanical composition and nutrient content on natural pastures in Samosir Island of Samosir Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, N. D.; Tafsin, M.; Hutasuhut, U.; Lubis, E.

    2018-02-01

    Samosir regency is one of the areas that have large grazing area. The potential of grazing production in the area plays an important role for the development of livestock, especially on ruminant livestock.The study aims to know the botanical composition and the nutritional content of forage on natural pasture at the Samosir Island. Animal feed assessment method on natural pastures in Samosir regency includes the determination of research location points based on the altitude through the survey method. Location of the study amounted to 15 locations. The result showed that at altitude 905 - 1200 meters above sea level had a botanical composition were 31 species with ratio of grass 80.58 %, legumes 9.14 % and weeds 9.63 % and the most dominant forage is Imperata cylindrica l. The botanical composition at altitude more than 1205 meters above sea level is 15 species with ratio of grass 92.72 %, legumes 2.87 % and weeds 4.39 % and the most dominant forage is Axonopus compressus. The forage which has the highest crude protein is Starkuak 15.13 %. The conclusion that the altitude in pastures give effect on the botanical composition of forages.

  9. Traditional ecological knowledge among Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden about vascular plants grazed by reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Inga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge about how reindeer utilize forage resources was expected to be crucial to reindeer herders. Seventeen Sami reindeer herders in four reindeer herding communities in Sweden (“samebyar” in Swedish were interviewed about plants species considered to be important reindeer food plants in scientific literature. Among 40 plant species, which the informants were asked to identify and indicate whether and when they were grazed by reindeer, they identified a total of 21 plant taxa and five plant groups. They especially recognised species that were used as human food by the Sami themselves, but certain specific forage plants were also identified. Detailed knowledge of vascular plants at the species level was surprisingly general, which may indicate that knowledge of pasture resources in a detailed species level is not of vital importance. This fact is in sharp contradiction to the detailed knowledge that Sami people express for example about reindeer (as an animal or snow (as physical element. The plausible explanation is that observations of individual plant species are unnecessarily detailed information in large-scale reindeer pastoralism, because the animals graze freely under loose herding and border surveillance.

  10. Student self-reported communication skills, knowledge and confidence across standardised patient, virtual and traditional clinical learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Michelle; Brundage, Shelley B; Spitalnick, Josh; Allen, Peter J; Beilby, Janet

    2016-02-27

    Advanced communication skills are vital for allied health professionals, yet students often have limited opportunities in which to develop them. The option of increasing clinical placement hours is unsustainable in a climate of constrained budgets, limited placement availability and increasing student numbers. Consequently, many educators are considering the potentials of alternative training methods, such as simulation. Simulations provide safe, repeatable and standardised learning environments in which students can practice a variety of clinical skills. This study investigated students' self-rated communication skill, knowledge, confidence and empathy across simulated and traditional learning environments. Undergraduate speech pathology students were randomly allocated to one of three communication partners with whom they engaged conversationally for up to 30 min: a patient in a nursing home (n = 21); an elderly trained patient actor (n = 22); or a virtual patient (n = 19). One week prior to, and again following the conversational interaction, participants completed measures of self-reported communication skill, knowledge and confidence (developed by the authors based on the Four Habit Coding Scheme), as well as the Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Health Professionals (student version). All three groups reported significantly higher communication knowledge, skills and confidence post-placement (Median d = .58), while the degree of change did not vary as a function of group membership (Median η (2)  communication skill, knowledge and confidence, though not empathy, following a brief placement in a virtual, standardised or traditional learning environment. The self-reported increases were consistent across the three placement types. It is proposed that the findings from this study provide support for the integration of more sustainable, standardised, virtual patient-based placement models into allied health training programs for the training of

  11. Botanical Polyphenols Mitigate Microglial Activation and Microglia-Induced Neurotoxicity: Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Dennis Y; Simonyi, Agnes; Cui, Jiankun; Lubahn, Dennis B; Gu, Zezong; Sun, Grace Y

    2016-09-01

    Microglia play a significant role in the generation and propagation of oxidative/nitrosative stress, and are the basis of neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Upon stimulation by endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), these cells release pro-inflammatory factors which can exert harmful effects on surrounding neurons, leading to secondary neuronal damage and cell death. Our previous studies demonstrated the effects of botanical polyphenols to mitigate inflammatory responses induced by LPS, and highlighted an important role for cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) upstream of the pro-inflammatory pathways (Chuang et al. in J Neuroinflammation 12(1):199, 2015. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0419-0 ). In this study, we investigate the action of botanical compounds and assess whether suppression of cPLA2 in microglia is involved in the neurotoxic effects on neurons. Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to test the neurotoxicity of conditioned medium from stimulated microglial cells, and WST-1 assay was used to assess for the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells. Botanicals such as quercetin and honokiol (but not cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, 3CG) were effective in inhibiting LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and phosphorylation of cPLA2. Conditioned medium from BV-2 cells stimulated with LPS or IFNγ caused neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells. Decrease in cell viability could be ameliorated by pharmacological inhibitors for cPLA2 as well as by down-regulating cPLA2 with siRNA. Botanicals effective in inhibition of LPS-induced NO and cPLA2 phosphorylation were also effective in ameliorating microglial-induced neurotoxicity. Results demonstrated cytotoxic factors from activated microglial cells to cause damaging effects to neurons and potential use of botanical polyphenols to ameliorate the neurotoxic effects.

  12. Knowledge and Practice of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. One of the strategies Ministries of Health and their partners have adopted with the aim of promoting safe motherhood since the 1980's is training unskilled traditional birth attendants (TBAs). However, the assumption that training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) would contribute greatly to reduce maternal ...

  13. Ethno-Botanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants In The Plant Genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethno-botanical uses and mode of administration of twenty-nine medicinal plants found in the arboretum of the Plant Genetic Resource Centre located at Bunso in the Eastern region of Ghana against some disease conditions are hereby documented. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, arboretum, Ghana. Nig.

  14. Botanical Sources for Alzheimer's: A Review on Reports From Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Sahragard, Ali; Namdari, Aida; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2017-11-01

    Herbal medicines for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have attracted considerable attention nowadays. Alzheimer's disease is described in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) by the term Nesyān. In this study, 5 main medicinal medieval Persian manuscripts were reviewed to filter plants reported for the treatment of Nesyān. Databases were searched for related possible mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants. Each herb was searched for along with these keywords: "acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibition," "antioxidant," "anti-inflammatory," and "anti-amyloidogenic." In Total, 44 herbs were used for the treatment of Nesyān; 40 of those were authenticated. Also, 30 plants had at least one of the mechanisms of action that were searched for or related pharmacological functions known for the treatment of AD. In this work, we introduce promising candidates in TPM that could undergo further investigation for identification of their active compounds and clinical validation in the treatment of AD.

  15. Recommendations for Development of Botanical Polyphenols as "Natural Drugs" for Promotion of Resilience Against Stress-Induced Depression and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-09-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that psychological stress has detrimental effects on psychological health, cognitive function, and ultimately well-being. While stressful events are a significant cause of psychopathology, most individuals exposed to adversity maintain normal psychological functioning. The mechanisms underlying such resilience are poorly understood, and there is an urgent need to identify and target these mechanisms to promote resilience under stressful events. Botanicals have been used throughout history to treat various medical conditions; however, the development of botanical compounds into potential preventative and therapeutic agents in studies promoting brain health is hindered by the fact that most orally consumed botanicals are extensively metabolized during absorption and/or by post-absorptive xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, the primary objective of this review article is to provide recommendations for developing natural compounds as novel therapeutic strategies to promote resilience in susceptible subjects. The development of botanical polyphenols to ultimately attenuate mood disorders and cognitive impairment will rely on understanding (1) the absorption and bioavailability of botanical polyphenols with emphasis on flavan-3-ols, (2) the characterization of tissue-specific accumulation of biologically available polyphenols and their mechanisms of action in the brain, and eventually (3) the characterization of biologically available polyphenol metabolites in mechanisms associated with the promotion of resilience against mood disorders and cognitive impairment in response to stress. We also summarize exciting new lines of investigation about the role of botanicals such as polyphenols in the promotion of cognitive and psychological resilience. This information will provide a strategical framework for the future development of botanicals as therapeutic agents to promote resilience, ultimately preventing and/or therapeutically treating

  16. The Botanic Garden of Tver State University

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova O M; Notov A A

    2004-01-01

    The Botanic Garden of Tver State University is situated at the meeting place of the Volga and Tvertza rivers. It is one of the main green spaces of Tver. The history of the Garden goes back to 1879. It was planted by the merchant Ilya Bobrov at the former territory of Otroch monastery. After the October Revolution the Garden be- came national property and was used as a leisure center. The main planting occurred between 1938 and 1941 but a great number of plants disappeared during ...

  17. Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā for the treatment of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Niteen Ramdas; Mishra, Debendranath

    2016-01-01

    Mādhava is regarded as a 7(th) century Indian Physician who composed two treatises (in Sanskrit) on Ayurveda, the Mādhava Nidāna and Mādhava Cikitsā. The former treatise deals with the diagnosis of diseases while the latter with the treatment using medicinal plants and other recipes. In Mādhava Cikitsā, a common Sanskrit name is found to describe two or more totally different botanical plant species (thus leading to ambiguity) and a distinct botanical species is also found to represent two or more Sanskrit names at several instances. The present paper deals with the correct botanical identification (most probable) of Sanskrit named plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā for the treatment of Diarrhoea (Atisāra Cikitsā). The authentic manuscripts of 'Mādhava Cikitsā' were critically studied for the present research outcome. A detailed literature survey is carried out from various references and texts. The list of Sanskrit named plants contains 103 names, while after the critical study and assigning the most probable botanical identification as per ICBN, the list of plant species described in the text for the treatment of Diarrhoea is found to contain 73 names. The present study will certainly benefit Ayurvedic medical practitioners and pharmaceutical companies in selection of proper plant species avoiding substitutions for drug formulation.

  18. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Tuscan bee pollen of different botanic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Domenici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the apicultural products, the honey bee-pollen is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. For the first time, bee-pollen samples from Tuscany (Italy were studied to evaluate botanical origin, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. The investigated pollen loads were composed of three botanical families: Castanea, Rubus and Cistus.The highest levels of proteins and lipids were detected in Rubus pollen. Castanea pollen contained greater polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content, while the highest flavonols level wasdetected in Cistus pollen. These results were also confirmed by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, used here, for the first time, as a fast tool to characterize bee-pollens.

  19. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila-Viçosa Carlos M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved.

  20. The important of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosmann; Andrew Groover

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support...

  1. A survey of ethnoveterinary botanical remedies in Ogun State and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four villages were visited during a cross sectional survey of ethno veterinary botanical remedies used for the management of animal diseases in four local government areas randomly selected cutting across the four geopolitical zones in Ogun State. A total of 323 households were purposively selected and ...

  2. Botanical investigations related to the Isua mining project, 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christian; Simonsen, Caroline Ernberg

    Botanical field studies were carried out in August 2011 and September 2012 in connection with the proposed mining activities at Isua in West Greenland. The aim was both to register and map rare and endemic vascular plants, and to localize vulnerable vegetation types. The vegetation and the flora...

  3. Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Sige; Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Ingram, Donald K.; Yu, Binbing

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano–cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet su...

  4. A preliminary checklist of macrofungi of Guatemala, with notes on edibility and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Arzú R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its biological wealth, current knowledge on the macromycetes inhabiting Guatemala is scant, in part because of the prolonged civil war that has prevented exploration of many ecological niches. We provide a preliminary literature–based checklist of the macrofungi occuring in the various ecological regions of Guatemala, supplemented with original observations reported here for the first time. Three hundred and fifty species, 163 genera, and 20 orders in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota have been reported from Guatemala. Many of the entries pertain to ectomycorrhizal fungal species that live in symbiosis with the several Pinus and Quercus species that form the extensive pine and mixed forests of the highlands (up to 3600 m a.s.l.. As part of an ongoing study of the ethnomycology of the Maya populations in the Guatemalan highlands, we also report on the traditional knowledge about macrofungi and their uses among native people. These preliminary data confirm the impression that Guatemala hosts a macrofungal diversity that is by no means smaller than that recorded in better studied neighboring Mesoamerican areas, such as Mexico and Costa Rica.

  5. Colon cancer chemoprevention with ginseng and other botanicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Wargovich, M J

    2001-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is becoming increasingly common in Asian countries and still remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Efforts to prevent colon cancer have targeted early detection through screening and chemoprevention. For the last ten years our laboratory has utilized an in vivo screening assay for the testing of potential cancer preventives for colon cancer. We have conducted investigations on over 150 compounds including many with botanical or herbal origin...

  6. A three-stage-integrative approach for the identification of potential hepatotoxic compounds from botanical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yecheng; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yufeng; Li, Xiang; Nie, Xiaojing; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui

    2011-05-01

    With the increasing use of herbal medicines and dietary supplements, intensive concerns about their potential toxicities have been raised. Screening and identifying the toxic compounds from these botanical products composed by hundreds of components have become a critical but challenging problem. In this study, 3 methods, including fraction separation, an in-house-developed fluorescein diacetate-based automatic microscopy screening (FAMS) platform, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based compounds identification were integrated within the Three-Stage-Integrative (TSI) approach for the identification of potential hepatotoxicants from botanical products. The sensitivity and linear range of FAMS assay was validated and compared with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay by previously reported hepatotoxic compounds. The success of TSI approach was further demonstrated by its application to Fructus aristolochiae. Aristolochic acid IVa and aristolodione were tentatively identified to be potential hepatotoxicants in this plant. These applications suggested that our TSI approach provides an effective tool for identifying potential toxic compounds from botanical products.

  7. Sustainability or Colonialism? Legislative obstacles to research and development of natural products and patents on traditional knowledge in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Tomazini Pedrollo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHistorically, developed countries have benefited from the biodiversity and traditional knowledge of developing countries. Since the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD was approved, the world-view regarding access to biological resources has changed. This change marked the introduction of legal agreements regarding access to genetic resources, traditional knowledge and benefit sharing, seeking a fair return for owners and local communities. Unfortunately, as with most national laws, these legal devices complicated collection programs and research initiatives, and diminished the emphasis on the discovery of natural products. There remains a lack of discussion on the establishment of a fair international market value for the access to genetic resources. While Brazil still has advantages and opportunities in this arena, the issue sets barriers for research and development. The protective measures are being reviewed in the project bill 7735/2014, which brings improvements, yet it is still controversial. For this short communication we consulted journals, conference proceedings, as well as scientific and journalistic magazines to report some of the disastrous consequences of the implementation of national laws regarding CBD. We suggest a new focus for decision-making policies based on more efficient field inspections, the empowerment of traditional communities and further associated research in order to ensure the claims of CBD as well as to ratify the Nagoya Protocol.

  8. Effect of integration of cultural, botanical, and chemical methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted from November 2011 to June 2013 to evaluate the effects of botanical, cultural, and chemical methods on termite colony survival, crop and wooden damage, and other biological activities in Ghimbi district of western Ethiopia. The termite mounds were dug and the following treatments were ...

  9. Botanical indices of ploidy levels in some African accessions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-nine accessions of Oryza punctata Kotschy ex Steud, from local and other African habitats were studied to establish the attributes that can delineate the two ploidy levels based on agro-botanical, foliar epidermal and nodal anatomical characteristics. The diploid plants of O. punctata are early-maturing annuals with a ...

  10. Estimating sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to determine an appropriate sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical survey for application in the Mixed Bushveld of South Africa. Species density and grass density were measured using a small-quadrat method in eight plant communities in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve.

  11. The ethics of improving African traditional medical practice: scientific or African traditional research methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Aceme

    2009-11-01

    The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.

  12. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  13. Medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Jacobo-Herrera, Frida E; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-02-17

    Cancer cases numbers are increasing worldwide positioning this disease as the second cause of mortality for both sexes. Medicinal plants have been used in the fight against cancer as the basis for drug discovery and nowadays more than 70% of anticancer drugs have a natural origin. Mexico is regarded for its cultural and biological diversity, which is reflected in the vast traditional knowledge of herbal remedies. In this review we examined herbal remedies employed in colorectal cancer treatment (CRC). The goal of this work was to gather scientific reports of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for CRC treatment. We performed a search on scientific literature databases using as keywords: "colon cancer", "gastric cancer", "cytotoxicity", studies "in vitro and in vivo", in combination with "Mexican medicinal plants" or "Mexican herbal remedies". The selection criteria of cytotoxic activity for extracts or pure compounds was based on the National Cancer Institute of USA recommendations of effective dose 50 (ED50) of ≤20μg/mL and ≤4μg/mL, respectively. In this review we report 25 botanic families and 39 species of plants used for the treatment of colon cancer in Mexico with evidence in studies in vitro and in vivo. Medicinal plants are still a great source of novel chemical structures with antineoplastic potential as it is proven in this work. The selection criteria and activity was narrowed for methodological purposes, nevertheless, drug discovery of natural origin continues to be a highly attractive R&D strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa with special emphasis on the contributions of the Botanical Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. B. Killick

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available Five papers cover different aspects of the contributions to and role of botany in the development of the Republic of South Africa. Two papers sum up the contributions for the non-agricultural and agricultural sectors. The introductory paper by D. J. B. Killick provides a short historical account of the Botanical Research Institute, followed by a discussion of the contributions of the Institute to botany in South Africa through its National Herbarium and identification service as well as researches in taxonomy, plant anatomy, cyto-genetics, ecology, economic botany and data processing. B. de Winter emphasizes the fundamental role of taxonomy and bio-systematics for planning and the optimal use of the natural plant resources. The current support for taxonomy and biosystematics is examined and proposals made for improving progress in the Flora of Southern Africa series. For plant physiology, N. Grobbelaar discusses, firstly, the ways whereby the productivity of a plant species with its characteristic genetic constitution can be raised by determining and modifying for optimal response the effects of environmental factors such as spacing, mineral nutrition, water provision, etc.; and, secondly, usually when the first means has been achieved, of improving plant productivity by altering the genetic constitution of the plant so that it can perform better than its ancestors under the prevailing conditions. After discussing and illustrating the applications and roles of plant ecology, D. Edwards concludes that basic plant ecological research is required, firstly, at the regional level through regional plant ecological studies to supply the essential local knowledge needed by researchers, planners and users of the land; and, secondly, at the more detailed level where knowledge is needed of the processes and factors that govern the behaviour of vegetation so that it can be properly used, managed and manipulated. M. J. Wells discusses the role of economic

  15. Biopiracy and the ethics of medical heritage: the case of India's traditional knowledge digital library'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2012-09-01

    Medical humanities have a central role to play in combating biopiracy. Medical humanities scholars can articulate and communicate the complex structures of meaning and significance which human beings have invested in their ways of conceiving health and sickness. Such awareness of the moral significance of medical heritage is necessary to ongoing legal, political, and ethical debates regarding the status and protection of medical heritage. I use the Indian Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a case study of the role of medical humanities in challenging biopiracy by deepening our sense of the moral value of medical heritage.

  16. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Pilot Study of Cannabidiol-rich Botanical Extract in the Symptomatic Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Peter M; Iqbal, Tariq; Nwokolo, Chuka; Subramanian, Sreedhar; Bloom, Stuart; Prasad, Neeraj; Hart, Ailsa; Murray, Charles; Lindsay, James O; Taylor, Adam; Barron, Rachel; Wright, Stephen

    2018-03-19

    Cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties that could improve disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept study assessed efficacy, safety and tolerability of CBD-rich botanical extract in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Patients aged 18 years or older, with left-sided or extensive UC, Mayo scores of 4-10 (endoscopy scores ≥1), and on stable 5-aminosalicylic acid dosing, were randomized to 10-weeks' CBD-rich botanical extract or placebo capsules. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients in remission after treatment. Statistical testing was 2-sided, using a 10% significance level. Patients were less tolerant of CBD-rich botanical extract compared with placebo, taking on average one-third fewer capsules, and having more compliance-related protocol deviations (principally insufficient exposure), prompting identification of a per protocol (PP) analysis set. The primary endpoint was negative; end of treatment remission rates were similar for CBD-rich botanical extract (28%) and placebo (26%). However, PP analysis of total and partial Mayo scores favoured CBD-rich botanical extract (P = 0.068 and P = 0.038, respectively). Additionally, PP analyses of the more subjective physician's global assessment of illness severity, subject global impression of change, and patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes were improved for patients taking CBD-rich botanical extract (P = 0.069, P = 0.003, and P = 0.065, respectively). Adverse events (AEs) were predominantly mild/moderate with many in the CBD-rich botanical extract group potentially attributable to the ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. A greater proportion of gastrointestinal-related AEs, indicative of UC worsening, was seen on placebo. Although the primary endpoint was not reached, several signals suggest CBD-rich botanical extract may be beneficial for symptomatic treatment of UC.

  17. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  18. Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abies semenovii B. Fedtsch. (Pinaceae is an extremely rare flora species of the Central Asia (Kirghizia; it has been cultivated at the Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS since 1949, where it was first introduced into general cultivation. Since 2000, upon reaching the age of 43 years, the seed reproduction of the plants is being marked. An X-ray test proved seeds, collected in 2014, to be filled and full. In spring 2015, first time in the 67 years of cultivating this specie in St. Petersburg area, first young crops were received. Abies semenovii – a cold hard and decorative tree – has to be introduced into the gardening of St. Petersburg and shall be promoted into the Karelia and further to the northern regions of the European part of the Russian Federation.

  19. Recommendations for Development of Botanical Polyphenols as “Natural Drugs” for Promotion of Resilience Against Stress-Induced Depression and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Libby; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that psychological stress has detrimental effects on psychological health, cognitive function, and ultimately well-being. While stressful events are a significant cause of psychopathology, most individuals exposed to adversity maintain normal psychological functioning. The mechanisms underlying such resilience are poorly understood, and there is an urgent need to identify and target these mechanisms to promote resilience under stressful events. Botanicals have been used throughout history to treat various medical conditions; however, the development of botanical compounds into potential preventative and therapeutic agents in studies promoting brain health is hindered by the fact that most orally consumed botanicals are extensively metabolized during absorption and/or by post-absorptive xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, the primary objective of this review article is to provide recommendations for developing natural compounds as novel therapeutic strategies to promote resilience in susceptible subjects. The development of botanical polyphenols to ultimately attenuate mood disorders and cognitive impairment will rely on understanding (1) the absorption and bioavailability of botanical polyphenols with emphasis on flavan-3-ols, (2) the characterization of tissue specific accumulation of biologically available polyphenols and their mechanisms of action in the brain, and eventually (3) the characterization of biologically available polyphenol metabolites in mechanisms associated with the promotion of resilience against mood disorders and cognitive impairment in response to stress. We also summarize exciting new lines of investigation about the role of botanicals such as polyphenols in the promotion of cognitive and psychological resilience. This information will provide a strategical framework for the future development of botanicals as therapeutic agents to promote resilience, ultimately preventing and/or therapeutically treating

  20. Perceptions of climate change by highland communities in the Nepal Himalaya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uprety, Y.; Shrestha, U. B.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Shrestha, S.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Thakali, A.; Cockfield, G.; Asselin, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2017), s. 649-661 ISSN 1756-5529 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10280S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : climate change * local communities * traditional knowledge Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  1. Legislation relating to nutraceuticals in the European Union with a particular focus on botanical-sourced products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Om P.; Berry Ottaway, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or food ingredients that have defined physiological effects. They do not easily fall into the legal categories of food or drug and often inhabit a grey area between the two. These products in general terms cover health promotion, 'optimal nutrition' the concept of enhanced performance - both physically and mentally - and reduction of disease risk factors. In this paper the focus is mainly on legislation governing botanical-sourced nutraceuticals in the European Union (EU). Nutraceutical concept in general has been defined. Different pieces of legislation influencing botanical nutraceuticals are described. The issue of the borderline between food and drug is discussed. The regulatory status of botanical nutraceuticals as food supplement, food ingredient, functional and fortified food, novel foods and foods for particular nutritional use in the diversified, complex and ever-changing European regulatory environment is described. Botanical nutraceuticals present additional problems because of their complex nature and composition particularly with respect to the quality aspects, which in turn affect safety parameters and overall efficacy of the products. Quality issues relating to botanical sources, growth conditions, end products, their specifications and other technical criteria are highlighted. Guiding principles to be observed for conducting in vitro, in vivo studies in animals and their impact on clinical safety data are discussed. Finally, health claims, their types and criteria of substantiation in light of ongoing discussions with regard to the EU frame work of regulation on nutrition and health claims and role of process for the assessment of scientific support for claims (PASSCLAIM) initiative is discussed. The concept of grading of evidence to substantiate different claims and to establish standards, which should not be revoked or reversed by emerging science at a later stage has been considered. These issues are crucial and are being

  2. Geographical and Botanical Origin of Apis mellifera (Apidae) Honey in four Colombian Departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Montoya, Paula Maria; Chamorro, Fermin J; Ramirez, Nedy; Giraldo, Catalina; Obregon, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find palynological markers which permit differentiate honeys from the departments of Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Santander and Magdalena, by its geographical and botanical origin. Melissopalynological analyses were made of 184 honey samples obtained from 131 localities. A discriminant analysis and comparisons between the species composition of honey samples were made to find geo-graphical and botanical origin differences. A total of 297 pollen species distributed in 69 families was found, being Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. and Quercus humboldtii the most representatives. The major families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae and Melastomataceae. Six honey groups differentiated by its geographical origin were found: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Comunera Province. In a broader scale, honeys from the Andean and sub-Andean regions could be differentiated as well. Between the honey types differentiated by its botanical origin, the most important were monofloral honeys of Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. and Heliocarpus americanus, Asteraceae oligofloral honeys and mixtures of Q. humboldtii honeydew and floral nectar (Eucalyptussp., Brassicaceae Type, Asteraceae). This information in addition to the obtained by physico-chemical and sensorial analysis, may be the basis to acquire honeys' origin denomination.

  3. Where Language Touches the Earth: Folklore and Ecology in Tohono O'odham Plant Emergence Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Jennifer L.

    1996-01-01

    The historical and ecological relationships between the Tohono O'odham and the Sonoran desert landscape are expressed in the stories they tell. The Tohono O'odham have lived in the deserts of southwestern Arizona and northern Mexico for centuries, interacting with their environment and gaining intimate knowledge of desert botanical communities. Many of these interactions are dramatized in their traditional oral narratives. I have characterized those traditional oral narratives that illustrate...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINSENG AND POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and Asia, but the use of these products is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. Because these products are classified as dietary supplements, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not routinely...

  5. A Botanical Treasure Hunt: A Fun and Educational Tree Identification Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marty; Gaynor, John J.; Cribben, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Shares an approach to tree identification that can be adapted to use with all levels from middle school through college. Stresses student involvement and cooperation in a botanical scavenger hunt. Describes the development of the treasure map and how to use the guide sheet. (DDR)

  6. Fourier-transform imaging of cotton and botanical and field trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical and field cotton trash comingled with cotton lint can greatly reduce the marketability and quality of cotton. Trash can be found comingled with cotton lint during harvesting, ginning, and processing, thus this study is of interest. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (A...

  7. Extraction of Botanical Pesticides from Pelargonium graveolens using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machalová, Zdeňka; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Topiař, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, MAY (2015), s. 310-317 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : botanical pesticides * geranium oil * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  8. Evaluation of some bioagents and botanicals in in vitro control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collectotrichum destructivum has not been effectively controlled. This led to trials on the use of bioagents and botanicals to control the pathogen. The bio-agents such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma pseudokoningii were inoculated as dixenic culture with the ...

  9. Evaluating the Effects of Climate Change on Indigenous Marine Mammal Hunting in Northern and Western Alaska Using Traditional Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P. Huntington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Iñupiaq, Yup'ik, and Cup'ik hunters in 14 Alaska Native communities described a rapidly changing marine environment in qualitative traditional knowledge interviews conducted over the course of a decade with 110 individuals. Based on their observations, sea ice conditions are the most notable change, with later freeze-up, thinner and less reliable ice, and earlier and more rapid break-up. Marine mammal populations in northern and western Alaska have been affected by changes in the physical environment, with alterations to migratory timing and routes, distribution, abundance, health, and behavior. Despite these changes, marine mammal populations in the region remain generally healthy and abundant. For hunters, access is the biggest challenge posed by changing conditions. Sea ice is less safe for travel, particularly for more southerly communities, making hunting more dangerous or impossible. Rapid break-up has reduced the time available for hunting amid broken ice in spring, formerly a dependable and preferred season. Social change also affects the ways in which hunting patterns change. Increased industrial development, for example, can also alter marine mammal distribution and reduce hunting opportunity. Reduced use of animal skins for clothing and other purposes has reduced demand. More powerful and reliable engines make day trips easier, reducing the time spent camping. An essential component of adjustment and adaptation to changing conditions is the retention of traditional values and the acquisition of new information to supplement traditional knowledge. Our findings are consistent with, and add detail to, what is known from previous traditional knowledge and scientific studies. The ways in which hunters gather new information and incorporate it into their existing understanding of the marine environment deserves further attention, both as a means of monitoring change and as a key aspect of adaptation. While the changes to date have been

  10. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  11. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa | Demissew | Bulletin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa.

  12. Perceptions of the value of traditional ecological knowledge to formal school curricula: opportunities and challenges from Malekula Island, Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarter Joe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK into formal school curricula may be a key tool for the revitalisation of biocultural diversity, and has the potential to improve the delivery of educational objectives. This paper explores perceptions of the value of TEK to formal education curricula on Malekula Island, Vanuatu. We conducted 49 interviews with key stakeholders (local TEK experts, educators, and officials regarding the use of the formal school system to transmit, maintain, and revitalise TEK. Interviews also gathered information on the areas where TEK might add value to school curricula and on the perceived barriers to maintaining and revitalising TEK via formal education programs. Results Participants reported that TEK had eroded on Malekula, and identified the formal school system as a principal driver. Most interviewees believed that if an appropriate format could be developed, TEK could be included in the formal education system. Such an approach has potential to maintain customary knowledge and practice in the focus communities. Participants identified several specific domains of TEK for inclusion in school curricula, including ethnomedical knowledge, agricultural knowledge and practice, and the reinforcement of respect for traditional authority and values. However, interviewees also noted a number of practical and epistemological barriers to teaching TEK in school. These included the cultural diversity of Malekula, tensions between public and private forms of knowledge, and multiple values of TEK within the community. Conclusions TEK has potential to add value to formal education systems in Vanuatu by contextualising the content and process of curricular delivery, and by facilitating character development and self-awareness in students. These benefits are congruent with UNESCO-mandated goals for curricular reform and provide a strong argument for the inclusion of TEK in formal school systems. Such

  13. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shujaul M; Page, Sue; Ahmad, Habib; Shaheen, Hamayun; Ullah, Zahid; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Harper, David M

    2013-01-10

    Mountain ecosystems all over the world support a high biological diversity and provide home and services to some 12% of the global human population, who use their traditional ecological knowledge to utilise local natural resources. The Himalayas are the world's youngest, highest and largest mountain range and support a high plant biodiversity. In this remote mountainous region of the Himalaya, people depend upon local plant resources to supply a range of goods and services, including grazing for livestock and medicinal supplies for themselves. Due to their remote location, harsh climate, rough terrain and topography, many areas within this region still remain poorly known for its floristic diversity, plant species distribution and vegetation ecosystem service. The Naran valley in the north-western Pakistan is among such valleys and occupies a distinctive geographical location on the edge of the Western Himalaya range, close to the Hindu Kush range to the west and the Karakorum Mountains to the north. It is also located on climatic and geological divides, which further add to its botanical interest. In the present project 120 informants were interviewed at 12 main localities along the 60 km long valley. This paper focuses on assessment of medicinal plant species valued by local communities using their traditional knowledge. Results revealed that 101 species belonging to 52 families (51.5% of the total plants) were used for 97 prominent therapeutic purposes. The largest number of ailments cured with medicinal plants were associated with the digestive system (32.76% responses) followed by those associated with the respiratory and urinary systems (13.72% and 9.13% respectively). The ailments associated with the blood circulatory and reproductive systems and the skin were 7.37%, 7.04% and 7.03%, respectively. The results also indicate that whole plants were used in 54% of recipes followed by rhizomes (21%), fruits (9.5%) and roots (5.5%). Our findings demonstrate the

  14. Dose requirements for microbial decontamination of botanical materials by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, D.; Katusin-Razem, Branka

    2002-01-01

    Microbial contamination levels and corresponding resistivities to irradiation (expressed as dose required for the first 90% reduction, D first 9 0% r ed ) were analyzed in a number of various botanical materials. The following generalizations could be made: total aerobic plate count is the most informative measure of contamination; the probability of contamination depends on available surface of the material and processing history: flowers and leaves usually contain more contamination than fruits and seeds, while crude herbs contain more than extracts; liquid extracts are more contaminated than dry ones. At the same time, resistivity to irradiation increases approximately in the reverse order of contamination level on going from flowers and leaves, to fruits and seeds, to liquid and dry extracts. The two quantities, probability of contamination and D first 9 0% r ed being inversely related, the treatment dose needed to reduce initial contamination to tolerable level amounts to between 4 and 30 kGy under a typical scenario, and between 8 and 40 kGy under the worst-case scenario for the whole range of raw materials and botanical products

  15. Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetam Sarkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ayurveda contains a wealth of knowledge on health sciences. Accordingly traditional foods and their dietary guidelines are prescribed in Ayurveda. There is so much similarity in ayurvedic dietetics and traditional foods that many of the traditional health foods in India can be called ayurvedic foods. This review article introduces the concepts of ayurvedic health foods in India and describes several traditional heath foods across various regions of India. Recommended dietary guidelines according to age and health condition of the consumer, and seasonal considerations are presented for each of the traditional health foods of India. In the era of globalization of the population and international food trading, health conscious citizens around the globe will benefit from the wealth of knowledge on traditional Indian and ayurvedic health foods of Indian origin.

  16. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on HIV prevention practices among traditional birth attendants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-02-10

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.

  18. Traditional ecological knowledge underlying herding decisions of pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamou, C; de Boer, I J M; Ripoll-Bosch, R; Oosting, S J

    2018-04-01

    Pastoralists have traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), which is important for their livelihoods and for policies and interventions. Pastoralism is under pressure, however, which may result in a decline of pastoral lifestyle and its related TEK. We, therefore, addressed the following objectives (i) to inventorise and assess how pastoralists characterise and value soils and forages in their environment, (ii) to analyse how soil, forage and livestock (i.e. cattle) characteristics relate to herding decisions and (iii) to determine whether TEK underlying herding decisions differs across generations. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with 72 pastoralists, belonging to three generations and to three agro-ecological zones. Using a three-point scale (high, medium, low), four grasses and three tree forages were assessed in terms of nutritional quality for milk, meat, health and strength. Using their own visual criteria, pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Pastoralists stated that Pokuri was the best soil because of its low moisture content, whereas Karaal was the worst because forage hardly grows on it. They stated that perennials, such as Andropogon gayanus and Loxoderra ledermannii, were of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals such as Andropogon pseudapricus and Hyparrhenia involucrata were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana was perceived of high quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest quality for meat, health and strength. Pastoralists first used soil, then forage and finally livestock characteristics in their herding decisions. Pastoralists' TEK was not associated with their generations, but with their agro-ecological zones. This study suggests that pastoralists had common and detailed TEK about soils, forages and livestock characteristics, underlying their herding decisions. To conclude, pastoralists use a holistic

  19. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  20. Effect of some botanical extracts on post-harvest losses of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two storage experiments in an improved yam barn were carried out simultaneously at two locations in southern Nigeria to determine the influence of cultivar, botanical storage treatments and storage environments on the shelf life of yam (Dioscorea rotundata). The experiments were conducted from January to July.

  1. Botanical composition of feed of camels and nutritive value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the feeding of camel herds was carried in the pastoral area of Agadez in Niger. The aim of the study was to describe the botanical composition of daily feed of camels on rangeland during three seasons (hot dry season, cold dry season and rainy season) and to assess the chemical composition and nutritional ...

  2. Botanical Extracts as Medical Countermeasures for Radiation Induced DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    20 Figure 9: CYP3A4 inhibition HPLC assay for GSE4 and LT ..................................................... 21...the final stages of this project, Dr. John Arnason at the University of Ottawa for preliminary botanicals information and HPLC data, Aimee Jones for...flavanols, flavonols, stilbenes (resveratrol) and phenolic acids (31, 32). Previous studies have shown that proanthocyanidin (oligomer chain of flavonoid

  3. Effects of Botanical Insecticides on Hymenopteran Parasitoids: a Meta-analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsreal-Ceballos, R J; Ruiz-Sánchez, E; Ballina-Gómez, H S; Reyes-Ramírez, A; González-Moreno, A

    2018-02-10

    Botanical insecticides (BIs) are considered a valuable alternative for plant protection in sustainable agriculture. The use of both BIs and parasitoids are presumed to be mutually compatible pest management practices. However, there is controversy on this subject, as various studies have reported lethal and sublethal effects of BIs on hymenopteran parasitoids. To shed new light on this controversy, a meta-analytic approach of the effects of BIs on adult mortality, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence under laboratory conditions was performed. We show that BIs increased mortality, decreased parasitism, and decreased parasitoid emergence. Botanical insecticides derived from Nicotiana tabacum and Caceolaria andina were particulary lethal. Most of the parasitoid groups showed susceptibility to BIs, but the families Scelionidae and Ichneumonidae were not significantly affected. The negative effects of BIs were seen regardless of the type of exposure (topical, ingestion, or residual). In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that under laboratory conditions, exposure of hymenopteran parasitoids to BIs had significant negative effects on adult mortality, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants from the Mountain Botanical Garden in Zakopane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Zubek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of 77 plant species collected from the Mountain Botanical Garden of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Zakopane (southern Poland was surveyed. These plants include rare, endemic and threatened species in the Tatra Mts. (the Western Carpathians and are maintained in the botanical garden in order to develop effective methods of protection and cultivation. Plants belonging to Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Juncaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae and Woodsiaceae families were nonmycorrhizal. 41 species formed AM symbiosis. Spores of nine AMF spccies (Glomeromycota, including Archaeospora trappei, Glomus aggregatum, G. claroideum, G. constrictum, G. deserticola, G. geosponrum, G. microcarpum, G. mosseae and G.rubiforme were isolated for the first time from this region of Poland. In addition, the occurrence of the fine endophyte, G. tenue was detected in roots of 18 species from the study area, although formation of arbuscules by this fungus was observed rarely. AM fungi were sporadically accompanied by dark septate endophytes (DSE. 70% of nonmycorrhizal plant sepcies were devoid of DSE.

  5. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): a database for ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S J; Erickson, Sean D; Tolopko, Andrew N; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E; Eisenberg, David M

    2011-05-17

    Ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): A Database for Ethnobotanically-Driven Drug-Discovery Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S. J.; Erickson, Sean D.; Tolopko, Andrew N.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E.; Eisenberg, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study. Ethnobotanically-driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine-Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. Materials and Methods. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. Results. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. Conclusions. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically-driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. PMID:21420479

  7. Uso e conhecimento tradicional de plantas medicinais no Sertão do Ribeirão, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil Use and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants at Sertão do Ribeirão, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Giraldi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um estudo etnobotânico sobre o uso e o conhecimento tradicional de plantas medicinais no Sertão do Ribeirão, uma comunidade de origem açoriana, inserida no domínio da Mata Atlântica e localizada dentro dos limites do Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri. Foram realizadas 13 entrevistas com moradores do Sertão do Ribeirão, sendo identificadas 114 espécies de plantas medicinais, distribuídas em 48 famílias botânicas. A diversidade de plantas medicinais conhecida no Sertão do Ribeirão é bastante elevada e a obtenção das plantas na própria comunidade sugere uma forte correlação entre uso e conhecimento tradicional de plantas medicinais e a possibilidade de obtê-las no local. O conhecimento etnobotânico sobre plantas medicinais não difere entre homens e mulheres e o uso de medicamentos industrializados e de plantas medicinais indica uma complementaridade entre a medicina moderna e a medicina popular. A transmissão do conhecimento feita na própria comunidade, com pais/avós e vizinhos, demonstra uma rica herança cultural local sobre plantas medicinais.The aim of this research was to do an ethnobotanical study on the use and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants at Sertão do Ribeirão, an Azorean community, inserted in the Atlantic Forest domain and located within the boundaries of Lagoa do Peri Municipal Park. A total of 13 interviews were made with residents of Sertão do Ribeirão, identifying 114 species of medicinal plants, distributed in 48 botanical families. The diversity of medicinal plants known at Sertão do Ribeirão is quite high and the collection of plants by the community suggests a strong correlation between use and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and the possibility of local gathering. Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants does not differ between women and men and the use of industrialized medicine and medicinal plants indicates a complementarity

  8. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Traditional Uses of Plants from the Genus Trachelospermum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefeng Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to review advances in the botanical, phytochemical, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of the genus Trachelospermum. Until now, 138 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants, particularly from T. asiaticum and T. jasminoides. Among these compounds, lignans, triterpenoids, and flavonoids are the major bioactive constituents. Studies have shown that plants from the genus Trachelospermum exhibit an extensive range of pharmacological properties both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM culture, drugs that include T. jasminoides stems have been used to cure rheumatism, gonarthritis, backache and pharyngitis, although there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Further attention should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the active compounds from genus Trachelospermum.

  9. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Raamsdonk LWD.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual status of enforcement and of the present occurrence of these botanical substances, a survey was carried out. A questionnaire was sent to 103 laboratories, including official control labs from all member states of the European Union. The results, indicating the frequency of occurrence as far as reported, are compared to the publications of the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF. A total of 44 questionnaires was returned (42.7% from 22 member states. Ten member states predominantly from north-western Europe appeared to have an active monitoring of botanical undesirable substances. The questionnaire results did not indicate that the other member states enforce this part of Directive 2002/32/EC. Reports on the frequency of occurrence include: a few to 25-50% of the samples contain traces of ergot (8 member states, a few to 24% contain at least some traces of thorn apple (6 member states, zero to 17% contain some castor oil plant seeds (3 member states, zero to a few samples contain Crotalaria seeds (3 member states, and zero to 6% contain traces of Sareptian mustard (4 member states. One member state conducted extra surveillance since several cases of animal intoxications have been reported. In some cases a coincidence with undesirable botanical substances was found.

  10. Potentiality of botanical agents for the management of post harvest insects of maize: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya, P Lakshmi; Sekhar, J C; Kumar, P; Sunil, N; Prasad, Ch Vara; Mallavadhani, U V

    2016-05-01

    Natural products derived from plants are emerging as potent biorational alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the integrated management of post harvest insects of maize. In this paper, effectiveness of botanicals including plant extracts, essential oils, their isolated pure compounds, plant based nano formulations and their mode of action against storage insects have been reviewed with special reference to maize. Plant based insecticides found to be the most promising means of controlling storage insects of maize in an eco friendly and sustainable manner. This article also throws light on the commercialization of botanicals, their limitations, challenges and future trends of storage insect management.

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with ... ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health care providers ... botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and metabolites. Dietary supplements can also ...

  13. Climate change: linking traditional and scientific knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riewe, R. R. (Roderick R.); Oakes, Jill E. (Jill Elizabeth)

    2006-01-01

    This book includes papers written by over 50 community experts and scientists addressing theoretical concerns, knowledge transfer, adapting to climate change, implications of changing weather, water...

  14. Evaluation of some bioagents and botanicals in in vitro control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... culture with the pathogen to monitor antagonistic effect. In another experiment, botanicals of tobacco. (Nicotiana tabacum) and castor plant (Ricinus communis) were incorporated as poison in a growth media. Of all the four bio-agents used, only P. fluorescens was able to inhibit the growth of the pathogen.

  15. Traditional and formal ecological knowledge to assess harvesting and conservation of a Mexican Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Ortiz, Columba; García-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angélica; Luna-Cavazos, Mario; Monroy, Rafael

    2018-05-15

    This research integrates Traditional and Formal Ecological Knowledge (TEK / FEK) of a Tropical Dry Forest in central Mexico, in order to assess harvesting and conservation of the non-timber forest species. We were interested in: knowing the structure and diversity of the forest community; identifying which are the tree resources of common interest to the users through participatory workshops. A further interest was to identify those resources which are important to local people in terms of preservation; explaining the relationship of the species with some environmental factors; and visualizing which management practices endanger or facilitate the conservation of species. Studied areas were defined and labelled on a map drawn by local informants, where they indicated those plant species of common interest for preservation. Ethnobotanical techniques were used to reveal the TEK and assess harvesting and conservation of the species. With the FEK through community and population ecology, we detected the importance of five environmental factors, obtained various ecological indicators of the vegetation, and studied the population structure of the relevant species. The FEK was analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. As a result, low density and small basal area of trees were registered. Species richness and diversity index were similar to other natural protected areas in Mexico. Tree species harvested shown an asymmetric distribution of diameters. Harvesting, elevation, and accessibility were the most influential factors on tree density. FEK demonstrated that TEK is helpful for the assessment of forest harvesting. Ecological analysis complemented the local knowledge detecting that Lysiloma tergemina is a species non-identified for the people as interesting, although we discover that it is a threatened species by over-harvesting. Haematoxylum brasiletto was identified as important for conservation due to its scarcity and medicinal use. Our results advanced

  16. Reduce conflicts in traditional merariq traditions through the long tradition of the tribal people of sasak lombok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Nadiroh, Ulin; Saeun Fahmi, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Marriage is a container for framing the inner-to-heart relationship, the bond of love and affection between a man and woman to nurture a joy of happiness. This study aims to find out how the process and stages in traditional merariq traditions in the Sasak people, conflicts arising from merariq traditions, and reduce conflict through the tradition of selabar. The method used in this research is qualitative analysis method. In the process, merariq tradition is done by kidnapping the bride without the knowledge of the parents or the family of the women. There are several stages that must be passed by the bride and groom in the tradition merariq, namely: besejati, nyelabar, bait wali, sorong serah dan nyongkolang. Conflict that often arises, for internal family, merariq often become a place of coercion against the female family. For society, merariq impact on disruption of harmony of social life. In order to reduce the conflicts done selabar tradition, the tragedy is regarded as an alternative problem solving in the form of negotiations between the bride and groom’s family and the bride-to-be relating to ajikrame and pisuke transactions.

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health ... are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  18. Wild Musa Species Collection of Purwodadi Botanic Garden: Inventory and Its Morpho - taxonomic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia, being part of the center of origin of bananas (Musaceae, has a large number diversity of bananas both wild seeded species and edible seedless cultivated varieties. Inventory of wild Musa species in Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been conducted through compiling data records from PBG’s Registration section, field inspection and observation to living collections in the garden, herbarium specimens and literature studies. The results show that total 17 wild Musa accessions has been recorded planted in Purwodadi Botanic Garden since 1990 until 2012; comprises of 8 Musa acuminata sub species, 2 Musa balbisiana forms, 1 Musa ornata, 1 Musa troglodytarum, 1 Musa borneensis and 4 unidentified species Musa spp.; but only 8 living accessions remained in 2012. Morphotaxonomic review of those 8 wild Musa accessions remained will be discussed in this paper including their geographical distributions. According to its differentiated morphological characteristics observations, it is known that there are three accessions were resembled cultivars and one unidentified species have been determined its species level, so that their registration identity needs to be revised. It is important next to prioritize ex-situ conservation of wild Musa species not yet collected in Purwodadi Botanic Garden especially from Eastern Indonesia.

  19. Biological and cultural diversity in the context of botanic garden conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Dunn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of global climate change, habitat loss, and other environmental changes on the world's biota and peoples continue to increase, especially on islands and in high elevation areas. Just as floristic diversity is affected by environmental change, so too are cultural and linguistic diversity. Of the approximately 7000 extant languages in the world, fully 50% are considered to be at risk of extinction, which is considerably higher than most estimates of extinction risks to plants and animals. To maintain the integrity of plant life, it is not enough for botanic gardens to consider solely the effects of environmental change on plants within the context of major conservation strategies such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Rather, botanic gardens should actively engage in understanding and communicating the broader impacts of environmental change to biological and cultural diversity.

  20. Botanicals With Dermatologic Properties Derived From First Nations Healing: Part 1-Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Sophia; Rivers, Jason K

    First Nations people have a long history of working with medicinal plants used to treat skin diseases. The purpose was to assess the dermatologic therapeutic potential of western red cedar, white spruce, birch, balsam poplar, and black spruce. Based on expert recommendations, 5 trees were selected that were used in First Nations medicine for cutaneous healing and have potential and/or current application to dermatology today. We searched several databases up to June 12, 2014. Western red cedar's known active principal compound, β-thujaplicin, has been studied in atopic dermatitis. White spruce's known active principal compound, 7-hydroxymatairesinol, has anti-inflammatory activity, while phase II clinical trials have been completed on a birch bark emulsion for the treatment of actinic keratoses, epidermolysis bullosa, and the healing of split thickness graft donor sites. Balsam poplar has been used clinically as an anti-aging remedy. Black spruce bark contains higher amounts of the anti-oxidant trans-resveratrol than red wine. North American traditional medicine has identified important botanical agents that are potentially relevant to both cosmetic and medical dermatology. This study is limited by the lack of good quality evidence contributing to the review. The article is limited to 5 trees, a fraction of those used by First Nations with dermatological properties.

  1. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  2. The influence of socioeconomic factors on the conservation of traditional knowledge: a cross scale comparison of palm use in Northwestern South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae) at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered...

  3. A Garden of Stories: An English Lesson in a Botanical Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Five middle school teachers are among the few people wandering around the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, squinting at labels describing the plants that will bloom soon. The author and her colleagues are on a reconnaissance mission, trying to plan an interdisciplinary field trip for the seventh grade. They represent different departments--science, math,…

  4. Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human health when used in food and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten

    In April 2009, EFSA published on its website a Compendium of botanicals reported to contain toxic, addictive, psychotropic or other substances of concern. The purpose of the Compendium is to assist risk assessors responsible for the evaluation of specific ingredients in food supplements, in more...... one lists botanicals for which, although some data were available, the Scientific Committee could not identify substances of concern, or other reasons for the inclusion in the compendium. This new “Compendium of botanicals reported to contain naturally occuring substances of possible concern for human...... health” replaces the first version published in 2009; it lists in alphabetical order botanicals without any judgment on whether they are suitable or not suitable for food applications in Europe; it has no legal or regulatory force pertaining to the legal classification of products or substances....

  5. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  6. Impact of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanganyado, Edmond; Teta, Charles; Masiri, Busani

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies show cultural worldviews are a key determinant of environmental risk perceptions; thus, they could influence climate change adaptation strategies. African traditional worldviews encourage harmony between humans and the environment through a complex metaphysical belief system transmitted through folklore, taboos, and traditional knowledge. However, African traditional worldviews hold a belief in traditional gods that was shown to have a low connectedness to nature and a low willingness to change. In Makueni District, Kenya, 45% of agropastoralists surveyed believed drought was god's plan and could not be changed. In contrast, traditional knowledge, which is shaped by African traditional worldviews, is often used to frame adaptive strategies such as migration, changing modes of production, and planting different crop varieties. Furthermore, traditional knowledge has been used as a complement to science in areas where meteorological data was unavailable. However, the role of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaption remains understudied. Hence, there is a need to systematically establish the influence of African traditional worldviews on climate change risk perception, development of adaptive strategies, and policy formulation and implementation. In this commentary, we discuss the potential impacts of African traditional worldviews on climate change adaptation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:189-193. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  7. [European Union regulatory and quality requirements for botanical drugs and their implications for Chinese herbal medicinal products development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union(EU), and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Development of traditional Chinese medicine clinical data warehouse for medical knowledge discovery and decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Chen, Shibo; Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Runsun; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Ping; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Zhuye; Yan, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a scientific discipline, which develops the related theories from the long-term clinical practices. The large-scale clinical data are the core empirical knowledge source for TCM research. This paper introduces a clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, which incorporates the structured electronic medical record (SEMR) data for medical knowledge discovery and TCM clinical decision support (CDS). We have developed the clinical reference information model (RIM) and physical data model to manage the various information entities and their relationships in TCM clinical data. An extraction-transformation-loading (ETL) tool is implemented to integrate and normalize the clinical data from different operational data sources. The CDW includes online analytical processing (OLAP) and complex network analysis (CNA) components to explore the various clinical relationships. Furthermore, the data mining and CNA methods are used to discover the valuable clinical knowledge from the data. The CDW has integrated 20,000 TCM inpatient data and 20,000 outpatient data, which contains manifestations (e.g. symptoms, physical examinations and laboratory test results), diagnoses and prescriptions as the main information components. We propose a practical solution to accomplish the large-scale clinical data integration and preprocessing tasks. Meanwhile, we have developed over 400 OLAP reports to enable the multidimensional analysis of clinical data and the case-based CDS. We have successfully conducted several interesting data mining applications. Particularly, we use various classification methods, namely support vector machine, decision tree and Bayesian network, to discover the knowledge of syndrome differentiation. Furthermore, we have applied association rule and CNA to extract the useful acupuncture point and herb combination patterns from the clinical prescriptions. A CDW system consisting of TCM clinical RIM, ETL, OLAP and data mining as the core

  9. Plantago major in Traditional Persian Medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafian, Younes; Hamedi, Shokouh Sadat; Farshchi, Masoumeh Kaboli

    2018-01-01

    Plantago major has been used widely since ancient times, to manage a wide range of diseases including constipation, coughs and wounds. The aim of this study is to review the traditional application, botanical characterization, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry effects and toxicity of Plantago major. In this review study, medicinal properties of Plantago major are collected from credible pharmacopeias, textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) belonging to the 10–18th century AD, such as “The Canon of Medicine”, “Makhzan-Al- Advia” and so on. Moreover, electronic databases including Scopus, Medline and Web of science were explored for this purpose. Plantago major has been prescribed in various forms such as roasted seeds, decoction, syrup, liniment, gargle, rectal enema, vaginal suppository, eye and nasal drop for each illness by TPM scholars. Some of its traditional properties including wound healing, antipyretic, antitussive, anti-infective, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, astringent and hemostatic have been confirmed in recent researches. Phytochemical investigations showed that Plantago major contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies have proven some of the traditional applications of Plantago major. Nevertheless, more investigations are required on this plant, because it has the potential to be used to produce various natural medications. PMID:29629064

  10. The effectiveness of continuing training for traditional birth attendants on their reproductive health-care knowledge and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Wang, Jung-Der; Ward, Aimee Lou; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chiang, Hung-Che; Kolola-Dzimadzi, Rose; Nyasulu, Yohane M Z; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung

    2011-10-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of continuing training for traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on their reproductive knowledge and performance. Mzuzu Central Hospital in the northern region of Malawi. PARTICIPANTS AND ANALYSIS: a total of 81 TBAs trained during 2004 and 2006 in Mzuzu, Malawi received continuing training courses. Their reproductive knowledge was assessed by a structured questionnaire during 2004 and 2007. A multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was constructed to determine the associations between their reproductive knowledge scores and age, years of education, time since the last training course, test frequency and number of babies delivered. from July 2004 to June 2007, a total of 1984 pregnant women visited these trained TBAs. A total of 79 (4.0%) mothers were referred to health facilities before the birth due to first-born or difficult pregnancies. No maternal deaths occurred among the remaining mothers. There were 26 deaths among 1905 newborn babies, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 13.6 per 1000 live births. The GEE model demonstrated that knowledge scores of TBAs were significantly higher for TBAs under the age of 45 years, TBAs with more than five years of education, TBAs who had taken a training course within one year, and TBAs with a higher test frequency. continuing training courses are effective to maintain the reproductive knowledge and performance of trained TBAs. It is recommended that continuing training should be offered regularly, at least annually. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  12. Research highlights from the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women’s Health: Black cohosh from the field to the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Norman R; Mahady, Gail B.

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy at the College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois (UIC) at Chicago was funded to establish a Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Center from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The emphasis of the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research (CBDSR) is botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for women's health. Center’s research has focused on BDS that may improve women's health and quality of life, specifically in the areas of menopause, premenstrual syndrome, and persistent urinary tract infections. Center investigators have overcome many challenges associated with botanical dietary supplements research, including acquiring and identifying plant species for investigation, isolating and identifying active constituents, elucidating the mechanisms of action of these botanicals, and conducting phase I and phase II clinical studies. Black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae)] has been used as a model to illustrate the steps involved in taking a botanical dietary supplement from the field, all the way to clinical trials. Bioassays are described that were necessary to elucidate the pertinent biological studies of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action. The Center has used an innovative multidisciplinary approach to this type of research, and thus has been very successful in fulfilling its specific aims. PMID:20161501

  13. Determination of silicon in biological and botanical reference materials by epithermal INAA and Compton suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Peshev, S.; Becker, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon determination in sixteen botanical and biological standard reference materials is described using the 29 Si(n, p) 29 Al reaction through instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression gamma-ray spectroscopy. By simultaneous utilization of both cadmium and boron epithermal filters along with anticoincidence gamma-counting, detection limits as low as 12 ppm were obtained for certain matrices, much lower than previously reported values for this type of analysis. The method is applicable to many botanical and biological matrices and is attractive with its interference free, purely instrumental nature, compared with methods using the 28 Si(n, p) 28 Al reaction or chemical separation techniques. ((orig.))

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF SYNTHETIC AND BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST SUCKING INSECT PEST AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES ON COTTON CROP

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Baker; A. H. Makhdum; M. Nasir; A. Imran; A. Ahmad; F. Tufail

    2016-01-01

    The Synthetic and botanical insecticides are relatively safer for environment and beneficial insects. The study was conducted in Rahim Yar Khan during the cotton cropping season 2014 to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two Synthetic insecticides i.e. Nitenpyram (Jasper 10% SL) and Pyriproxyfen (Bruce 10.8% EC) and two botanical extracts of Calotropic procera and Azadirachta indica, against sucking insect pest complex of cotton and their natural enemies. Upon reaching economic thresholds, ...

  15. An Improved Botanical Search Application for Middle-and High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A previously reported botanical data retrieval application has been improved to make it better suited for use in middle-and high-school science classes. This search interface is ring-structured and treats multi-faceted metadata intuitively, enabling students not only to search for plant names but also to learn about the morphological features and…

  16. The preventive Control of White Root Rot Disease in Small Holder Rubber Plantation Using Botanical, Biological and Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The preventive control of white root rot disease in small holder plantation using botanical, biological, and chemical agents. A field and laboratory experiment were conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 in Panumangan, Tulang Bawang - Lampung. The  field experiment was intended to evaluate the effect of  botanical plants (Alpinia galanga, Sansiviera auranthii, and Marantha arundinacea, biological agents (organic matter and Trichoderma spp., and chemical agents (lime and natural sulphur on the incidence of white root rot disease and population of some soil microbes. The laboratory experiment was conducted  to observe the mechanism of botanical agents  in controlling white root rot disease. In the field experiment, the treatments were applied  in the experimental plot with cassava plant infection as the indicator. The variables  examined were the incidence of  white root rot and population of soil microbes. In the laboratory experiment, culture of R. microporus was grown in PDA containing root exudate of the antagonistic plant (botanical agent. The variable examined was colony diameter of R. microporus growing in the PDA plates. The results of the  field experiment  showed that planting of the botanical agents, and application of Trichoderma spp., as well as natural sulphur, decreased the incidence of white root rot disease. The effectiveness of M. arundinacea and Trichoderma spp. was comparable to natural  sulphur. The laboratory experiment showed only root exudate of  A. galanga and  S. auranthii that were significantly inhibit the growth of R. microporus.

  17. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn S. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa repens were collected, taxonomically identified and extracts prepared. Effects of the extracts on cell viability were quantitated in prostate cell lines using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay. Combinations of two botanical extracts of the four most active extracts were tested in the 22Rv1 cell line and their interactions assessed using isobolographic analysis. Each extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner except repens. The most active extracts, baicalensis, D. morifolium, G. uralensis and R. rubescens were tested as two-extract combinations. baicalensis and D. morifolium when combined were additive with a trend toward synergy, whereas D. morifolium and R. rubescens together were additive. The remaining two-extract combinations showed antagonism. The four extracts together were significantly more effective than the two-by-two combinations and the individual extracts alone. Combining the four herbal extracts significantly enhanced their activity in the cell lines tested compared with extracts alone. The less predictable nature of the two-way combinations suggests a need for careful characterization of the effects of each individual herb based on their intended use.

  18. Valuation approaches to ecosystem goods and services for the National Botanical Garden, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahzeeda Jasia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main attractions of national parks include their scenic beauty, security, wildlife and trees. For preserving and maintaining national parks, an appropriate pricing policy can be used. The current study focuses on using the travel cost method (TCM and contingent valuation method (CVM as a non-market valuation technique to value the National Botanical Garden in Bangladesh, a developing country where little or no previous works of this kind has been conducted before. The main objective of the paper was to suggest an appropriate entrance fee for the park by assessing the willingness to pay (WTP from the TCM and CVM; by determining a revenue maximizing entrance fee from the CVM; and by considering socio-demographics, the characteristics of visits and the motivation of the visitors to preserve the National Botanical Garden. The study sampled 100 visitors. These visitors participated in a survey which consisted of closed questions followed by a semi structured in-depth interview. For data processing, SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used. Based on the travel cost demand function using the TCM, the study found that the amount respondents were willing to pay for entrance was 0.955 US dollars and yearly consumer surplus was 593634.5 USD. From the CVM, it was estimated that the WTP was 0.225 USD for the entrance and revenue maximizing entrance fee was 0.376 USD. Finally, the entrance fee suggested for National Botanical Garden was around 0.225 USD.

  19. The role of ethnic tourism in the food knowledge tradition of Tyrolean migrants in Treze Tílias, SC, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Elisabeth; Haselmair, Ruth; Pirker, Heidemarie; Vogl, Christian R

    2018-04-06

    Food knowledge and consumption in the context of migration is an important topic in ethnobiological research. Little research is done on the process of how external factors impact food knowledge amongst migrants. Taking into account social organisation and power relations of food knowledge transmission and distribution of food knowledge, this study sheds light on how the accessibility of resources, the predominant cuisine in the host country and ethnic tourism influences the food knowledge tradition of Tyrolean migrants and their descendants in Treze Tílias. Field research was conducted in Austria and Brazil in 2008-2009, using free-listing, social network analysis and participatory observation. The collected data was analysed by calculating Smith's Salience index, visualising personal and social networks and qualitative text analysis. Tyroleans in Austria had a different perception and a higher agreement of what Tyrolean food comprises than Tyroleans in Brazil, indicating different developments: Tyrolean migrants adapted their food habits according to available resources and over time in Brazil. Later, ethnic tourism had a strong impact: In Treze Tílias, dishes with the highest Smith's Salience index-forming the core of cultural food knowledge-strongly coincided with Tyrolean food served in ethnic restaurants, whose staff were perceived to be experts in Tyrolean food. Despite most food knowledge in Treze Tílias was transmitted within families, ethnic food prepared in restaurants and hotels determined the shared perception of what Tyrolean food comprises. Perceived as experts, the staff in ethnic restaurants were in a powerful position to transform cultural food knowledge by providing institutionalised and standardised knowledge about Tyrolean food.

  20. Species of Juglandaceae at Peter the Great Botanic Garden at Apothecaries Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first exotic species of Juglandaceae family at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS in Saint-Petersburg was Juglans regia - mentioned at M. M. Terechovskij ‘s Catalogue in 1796. Twenty five taxa from 4 genera have been tested since then: Carya - 6, Juglans - 14, Platycarya - 1, Pterocarya - 4. There are 14 taxa from 3 genera in modern collection: Carya - 2, Juglans - 9, Pterocarya - 3. All species besides Carya cordiformis and Juglans nigra produce fruits. Four species of Juglans (J. ailanthifolia, J. cinerea, J. cordiformis, J. mandshurica and its hybrids produce self-sowing. There are 2 species, Juglans ailanthifolia and Pterocarya pterocarpa, which are included into the Red Data Book of Russian Federation (2008. They need In situ and Ex situ conservation and may be recommended for Saint-Petersburg’s city planting. There are considerable prospects for both repeated introduction (Carya illinoensis and primary introduction (Juglans sigillata.