Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok
Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....
backgrounds of patients there is a need for mental health professionals to recognize the existence of traditional approaches and be aware of the parallel systems of care. Competent treatment of such patients requires that mental health professionals are aware of this and exhibit a willingness and ability...... to bridge between the more traditional and the Western approaches to treatment. The delineations and various aspects of the concept cultural competence and its dimensions will be discussed from a clinical perspective. Comparative studies of the various Western and the traditional approaches respectively...
Murabito, E.; Smalbone, K.; Swinton, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Steuer, R.
Network-based drug design holds great promise in clinical research as a way to overcome the limitations of traditional approaches in the development of drugs with high efficacy and low toxicity. This novel strategy aims to study how a biochemical network as a whole, rather than its individual
The second section of students had 47 students and was taught using traditional teaching approach. Learning strategy inventory questionnaire which was adapted from strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) L2 students of English, (Oxford, 1990) was employed before and after students were taught using two ...
Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke
Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.
Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Sung-Ho; Baik, Sang-Ho
The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in microbial community and biochemical and physiological properties of traditional Muju black raspberry (Robus coreanus Miquel) vinegar (TMBV) during fermentation by culture-independent methods. During vinegar fermentation, ethanol produced up to 120 g L(-1) until day 35, with continuously increasing yeast concentration to a total of log 7.6 CFU mL(-1) . After day 35, acetic acid bacteria (AAB) concentrations rose to log 5.8 CFU mL(-1) until day 144. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected until day 87 of the fermentation, at which point Acetobacter pasteurianus gradually took over as the dominant species. Total sugar was reduced to 6.6 °Brix and total acidity produced up to 44 g L(-1) . In this study, we established the physicochemical analysis and growth dynamics of yeast and AAB during alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation of black raspberry by a traditional method. Overall, S. cerevisiae and A. pasteurianus species appeared to dominate the TMBV fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a suitable fermentation system for TMBV by the static surface method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Brauman, A.; Keleke, S.; Malonga, M.; Miambi, E.; Ampe, F.
The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lysate, and organic acids (C2 to C4) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultat...
Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.
Feminists claim that national security is a model of masculinity domination, which hardly disputed This essay addresses feminists critique on notion of conventional security and provides feminists own definition. It shows that feminists adopt comprehensive approach in relation to security. They tend
Protein sequences. • Biochemical & Genetic information. REVERSE ENGINEERING. LARGE NETWORKS. FORWARD ENGINEERING. All designs that are not physically forbidden are realizable, but not all realizable designs are functionally effective. (in relation to context and constraints of the system and environment).
Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed a rapid increase in the knowledge of the inherited neurometabolic disorders. The precise diagnosis of these disorders which is a challenge to the physician can be best accomplished by biochemical methods. Screening of clinically selected patients with simple chemical urine tests and routine blood chemistry investigations followed by measurement of specific metabolites and assay of the relevant enzymes confirms the diagnosis in most cases. Biochemical diagnosis of inherited neurometabolic disorders although expensive is rapid and confirmatory and therefore aids in treatment and further prevention of these rare disorders.
Nguyen Hoang Phuong; Nguyen Quang Hoa; Le Dinh Long
In this paper the first results of the statistical approach for Cold-Heat diagnosis standardization as a first work in the ''eight rules diagnoses'' standardization of Traditional Vietnamese Medicine are briefly described. Some conclusions and suggestions for further work are given. 3 refs, 2 tabs
Condie, Rae; Livingston, Kay
Considerable claims have been made for the development of e-learning, either as stand-alone programmes or alongside more traditional approaches to teaching and learning, for students across school and tertiary education. National initiatives have improved the position of schools in terms of access to hardware and electronic networking, software…
Focuses on the comparative use of training from human performance technology (HPT) and traditional training perspectives, based on taxonomy. Concludes that the primary difference is a holistic systems performance improvement approach by eliminating barriers with HPT versus reaction or response to a set of business objectives in traditional…
Ademolu Kehinde O.
Full Text Available The shells of molluscs protect them from physical damage, predators and dehydration. We studied various local uses of shells and their biochemical properties in Abeokuta, Nigeria. A standard structured questionnaire about use was applied to 100 snail and herb sellers and shells from 120 adult individuals of Archachatina marginata, Achatina achatina, Achatina fulica, Littorina littorea, Meretrix lusoria and Merceneria mercenaria were evaluated for their mineral components (Ca2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Na+, Zn+, P+, K+ and proximate composition (crude protein, ash, fibre, crude fat and carbohydrate using standard methods. Properties against fungi and bacteria isolates were also tested. These shells are used for bleaching, brushing, abrasion and others. The weight of the shells varied from 0.5g (L. littorea to 25.00g (A. marginata and thickness from 0.46mm in M .lusoria to 5.35mm in M. mercenaria. We found no inhibitory effect against fungi and bacterial isolates. The molluscs are high in carbohydrates (83.54-92.76g/100g and low in protein (0.16-0.38g/100g. The fat content ranged between 0.42g/100g and 0.82g/100g, and ash between 2.14g/100g and 9.45g/100g. Ca2+ was the most abundant (10.25-96.35mg/g while K+ was the least abundant (0.3-0.7mg/g (p<0.05. Active ingredients of these shells can be used in the feed and construction industries.
Ethnobotany, as a research field of science, has been widely used for the documentation of indigenous knowledge on the use of plants and for providing an inventory of useful plants from local flora in Asian countries. Plants that are used for traditional herbal medicine in different countries are an important part of these studies. However, in some countries in recent years, ethnobotanical studies have been used for the discovery of new drugs and new drug development. In general, experiences gained from ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicinal studies in China and Himalayan countries have helped drug production and new drug development. At the same time, in many cases, over-harvesting, degradation of medical plants, and loss of traditional medical knowledge in local communities are common problems in these resource areas. Issues of indigenous knowledge, intellectual property rights, and uncontrolled transboundary trade in medicinal plants occur frequently in the region. This paper discusses ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicinal studies, in reference to experiences from China and Himalayan countries, with an emphasis on the conservation of traditional medical knowledge and medical plant resources.
Christakou, Charikleia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome of reproductive and metabolic derangements. The combination of anovulation and hyperandrogenism signifies the classic form of PCOS which displays the adverse metabolic phenotype of the syndrome. This phenotype includes visceral obesity and insulin resistance as well as a constellation of other traditional cardiovascular risk factors, mainly low grade inflammation, disturbances of glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The resultant increased risk for cardiovascular disease may affect not only obese but also lean women with classic PCOS. The mechanisms underlying the increased cardiovascular risk in the context of PCOS may include not only metabolic aberrations, but also hormonal factors, in particular hyperandrogenemia. However, the consequences in terms of CV morbidity remain questionable due to the difficulties in conducting long-term, prospective studies aimed at identifying potential late-arriving clinical outcomes.
The traditional method utilized for upgrading existing buildings and equipment involves the following steps: performs structural study using finite element analysis and some in situ testing; compare predicted member forces/stresses to material code allowables; determine strengthening schemes for those structural members judged to be weak; estimate cost for required upgrades. This approach will result in structural modifications that are not only conservative but very expensive as well. The realistic structural evaluation approach uses traditional data to predict structural weaknesses as a final step. Next, using considerable information now available for buildings and equipment exposed to natural hazards, engineering judgments about structures being evaluated can be made with a great deal of confidence. This approach does not eliminate conservatism entirely, but it does reduce it to a reasonable and realistic level. As a result, the upgrade cost goes down without compromising the low risk necessary for vital facilities
Muñoz, Balam; Suárez-Sánchez, Rocío; Hernández-Hernández, Oscar; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ-dysfunction condition caused by a dysregulated response to an infectious condition that can cause complications in patients with major trauma. Burns are one of the most destructive forms of trauma; despite the improvements in medical care, infections remain an important cause of burn injury-related mortality and morbidity, and complicated sepsis predisposes patients to diverse complications such as organ failure, lengthening of hospital stays, and increased costs. Accurate diagnosis and early treatment of sepsis may have a beneficial impact on clinical outcome of burn-injured patients. In this review, we offer a comprehensive description of the current and traditional markers used as indicative of sepsis in burned patients. However, although these are markers of the inflammatory post-burn response, they usually fail to predict sepsis in severely burned patients due to that they do not reflect the severity of the infection. Identification and measurement of biomarkers in early stages of infection is important in order to provide timely response and effective treatment of burned patients. Therefore, we compiled important experimental evidence, demonstrating novel biomarkers, including molecular markers such as genomic DNA variations, alterations of transcriptome profiling (mRNA, miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs), epigenetic markers, and advances in proteomics and metabolomics. Finally, this review summarizes next-generation technologies for the identification of markers for detection of sepsis after burn injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Okeoghene, O.A.; Azenabor, A.
Objective: To determine the frequency of hyperfibrinogenaemia, elevated C-reactive protein, hyperuricaemia and elevated lipoprotein A in a clinic population of patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with healthy controls; and determine the interrelationship between fasting plasma glucose levels and indices of long-term glycaemic control (fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin) in DM. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, from April to June 2009. Methodology: A total of 200 patients with type 2 DM and 100 age and gender matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. Glycaemic control was assessed using fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin levels. The non-traditional risk factors studied included C-reactive protein (CRP), Lipoprotein a (Lpa), serum uric acid (SUA), microalbuminuria and fibrinogen. Mann-whitney, chi-square and Pearson's correlation tests were used for analysis as applicable. Results: Hyperfibrinoginaemia, elevated CRP, LPa, microalbuminuria and hyperuricaemia were present in 3.5%, 65%, 12%, 6% and 57% respectively in type 2 DM. The mean levels of these CV risk factors were significantly higher in subjects with type 2 DM than that of the control subject. There was a positive and significant correlation between HbA1c and FBS (r=0.46, p=0.0001) and HbA1c and fructosamine (r=0.49, p=0.0001). All studied CVS risk factors were related to indices of glycaemic control which were found to be interrelated. Fasting blood glucose significantly correlated with both HbA1c and fructosamine but HbA1c showed better correlation to FPG than fructosamine (r=0.51 vs. 0.32). Conclusion: Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose but not fructosamine are significantly associated with microalbuminuria, fibrinogen SUA and CRP in type 2 DM. HbA1c was found to be better than fructosamine in
Bravi, B.; Sollich, P.
We apply a Gaussian variational approximation to model reduction in large biochemical networks of unary and binary reactions. We focus on a small subset of variables (subnetwork) of interest, e.g. because they are accessible experimentally, embedded in a larger network (bulk). The key goal is to write dynamical equations reduced to the subnetwork but still retaining the effects of the bulk. As a result, the subnetwork-reduced dynamics contains a memory term and an extrinsic noise term with non-trivial temporal correlations. We first derive expressions for this memory and noise in the linearized (Gaussian) dynamics and then use a perturbative power expansion to obtain first order nonlinear corrections. For the case of vanishing intrinsic noise, our description is explicitly shown to be equivalent to projection methods up to quadratic terms, but it is applicable also in the presence of stochastic fluctuations in the original dynamics. An example from the epidermal growth factor receptor signalling pathway is provided to probe the increased prediction accuracy and computational efficiency of our method.
Ram, Srinivasan; Smith, M.E.; Walker, T.F.
The next generation of nuclear plants would be fabricated, constructed and licensed in markedly different ways than the present light water reactors. Non-traditional commercial nuclear industry suppliers, shipyards in Usa and international fabricators, would be a source to supply major components and subsystems. The codes of construction may vary depending upon the prevailing codes and standards used by the respective supplier. Such codes and standards need to be reconciled with the applicable regulations (e.g., 10 CFR 52). A Construction Inspection Program is an integral part of the Quality Assurance Measures required during the Construction Phase of the power plant. In order to achieve the stated cost and schedule goals of the new build plants, a nontraditional multi-national approach would be required. In lieu of the traditional approach of individual utility inspecting the quality of fabrication and construction, a multi-utility team approach is a method that will be discussed. Likewise, a multinational cooperative licensing approach is suggested taking advantage of inspectors of the regulatory authority where the component would be built. The multi-national approach proposed here is based on the principle of forming teaming agreements between the utilities, vendors and the regulators. For instance, rather than sending Country A's inspectors all over the world, inspectors of the regulator in Country B where a particular component is being fabricated would in fact be performing the required inspections for Country A's regulator. Similarly teaming arrangements could be set up between utilities and vendors in different countries. The required oversight for the utility or the vendor could be performed by their counterparts in the country where a particular item is being fabricated
: beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....
Soldi, Monica; Bremang, Michael; Bonaldi, Tiziana
Chromatin is the macromolecular nucleoprotein complex that governs the organization of genetic material in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. In chromatin, DNA is packed with histone proteins into nucleosomes. Core histones are prototypes of hyper-modified proteins, being decorated by a large number of site-specific reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), which contribute to the maintenance and modulation of chromatin plasticity, gene activation, and a variety of other biological processes and disease states. The observations of the variety, frequency and co-occurrence of histone modifications in distinct patterns at specific genomic loci have led to the idea that hPTMs can create a molecular barcode, read by effector proteins that translate it into a specific transcriptional state, or process, on the underlying DNA. However, despite the fact that this histone-code hypothesis was proposed more than 10 years ago, the molecular details of its working mechanisms are only partially characterized. In particular, two questions deserve specific investigation: how the different modifications associate and synergize into patterns and how these PTM configurations are read and translated by multi-protein complexes into a specific functional outcome on the genome. Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a versatile tool to investigate chromatin biology, useful for both identifying and validating hPTMs, and to dissect the molecular determinants of histone modification readout systems. We review here the MS techniques and the proteomics methods that have been developed to address these fundamental questions in epigenetics research, emphasizing approaches based on the proteomic dissection of distinct native chromatin regions, with a critical evaluation of their present challenges and future potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carrillo, Celia; Rey, Raquel; Hendrickx, Marc; Del Mar Cavia, María; Alonso-Torre, Sara
Red beetroot has been ranked among the 10 most potent antioxidant vegetables, although only extraction-based methods have been used to evaluate its total antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the present study aims at comparing the traditional extraction-based method with two more recent approaches (QUENCHER -QUick, Easy, New, CHEap and Reproducible- and GAR -global antioxidant response method), in order to establish their suitability in the case of beetroot. Our results indicate that the total antioxidant capacity of beetroot would be underestimated when using extraction-based procedures, since both QUENCHER and GAR methods resulted in a higher total antioxidant capacity. The effect of a thermal treatment on the total antioxidant capacity of beetroot varies among the methods evaluated and our findings suggest different compounds responsible for the total antioxidant capacity detected in each pre-processing method. Remarkably, the present study demonstrates that the traditional extraction-based method seems useful to screen for (changes in) the "bioavailable" antioxidant potential of the root.
Full Text Available Academic writings indicate that the medicinal use of plants dates back to 4000 - 5000 B.C. (1. Utilization of medicinal herbs has indeed a long history not only in human's life, but also in animals and there are some interesting evidences about the animals' self-medication, in both the prevention and treatment of diseases (2-5. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the importance of traditional medicines and created strategies, guidelines and standards for botanical medicines (6, 7. A significant part of those traditional text dealing with medicine, which were appreciated by ancient scientific communities worldwide, such as The Canon of Medicine by Persian physician–philosopher Ibn Sina (or Avicenna, 980 to 1032 AD, is allocated to herbal medicines. The Canon explores nearly 500 medicinal plants and herbal drugs. It should be noted that this book was used as a medical textbook in Europe until the 17th century AD (8, 9. Although there are important evidences about using some kinds of experimental approaches in traditional medicine (8, the efficacy of such approaches is in doubt because it is generally agreed that they might have been part of physicians' personal experiences. Not only the demand for herbal drugs is growing in developing countries, but also there are some evidences that consumers in developed countries are becoming disillusioned with modern healthcare; hence, the demand for traditional alternatives including herbal medicines is increasing in developing countries (10. On the one hand, the increased interest in herbal medicines throughout the world (10, 11, on the other hand, the need for direct empirical evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the proper statistical society with the appropriate number and method, denote the significance of new studies about medicinal plants and publishing their results. Herbal Medicines Journal (eISSN: 2538-2144 reports valuable research results for researchers all
Cook, G. W.
Mineralogy has traditionally been a primary component in undergraduate geoscience curriculum. In recent years, there has been a trend in which mineralogy and petrology have been combined into Earth Materials courses. This is unfortunate as these disciplines each have much to offer students, and content once considered essential is eliminated out of necessity. Mineralogy is still fundamental to students' understanding of the Earth and Earth processes. Using a modern approach to time-honored concepts, I teach a quarter-long Introductory Mineralogy class offered through the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Student evaluations of this course unequivocally indicate a high degree of learning and interest in the material, confirming that mineralogy continues to be a valuable class into the 21st century. While much of the content remains similar to what has been taught over the last century, my strategy involves a well-balanced approach to old and new. The first third of the course is background including the relevance of mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and crystallography; the second third of the course is systematic mineralogy using the Dana system; the last third of the course is devoted to understanding optical mineralogy, using modern analytical equipment such as XRD and SEM, and learning to use the petrographic microscope. Throughout the quarter, a strong emphasis is placed on the importance of hand-sample identification. Field work, traditionally not emphasized in mineralogy courses, has been re-introduced to the curriculum. I use modern technology to facilitate and support student learning. A lecture-based approach is employed with carefully crafted and organized PowerPoint presentations. PowerPoint lectures can be effective and highly engaging. The key is to ensure that the lectures are not overly reliant on text, instead relying on diagrams, charts, photos, and embedded media such as 3-D animations (ex. to teach
Jenkins, G.I.; Christie, J.M.; Fuglevand, G.; Long, J.C.; Jackson, J.A.
UV and blue light control many aspects of plant growth and development. It is evident that several different photoreceptors mediate responses to UV and blue light, and there are reports of the functional and biochemical characterisation of a putative photoreceptor for phototropism and of the functional and molecular characterisation of the CRY1 photoreceptor, encoded by the Arabidopsis HY4 gene. The CRY1 photoreceptor mediates extension growth and gene expression responses to UV-A/blue light presumably through different or branching signal transduction pathways. Progress has been made in cell physiological and biochemical studies of UV/blue light signal transduction, but much remains to be done to relate candidate UV/blue signal transduction events to particular photoreceptors and responses. The application of a genetic approach in Arabidopsis has been responsible for many advances in understanding UV/blue responses, but further UV-B, UV-A and blue light response mutants need to be isolated. (author)
Schatzel, Kim; Callahan, Thomas; Scott, Crystal J.; Davis, Timothy
An estimated 21% of 25-34-year-olds in the United States, about eight million individuals, have attended college and quit before completing a degree. These non-traditional students may or may not return to college. Those who return to college are referred to as stopouts, whereas those who do not return are referred to as stayouts. In the face of…
Hoag, Lucy M.
The space system design process is known to be laborious, complex, and computationally demanding. It is highly multi-disciplinary, involving several interdependent subsystems that must be both highly optimized and reliable due to the high cost of launch. Satellites must also be capable of operating in harsh and unpredictable environments, so integrating high-fidelity analysis is important. To address each of these concerns, a holistic design approach is necessary. However, while the sophistication of space systems has evolved significantly in the last 60 years, improvements in the design process have been comparatively stagnant. Space systems continue to be designed using a procedural, subsystem-by-subsystem approach. This method is inadequate since it generally requires extensive iteration and limited or heuristic-based search, which can be slow, labor-intensive, and inaccurate. The use of a declarative design approach can potentially address these inadequacies. In the declarative programming style, the focus of a problem is placed on what the objective is, and not necessarily how it should be achieved. In the context of design, this entails knowledge expressed as a declaration of statements that are true about the desired artifact instead of explicit instructions on how to implement it. A well-known technique is through constraint-based reasoning, where a design problem is represented as a network of rules and constraints that are reasoned across by a solver to dynamically discover the optimal candidate(s). This enables implicit instantiation of the tradespace and allows for automatic generation of all feasible design candidates. As such, this approach also appears to be well-suited to modeling adaptable space systems, which generally have large tradespaces and possess configurations that are not well-known a priori. This research applied a declarative design approach to holistic satellite design and to tradespace exploration for adaptable space systems. The
Full Text Available Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM. Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes, Canon of medicine (by Avicenna, ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani, Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi, and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan. Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID, Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease.
Pasalar, Mehdi; Nimrouzi, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran
Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medicine (by Avicenna), ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani), Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi), and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan). Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID), Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease. PMID:27222829
Watsuji, Tadashi; Shinohara, Shoji; Arita, Seizaburo
The primary prevention of disease related to the lifestyle is an essential theme in medical research. Preventing before it arises is the important concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Since TCM, which emphasizes individual physical condition in medical treatment, has recently attracted considerable attention globally, objective diagnostic methods in TCM have been investigated in this work. Firstly, the fuzzy theory was applied to develop a tongue diagnosis supporting system based on the tongue diagnosis in TCM. Secondly, the usefulness of TCM health questionnaire was examined to identify individual physical condition. Our results suggest that the TCM health questionnaire is useful in the construction of a health supporting system based on TCM.
Sapunov, Valentin; Glazyrina, Tatiana
information in space and in time - from the past or the future, however, a diffuse form. The less significant by energy event is, the farther it is remote in time, the less accurate it becomes the transmitted information. Hence: 1. Create in addition to traditional monitoring system for monitoring the behavior of animals that can anticipate disasters natural and anthropogenic genesis based on the properties proscopy. 2. Carry out laboratory investigations of the physical properties of time based on the ideas Kozyrev and other Russian scientists. 3. Some known devices may be used to predict the existing, such as torsion balance. 4. To develop a theoretical framework of proscopy is actual field of both theoretical and applied science.
Dhara, Prakash C; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Pal, Amitava
In India varieties of hand tools have been used to cut the vegetables. Traditional vegetable cutter is a commonly used hand tool which has been used for years in the kitchen. The tool may have some design related problems. The present study was undertaken to reduce those problems. The study objective was to evaluate a new design of traditional vegetable cutters for use in the Indian kitchen. One hundred and fifty Indian women who regularly used a vegetable cutter for cooking purposes participated in this study. The design of the vegetable cutter was modified based on the postural preference of the users and other anthropometric factors including the blade angle, length, breadth and width of the sitting area. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was assessed by means of a questionnaire for subjects' feedback. New concepts of the design were proposed and a few prototypes were made and were tested by paired comparison using the EMG system. A large number of subjects (61%) used the vegetable cutter while sitting on the floor with folded knees and the prevalence of MSD in most of the body parts was comparatively lower in this posture than that in squatting posture. In the new design, a broad platform was suggested to provide a more comfortable sitting when a subject sits on it with folded knees. For the vegetable cutter, the blade angle was made at 120° with a broad folded wooden base as the final prototype of the cutter. The length, breadth, and thickness of the base were selected based on the results of the anthropometric measurements among the prototypes of the cutters. The selected vegetable cutter showed the least myoelectric activity among the prototypes during cutting vegetables. The modified vegetable cutter appeared to be ergonomically effective, less prone to muscular stress, and compatible for preferred posture of the users.
Ikonić Predrag M.
Full Text Available A study was carried out on a typical homemade Petrovská klobasá in order to characterize this traditional dry-fermented sausage, to provide a basis for establishing the quality standard and protecting designation of origin. This paper reviews the chemical composition, some physicochemical, proteolytic and sensory parameters of Petrovská klobasá made by five manufacturers chosen as representatives. Beside the differences between sausages made by different manufacturers the main properties of this traditional product were though recognized. Compared to other dry-fermented sausages Petrovská klobasá is characterized by a high content of protein (23.36-30.45% and low contents of NaCl (2.99-3.28%. With some minor exceptions, the values of other chemical parameters are within the range of those observed for various dry-cured sausages. Weight loss during the processing is high (up to 45.71% and pH value (~ 5.4 corresponds to the values for this parameter in other European traditional fermented sausages. Contents of different nitrogen fractions show that Petrovská klobasá undergoes significant proteolytic changes. At the end of ripening, Petrovská klobasá is characterized by aromatic and spicy-hot flavor, dark-red color and hard consistency.
Full Text Available The paper describes a method of updating a curriculum of a typical computer science department. The suggested approach promotes the role of a university as an academic environment, targeting excellence in teaching degree programs, as well as a qualified partner in partnership with businesses, especially with industry, in sharing knowledge and skills, supporting the concept of a quality process and quality products. Cooperation with industry firms, through real problem solving approaches and using emerging technologies that might drive the best demand in future markets, will prepare students to take advantage of opportunities, gain experience, and make an impact immediately. As a case study, the paper describes how this approach is applied to Computer Science Department at University of Bahrain.
Jul 21, 2011 ... Deep burns of the calvarium due to high-voltage electrical current present serious therapeutic challenges in the healing. In this study, as an alternative approach to the treatment of burned skull, negative pressure dressing is used to facilitate separation of the necrotic bones from healthy margins of the ...
Full Text Available Saam acupuncture is one of the original therapeutic modalities representing traditional Korean medicine. It was originally described in a manuscript that is estimated to be published at some point between 1644 and 1742, in the middle of the Cho Sun dynasty, by a Korean Buddhist monk whose name is unknown. The principle of combining five shu points is based on the theory of Nan-jing. The treatment and diagnosis concepts in Saam acupuncture were mainly influenced by Dongeuibogam and Chimgoogyeong-heombang. The basic characteristic of combining five shu points in Saam acupuncture is the selection of the tonification and sedation points along the self-meridian and other meridians based on creation and governor relationships. Saam acupuncture clinical studies have mainly focused on musculoskeletal pain and autonomic nervous system regulation. From a neurophysiological perspective, Saam acupuncture, which involves five shu points as the main treatment aspect, has the advantage of increasing parasympathetic nerve activation and adjusting the balance of the autonomic nervous system. Inserting a needle into the skin layer while considering the respiratory phase and stimulating the needle gently and lightly could maximize the effect of Saam acupuncture. The specific Saam acupuncture prescribed should be identified on the basis of the neurobiological perspective.
Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M
Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) proposes a different viewpoint to the chronic diseases. Diagnosis and implemented treatment are based on individual differences among patients. Constipation or Ea'teghal-e-batn is a condition in which the patient develops difficult or painful defecation. Based on TPM concepts, the fifirst digestion step starts from halq (oral cavity), and ends via defecation from the maq'ad (anus). Avicenna believed that four faculties, ha'zemeh (digestive), ja'zebeh (absorptive), ma'sekeh (retentive) and da'fe'eh (propulsive), are involved in the process of digestion and absorption of the ingested food and expelling the waste materials. The bowel movement and appearance of the stool is a measure for evaluating the gastrointestinal healthy function. Defecation should be with no pain and fecal material should have no burning and acuity. Low food intake or foods with dry temperament, dryness of gastrointestinal tract, diaphoresis and heavy exercise as well as intestine sensory loss were discussed as main causes of constipation. Management of constipation in TPM includes dietary schemes, oil massages and subsequently simple herbal medicines. According to TPM theories, the fifirst step in treating a disease is the elimination of disease causes (asbabe- maraz) and also providing the causes of health (asbab-e-sehhat). Health care providers should know the proper condition which the herbal medicines should be administered in and be able to guide the patients about the benefifits and hazards of herbal remedies, commonly used in their living origin.
Precise identification of beach sand minerals is an essential prerequisite for the reserve estimation of a given deposit and also in the subsequent evaluation of the process flow sheet for its optimal recovery. Traditional methods that are used for the identification of the beach sand minerals such as magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, anatase, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, monazite, quartz and others include heavy liquid separation (bromoform and methylene iodide) and studying the optical properties of the grains from different fractions so as to identify the specific phases in a sample. Grain counting of specific minerals from a given sievefraction under a petrological microscope to estimate the mode and their subsequent conversion in to weight percent fractions forms the critical second stage that is followed by the reserve estimates. These methodologies are tedious and time consuming often involving a few days for a single sample. The paper introduces the numerous instrumental methods (XRF, XRD - Rietveld and CCSEM) of mineral speciation and their qualification in with case studies from the west coast deposits in India
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.
Saigo, Mariana; Tronconi, Marcos A; Gerrard Wheeler, Mariel C; Alvarez, Clarisa E; Drincovich, María F; Andreo, Carlos S
C4 photosynthesis enables the capture of atmospheric CO2 and its concentration at the site of RuBisCO, thus counteracting the negative effects of low atmospheric levels of CO2 and high atmospheric levels of O2 (21 %) on photosynthesis. The evolution of this complex syndrome was a multistep process. It did not occur by simply recruiting pre-exiting components of the pathway from C3 ancestors which were already optimized for C4 function. Rather it involved modifications in the kinetics and regulatory properties of pre-existing isoforms of non-photosynthetic enzymes in C3 plants. Thus, biochemical studies aimed at elucidating the functional adaptations of these enzymes are central to the development of an integrative view of the C4 mechanism. In the present review, the most important biochemical approaches that we currently use to understand the evolution of the C4 isoforms of malic enzyme are summarized. It is expected that this information will help in the rational design of the best decarboxylation processes to provide CO2 for RuBisCO in engineering C3 species to perform C4 photosynthesis.
Matias, A.; Wolf, D. F., II
Students are increasingly turning to the web for quality education that fits into their lives. Nonetheless, online learning brings challenges as well as a fresh opportunity for exploring pedagogical practices not present on traditional higher education programs, particularly in the sciences. A team of two dozen Empire State College-State University of New York instructional designers, faculty, and other staff are working on making science relevant to non-majors who may initially have anxiety about general education science courses. One of these courses, GPS and the New Geography, focuses on how Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a base for inquiry and scientific discovery from a range of environmental issues with local, regional, and global scope. GPS and the New Geography is an introductory level course developed under a grant supported by the Charitable Leadership Foundation. Taking advantage of the proliferation of tools currently available for online learning management systems, we explore current trends in Web 2.0 applications to aggregate and leverage data to create a nontraditional, interactive learning environment. Using our best practices to promote on-line discussion and interaction, these tools help engage students and foster deep learning. During the 15-week term students learn through case studies, problem-based exercises, and the use of scientific data; thus, expanding their spatial literacy and gain experience using real spatial technology tools to enhance their understanding of real-world issues. In particular, we present how the use of Mapblogs an in-house developed blogging platform that uses GIS interplaying with GPS units, interactive data presentations, intuitive visual working environments, harnessing RSS feeds, and other nontraditional Web 2.0 technology has successfully promoted active learning in the virtual learning environment.
Full Text Available Liver injury induced by Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM have been reported since 2006, which aroused widespread concern. However, the toxicity mechanism of PM liver injury remained unclear. In this study, the mechanism of liver injury induced by different doses of PM after long-term administration was investigated in rats by metabolomics and traditional approaches. Rats were randomly divided into control group and PM groups. PM groups were oral administered PM of low (10 g/kg, medium (20 g/kg, high (40 g/kg dose, while control group was administered distilled water. After 28 days of continuous administration, the serum biochemical indexes in the control and three PM groups were measured and the liver histopathology were analyzed. Also, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with untargeted metabolomics was performed to identify the possible metabolites and pathway of liver injury caused by PM. Compared with the control group, the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TG, and TBA in middle and high dose PM groups were significantly increased. And the serum contents of T-Bil, D-Bil, TC, TP were significantly decreased. However, there was no significant difference between the low dose group of PM and the control group except serum AST, TG, T-Bil, and D-Bil. Nine biomarkers were identified based on biomarkers analysis. And the pathway analysis indicated that fat metabolism, amino acid metabolism and bile acid metabolism were involved in PM liver injury. Based on the biomarker pathway analysis, PM changed the lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and bile acid metabolism and excretion in a dose-dependent manner which was related to the mechanism of liver injury.
Full Text Available The enterprise management represents a heterogeneous aggregate of both resources and assets that need to be coordinated and orchestrated in order to reach the goals related to the business mission. Influences and forces that may influence this process, and also for that they should be considered, are not concentrated in the business environment, but they are related to the entireoperational context of a company. For this reason, business processes must be the most versatile and flexible with respect to the changes that occur within the whole operational context of a company.Considering the supportive role that information systems play in favour of Business Process Management - BPM, it is also essential to implement a constant, continuous and quick mechanism for the information system alignment with respect to the evolution followed by business processes.In particular, such mechanism must intervene on BPM systems in order to keep them aligned and compliant with respect to both the context changes and the regulations. In order to facilitate this alignment mechanism, companies are already referring to the support offered by specific solutions, such as knowledge bases. In this context, a possible solution might be the approach we propose, which is based on a specific framework called Process Management System. Our methodology implements a knowledge base support for business experts, which is not limited to the BPM operating phases, but includes also the engineering and prototyping activities of the corresponding information system. This paper aims to compare and evaluate a traditional BPM approach with respect to theapproach we propose. In effect, such analysis aims to emphasize the lack of traditional methodology especially with respect to the alignment between business processes and information systems, along with their compliance with context domain and regulations.
This article investigates parental involvement in the musical education of violin students and the changing role of the parents' across the learning process. Two contexts were compared, one emphasising the Suzuki methodology and the other a "traditional" approach. Students learning "traditionally" are typically taught note reading from the…
The objective of this activity is to show that the use of the traditional strength of materials approach to the drip shield and the waste package (WP) designs is bounding and appropriate when compared to the fracture mechanics approach. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the failure assessment diagrams for the two materials at issue: Ti-7 and Alloy 22. This calculation is intended for use in support of the license application design of the drip shield and the WP. This activity is associated with the drip shield and the WP designs. The activity evaluation for work package number P32 12234F2, included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 1, p. A-6), has determined that the development of this document is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' requirements. The control of the electronic management of data is accomplished in accordance with the methods specified in Reference 1, Section 10. AP-3.124, ''Design Calculations and Analysis'' (Ref. 2), is used to develop and document the calculation
Pennock, Michael J; Rouse, William B
.... This results in more frequent, smaller increments of deployed capability. In theory, evolutionary acquisition could be more cost effective than traditional acquisition approaches because it avoids most of the risk inherent...
Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of a study of post-stroke gait reeducation using the Bobath neuro‑developmental treatment (NDT-Bobath method and the traditional approach.
Study aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of a study of post-stroke gait reeducation using the Bobath neuro‑developmental treatment (NDT-Bobath) method and the traditional approach.
Ahmadi, Homa; Ramezani, Mohammad; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Behnam, Behzad; Razavi Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Hashem Nia, Azadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Abnous, Khalil
Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) showed promising potentials in different biomedical applications but their safe use in humans and probable toxicities are still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this project, PEGylated and Tween functionalized SWCNTs were prepared. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into nine groups, including PEGylated SWCNTs (75,150μg/mouse) and PEG, Tween80 suspended SWCNTs, Tween 80 and a control group (intact mice). One or 7 days after intravenous injection, the mice were killed and serum and livers were collected. The oxidative stress markers, biochemical and histopathological changes were studied. Subsequently, proteomics approach was used to investigate the alterations of protein expression profiles in the liver. Results showed that there were not any significant differences in malondealdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and biochemical enzymes (ALT and AST) between groups, while the histopathological observations of livers showed some injuries. The results of proteomics analysis revealed indolethylamine N-Methyltransferase (INMT), glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT), selenium binding protein (Selenbp), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), TNF receptor associated protein 1(Trap1), peroxiredoxin-6 (Prdx6), electron transport flavoprotein (Etf-α), regucalcin (Rgn) and ATP5b proteins were differentially expressed in functionalized SWCNTs groups. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in Prdx6 were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis. In summary, acute toxicological study on two functionalized SWCNTs did not show any significant toxicity at selected doses. Proteomics analysis also showed that following exposure to functionalized SWCNTs, the expression of some proteins with antioxidant activity and detoxifying properties were increased in liver tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study describes mitochondrial behaviour during the C2C12 myoblast differentiation program and proposes a proteomic approach to mitochondria integrated with classical morphofunctional and biochemical analyses. Mitochondrial ultrastructure variations were determined by transmission electron microscopy; mitochondrial mass and membrane potential were analysed by Mitotracker Green and JC-1 stains and by epifluorescence microscope. Expression of PGC1 , NRF1 , and Tfam genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis was studied by real-time PCR. The mitochondrial functionality was tested by cytochrome c oxidase activity and COXII expression. Mitochondrial proteomic profile was also performed. These assays showed that mitochondrial biogenesis and activity significantly increase in differentiating myotubes. The proteomic profile identifies 32 differentially expressed proteins, mostly involved in oxidative metabolism, typical of myotubes formation. Other notable proteins, such as superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, a cell protection molecule, and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein (VDAC1 involved in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, were found to be regulated by the myogenic process. The integration of these approaches represents a helpful tool for studying mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, and functionality in comparative surveys on mitochondrial pathogenic or senescent satellite cells.
Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.
Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach
by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus
The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed
Deegan, Donna; Wims, Padraig; Pettit, Tony
Purpose: In this article the use of blended learning multimedia materials as an education tool was compared with the traditional approach for skills training. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was conducted in Ireland using a pre-test, post-test experimental design. All students were instructed on how to complete two skills using either a…
Full Text Available For a better understanding of the systemic effect of sub-lethal micromolar concentrations of ionic silver on Escherichia coli, we performed a multi-level characterization of cells under Ag+-mediated stress using an integrative biology approach combining physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data. Physiological parameters, namely bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure, were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, probed for the first time by nano secondary ion mass spectroscopy at sub-micrometer lateral resolution. Modifications in E. coli biochemical composition were evaluated under Ag+-mediated stress by in situ synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and a comprehensive transcriptome response was also determined. Using multivariate statistics, correlations between the physiological parameters, the extracellular concentration of AgNO3 and the intracellular silver content, gene expression profiles and micro-spectroscopic data were investigated. We identified Ag+-dependent regulation of gene expression required for growth (e.g. transporter genes, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins, for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR and for coping with various types of stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes. The silver-induced shortening of the acyl chain of fatty acids, mostly encountered in cell membrane, was highlighted by microspectroscopy and correlated with the down-regulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport (fadL and synthesis/modification of lipid A (lpxA and arnA. The increase in the disordered secondary structure of proteins in the presence of Ag+ was assessed through the conformational shift shown for amides I and II, and further correlated with the up-regulated expression of peptidase (hfq and chaperone (dnaJ, and regulation of transpeptidase expression (ycfS and ycbB. Interestingly, as these
Koppula, Sushruta; Choi, Dong Kug
Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae), cumin, is a popular spice with a long history of medicinal use to treat various symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, gynecological, and respiratory diseases. To date, no scientific investigation was reported regarding memory-enhancing and antistress activity of cumin fruits. The present study deals with the memory-enhancing and antistress activities and further the antioxidant status via lipid peroxidation inhibition. Antistress activity was evaluated by inducing stress via forced swimming and the urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were estimated as biomarkers. Memory-enhancing activity was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus in normal and scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the lipid peroxidation. Daily administration of cumin at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner without altering the levels in normal control groups. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention, and recovery in rats, was observed to be dose-dependent. The extract also produced significant lipid peroxidation inhibition in comparison with known antioxidant ascorbic acid in both rat liver and brain. This study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders.
Yanagida, Takuya; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen
Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from…
Nassif, Houssam; Al-Ali, Hassan; Khuri, Sawsan; Keirouz, Walid; Page, David
Hexoses are simple sugars that play a key role in many cellular pathways, and in the regulation of development and disease mechanisms. Current protein-sugar computational models are based, at least partially, on prior biochemical findings and knowledge. They incorporate different parts of these findings in predictive black-box models. We investigate the empirical support for biochemical findings by comparing Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) induced rules to actual biochemical results. We mine the Protein Data Bank for a representative data set of hexose binding sites, non-hexose binding sites and surface grooves. We build an ILP model of hexose-binding sites and evaluate our results against several baseline machine learning classifiers. Our method achieves an accuracy similar to that of other black-box classifiers while providing insight into the discriminating process. In addition, it confirms wet-lab findings and reveals a previously unreported Trp-Glu amino acids dependency.
Limniou, Maria; Schermbrucker, Ian; Lyons, Minna
The aim of this investigation was for students to express their views on teaching approaches delivered by two teachers under the perspectives of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) development, their preferences on learning material and learning activities. First year psychology students followed both the traditional and a flipped classroom…
Pelo, Sandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Garagiola, Umberto; Cordaro, Massimo; Di Nardo, Francesco; Staderini, Edoardo; Patini, Romeo; de Angelis, Paolo; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Moro, Alessandro
The purposes of the study were to investigate and evaluate the differences detected by the patients between the traditional orthognathic approach and the surgery-first one in terms of level of satisfaction and quality of life. A total of 30 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for correction of malocclusions were selected and included in this study. Fifteen patients were treated with the conventional orthognathic surgery approach, and 15 patients with the surgery-first approach. Variables were assessed through the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire and analyzed with 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results showed significant differences in terms of the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (P surgery in the surgery-first group and an initial worsening during orthodontic treatment in the traditional approach group followed by postoperative improvement. This study showed that the worsening of the facial profile during the traditional orthognathic surgery approach decompensation phase has a negative impact on the perception of patients' quality of life. Surgeons should consider the possibility of a surgery-first approach to prevent this occurrence. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bulgari, Roberta; Morgutti, Silvia; Cocetta, Giacomo; Negrini, Noemi; Farris, Stefano; Calcante, Aldo; Spinardi, Anna; Ferrari, Enrico; Mignani, Ilaria; Oberti, Roberto; Ferrante, Antonio
Biostimulants are substances able to improve water and nutrient use efficiency and counteract stress factors by enhancing primary and secondary metabolism. Premise of the work was to exploit raw extracts from leaves (LE) or flowers (FE) of Borago officinalis L., to enhance yield and quality of Lactuca sativa 'Longifolia,' and to set up a protocol to assess their effects. To this aim, an integrated study on agronomic, physiological and biochemical aspects, including also a phenomic approach, has been adopted. Extracts were diluted to 1 or 10 mL L -1 , sprayed onto lettuce plants at the middle of the growing cycle and 1 day before harvest. Control plants were treated with water. Non-destructive analyses were conducted to assess the effect of extracts on biomass with an innovative imaging technique, and on leaf photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll a fluorescence and leaf gas exchanges). At harvest, the levels of ethylene, photosynthetic pigments, nitrate, and primary (sucrose and total sugars) and secondary (total phenols and flavonoids) metabolites, including the activity and levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were assessed. Moreover, a preliminary study of the effects during postharvest was performed. Borage extracts enhanced the primary metabolism by increasing leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. Plant fresh weight increased upon treatments with 10 mL L -1 doses, as correctly estimated by multi-view angles images. Chlorophyll a fluorescence data showed that FEs were able to increase the number of active reaction centers per cross section; a similar trend was observed for the performance index. Ethylene was three-fold lower in FEs treatments. Nitrate and sugar levels did not change in response to the different treatments. Total flavonoids and phenols, as well as the total protein levels, the in vitro PAL specific activity, and the levels of PAL-like polypeptides were increased by all borage extracts, with particular regard to FEs. FEs also proved
Full Text Available Biostimulants are substances able to improve water and nutrient use efficiency and counteract stress factors by enhancing primary and secondary metabolism. Premise of the work was to exploit raw extracts from leaves (LE or flowers (FE of Borago officinalis L., to enhance yield and quality of Lactuca sativa ‘Longifolia,’ and to set up a protocol to assess their effects. To this aim, an integrated study on agronomic, physiological and biochemical aspects, including also a phenomic approach, has been adopted. Extracts were diluted to 1 or 10 mL L–1, sprayed onto lettuce plants at the middle of the growing cycle and 1 day before harvest. Control plants were treated with water. Non-destructive analyses were conducted to assess the effect of extracts on biomass with an innovative imaging technique, and on leaf photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll a fluorescence and leaf gas exchanges. At harvest, the levels of ethylene, photosynthetic pigments, nitrate, and primary (sucrose and total sugars and secondary (total phenols and flavonoids metabolites, including the activity and levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were assessed. Moreover, a preliminary study of the effects during postharvest was performed. Borage extracts enhanced the primary metabolism by increasing leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. Plant fresh weight increased upon treatments with 10 mL L–1 doses, as correctly estimated by multi-view angles images. Chlorophyll a fluorescence data showed that FEs were able to increase the number of active reaction centers per cross section; a similar trend was observed for the performance index. Ethylene was three-fold lower in FEs treatments. Nitrate and sugar levels did not change in response to the different treatments. Total flavonoids and phenols, as well as the total protein levels, the in vitro PAL specific activity, and the levels of PAL-like polypeptides were increased by all borage extracts, with particular regard to FEs
Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Fernandez, L.G.; Delmondez de Castro, R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.
Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing
Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Medical Physics, Medical School, P.O. Box 1186, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides independent biochemical information and has become an invaluable adjunct to MRI and other imaging modalities. This review introduces key concepts and presents basic methodological steps regarding the acquisition and the interpretation of proton MRS. We review major brain metabolites and discuss MRS dependence on age, location, echo time and field strength. (orig.)
Eisenhofer, Graeme; Klink, Barbara; Richter, Susan; Lenders, Jacques Wm; Robledo, Mercedes
The tremendous advances over the past two decades in both clinical genetics and biochemical testing of chromaffin cell tumours have led to new considerations about how these aspects of laboratory medicine can be integrated to improve diagnosis and management of affected patients. With germline mutations in 15 genes now identified to be responsible for over a third of all cases of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, these tumours are recognised to have one of the richest hereditary backgrounds among all neoplasms. Depending on the mutation, tumours show distinct differences in metabolic pathways that relate to or even directly impact clinical presentation. At the same time, there has been improved understanding about how catecholamines are synthesised, stored, secreted and metabolised by chromaffin cell tumours. Although the tumours may not always secrete catecholamines it has become clear that almost all continuously produce and metabolise catecholamines. This has not only fuelled changes in laboratory medicine, but has also assisted in recognition of genotype-biochemical phenotype relationships important for diagnostics and clinical care. In particular, differences in catecholamine and energy pathway metabolomes can guide genetic testing, assist with test interpretation and provide predictions about the nature, behaviour and imaging characteristics of the tumours. Conversely, results of genetic testing are important for guiding how routine biochemical testing should be employed and interpreted in surveillance programmes for at-risk patients. In these ways there are emerging needs for modern laboratory medicine to seamlessly integrate biochemical and genetic testing into the diagnosis and management of patients with chromaffin cell tumours.
Wang, Jigang; Gao, Liqian; Lee, Yew Mun; Kalesh, Karunakaran A; Ong, Yong Siang; Lim, Jaehong; Jee, Joo-Eun; Sun, Hongyan; Lee, Su Seong; Hua, Zi-Chun; Lin, Qingsong
Natural and traditional medicines, being a great source of drugs and drug leads, have regained wide interests due to the limited success of high-throughput screening of compound libraries in the past few decades and the recent technology advancement. Many drugs/bioactive compounds exert their functions through interaction with their protein targets, with more and more drugs showing their ability to target multiple proteins, thus target identification has an important role in drug discovery and biomedical research fields. Identifying drug targets not only furthers the understanding of the mechanism of action (MOA) of a drug but also reveals its potential therapeutic applications and adverse side effects. Chemical proteomics makes use of affinity chromatography approaches coupled with mass spectrometry to systematically identify small molecule-protein interactions. Although traditional affinity-based chemical proteomics approaches have made great progress in the identification of cellular targets and elucidation of MOAs of many bioactive molecules, nonspecific binding remains a major issue which may reduce the accuracy of target identification and may hamper the drug development process. Recently, quantitative proteomics approaches, namely, metabolic labeling, chemical labeling, or label-free approaches, have been implemented in target identification to overcome such limitations. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the recent advances in the application of various quantitative chemical proteomics approaches for the identification of targets of natural and traditional medicines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The growing population in the world is so fast, which is followed by the increasing need of some new and large activities. Architects face the problem on how to facilitate buildings with various activities such as for large meeting, conference, indoors gymnasium and sports, and many others. The long span structure of building is one of the solutions to solve that problem. Generally, large buildings which implemented this structure will look as a technological, modern and futuristic ones or even neo futuristic performance. But on the other hand, many people still want to enjoy the specific and unique senses of local traditional architecture. So is the Malay people who want an easy pleasant large facilities which can be fulfilled by implementing modern long span building structure technology. In the same time, their unique sense of Malay traditional architecture can still be maintained. To overcome this double problems of design, it needs a blended design approach of long span structure and Malay Traditional Architecture.
Willcox, Merlin; Diallo, Drissa; Sanogo, Rokia; Giani, Sergio; Graz, Bertrand; Falquet, Jacques; Bodeker, Gerard
Protection of intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing are key issues for all ethnopharmacological research. The International Society of Ethnobiology has produced helpful guidelines on access and benefit-sharing which are widely viewed as a "gold standard" but the question remains how best to apply these guidelines in practice. Difficult questions include ownership of traditional knowledge, making appropriate agreements, and how appropriately to share benefits. We present the case study of the development of an "improved traditional medicine" for malaria in Mali and we report how benefit-sharing was applied in this case. The knowledge about the selected plant came independently from several families and traditional healers. The IPR approach was to recognise that this traditional knowledge belongs to the people of Mali and was used for their benefit in developing a new "improved traditional medicine" (ITM). The traditional healer whose method of preparation was used, and who collaborated in clinical trials, did not request any financial reward but asked for the ITM to be named after him. The most sustainable benefit for the community was sharing the results of which preparation of which medicinal plant seemed to be the most effective for treating malaria. Attempts at providing a health centre and training a health worker for the village did not prove to be sustainable. Respect for intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing are possible even in a context where the knowledge is not owned by a clearly identified person or group of people. The most sustainable benefits are intangible rather than material: namely recognition, improved knowledge about which traditional treatment is the best and how to prepare and take it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Finding an efficient method to solve the parameter estimation problem (inverse problem) for nonlinear biochemical dynamical systems could help promote the functional understanding at the system level for signalling pathways. The problem is stated as a data-driven nonlinear regression problem, which is converted into a nonlinear programming problem with many nonlinear differential and algebraic constraints. Due to the typical ill conditioning and multimodality nature of the problem, it is in general difficult for gradient-based local optimization methods to obtain satisfactory solutions. To surmount this limitation, many stochastic optimization methods have been employed to find the global solution of the problem. Results This paper presents an effective search strategy for a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm that enhances the ability of the algorithm for estimating the parameters of complex dynamic biochemical pathways. The proposed algorithm is a new variant of random drift particle swarm optimization (RDPSO), which is used to solve the above mentioned inverse problem and compared with other well known stochastic optimization methods. Two case studies on estimating the parameters of two nonlinear biochemical dynamic models have been taken as benchmarks, under both the noise-free and noisy simulation data scenarios. Conclusions The experimental results show that the novel variant of RDPSO algorithm is able to successfully solve the problem and obtain solutions of better quality than other global optimization methods used for finding the solution to the inverse problems in this study. PMID:25078435
Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Lam, Ming-Chi; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; de Lorenzo, Victor; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios
The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is proposed, linking biomass growth and substrate consumption rates to the gene regulatory programmes that control these processes. A dynamic model of the TOL (pWW0) plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 has been developed, describing the molecular interactions that lead to the transcription of the upper and meta operons, known to produce the enzymes for the oxidative catabolism of m-xylene. The genetic circuit model was combined with a growth kinetic model decoupling biomass growth and substrate consumption rates, which are expressed as independent functions of the rate-limiting enzymes produced by the operons. Estimation of model parameters and validation of the model's predictive capability were successfully performed in batch cultures of mt-2 fed with different concentrations of m-xylene, as confirmed by relative mRNA concentration measurements of the promoters encoded in TOL. The growth formation and substrate utilisation patterns could not be accurately described by traditional Monod-type models for a wide range of conditions, demonstrating the critical importance of gene regulation for the development of advanced models closely predicting complex bioprocesses. In contrast, the proposed strategy, which utilises quantitative information pertaining to upstream molecular events that control the production of rate-limiting enzymes, predicts the catabolism of a substrate and biomass formation and could be of central importance for the design of optimal bioprocesses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharp, Jason H.; Sharp, Laurie A.
Aim/Purpose: Compared student academic performance on specific course requirements in a C# programming course across three instructional approaches: traditional, online, and flipped. Background: Addressed the following research question--When compared to the online and traditional instructional approaches, does the flipped instructional approach…
Sonntag Selma K.
Full Text Available This paper is an elaboration of a theoretical framework we developed in the introductory chapter of our co-edited volume, State Traditions and Language Regimes (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015. Using a historical institutionalism approach derived from political science, we argue that language policies need to be understood in terms of their historical and institutional context. The concept of ‘state tradition’ focuses our attention on the relative autonomy of the state in terms of its normative and institutional traditions that lead to particular path dependencies of language policy choices, subject to change at critical junctures. ‘Language regime’ is the conceptual link between state traditions and language policy choices: it allows us to analytically conceptualize how and why these choices are made and how and why they change. We suggest that our framework offers a more robust analysis of language politics than other approaches found in sociolinguistics and normative theory. It also challenges political science to become more engaged with scholarly debate on language policy and linguistic diversity.
Full Text Available The complexity, volatility and unpredictability of the current economic environment are a daily reminder that organizations face many risks. The traditional approach, according to which risk is a necessary evil which must be removed, is no longer sufficient and that is why companies nowadays are forced to spend significant resources to manage risks. Risk transparency is what one looks for; therefore, identification and management of risks within an organization become increasingly necessary for success and longevity. Risk approach has a major role in a company’s ability to avoid, reduce and turn risks into opportunities. Enterprise risk management is a new concept that revolutionizes the traditional approach and summarizes risk management in an integrated, comprehensive and strategic system. Studies use several synonyms for enterprise risk management such as integrated risk management, holistic risk management, global risk management and strategic risk management. Enterprise risk management implements at the end of the last century a new way to deal with risks: the holistic approach. This risks approach – i.e. interaction of several types of risks which become increasingly threatening and varied and may cause more damage than individual risk – brings forward the need of risk management and raises issues at the highest level of company management. For a proper view on company risks, each individual risk and the possibility of risk interaction must be understood. This is essential to establish a risk classification according to their impact on the company. Traditional approach on risk management, as a management function, is limited to only threats and losses, so relatively few organizations see risks as potential earning-generated opportunities. However, risk management process is not radically changed. Enterprise risk management is an improved version of the traditional risk management, created by expanding its scope. The new risk
Gu, Ronghui; Wang, Yuehu; Long, Bo; Kennelly, Edward; Wu, Shibiao; Liu, Bo; Li, Ping; Long, Chunlin
Pharmacologically active constituents from traditional medicinal plants have received great attention as sources of novel agents, pharmaceutical intermediates, and chemical entities for synthetic or semisynthetic drugs due to their potent pharmacological activities, low toxicity, and economic viability. Numerous components have been isolated from traditional medicinal plants, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, and clinical and experimental studies suggested that these components have useful pharmacological properties such as antiinfectious, antioxidative, and antiinflammatory effects. In this review, modern ethnobotanical approaches to explore folk medicinal plants as candidates for drug discovery with the greatest possibility of success are discussed. Determining the bioactive mechanisms and tracing structure-activity relationships will promote the discovery of new drugs and pharmacological agents.
Sopharak, Akara; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Thomas
To prevent blindness from diabetic retinopathy, periodic screening and early diagnosis are neccessary. Due to lack of expert ophthalmologists in rural area, automated early exudate (one of visible sign of diabetic retinopathy) detection could help to reduce the number of blindness in diabetic patients. Traditional automatic exudate detection methods are based on specific parameter configuration, while the machine learning approaches which seems more flexible may be computationally high cost. A comparative analysis of traditional and machine learning of exudates detection, namely, mathematical morphology, fuzzy c-means clustering, naive Bayesian classifier, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbor classifier are presented. Detected exudates are validated with expert ophthalmologists' hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and time complexity of each method are also compared.
Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M
Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical
Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma
As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) , the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC)  Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.
Canales, Angeles; Nieto, Lidia; Rodríguez-Salarichs, Javier; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A; Coderch, Claire; Cortés-Cabrera, Alvaro; Paterson, Ian; Carlomagno, Teresa; Gago, Federico; Andreu, José M; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Díaz, J Fernando
The binding of epothilones to dimeric tubulin and to microtubules has been studied by means of biochemical and NMR techniques. We have determined the binding constants of epothilone A (EpoA) and B (EpoB) to dimeric tubulin, which are 4 orders of magnitude lower than those for microtubules, and we have elucidated the conformation and binding epitopes of EpoA and EpoB when bound to tubulin dimers and microtubules in solution. The determined conformation of epothilones when bound to dimeric tubulin is similar to that found by X-ray crystallographic techniques for the binding of EpoA to the Tubulin/RB3/TTL complex; it is markedly different from that reported for EpoA bound to zinc-induced sheets obtained by electron crystallography. Likewise, only the X-ray structure of EpoA bound to the Tubulin/RB3/TTL complex at the luminal site, but not the electron crystallography structure, is compatible with the results obtained by STD on the binding epitope of EpoA bound to dimeric tubulin, thus confirming that the allosteric change (structuring of the M-loop) is the biochemical mechanism of induction of tubulin assembly by epothilones. TR-NOESY signals of EpoA bound to microtubules have been obtained, supporting the interaction with a transient binding site with a fast exchange rate (pore site), consistent with the notion that epothilones access the luminal site through the pore site, as has also been observed for taxanes. Finally, the differences in the tubulin binding affinities of a series of epothilone analogues has been quantitatively explained using the newly determined binding pose and the COMBINE methodology.
Full Text Available The advents of how anesthesia works have helped in the discovery of anesthetic target protein. One such target protein named ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA, which is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Asparagine at 289 position of GABAA protein within TM2 is important for its anesthetic function. This study explores Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM against ASN 289 of GABAA for novel anesthetic compounds. The in silico approach showed gastrodin out of all compounds to be the best compound to start further analysis. It is a potential anesthetic compound suitable for the development of new drug.
Brusentsev, E Iu; Igonina, T N; Amstislavskiĭ, S Ia
This review covers the basic principles and methods of in vitro culture of preimplantation mammalian embryos. The features of in vitro development of embryos of various species of animals with allowance for the composition of nutrient media are described, with special attention paid to those species that have traditionally been consideredas laboratory (i.e., mice, rats, and hamsters). The effects of suboptimal culturing conditions of preimplantation embryos on the formation of the phenotype of individuals developed from these embryos are discussed. New approaches to optimize the conditions of the development of preimplantation mammalian embryos in vitro are analyzed.
Chapman, Ann Ln; Darton, Thomas C; Foster, Rachel A
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health emergency. Ongoing challenges include the coordination of national and international control programs, high levels of drug resistance in many parts of the world, and availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. The increasing availability and reliability of Internet access throughout both affluent and resource-limited countries brings new opportunities to improve TB management and control through the integration of web-based technologies with traditional approaches. In this review, we explore current and potential future use of web-based tools in the areas of TB diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, service monitoring, and teaching and training.
Costantino, Thomas G; Parikh, Aman K; Satz, Wayne A; Fojtik, John P
We assess the success rate of emergency physicians in placing peripheral intravenous catheters in difficult-access patients who were unsuccessfully cannulated by emergency nurses. A technique using real-time ultrasonographic guidance by 2 physicians was compared with traditional approaches using palpation and landmark guidance. This was a prospective, systematically allocated study of all patients requiring intravenous access who presented to 2 university hospitals between October 2003 and March 2004. Inclusion criterion was the inability of any available nurse to obtain intravenous access after at least 3 attempts on a subgroup of patients who had a history of difficult intravenous access because of obesity, history of intravenous drug abuse, or chronic medical problems. Exclusion criterion was the need for central venous access. Patients presenting on odd days were allocated to the ultrasonographic-guided group, and those presenting on even days were allocated to the traditional-approach group. Endpoints were successful cannulation, number of sticks, time, and patient satisfaction. Sixty patients were enrolled, 39 on odd days and 21 on even days. Success rate was greater for the ultrasonographic group (97%) versus control (33%), difference in proportions of 64% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39% to 71%). The ultrasonographic group required less overall time (13 minutes versus 30 minutes, for a difference of 17 [95% CI 0.8 to 25.6]), less time to successful cannulation from first percutaneous puncture (4 minutes versus 15 minutes, for a difference of 11 [95% CI 8.2 to 19.4]), and fewer percutaneous punctures (1.7 versus 3.7, for a difference of 2.0 [95% CI 1.27 to 2.82]) and had greater patient satisfaction (8.7 versus 5.7, for a difference of 3.0 [95% CI 1.82 to 4.29]) than the traditional landmark approach. Ultrasonographic-guided peripheral intravenous access is more successful than traditional "blind" techniques, requires less time, decreases the number of
Yochelis, A; Tintut, Y; Demer, L L; Garfinkel, A
Calcification and mineralization are fundamental physiological processes, yet the mechanisms of calcification, in trabecular bone and in calcified lesions in atherosclerotic calcification, are unclear. Recently, it was shown in in vitro experiments that vascular-derived mesenchymal stem cells can display self-organized calcified patterns. These patterns were attributed to activator/inhibitor dynamics in the style of Turing, with bone morphogenetic protein 2 acting as an activator, and matrix GLA protein acting as an inhibitor. Motivated by this qualitative activator-inhibitor dynamics, we employ a prototype Gierer-Meinhardt model used in the context of activator-inhibitor-based biological pattern formation. Through a detailed analysis in one and two spatial dimensions, we explore the pattern formation mechanisms of steady state patterns, including their dependence on initial conditions. These patterns range from localized holes to labyrinths and localized peaks, or in other words, from dense to sparse activator distributions (respectively). We believe that an understanding of the wide spectrum of activator-inhibitor patterns discussed here is prerequisite to their biochemical control. The mechanisms of pattern formation suggest therapeutic strategies applicable to bone formation in atherosclerotic lesions in arteries (where it is pathological) and to the regeneration of trabecular bone (recapitulating normal physiological development)
Kaszynski, Richard H; Nishiumi, Shin; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Asano, Migiwa; Ueno, Yasuhiro
While the molecular mechanisms underlying postmortem change have been exhaustively investigated, the establishment of an objective and reliable means for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) remains an elusive feat. In the present study, we exploit low molecular weight metabolites to estimate postmortem interval in mice. After sacrifice, serum and muscle samples were procured from C57BL/6J mice (n = 52) at seven predetermined postmortem intervals (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h). After extraction and isolation, low molecular weight metabolites were measured via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and examined via semi-quantification studies. Then, PMI prediction models were generated for each of the 175 and 163 metabolites identified in muscle and serum, respectively, using a non-linear least squares curve fitting program. A PMI estimation panel for muscle and serum was then erected which consisted of 17 (9.7%) and 14 (8.5%) of the best PMI biomarkers identified in muscle and serum profiles demonstrating statistically significant correlations between metabolite quantity and PMI. Using a single-blinded assessment, we carried out validation studies on the PMI estimation panels. Mean ± standard deviation for accuracy of muscle and serum PMI prediction panels was -0.27 ± 2.88 and -0.89 ± 2.31 h, respectively. Ultimately, these studies elucidate the utility of metabolomic profiling in PMI estimation and pave the path toward biochemical profiling studies involving human samples.
Min, Jungki; Perera, Lalith; Krahn, Juno M.; Jewell, Christine M.; Moon, Andrea F.; Cidlowski, John A.; Pedersen, Lars C.
Glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) is associated with glucocorticoid resistance via dominant negative regulation of GRα. To better understand how GRβ functions as a dominant negative inhibitor of GRα at a molecular level, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of GRβ complexed with the antagonist RU-486. The structure reveals that GRβ binds RU-486 in the same ligand binding pocket as GRα, and the unique C-terminal amino acids of GRβ are mostly disordered. Binding energy analysis suggests that these C-terminal residues of GRβ do not contribute to RU-486 binding. Intriguingly, the GRβ/RU-486 complex binds corepressor peptide with affinity similar to that of a GRα/RU-486 complex, despite the lack of helix 12. Our biophysical and biochemical analyses reveal that in the presence of RU-486, GRβ is found in a conformation that favors corepressor binding, potentially antagonizing GRα function. This study thus presents an unexpected molecular mechanism by which GRβ could repress transcription.
Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)
To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)
Bassen, David M; Vilkhovoy, Michael; Minot, Mason; Butcher, Jonathan T; Varner, Jeffrey D
Ensemble modeling is a promising approach for obtaining robust predictions and coarse grained population behavior in deterministic mathematical models. Ensemble approaches address model uncertainty by using parameter or model families instead of single best-fit parameters or fixed model structures. Parameter ensembles can be selected based upon simulation error, along with other criteria such as diversity or steady-state performance. Simulations using parameter ensembles can estimate confidence intervals on model variables, and robustly constrain model predictions, despite having many poorly constrained parameters. In this software note, we present a multiobjective based technique to estimate parameter or models ensembles, the Pareto Optimal Ensemble Technique in the Julia programming language (JuPOETs). JuPOETs integrates simulated annealing with Pareto optimality to estimate ensembles on or near the optimal tradeoff surface between competing training objectives. We demonstrate JuPOETs on a suite of multiobjective problems, including test functions with parameter bounds and system constraints as well as for the identification of a proof-of-concept biochemical model with four conflicting training objectives. JuPOETs identified optimal or near optimal solutions approximately six-fold faster than a corresponding implementation in Octave for the suite of test functions. For the proof-of-concept biochemical model, JuPOETs produced an ensemble of parameters that gave both the mean of the training data for conflicting data sets, while simultaneously estimating parameter sets that performed well on each of the individual objective functions. JuPOETs is a promising approach for the estimation of parameter and model ensembles using multiobjective optimization. JuPOETs can be adapted to solve many problem types, including mixed binary and continuous variable types, bilevel optimization problems and constrained problems without altering the base algorithm. JuPOETs is open
Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: This investigation was undertaken to determine the reference values of specific biochemical markers that have been have been associated with behavior typical of ADHD in a group of patients before and after metabolic correction.Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD affects approximately two million American children, and this condition has grown to become the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, the cause of the condition, once called hyperkinesis, is not known.The cause of ADHD is generally acknowledged to be multifactorial, involving both biological and environmental influence. Molecular, genetic, and pharmacological studies suggest the involvement of the neurotransmitter systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Polymorphic variants in several genes involved in regulation of dopamine have been identified, and related neurotransmitter pathways alterations are reported to be associated with the disease.Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in fatty acids (EPA, DHA, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Materials/Methods: This study was based on data extracted from our patient history database covering a period of over ten years. We performed laboratory tests in 116 patients 2.7-25 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD. Sixty-six percent (66% of patients were males. Patients were followed from 3 month to 3 years. We compared the distributions of fatty acids, essential metals, and the levels of metabolic stress factors with established reference ranges before and after interventions. In addition, we analyzed the association between toxic metal concentrations and the levels of essential metals.Results: This study was based
Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel
Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (<14% of field capacity). A total of 31 parameters, physiological (e.g., photosynthesis, gas exchange), biochemical (e.g., chlorophyll content) and hormonal (abscisic acid [ABA] content), were analysed by classic and multivariate techniques. Relationships between parameters were established, allowing related measurements to be grouped into functional units (pigment, growth, water and ABA). Differences in these units showed that there were two distinct groups of E. globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. © The
Cox, M V; Rowlands, A
Although there is a national curriculum for art education in the UK there are also alternative approaches in the private sector. This paper addresses the issue of the effect of these approaches on children's drawing ability. To compare the drawing ability in three drawing tasks of children in Steiner, Montessori and traditional schools. The participants were 60 school children between the ages of 5;11 and 7;2. Twenty children were tested in each type of school. Each child completed three drawings: a free drawing, a scene and an observational drawing. As predicted, the free and scene drawings of children in the Steiner school were rated more highly than those of children in Montessori and traditional schools. Steiner children's use of colour was also rated more highly, although they did not use more colours than the other children. Steiner children used significantly more fantasy topics in their free drawings. Further observation indicated that the Steiner children were better at using the whole page and organising their drawings into a scene; their drawings were also more detailed. Contrary to previous research Montessori children did not draw more inanimate objects and geometrical shapes or fewer people than other children. Also, contrary to the prediction, Steiner children were significantly better rather than worse than other children at observational drawing. The results suggest that the approach to art education in Steiner schools is conducive not only to more highly rated imaginative drawings in terms of general drawing ability and use of colour but also to more accurate and detailed observational drawings.
Kuster, Alice; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Barth, Magalie; Lamireau, Delphine; Houcinat, Nada; Goizet, Cyril; Doray, Bérénice; Gobin, Stéphanie; Schiff, Manuel; Cano, Aline; Amsallem, Daniel; Barnerias, Christine; Chaumette, Boris; Plaze, Marion; Slama, Abdelhamid; Ioos, Christine; Desguerre, Isabelle; Lebre, Anne-Sophie; de Lonlay, Pascale; Christa, Laurence
To improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with diverse neurological diseases, we have elaborated specific clinical and CSF neurotransmitter patterns. Neurotransmitter determinations in CSF from 1200 patients revealed abnormal values in 228 (19%) cases. In 54/228 (24%) patients, a final diagnosis was identified. We have reported primary (30/54, 56%) and secondary (24/54, 44%) monoamine neurotransmitter disorders. For primary deficiencies, the most frequently mutated gene was DDC (n = 9), and the others included PAH with neuropsychiatric features (n = 4), PTS (n = 5), QDPR (n = 3), SR (n = 1), and TH (n = 1). We have also identified mutations in SLC6A3, FOXG1 (n = 1 of each), MTHFR (n = 3), FOLR1, and MTHFD (n = 1 of each), for dopamine transporter, neuronal development, and folate metabolism disorders, respectively. For secondary deficiencies, we have identified POLG (n = 3), ACSF3 (n = 1), NFU1, and SDHD (n = 1 of each), playing a role in mitochondrial function. Other mutated genes included: ADAR, RNASEH2B, RNASET2, SLC7A2-IT1 A/B lncRNA, and EXOSC3 involved in nuclear and cytoplasmic metabolism; RanBP2 and CASK implicated in post-traductional and scaffolding modifications; SLC6A19 regulating amino acid transport; MTM1, KCNQ2 (n = 2), and ATP1A3 playing a role in nerve cell electrophysiological state. Chromosome abnormalities, del(8)(p23)/dup(12) (p23) (n = 1), del(6)(q21) (n = 1), dup(17)(p13.3) (n = 1), and non-genetic etiologies (n = 3) were also identified. We have classified the final 54 diagnoses in 11 distinctive biochemical profiles and described them through 20 clinical features. To identify the specific molecular cause of abnormal NT profiles, (targeted) genomics might be used, to improve diagnosis and allow early treatment of complex and rare neurological genetic diseases.
Zhao, Dake; Shi, Yana; Zhu, Xinyan; Liu, Li; Ji, Pengzhang; Long, Chunlin; Shen, Yong; Kennelly, Edward J
Despite their well-known toxicity, Aconitum species are important traditional medicines worldwide. Aconitum carmichaelii , known in Chinese as (fuzi), is an officially recognized traditional Chinese medicine with characteristic analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, whose principal pharmacological ingredients are considered as aconitine-type diterpene alkaloids. Notwithstanding the long-recorded use of A. carmichaelii in traditional Chinese medicine, no single-entity aconitum alkaloid drug has been developed for clinical use. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to investigate the marker compounds that can be used to differentiate A. carmichaelii from seven other Aconitum species collected in Yunnan Province. Nontargeted principle component analysis scores plots found that all the tested Aconitum species clustered into three distinct groups, and A. carmichaelii was significantly different chemically than the other seven species. Furthermore, the primary and lateral roots of A. carmichaelii also showed significant differences. Using orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis analysis, eight marker compounds were identified, including 14-acetylkarakoline, aconitine, carmichaeline, fuziline, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, and talatisamine. Four of these aconitum alkaloids, fuziline, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, and neoline, showed significant analgesic activity in a dose-dependent manner compared to the negative and positive controls. However, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, and neoline exhibited significant acute toxicity activity, while fuziline showed no acute toxicity in mice, suggesting the relative safety of this alkaloid. This study provides a good example of how to differentiate an authentic medicinal plant from common adulterants using a metabolomics approach, and to identify compounds that may be developed into new drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert; Kressig, Reto W
Demographic change in industrialized countries produced an increase in the proportion of elderly people in our society, resulting in specific healthcare challenges. One such challenge is how to effectively deal with the increased risk of sustaining a fall and fall-related injuries in old age. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength represent important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, adequate training regimens need to be designed and applied that have the potential to reduce the rate of falling in older adults by countering these factors. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to compare traditional and recent approaches in the promotion of balance and strength in older adults. Traditionally, balance and resistance training programmes proved to be effective in improving balance and strength, and in reducing the number of falls. Yet, it was argued that these training protocols are not specific enough to induce adaptations in neuromuscular capacities that are specifically needed in actual balance-threatening situations (e.g. abilities to recover balance and to produce force explosively). Recent studies indicated that perturbation-based or multitask balance training and power/high-velocity resistance training have the potential to improve these specific capacities because they comply with the principle of training specificity. In fact, there is evidence that these specifically tailored training programmes are more effective in improving balance recovery mechanisms and muscle power than traditional training protocols. A few pilot studies have even shown that these recently designed training protocols have an impact on the reduction of fall incidence rate in older adults. Further research is needed to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the adaptive processes.
Full Text Available The proper handling of samples to be analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS can guarantee excellent results and a greater depth of analysis when working in quantitative proteomics. This is critical when trying to assess non-traditional sources such as ear wax, saliva, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, tears, nipple aspirate fluid, breast milk/colostrum, cervical-vaginal fluid, nasal secretions, bronco-alveolar lavage fluid, and stools. We intend to provide the investigator with relevant aspects of quantitative proteomics and to recognize the most recent clinical research work conducted with atypical samples and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Having as reference the most recent and different approaches used with non-traditional sources allows us to compare new strategies in the development of novel experimental models. On the other hand, these references help us to contribute significantly to the understanding of the proportions of proteins in different proteomes of clinical interest and may lead to potential advances in the emerging field of precision medicine.
Licier, Rígel; Miranda, Eric; Serrano, Horacio
The proper handling of samples to be analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) can guarantee excellent results and a greater depth of analysis when working in quantitative proteomics. This is critical when trying to assess non-traditional sources such as ear wax, saliva, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, tears, nipple aspirate fluid, breast milk/colostrum, cervical-vaginal fluid, nasal secretions, bronco-alveolar lavage fluid, and stools. We intend to provide the investigator with relevant aspects of quantitative proteomics and to recognize the most recent clinical research work conducted with atypical samples and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. Having as reference the most recent and different approaches used with non-traditional sources allows us to compare new strategies in the development of novel experimental models. On the other hand, these references help us to contribute significantly to the understanding of the proportions of proteins in different proteomes of clinical interest and may lead to potential advances in the emerging field of precision medicine.
Koutinas, M.; Kiparissides, A.; Silva-Rocha, R.; Lam, M.C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Lorenzo, de V.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.; Mantalaris, A.
The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is
Mridula, Meenu R; Nair, Ashalatha S; Kumar, K Satheesh
In this paper, we compared the efficacy of observation based modeling approach using a genetic algorithm with the regular statistical analysis as an alternative methodology in plant research. Preliminary experimental data on in vitro rooting was taken for this study with an aim to understand the effect of charcoal and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on successful rooting and also to optimize the two variables for maximum result. Observation-based modelling, as well as traditional approach, could identify NAA as a critical factor in rooting of the plantlets under the experimental conditions employed. Symbolic regression analysis using the software deployed here optimised the treatments studied and was successful in identifying the complex non-linear interaction among the variables, with minimalistic preliminary data. The presence of charcoal in the culture medium has a significant impact on root generation by reducing basal callus mass formation. Such an approach is advantageous for establishing in vitro culture protocols as these models will have significant potential for saving time and expenditure in plant tissue culture laboratories, and it further reduces the need for specialised background.
Full Text Available Ann LN Chapman,1 Thomas C Darton,2 Rachel A Foster11Department of Infection and Tropical Medicine, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, 2Oxford Vaccine Group, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UKAbstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a global health emergency. Ongoing challenges include the coordination of national and international control programs, high levels of drug resistance in many parts of the world, and availability of accurate and rapid diagnostic tests. The increasing availability and reliability of Internet access throughout both affluent and resource-limited countries brings new opportunities to improve TB management and control through the integration of web-based technologies with traditional approaches. In this review, we explore current and potential future use of web-based tools in the areas of TB diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, service monitoring, and teaching and training.Keywords: tuberculosis, information communication technology, Internet
Park, Jihong; Seeley, Matthew K; Francom, Devin; Reese, C Shane; Hopkins, J Ty
In human motion studies, discrete points such as peak or average kinematic values are commonly selected to test hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to describe a functional data analysis and describe the advantages of using functional data analyses when compared with a traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach. Nineteen healthy participants (age: 22 ± 2 yrs, body height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 73 ± 16 kg) walked under two different conditions: control and pain+effusion. Pain+effusion was induced by injection of sterile saline into the joint capsule and hypertonic saline into the infrapatellar fat pad. Sagittal-plane ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were recorded and compared following injections using 2×2 mixed model ANOVAs and FANOVAs. The results of ANOVAs detected a condition × time interaction for the peak ankle (F1,18 = 8.56, p = 0.01) and hip joint angle (F1,18 = 5.77, p = 0.03), but did not for the knee joint angle (F1,18 = 0.36, p = 0.56). The functional data analysis, however, found several differences at initial contact (ankle and knee joint), in the mid-stance (each joint) and at toe off (ankle). Although a traditional ANOVA is often appropriate for discrete or summary data, in biomechanical applications, the functional data analysis could be a beneficial alternative. When using the functional data analysis approach, a researcher can (1) evaluate the entire data as a function, and (2) detect the location and magnitude of differences within the evaluated function.
Full Text Available In human motion studies, discrete points such as peak or average kinematic values are commonly selected to test hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to describe a functional data analysis and describe the advantages of using functional data analyses when compared with a traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA approach. Nineteen healthy participants (age: 22 ± 2 yrs, body height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 73 ± 16 kg walked under two different conditions: control and pain+effusion. Pain+effusion was induced by injection of sterile saline into the joint capsule and hypertonic saline into the infrapatellar fat pad. Sagittal-plane ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were recorded and compared following injections using 2×2 mixed model ANOVAs and FANOVAs. The results of ANOVAs detected a condition × time interaction for the peak ankle (F1,18 = 8.56, p = 0.01 and hip joint angle (F1,18 = 5.77, p = 0.03, but did not for the knee joint angle (F1,18 = 0.36, p = 0.56. The functional data analysis, however, found several differences at initial contact (ankle and knee joint, in the mid-stance (each joint and at toe off (ankle. Although a traditional ANOVA is often appropriate for discrete or summary data, in biomechanical applications, the functional data analysis could be a beneficial alternative. When using the functional data analysis approach, a researcher can (1 evaluate the entire data as a function, and (2 detect the location and magnitude of differences within the evaluated function.
Jaramillo, Guillermo; Collicott, Steven
Traditional linear instability theory for round liquid jets requires an exit-plane velocity profile be assumed so as to derive the characteristic growth rates and wavelengths of instabilities. This requires solving an eigenvalue problem for the Rayleigh Equation. In this new approach, a hyperbolic tangent velocity profile is assumed at the exit-plane of a round jet and a comparison is made with a hyperbolic secant profile. Temporal and Spatial Stability Analysis (TSA and SSA respectively) are the employed analytical tools to compare results of predicted most-unstable wavelengths from the given analytical velocity profiles and from previous experimental work. The local relevance of the velocity profile in the near-exit region of a liquid jet and the validity of an inviscid formulation through the Rayleigh equation are discussed as well. A comparison of numerical accuracy is made between two different mathematical approaches for the hyperbolic tangent profile with and without the Ricatti transformation. Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness of the boundary layer at the exit plane non-dimensionalizes the problem and, the Re range, based on measurements by Portillo in 2011, is 185 to 600. Wavelength measurements are taken from Portillo's experiment. School of Mechanical Engineering at Universidad del Valle, supported by a grant from Fulbright and Colciencias. Ph.D. student at the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics Purdue University.
Jahnel, J; Fleischer, T; Seitz, S B
Different approaches have been adopted for assessing the potential risks of conventional chemicals and products for human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a toxicological-driven chemical-by-chemical approach, focusing on single toxic endpoints. Scope and responsibilities for the development and implementation of a risk assessment concept vary across sectors and areas and depends on the specific regulatory environment and the specific protection goals. Thus, risk assessment implication is a complex task based not only on science based knowledge but also on the regulatory context involving different parties and stakeholders. Questions have been raised whether standard paradigms for conventional chemicals would be applicable and adequate for new materials, products and applications of nanotechnology. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that current standard methods are in principle applicable to nanomaterials, but specific aspects require further development. The paper presents additional technical improvements like the complementary use of the life cycle methodology and the support of risk-based classification systems. But also aspects improving the utility of risk assessment with regard to societal impacts on risk governance are discussed.
Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C
Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdou, Ehaab D.; Chan, W. Y. Alice
How are religious traditions and exchanges between them constructed in textbooks used in Quebec? Through a critical discourse analysis of History and Citizenship Education, and Ethics and Religious Culture textbooks, we find that the Abrahamic monotheistic tradition is valorized, while non-Abrahamic monotheistic traditions and polytheism are…
Mariana Yazzur Hernández
Full Text Available Intensive production systems have damaged many natural ecosystems and have altered their capacity to provide ecosystem services such as climate regulation, soil fertility, and vector-borne disease control. Therefore, these agroecosystems are unsustainable and poorly resilient. However, traditional agroforestry systems (TAS contribute to the conservation of biodiversity and to the provision of inputs for the maintenance of local populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the TAS in the food supply under the food sovereignty (FSv approach in three different ethnic groups. The study was conducted in three communities of different origin in the State of Campeche, one Maya Tseltal-Chol, the other Mestizo, and the third Yucatec Mayan. The theoretical-methodological framework of this research was based on agroecology. Ethnographic methods and participatory research activities were carried out to describe and analyze the factors that strengthen FSv using five indicators. Our results present a description and analysis of resource access, current production models, patterns of consumption and food security, commercialization and participation in decision-making of these communities. Traditional agroecological management practices are still preserved and native species are still being cultivated. Farmers obtain about 55% of their food from TAS. The consumption of food is influenced by the culture, the purchasing power linked to economic activities and government support. TAS have played a strategic role for the survival of families but to ensure their contribution to FSv, it is necessary to articulate the actions of the sectors that share the same objective and encourage the active participation of communities in agricultural policies.
Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.
Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.
Davids, Jeffrey; Rutten, Martine; van de Giesen, Nick; Mehl, Steffen; Norris, James
Traditional approaches to hydrologic data collection rely on permanent installations of sophisticated and relatively accurate but expensive monitoring equipment at limited numbers of sites. Consequently, the spatial coverage of the data is limited and the cost is high. Moreover, achieving adequate maintenance of the sophisticated equipment often exceeds local technical and resource capacity, and experience has shown that permanently deployed monitoring equipment is susceptible to vandalism, theft, and other hazards. Rather than using expensive, vulnerable installations at a few points, SmartPhones4Water (S4W), a form of citizen science, leverages widely available mobile technology to gather hydrologic data at many sites in a manner that is highly repeatable and scalable. The tradeoff for increased spatial resolution, however, is reduced observation frequency. As a first step towards evaluating the tradeoffs between the traditional continuous monitoring approach and emerging citizen science methods, 50 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gages were randomly selected from the population of roughly 350 USGS gages operated in California. Gaging station metadata and historical 15 minute flow data for the period from 01/10/2007 through 31/12/2014 were compiled for each of the selected gages. Historical 15 minute flow data were then used to develop daily, monthly, and yearly determinations of average, minimum, maximum streamflow, cumulative runoff, and streamflow distribution. These statistics were then compared to similar statistics developed from randomly selected daily and weekly spot measurements of streamflow. Cumulative runoff calculated from daily and weekly observations were within 10 percent of actual runoff calculated from 15 minute data for 75 percent and 46 percent of sites respectively. As anticipated, larger watersheds with less dynamic temporal variability compared more favorably for all statistics evaluated than smaller watersheds. Based on the
the Fanconi Anemia Pathway- Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for Preventing Bone Marrow Failure and Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Biochemical Approach to Understanding the Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fanconi anemia is the most prevalent inherited BMF syndromes, caused by mutations in
Jeremy D. Sperling
Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session
Chang, Ya-Ning; Lee, Chia-Ying
Words are considered semantically ambiguous if they have more than one meaning and can be used in multiple contexts. A number of recent studies have provided objective ambiguity measures by using a corpus-based approach and have demonstrated ambiguity advantages in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Although the predictive power of objective ambiguity measures has been examined in several alphabetic language systems, the effects in logographic languages remain unclear. Moreover, most ambiguity measures do not explicitly address how the various contexts associated with a given word relate to each other. To explore these issues, we computed the contextual diversity (Adelman, Brown, & Quesada, Psychological Science, 17; 814-823, 2006) and semantic ambiguity (Hoffman, Lambon Ralph, & Rogers, Behavior Research Methods, 45; 718-730, 2013) of traditional Chinese single-character words based on the Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus, where contextual diversity was used to evaluate the present semantic space. We then derived a novel ambiguity measure, namely semantic variability, by computing the distance properties of the distinct clusters grouped by the contexts that contained a given word. We demonstrated that semantic variability was superior to semantic diversity in accounting for the variance in naming response times, suggesting that considering the substructure of the various contexts associated with a given word can provide a relatively fine scale of ambiguity information for a word. All of the context and ambiguity measures for 2,418 Chinese single-character words are provided as supplementary materials.
Wang, Dali; Calabrese, Edward J; Lian, Baoling; Lin, Zhifen; Calabrese, Vittorio
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been long practiced and is becoming ever more widely recognized as providing curative and/or healing treatments for a number of diseases and physiological conditions. This paper posits that herbal medicines used in TCM treatments may act through hormetic dose-response mechanisms. It is proposed that the stimulatory (i.e., low dose) and inhibitory (i.e., high dose) components of the hormetic dose response correspond to respective "regulating" and "curing" aspects of TCM herbal treatments. Specifically, the "regulating" functions promote adaptive or preventive responses, while "curing" treatments alleviate the clinical symptoms. Patterns of hormetic responses are described, and the applicability of these processes to herbal medicines of TCM are explicated. It is noted that a research agenda aimed at elucidating these mechanisms and patterns would be expansive and complex. However, we argue its value, in that hormesis may afford something akin to a Rosetta Stone with which to interpret, translate, and explain TCM herbology in ways that are aligned with biomedical perspectives that could enable a more integrative approach to medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Wu, Wanying; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Dean; Liu, Changxiao
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic "multicomponent and multitarget" feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as "herbal medicine" or "natural product", and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory. A concept of "quality marker" (Q-marker), following the "property-effect-component" theory, is proposed. The establishment of Q-marker integrates multidisciplinary technologies like natural products chemistry, analytical chemistry, bionics, chemometrics, pharmacology, systems biology, and pharmacodynamics, etc. Q-marker-based fingerprint and multicomponent determination conduce to the construction of more scientific quality control system of TCM. This review delineates the background, definition, and properties of Q-marker, and the associated technologies applied for its establishment. Strategies and approaches for establishing Q-marker-based TCM quality control system are presented and highlighted with a few TCM examples.
Olerup, Brita [Royal Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Industrial Economics and Management, Stockholm (Sweden)
Economic efficiency tends to be an important argument when different means of environmental control are assessed and suggested. Considering that the most cost-efficient means are not the ones most frequently chosen and used, some other qualities seem to play an equally important role. I use findings from organisational theory and negotiation theory to better understand what is concealed in the black-box of decision-making and implementation. My empirical material consists of case studies of four different means of environmental control used in Sweden during the 1990s to mitigate the threat of global warming. These are an environmental tax, a licensing trial, municipal energy planning, and technology procurement. Each represents a particular discipline (economic, legal, physical planning, or technological) in which a context (planning or market) and an approach (traditional relay race or alternative process-oriented) are combined. Although each means has its particular niche, some qualities stand out as superior. Such means need to be divisible in space as well as in time. It is then easier to get started. Since it is just as easy to deviate from, rather than adhere to, the predetermined course after a while, some incentive must be given to the person in charge of implementation. In other words, the classic proverb of using sticks and carrots is still valid although it is not always taken to heart and practised. (Author)
Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the protective effect of Wattakaka (W. volubilis leaf extract against streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (with six rats in each group and were fed ad libitum. The rats were fasted for sixteen hours before diabetes was induced by injecting a single dose of 90 mg/kg body weight of STZ in 0.9-percent normal saline through an intraperitoneal route. The five groups were as follows: Group 1: normal control (saline-treated, Group 2: untreated diabetic rats, Groups 3 and 4: diabetic rats treated orally with petroleum ether cold maceration extract (PEME of W. volubilis (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, and Group 5: diabetic rats treated orally with metformin (250 mg/kg body weight. All rats received treatment for 21 days. For the STZ-induced diabetic rats, the blood-glucose, α-amylase, total protein and alanine transaminase (ALT levels were measured on days 7,14 and 21 of the treatment with PEME of W. volubilis and the treatment with metformin. Histopathological changes in the liver were examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Morphological changes in the liver were also examined with glutaraldehyde fixation. Results: The treatments with PEME of W. volubilis and with metformin in experimental rats by oral injections for 21 days produced reductions in the levels of serum biochemical markers. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the administrations of PEME of W. volubilis and of metformin suppressed the generation of abnormal liver cells in the STZ-treated rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that both PEME of W. volubilis and metformin have a protective effect against STZ-induced diabetes.
Jason H. Sharp
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Compared student academic performance on specific course requirements in a C# programming course across three instructional approaches: traditional, online, and flipped. Background: Addressed the following research question: When compared to the online and traditional instructional approaches, does the flipped instructional approach have a greater impact on student academic performance with specific course requirements in a C# programming course? Methodology: Quantitative research design conducted over eight 16-week semesters among a total of 271 participants who were undergraduate students en-rolled in a C# programming course. Data collected were grades earned from specific course requirements and were analyzed with the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis H-Test using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 23. Contribution: Provides empirical findings related to the impact that different instructional approaches have on student academic performance in a C# programming course. Also describes implications and recommendations for instructors of programming courses regarding instructional approaches that facilitate active learning, student engagement, and self-regulation. Findings: Resulted in four statistically significant findings, indicating that the online and flipped instructional approaches had a greater impact on student academic performance than the traditional approach. Recommendations for Practitioners: Implement instructional approaches such as online, flipped, or blended which foster active learning, student engagement, and self-regulation to increase student academic performance. Recommendation for Researchers: Build upon this study and others similar to it to include factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, and previous academic history. Impact on Society: Acknowledge the growing influence of technology on society as a whole. Higher education coursework and programs are evolving to encompass more digitally-based learning contexts, thus
Oliynyk, Anton O; Mar, Arthur
Intermetallic compounds are bestowed by diverse compositions, complex structures, and useful properties for many materials applications. How metallic elements react to form these compounds and what structures they adopt remain challenging questions that defy predictability. Traditional approaches offer some rational strategies to prepare specific classes of intermetallics, such as targeting members within a modular homologous series, manipulating building blocks to assemble new structures, and filling interstitial sites to create stuffed variants. Because these strategies rely on precedent, they cannot foresee surprising results, by definition. Exploratory synthesis, whether through systematic phase diagram investigations or serendipity, is still essential for expanding our knowledge base. Eventually, the relationships may become too complex for the pattern recognition skills to be reliably or practically performed by humans. Complementing these traditional approaches, new machine-learning approaches may be a viable alternative for materials discovery, not only among intermetallics but also more generally to other chemical compounds. In this Account, we survey our own efforts to discover new intermetallic compounds, encompassing gallides, germanides, phosphides, arsenides, and others. We apply various machine-learning methods (such as support vector machine and random forest algorithms) to confront two significant questions in solid state chemistry. First, what crystal structures are adopted by a compound given an arbitrary composition? Initial efforts have focused on binary equiatomic phases AB, ternary equiatomic phases ABC, and full Heusler phases AB 2 C. Our analysis emphasizes the use of real experimental data and places special value on confirming predictions through experiment. Chemical descriptors are carefully chosen through a rigorous procedure called cluster resolution feature selection. Predictions for crystal structures are quantified by evaluating
Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet
Hahl, Sayuri K; Kremling, Andreas
In the mathematical modeling of biochemical reactions, a convenient standard approach is to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that follow the law of mass action. However, this deterministic ansatz is based on simplifications; in particular, it neglects noise, which is inherent to biological processes. In contrast, the stochasticity of reactions is captured in detail by the discrete chemical master equation (CME). Therefore, the CME is frequently applied to mesoscopic systems, where copy numbers of involved components are small and random fluctuations are thus significant. Here, we compare those two common modeling approaches, aiming at identifying parallels and discrepancies between deterministic variables and possible stochastic counterparts like the mean or modes of the state space probability distribution. To that end, a mathematically flexible reaction scheme of autoregulatory gene expression is translated into the corresponding ODE and CME formulations. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, deterministic stable fixed points usually correspond well to the modes in the stationary probability distribution. However, this connection might be disrupted in small systems. The discrepancies are characterized and systematically traced back to the magnitude of the stoichiometric coefficients and to the presence of nonlinear reactions. These factors are found to synergistically promote large and highly asymmetric fluctuations. As a consequence, bistable but unimodal, and monostable but bimodal systems can emerge. This clearly challenges the role of ODE modeling in the description of cellular signaling and regulation, where some of the involved components usually occur in low copy numbers. Nevertheless, systems whose bimodality originates from deterministic bistability are found to sustain a more robust separation of the two states compared to bimodal, but monostable systems. In regulatory circuits that require precise coordination, ODE modeling is thus still
Rizzolo, Lawrence J
Anatomy remains one of the core courses of medical school, but the time devoted to it is decreasing. To accommodate the explosion of medical knowledge, educators search to streamline the curriculum. Because it is time-consuming, dissection comes under increased scrutiny. Even in the face of these pressures to reduce course hours, I would like to propose broadening, not reducing, the responsibilities of the anatomy instructor. Anatomy instructors can play a crucial role in helping medical schools meet the critical need to cultivate humanistic values, especially in the arena of end-of-life care. Anatomy can--and should--play an important role in a curriculum-wide effort to address this issue. Just as dissection remains an essential technique to teach three-dimensional concepts, the cadaver dissection lab is an ideal place to introduce concepts of humanistic care. The lab evokes the students' memories, speculations, and fears about serious illness in themselves, their families, and loved ones. Some programs address these reactions with supplemental activities, such as journaling, essay writing, and small group discussion. Valuable as these activities may be, anatomy instructors can achieve more by recognizing their role as a mentor, who can integrate humanistic values into traditional course objectives in a way that adds little time to the curriculum. The attitude of the instructor in ministering to the students' needs as they undertake the emotionally charged task of dissection can provide a model for how the students will respond, in turn, to the hopes and fears of their patients-and to their own reactions to dying. This approach will allow students to implement and practice humanistic values immediately, laying a foundation for their clinical training. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Blanco, Julien; Michon, Geneviève; Carrière, Stéphanie M
While the aim of Ecological Intensification is to enable the design of more sustainable and productive agricultural systems, it is not suited to dryland agroecosystems that are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics and intrinsic variability. Instead, a model based on mobility and variability management has been proposed for these agroecosystems. However, this model remains under-applied in southern Morocco where there have been few studies on the functioning of traditional agroecosystems. This paper focuses on an agroecosystem in the Moroccan Saharan fringe zone that combines agriculture and pastoralism in an acacia parkland. A grounded theory approach was used over a three-year investigation period (i) to highlight how agro-pastoral activities interface with environmental variability, and (ii) to analyze the formal and informal institutions that support these activities. Results show that farmers interface with rainfall variability through (i) an opportunistic agricultural calendar, (ii) a variation of cultivated areas, and (iii) crop diversification. Herders combine macro-mobility (nomads move over long distances to track rainfall) and micro-mobility (nomadic and sedentary herds are driven on a daily basis around settlements) to optimize the exploitation of ecological heterogeneity. During droughts, they also resort to State-subsidized forage supplies. Both cultivation and pastoral activities tend to interface with ecological dynamics and to mimic nature, resulting in a human-modified parkland that could be considered as a 'green agroecosystem'. The sustainability of natural resource use relies on flexible property rights, backed up by a social and cultural norm-based regulation system, that allow crop-livestock integration and landscape collective management. Despite encouraging results, the agroecosystem appears to be threatened by current agricultural policies, rural exodus and the lack of social recognition of nomadism. Nevertheless, because ecosystem mimicry of
Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Giannousi, Maria; Zetou, Eleni; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hybrid learning approach to deliver a computer science course concerning the Microsoft office PowerPoint 2003 program in comparison to delivering the same course content in the form of traditional lectures. A hundred and seventy-two first year university students were randomly…
This study aims to evaluate the consistency of teaching content with teaching approaches in calculus on the basis of lecturers' views. In this sense, the structures of the examples given in two commonly used calculus textbooks, both in traditional and reform classrooms, are compared. The content analysis findings show that the examples in both…
Many second language teachers in the People's Republic of China, upon encountering the communicative approach, reject it as both unworkable and unnecessary in China, where traditional instruction produces the expected results. However, the educational system is such that students who get to the university are highly motivated and talented, but the…
Bøe, Maria Vetleseter; Henriksen, Ellen Karoline; Angell, Carl
Calls for renewal of physics education include more varied learning activities and increased focus on qualitative understanding and history and philosophy of science (HPS) aspects. We have studied an innovative approach implementing such features in quantum physics in traditional upper secondary physics classrooms in Norway. Data consists of 11…
Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Zhou, Liang; Kumar, Kishore; Gao, Jie; Vaid, Henna; Liu, Huiming; Hankey, Alex; Wang, Guojun; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Nie, Jing-Bao; Nichter, Mark
India and China face the same challenge of having too few trained psychiatric personnel to manage effectively the substantial burden of mental illness within their population. At the same time, both countries have many practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine who are a potential resource for delivery of mental health care. In our paper, part of The Lancet and Lancet Psychiatry's Series about the China-India Mental Health Alliance, we describe and compare types of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in India and China. Further, we provide a systematic overview of evidence assessing the effectiveness of these alternative approaches for mental illness and discuss challenges in research. We suggest how practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and mental health professionals might forge collaborative relationships to provide more accessible, affordable, and acceptable mental health care in India and China. A substantial proportion of individuals with mental illness use traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine, either exclusively or with biomedicine, for reasons ranging from faith and cultural congruence to accessibility, cost, and belief that these approaches are safe. Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine find several approaches to be promising for treatment of mental illness, but most clinical trials included in these systematic reviews have methodological limitations. Contemporary methods to establish efficacy and safety-typically through randomised controlled trials-need to be complemented by other means. The community of practice built on collaborative relationships between practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and providers of mental health care holds promise in bridging the treatment gap in mental health care in India and China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Göbel, Kristin; Scheithauer, Herbert; Brighi, Antonella; Guarini, Annalisa; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Pyzalski, Jacek; Plichta, Piotr; Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A.; Thompson, Fran; Smith, Peter K.
In recently published studies on cyberbullying, students are frequently categorized into distinct (cyber)bully and (cyber)victim clusters based on theoretical assumptions and arbitrary cut-off scores adapted from traditional bullying research. The present study identified involvement classes empirically using latent class analysis (LCA), to…
Zivin, Gail; Hassan, Nimr R.; DePaula, Geraldine F.; Monti, Daniel A.; Harlan, Carmen; Hossain, Kashfia D.; Patterson, Ksai
Replicated and extended the design and outcome measures of several small studies. In these studies, juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts. (Author)
Howes, Colleen M.; Mailloux, Mark R.
Contrasted two survey methodologies: e-mail-Web and traditional mail. Found that: (1) e-mail-Web respondents were proportionately more likely to be male and enrolled in school full-time; (2) more individual question non-response was present for the e-mail-Web sample; and (3) e-mail-Web respondents value different aspects of graduate school. (EV)
Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Ioannidis, Dionysis; Giannousi, Maria
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between an exergame-based and a traditional balance training program, in undergraduate Physical Education students. Thirty two third-year undergraduate students at the Democritus University of Thrace were randomly divided into two training program groups of 16 students each,…
Anil, Özgür; Batdi, Veli
The aim of this study is to compare the 5E learning model with traditional learning methods in terms of their effect on students' academic achievement, retention and attitude scores. In this context, the meta-analytic method known as the "analysis of analyses" was used and a review undertaken of the studies and theses (N = 14) executed…
Martinez-Caro, Eva; Campuzano-Bolarin, Francisco
In this paper a two-year field study was carried out to analyse how satisfaction differs across the traditional and blended learning methods. Altogether, 21 courses for graduate and postgraduate engineering students were evaluated. Several variables and their relationship with student satisfaction in the first year, with all courses delivered in…
Full Text Available Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST, T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p < 0.0001. Compared to the reverse algorithm, the traditional algorithm also had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 42.8%. The total percentages of agreement and corresponding kappa values of tradition and ECDC algorithm compared with those of reverse algorithm were as follows: 89.4%,0.668; 99.8%, 0.994. There was a very good strength of agreement between the reverse and the ECDC algorithm. Our results supported the reverse (or ECDC algorithm in screening of syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.
Chen, Bin; Peng, Xiuming; Xie, Tiansheng; Jin, Changzhong; Liu, Fumin; Wu, Nanping
Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient) was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p algorithm, the traditional algorithm also had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 42.8%. The total percentages of agreement and corresponding kappa values of tradition and ECDC algorithm compared with those of reverse algorithm were as follows: 89.4%,0.668; 99.8%, 0.994. There was a very good strength of agreement between the reverse and the ECDC algorithm. Our results supported the reverse (or ECDC) algorithm in screening of syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.
Progress is reported on studies concerning NAD(P)H-2,6-DMBQ oxidoreductase of Striga asiatica aimed at elucidating basic biochemical parameters of Striga. Reported studies include characterization of the enzyme, development of Striga molecular genetics, and development of a redox model for germination control.
Full Text Available Objective - This study compared the quality and helpfulness of traditional book review sources with the online user rating system in Amazon.com in order to determine if one mode is superior to the other and should be used by library selectors to assist in making purchasing decisions. Methods - For this study, 228 reviews of 7 different novels were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Of these, 127 reviews came from traditional review sources and 101 reviews were published on Amazon.com. Results - Using a checklist developed for this study, a significant difference in the quality of reviews was discovered. Reviews from traditional sources scored significantly higher than reviews from Amazon.com. The researcher also looked at review length. On average, Amazon.com reviews are shorter than reviews from traditional sources. Review rating—favourable, unfavourable, or mixed/neutral—also showed a lack of consistency between the two modes of reviews. Conclusion - Although Amazon.com provides multiple reviews of a book on one convenient site, traditional sources of professionally written reviews would most likely save librarians more time in making purchasing decisions, given the higher quality of the review assessment.
Kim, Jihye; Yoo, Minjae; Shin, Jimin; Kim, Hyunmin; Kang, Jaewoo; Tan, Aik Choon
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China has been practiced over thousands of years for treating various symptoms and diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of TCM in treating these diseases remain unknown. In this study, we employ a systems pharmacology-based approach for connecting GWAS diseases with TCM for potential drug repurposing and repositioning. We studied 102 TCM components and their target genes by analyzing microarray gene expression experiments. We constructed disease-gene networks from 2558 GWAS studies. We applied a systems pharmacology approach to prioritize disease-target genes. Using this bioinformatics approach, we analyzed 14,713 GWAS disease-TCM-target gene pairs and identified 115 disease-gene pairs with q value < 0.2. We validated several of these GWAS disease-TCM-target gene pairs with literature evidence, demonstrating that this computational approach could reveal novel indications for TCM. We also develop TCM-Disease web application to facilitate the traditional Chinese medicine drug repurposing efforts. Systems pharmacology is a promising approach for connecting GWAS diseases with TCM for potential drug repurposing and repositioning. The computational approaches described in this study could be easily expandable to other disease-gene network analysis.
The aim of this research is to draw a theoretical line to connect on a common conceptual base, behavioural fi-nance with what is internationally known as Modern Fi-nance. The debate often involves discussions about the prevalence of rationality over irrationality. This paper will address mainly two questions: as an economist, should I propend for traditional or for behavioural finance? And, perhaps more important, are they in opposition to each other? Linking the principles upon which the tra...
Piazza, C.; Giudici, P.; Corbellini, M.; Gianinetti, A.; Morcia, C.; Terzi, V.
The influence of organic and conventional farming systems on the performance of a panel of old and modern Italian bread wheat varieties has been evaluated, with the aim to individuate an agronomic protocol suitable for the production of a sourdough bread traditionally prepared in a hill zone of Emilia-Romagna. The agronomic and technological characterisation of the wheat samples obtained in organic and conventional farming conditions has been done and the sensorial qualities of the sourdough ...
Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa
Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobact...
This paper aims to examine different techniques and approaches used in teaching and learning business English in the economic field. Besides applying the already well-known methods used in second language acquisition, we also tried to incorporate computer-mediated communication into the communicative approach. At all times, the choice of the methods and approaches used in teaching business English has focused on our students' needs in their vocation or job. We worked with two groups of studen...
Wang, Tingting; Sun, Fubao; Xia, Jun; Liu, Wenbin; Sang, Yanfang
In predicting how droughts and hydrological cycles would change in a warming climate, change of atmospheric evaporative demand measured by pan evaporation (Epan) is one crucial element to be understood. Over the last decade, the derived partial differential (PD) form of the PenPan equation is a prevailing attribution approach to attributing changes to Epan worldwide. However, the independency among climatic variables required by the PD approach cannot be met using long term observations. Here we designed a series of numerical experiments to attribute changes of Epan over China by detrending each climatic variable, i.e., an experimental detrending approach, to address the inter-correlation among climate variables, and made comparison with the traditional PD method. The results show that the detrending approach is superior not only to a complicate system with multi-variables and mixing algorithm like aerodynamic component (Ep,A) and Epan, but also to a simple case like radiative component (Ep,R), when compared with traditional PD method. The major reason for this is the strong and significant inter-correlation of input meteorological forcing. Very similar and fine attributing results have been achieved based on detrending approach and PD method after eliminating the inter-correlation of input through a randomize approach. The contribution of Rh and Ta in net radiation and thus Ep,R, which has been overlooked based on the PD method but successfully detected by detrending approach, provides some explanation to the comparing results. We adopted the control run from the detrending approach and applied it to made adjustment of PD method. Much improvement has been made and thus proven this adjustment an effective way in attributing changes to Epan. Hence, the detrending approach and the adjusted PD method are well recommended in attributing changes in hydrological models to better understand and predict water and energy cycle.
Szalay, L.; Tóth, Z.
This is the start of a road map for the effective introduction of inquiry-based learning in chemistry. Advantages of inquiry-based approaches to the development of scientific literacy are widely discussed in the literature. However, unless chemistry educators take account of teachers' reservations and identified disadvantages such approaches will…
This book addresses the mathematical rationality contained in the making of string figures. It does so by using interdisciplinary methods borrowed from anthropology, mathematics, history and philosophy of mathematics. The practice of string figure-making has long been carried out in many societies, and particularly in those of oral tradition. It consists in applying a succession of operations to a string (knotted into a loop), mostly using the fingers and sometimes the feet, the wrists or the mouth. This succession of operations is intended to generate a final figure. The book explores differ
Why? Because traditional programs that focus on women as soon as they become pregnant are not making any headway against the incidence of low and very low birth weight (LBW) babies. As a result, while more of these babies are surviving, a significant number have disabilities that will impact them for life while costing the health care system dearly. Experts at Emory University in Atlanta believe there must be a better way to curb the incidence of poor birth outcomes, and they are putting their theories to work in a new program focused on "interpregnancy" care.
Schmieder, Daniela A; Benítez, Hugo A; Borissov, Ivailo M; Fruciano, Carmelo
External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.
Daniela A Schmieder
Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.
Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S
Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks. In this review, we discuss the basics of both these methods of biological identification (traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding), the technical advances in integrative taxonomy, and future trends. We also present a comprehensive compilation of published examples of integrative taxonomy that refer to nine topics within biodiversity conservation. Morphological and molecular species limits were observed to be congruent in ∼41% of the 58 source studies. The majority of the studies highlighted the description of cryptic diversity through the use of molecular data, whereas research areas like endemism, biological invasion, and threatened species were less discussed in the literature.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to draw a theoretical line to connect on a common conceptual base, behavioural fi-nance with what is internationally known as Modern Fi-nance. The debate often involves discussions about the prevalence of rationality over irrationality. This paper will address mainly two questions: as an economist, should I propend for traditional or for behavioural finance? And, perhaps more important, are they in opposition to each other? Linking the principles upon which the traditional theory of finance is based to behavioural finance appears also to be useful to better understand recent global turmoil in the world financial system. In finding such links, behavioural finance studies will help on driving research to define market models much closer to reality than they are today. Thus literature recognition will be carried out, starting from the most important contribution to fundamental analysis, value theory, going through modern portfolio theory and efficient market hypothesis to seminal contributions on behavioural finance, reaching recent findings of Neuronomics, in order to establish some common theoretical base in corporate finance studies.
Sanders, Jim; Guse, Clare E
There is a significant disparity in hypertensive treatment rates between those with and without health insurance. If left untreated, hypertension leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The uninsured face numerous barriers to access chronic disease care. We developed the Community-based Chronic Disease Management (CCDM) clinics specifically for the uninsured with hypertension utilizing nurse-led teams, community-based locations, and evidence-based clinical protocols. All services, including laboratory and medications, are provided on-site and free of charge. In order to ascertain if the CCDM model of care was as effective as traditional models of care in achieving blood pressure goals, we compared CCDM clinics' hypertensive care outcomes with 2 traditional fee-for-service physician-led clinics. All the clinics are located near one another in poor urban neighborhoods of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Patients seen at the CCDM clinics and at 1 of the 2 traditional clinics showed a statistically significant improvement in reaching blood pressure goal at 6 months (P fee-for-service clinics when compared with the CCDM clinics. The CCDM model of care is at least as effective in controlling hypertension as more traditional fee-for-service models caring for the same population. The CCDM model of care to treat hypertension may offer another approach for engaging the urban poor in chronic disease care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the community detection-based approach is useful and feasible for uncovering consensuses and treatment principles of DN treatment in TCM, and could be used to address other similar problems in TCM.
Barringer, Daniel; Kregenow, Julia M.; Palma, Christopher; Plummer, Julia
In Spring of 2014, Penn State debuted an online Introductory Astronomy (AST 001) section that was designed as a video game. Previous studies have shown that well-designed games help learners to build accurate understanding of embedded concepts and processes and aid learner motivation, which strongly contributes to a student's willingness to learn. We start by presenting the learning gains as measured with the Test of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) from this new course design. We further compare the learning gains from the video game section with learning gains measured from more traditional online formats and in-person lecture sections of AST 001 taught at Penn State over the last five years to evaluate the extent to which this new medium for online Astronomy education supports student learning.
Kobori, Hiromi; Primack, Richard B
The traditional agricultural landscape of Japan, known as satoyama, consists of a mixture of forests, wet rice paddy fields, grasslands, and villages. This landscape supports a great diversity of plant and animal species, many of which are significant to the Japanese culture. The satoyama landscape is currently being rapidly converted to residential and industrial uses in Japan's expanding metropolitan areas, with the local loss of many species. Only 7% of the land in the Yokohama area remains as satoyama. City residents and older farmers have become key participants in programs to protect examples of satoyama. Many urban residents value the experience of participating in agricultural and conservation activities once they are made aware of the threat faced by the satoyama landscape. In one particularly successful program, conservation efforts and fund-raising are linked to "Totoro", an imaginary forest animal featured in a popular animated film.
Full Text Available The article discusses a new model of the origins of choral singing in the context of human evolutionary history. Hominid interaction with predators is seen as a crucial force in the evolution of human morphology and behaviour. Group singing and dancing, with body painting and the use of masks, are perceived as critical elements of the strategy to deter predators and to put hominids into an altered state of consciousness. In this state, humans do not feel fear and pain and are ready to sacrifice their lives for the common goal. This psychological condition is still important to many human group activities, particularly in religion and the military. The mosaic distribution of polyphonic traditions is discussed in the context of the origins of language and articulated speech.
Townsend, Jane Stewart
This paper encapsulates the history of Reiki, an ancient healing art, from its origins in Japan to current practice in the United States. It defines Reiki therapy and discusses the development of a new Reiki method called Temari Reiki and the use of two additional chakras. Lastly, sample clients scenarios are provided. Because of the success of Temari Reiki in my practice, recommendations include that it be integrated as therapy to augment traditional Western medicine-based patient care plans for patients with cancer, pain, stress and other disabling health issues. Also, additional research using randomized clinical trials is recommended to examine the benefits of Temari Reiki for improving patients' well-being in mind, body and spirit. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Dong, Xin; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are gaining more and more attentions all over the world. The focus of TCMs researches were gradually shifted from chemical research to the combination study of chemical and life sciences. However, obtaining precise information of TCMs process in vivo or in vitro is still a bottleneck in bioanalysis of TCMs for their chemical composition complexity. This paper reviewed the recent analytical methods especially mass spectrometry technology in the bioanalysis of TCMs, and data processing techniques in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of metabolite of TCMs. Additionally, the difficulties encountered in the analyzing biological samples in TCMs and the solutions to these problems have been mentioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hu, Minhao; Wattchow, David; de Fontgalland, Dayan
The landscape of surgical anatomy education is progressively changing. Traditional methods, such as cadaveric dissection and didacticism are being increasingly phased out in undergraduate courses for multimodal approaches incorporating problem-based learning, radiology and computer-based simulations. Although effective at clinically contextualizing and integrating anatomical information, these approaches may be a poor substitute for fostering a grasp of foundational 'pure' anatomy. Dissection is ideal for this purpose and hence remains the cornerstone of anatomical education. However, novel methods and technological advancements continually give way to adjuncts such as cadaveric surgery, three-dimensional printing, virtual simulation and live surgical streaming, which have demonstrated significant efficacy alone or alongside dissection. Therefore, although divergent paradigms of 'new versus old' approaches have engulfed and divided the community, educators should seek to integrate the ancient and avant-garde to comprehensively satisfy all of the modern anatomy learner's educational needs. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Helmark, Ida Carøe; Mikkelsen, U R; Krogsgaard, M R
The microdialysis technique was evaluated as a possible method to obtain local measurements of biochemical markers from knee joints with degenerative changes. Seven patients scheduled for arthroscopy of the knee due to minor to moderate degenerative changes had microdialysis catheters inserted...... under ultrasonographic guidance, intraarticularly and in the synovium-close tissue. Catheters were perfused at a rate of 2 μl/min for approximately 100 min with a Ringer solution containing radioactively labeled glucose, and the positions of the catheters were later visualized during arthroscopy. All...
Traditional Indigenous Approaches to Healing and the modern welfare of Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality and Lands: A critical reflection on practices and policies taken from the Canadian Indigenous Example
Julian A. Robbins
Full Text Available In order for traditional knowledge to be maintained and to develop, it has to be practiced. Traditional healing provides a vehicle for this to occur. In Canada, the spiritual revitalization of Indigenous communities and individuals often involves the use numerous components of traditional healing. These elements are reflectedmost clearly at the grassroots level, however, current Indigenous programs delivered by Indigenous and governmental agencies have made some accommodating efforts as well. Perhaps most importantly, traditional knowledge and Indigenous spirituality hinges on the maintenance and renewal of relationships to the land.Indigenous land bases and the environment as a whole remain vitally important to the practice of traditional healing.A focus on Indigenous healing, when discussing Indigenous knowledge systems and spirituality, is paramount today due to the large scale suppression of Indigenous cultural expressions during the process of colonization. With respect to policy, there appears to be a historical progression of perception or attitude towards Indigenous traditional healing in Canada from one of disfavour to one favour. There are nevertheless continuing challenges for traditional healing. Mainstream perceptions and subsequent policy implementations sometimes still reflect attitudes that were formulated during the decline of traditional healing practice during colonization processes. As a consequence the ability for particular communities to maintain and use their specific understandings ofIndigenous knowledge continues encounter obstacles. Indigenous Knowledge systems are living entities and not relics of the past. Today, these knowledge systems are still greatly being applied to help Indigenous communities and Indigenous people recover fromintergenerational pain and suffering endured during the colonization process. Future policy development and implementation should aim to support Indigenous peoples and communities when
Gibbard, Leslie Laing; Salajan, Florin
A unique approach was planned and implemented for undergraduate dental students that would reinforce the principles of removable partial denture (RPD) design. 162 students were grouped according to their year of dental studies (66 second-year students and 96 third-year students) within the Discipline of Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry,…
How to read the Confucian Classics today? Scholars with philosophical training usually emphasize that the philosophical approach, in comparison with the classicist and historical ones, is the best way to read the Confucian Classics, for it can dig out as much intellectual resources as possible from the classical texts in order to show their modern…
Workman Ford, K.; Ford, K. R.
Undergraduate introductory geology courses are required in many colleges nationwide as part of the general education requirement. As a result, a large portion of those students are non-majors and most are not science majors. Textbooks used in these courses are often extensive with respect to the amount of material covered which tends to be overwhelming to the average student. Thus, students often purchase the pricey textbook but turn to their smartphones, notebooks, and laptops for answers. Before the development of the internet, students spent many hours in libraries and with their textbooks organizing and retrieving information. However, new technologies in the 21st century have essentially replaced traditional textbooks with students turning to online search engines, such as Google, to study and to complete homework assignments. Presently, online search engines may be more intuitive, but what's going on in the background isn't intuitive at all, and few students have a clear understanding of how search engines operate. Effectively this leads to students without the conception of how to build an adequate search strategy independent of search engines. Often, students are directed to online encyclopedias that may have erroneous information. Here, we employ an alternative to traditional textbooks and online search engines by implementing a guidebook with electronic resources for online activities and homework assignments. The proposed guidebook is roughly modeled after the American Geosciences Institute's Geoscience Handbook: AGI Data Sheets 4th, revised edition, and will include diagrams, graphs, charts, and pictures of basic geologic principles, processes, and earth materials. Along with the information, each topic will have online resources including sites for general reading, specific assignments that require visiting scientifically sound websites (i.e., USGS, GSA, AGU, Science, Nature), online self-assessment activities, and Google Earth activities. In addition
Cristiane Rodrigues Pinheiro Neiva
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop sensory acceptable, high nutritional value fish crackers that could be kept at room temperature for 180 days. Minced fish of different low-value species was the raw material employed to produce two types of fish crackers: a the traditional keropok cracker, which was expanded by deep frying; and b a low-fat fish cracker, expanded by microwave cooking. The protein content of the fried fish crackers (FFCs and that of the microwaved fish crackers (MFCs were high (10.86 and 14.70%, respectively. The essential amino acid contents of the two types of fish cracker were above the FAO requirements for adults, and the lysine content was above the requirements for children. Sensory analysis, performed by adult panelists, resulted in a general level of acceptability of 90% for the MFCs and of 97% for the FFCs. Vacuum packaging maintained microbiological and physicochemical properties for a storage period of 180 days at room temperature.
Kuang, Jinqiu; Argo, Lauren; Stoddard, Greg; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing
Compared to traditional methods of participant recruitment, online crowdsourcing platforms provide a fast and low-cost alternative. Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a large and well-known crowdsourcing service. It has developed into the leading platform for crowdsourcing recruitment. To explore the application of online crowdsourcing for health informatics research, specifically the testing of medical pictographs. A set of pictographs created for cardiovascular hospital discharge instructions was tested for recognition. This set of illustrations (n=486) was first tested through an in-person survey in a hospital setting (n=150) and then using online MTurk participants (n=150). We analyzed these survey results to determine their comparability. Both the demographics and the pictograph recognition rates of online participants were different from those of the in-person participants. In the multivariable linear regression model comparing the 2 groups, the MTurk group scored significantly higher than the hospital sample after adjusting for potential demographic characteristics (adjusted mean difference 0.18, 95% CI 0.08-0.28, Ptraditional in-person surveys, but it cannot replace them.
Hou, Yang; Shi, Jiangang; Lin, Yanping; Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen
The cervical screw placement is one of the most difficult procedures in spine surgery, which often needs a long period of repeated practices and could cause screw placement-related complications. We performed this cadaver study to investigate the effectiveness of virtual surgical training system (VSTS) on cervical pedicle screw instrumentation for residents. A total of ten novice residents were randomly assigned to two groups: the simulation training (ST) group (n = 5) and control group (n = 5). The ST group received a surgical training of cervical pedicle screw placement on VSTS and the control group was given an introductory teaching session before cadaver test. Ten fresh adult spine specimens including 6 males and 4 females were collected, and were randomly allocated to the two groups. The bilateral C3-C6 pedicle screw instrumentation was performed in the specimens of the two groups, respectively. After instrumentation, screw positions of the two groups were evaluated by image examinations. There was significantly statistical difference in screw penetration rates between the ST (10%) and control group (62.5%, P VSTS as an advanced training tool exhibited promising effects on improving performance of novice residents in cervical pedicle screw placement compared with the traditional teaching methods.
Boyd, R. K.; Brumfield, J. O.; Campbell, W. J.
The conditions under which a hybrid of clustering and canonical analysis for image classification produce optimum results were analyzed. The approach involves generation of classes by clustering for input to canonical analysis. The importance of the number of clusters input and the effect of other parameters of the clustering algorithm (ISOCLS) were examined. The approach derives its final result by clustering the canonically transformed data. Therefore the importance of number of clusters requested in this final stage was also examined. The effect of these variables were studied in terms of the average separability (as measured by transformed divergence) of the final clusters, the transformation matrices resulting from different numbers of input classes, and the accuracy of the final classifications. The research was performed with LANDSAT MSS data over the Hazleton/Berwick Pennsylvania area. Final classifications were compared pixel by pixel with an existing geographic information system to provide an indication of their accuracy.
In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation
Neel, J.V.; Mohrenweiser, H.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hamilton, H.B.
This report presents two different strategies for monitoring increased mutation rates resulting from exposure to an environmental mutagen, both of which are based on the detection of biochemical variants of polypeptides. Using the first strategy, one monitors a defined population continuously for the rate at which children with such a variant are born to normal parents. An increase in this rate implies increasing exposure to a mutagen. With the second strategy, one contrasts the findings in the children born to a control group or groups with the findings in the children born to an exposed group, however this is defined. An example of each strategy is included. The alternatives to mutation which must be considered when a child with a variant is found to have nonaffected parents are considered. The numbers of individuals necessary to detect an increase of a specified magnitude are discussed. (author)
Kwape, T E; Chaturvedi, P; Kamau, J M; George, S
The leaves of Ziziphus mucronata are used locally as food and a health drink; the leaf paste can also be used in the treatment of boils. The root of the plant is usually used in the treatment of a wide range of pains. The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mucronata (ZMLM). The extract was prepared by soaking in 70% methanol/water and rotary evaporation. The phenol content of extract was then estimated. Twenty five adult male Sprague dawley rats (aged 21 weeks) were divided into five groups of five rats each and treated as follows; normal control (NC) received distilled water. Dimethoate control (DC) (received 6 mg/kg.bw.day(-1) dimethoate dissolved in distilled water). Experimental Groups (E1) received dimethoate (6mg/kg.bw) + ZMLM (100 mg/kg.bw(-1)); (E2) received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw) + ZMLM (200 mg/kg.bw(-1)) and (E3) received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw) + ZMLM (300 mg/kg.bw(-1)). In both the cases a normal control and dimethoate control were kept to compare the results. After 90 days, blood was collected and rats were sacrificed to collect the liver tissue for biochemical assays and histological estimations. The results of E1 did not show much change from the normal control group but was significantly different from the dimethoate control group (P≤ 0.05). The preventive effect which was tested in E2 and E3 proved that the extract could almost retain the normal condition in 90 days time. Histological observations also agreed with the results obtained in biochemical parameters. Ziziphus mucronata methanol leaf extract possesses a preventive effect against dimethoate induced oxidative stress as observed in male albino Sprague Dawley rats.
Arias-Nava Elías Heriberto
Full Text Available Design of experiments plays an important role in the field of creating and innovating process and products directly in manufacturing and improving areas. There are several areas into designs of experiments; robust design is one of them. Robust parameter design is a principle that emphasize in products creation through a correct selection of values called “control” which make a product robust to the variability by the noise introducing by another factors known as “noise” factors. This article aims for a comparative study between two well-known robust design methodologies, making a special emphasis in the control by control interaction effects over optimal operating conditions. The results showed that Taguchi´s crossed arrays are unable to estimate all significant terms in a model. The optimizations result concludes that the Taguchi´s approach is less efficient than the traditional approach in both; maximization and minimization.
Tarantino, Giuseppe; Magistri, Paolo; Ballarin, Roberto; Assirati, Giacomo; Di Cataldo, Antonio; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio
According to the current literature, biliary lithiasis is a worldwide-diffused condition that affects almost 20% of the general population. The rate of common bile duct stones (CBDS) in patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is estimated to be 10% to 33%, depending on patient's age. Compared to stones in the gallbladder, the natural history of secondary CBDS is still not completely understood. It is not clear whether an asymptomatic choledocholithiasis requires treatment or not. For many years, open cholecystectomy with choledochotomy and/or surgical sphincterotomy and cleaning of the bile duct were the gold standard to treat both pathologies. Development of both endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and laparoscopic surgery, together with improvements in diagnostic procedures, influenced new approaches to the management of CBDS in association with gallstones. We decided to systematically review the literature in order to identify all the current therapeutic options for CBDS. A systematic literature search was performed independently by two authors using PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library Central. The therapeutic approach nowadays varies greatly according to the availability of experience and expertise in each center, and includes open or laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, various combinations of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and ERCP and combined laparoendoscopic rendezvous. Although ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy is currently preferred in the majority of hospitals worldwide, the optimal treatment for concomitant gallstones and CBDS is still under debate, and greatly varies among different centers. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iaţeşen Loredana Viorica
Full Text Available The approach to music styles entails an in-depth musicological analysis aimed at synthesizing numerous bibliographical sources belonging to different fields and directions of research. A chronological overview of studies (Jean Molino, Fait musical et sémiologie de la musique, 1975; Jean Jaques Nattiez, Quelques reflexions du style, 1993; R. J. Pascall, Style, in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1994; Jean Jaques Nattiez, La musique de l’avenir, in Musique. Une Encyclopédie pour le XXI siècle, 2003; Mario Baroni, Stil şi mutaţii stilistice în tradiţia muzicală europeană, in Musique Une encyclopédie pour le XXI siècle, 2006 and of universal (Leonard Meyer, Explaining Music, 1973; Charles Rosen, Le style classique: Haydn. Mozart, Beethoven, 1978; Leonard B. Meyer, Style and Music. Theory, History and Ideology, 1989; and Romanian specialised literature (Cornel Ţăranu, Elemente de stilistică muzicală (sec. XX, 1981; Edgar Papu, Despre stiluri, 1986; Valentina Sandu-Dediu, Alegeri Atitudini Afecte, 2010; Vasile Iliuţ, O carte a stilurilor muzicale, 2011; Valentin Timaru, Stilistică muzicală, 2014 from the late 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, reveal the different and, more often than not, contrasting views of historians, analysts, aestheticians, philosophers, scholars and educators, starting from the meaning of the very idea of style, to the reception of this phenomenon in contemporaneity. On these grounds, this study proposes a systematization of the most relevant landmarks in documentation to date, for the purpose of applying them from a didactic perspective.
Philipp, Bodo; Hoff, Malte; Germa, Florence; Schink, Bernhard; Beimborn, Dieter; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker
Prediction of the biodegradability of organic compounds is an ecologically desirable and economically feasible tool for estimating the environmental fate of chemicals. We combined quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) with the systematic collection of biochemical knowledge to establish rules for the prediction of aerobic biodegradation of N-heterocycles. Validated biodegradation data of 194 N-heterocyclic compounds were analyzed using the MULTICASE-method which delivered two QSAR models based on 17 activating (OSAR 1) and on 16 inactivating molecular fragments (GSAR 2), which were statistically significantly linked to efficient or poor biodegradability, respectively. The percentages of correct classifications were over 99% for both models, and cross-validation resulted in 67.9% (GSAR 1) and 70.4% (OSAR 2) correct predictions. Biochemical interpretation of the activating and inactivating characteristics of the molecular fragments delivered plausible mechanistic interpretations and enabled us to establish the following biodegradation rules: (1) Target sites for amidohydrolases and for cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enhance biodegradation of nonaromatic N-heterocycles. (2) Target sites for molybdenum hydroxylases enhance biodegradation of aromatic N-heterocycles. (3) Target sites for hydratation by an urocanase-like mechanism enhance biodegradation of imidazoles. Our complementary approach represents a feasible strategy for generating concrete rules for the prediction of biodegradability of organic compounds.
Bianca F Hettlich
Full Text Available To assess feasibility of the harmonic Osteovue blade (HOB for use in the soft tissue approach for dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy and to compare outcomes between dogs undergoing HOB or traditional approach (TRAD.A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed using 20 client-owned dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion requiring hemilaminectomy. Dogs were randomly assigned to HOB or TRAD. Neurologic function and pain scores were assessed pre-operatively. Intraoperative blood loss and surgical approach time as well as postoperative pain and wound healing scores were recorded. Additionally, neurologic recovery and owner perceived quality of life were recorded at day 10 and 30 postoperative.There was no significant difference in sex distribution, weight, age, preoperative neurological grade and pain score, and perioperative outcome measures between groups. Intraoperative total blood loss was minimal for HOB and TRAD (median: 0 ml (range 0-9 and 2.2 ml (range 0-6.8, respectively; p = 0.165 and approach times were similar (median: 7 min (range 5-12 and 8 min (range 5-13, respectively; p = 0.315. While changes in wound healing scores were similar, changes in postoperative pain scores and neurological function were significantly improved in the HOB compared to the TRAD group. Postoperative complications in the HOB group consisted of automutilation of part of the incision and development of a small soft, non-painful subcutaneous swelling in 1 dog each.The HOB is a safe and effective tool for the soft tissue approach for routine spinal surgery in dogs and is associated with decreased pain and increased neurological function post-surgery.
Full Text Available Tomato is a crop plant with high fruit nutritive value and other useful properties. The cultivation of this species is dependent on many environmental factors, e.g. temperature, salinity, nutrients etc, affecting the yield and reproductive potential of the plant. Salinity in soil or water is of increasing importance to agriculture because it causes stress to crop plants. Plants exposed to an excess amount of salts such as NaCl undergo osmotic stress, water deficit and ionic imbalances and can increase production of reactive oxygen species(ROS. Higher plants possess very efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms that allow the scavenging of ROS and protection of cellular components from oxidative damage. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of short term salinity stress on some physiological alterations in three tomato cultivars Pusa Ruby(PR, Punjab Keshari (PK and Ailsa Craig(AC. Some biochemical parameters (anthocyanin and carotenoeid content, polyamines, proline, cysteine, peroxidase and malondialdehyde were set and applied at two month old stage of tomato plants. Three tomato cultivars were grown in 0.5xMS for 2 months and at this stage, they were treated with 0 and 200mM NaCl for a short period of six hours in hydroponic conditions. The genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of different osmoprotectant, antioxidant, and pigment level. The relationships among the salinity and accumulation of these compounds in leaf were then determined. It was concluded that, tomato cultivars under study responded differently showing their sensitivity or tolerance to salinity stress. Among three cultivars PK appeared to be more tolerant genotype than the other two cultivars PR and AC. PK could rapidly evolve physiological and antioxidant mechanisms to adapt to salt and manage the oxidative stress. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications.
Full Text Available Screening of chemical, biochemical and biomolecule-nanoparticle methods for the inhibition of Candida krusei were evaluated without hampering the growth of dairy yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. The effective inhibition was observed with the help of H2O2, Williopsis saturnus, at specific combination of pH and temperature (pH 5.0 and 40 °C and Ag-KT4561 nanoparticles among the various methods used. However, the most efficient inhibition was observed with Ag-KT4561 nanoparticles. In general H2O2 works best at pH range 4.0 to 10.0 and at temperature 30 °C or above. H2O2 concentration of 4000 ppm at 45 °C and pH 5.5 exhibited significant inhibition of C. krusei, while K. marxianus remains unaffected. But, when used with lyophilized supernatant of W. saturnus, 2400 ppm H2O2 was effective. Further, nanoparticle with silver was synthesized to reduce the quantity of killer protein and enhance the efficiency of protein. Complete inhibition of C. krusei was observed at 350 µM of synthesized silver nano-particle (AgNPs of the killer protein from W. saturnus, with little effect on K. marxianus concentration. A stability test confirms the effect of protein silver nanoparticles on C. krusei for more than 20 weeks without any change in pH and temperature. Thus, the nanoparticles could be potentially used for inhibition of C. krusei without affecting the growth of K. marxianus and the process could be run non-aseptically.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish efficient protocols of seed surface sterilization with further multiplication in vitro for threatened species Crambe koktebelica (Junge N. Busch and to show the effect of biotechnological approach (in vitro cultivation of biodiversity conservation on plants biochemical properties. Seed surface sterilization was carried out according to the original method with further microclonal multiplication of aseptic sprouts from lateral buds on the Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators. Fatty acid content was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of fatty acid ethers. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Total soluble protein content was measured using Bradford method and polyfructan content determination was based upon ketosugars ability to color in the acidic environment with resorcinol. Plants that were grown under in vitro and in vivo conditions and seeds were used in this research. Efficient protocol of surface sterilization that resulted in 45% of aseptic seed material 50% of which has sprouted was elaborated for C. koktebelica as well as fast microclonal multiplication methods that provided with up to 5.25 ± 0.50 new formed plantlets from 1 lateral bud (on the MS medium that contained 1 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. It was also shown that aseptic cultivation benefits to saturated fatty acid accumulation and increases protein content but on the other hand it reduces unsaturated fatty acid amount and polyfructan content as well as antioxidant activity of plant material. Obtained data confirms the prospect of biotechnology approach to biodiversity conservation and suggest the necessity of father in vitro cultivation effect on biochemical composition of plant study.
Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.
Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.
Marani, M.; Zorzetto, E.; Hosseini, S. R.; Miniussi, A.; Scaioni, M.
The Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution is widely adopted irrespective of the properties of the stochastic process generating the extreme events. However, GEV presents several limitations, both theoretical (asymptotic validity for a large number of events/year or hypothesis of Poisson occurrences of Generalized Pareto events), and practical (fitting uses just yearly maxima or a few values above a high threshold). Here we describe the Metastatistical Extreme Value Distribution (MEVD, Marani & Ignaccolo, 2015), which relaxes asymptotic or Poisson/GPD assumptions and makes use of all available observations. We then illustrate the flexibility of the MEVD by applying it to daily precipitation, hurricane intensity, and storm surge magnitude. Application to daily rainfall from a global raingauge network shows that MEVD estimates are 50% more accurate than those from GEV when the recurrence interval of interest is much greater than the observational period. This makes MEVD suited for application to satellite rainfall observations ( 20 yrs length). Use of MEVD on TRMM data yields extreme event patterns that are in better agreement with surface observations than corresponding GEV estimates.Applied to the HURDAT2 Atlantic hurricane intensity dataset, MEVD significantly outperforms GEV estimates of extreme hurricanes. Interestingly, the Generalized Pareto distribution used for "ordinary" hurricane intensity points to the existence of a maximum limit wind speed that is significantly smaller than corresponding physically-based estimates. Finally, we applied the MEVD approach to water levels generated by tidal fluctuations and storm surges at a set of coastal sites spanning different storm-surge regimes. MEVD yields accurate estimates of large quantiles and inferences on tail thickness (fat vs. thin) of the underlying distribution of "ordinary" surges. In summary, the MEVD approach presents a number of theoretical and practical advantages, and outperforms traditional
Kirkire, Milind Shrikant; Rane, Santosh B.; Jadhav, Jagdish Rajaram
Medical product development (MPD) process is highly multidisciplinary in nature, which increases the complexity and the associated risks. Managing the risks during MPD process is very crucial. The objective of this research is to explore risks during MPD in a dental product manufacturing company and propose a model for risk mitigation during MPD process to minimize failure events. A case study approach is employed. The existing MPD process is mapped with five phases of the customized phase gate process. The activities during each phase of development and risks associated with each activity are identified and categorized based on the source of occurrence. The risks are analyzed using traditional Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fuzzy FMEA. The results of two methods when compared show that fuzzy approach avoids the duplication of RPNs and helps more to convert cognition of experts into information to get values of risk factors. The critical, moderate, low level and negligible risks are identified based on criticality; risk treatments and mitigation model are proposed. During initial phases of MPD, the risks are less severe, but as the process progresses the severity of risks goes on increasing. The MPD process should be critically designed and simulated to minimize the number of risk events and their severity. To successfully develop the products/devices within the manufacturing companies, the process risk management is very essential. A systematic approach to manage risks during MPD process will lead to the development of medical products with expected quality and reliability. This is the first research of its kind having focus on MPD process risks and its management. The methodology adopted in this paper will help the developers, managers and researchers to have a competitive edge over the other companies by managing the risks during the development process.
D. T. Rodrigues
Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games
Shirley S.M. Fong
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of incorporating wiki technology in an under-graduate biostatistics course for improving university students’ collaborative learning, approaches to learning, and course performance. Methodology: During a three year longitudinal study, twenty-one and twenty-four undergraduate students were recruited by convenience sampling and assigned to a wiki group (2014-2015 and a control group (2013-2014 and 2015-2016, respectively. The students in the wiki group attended face-to-face lectures and used a wiki (PBworks weekly for online- group discussion, and the students in the control group had no access to the wiki and interacted face-to-face only. The students’ collaborative learning, approaches to learning, and course performance were evaluated using the Group Process Questionnaire (GPQ, Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F and course results, respectively, after testing. Findings: Multivariate analysis of variance results revealed that the R-SPQ-2F surface approach score, surface motive and strategy subscores were lower in the wiki group than in the control group (p < 0.05. The GPQ individual accountability and equal opportunity scores (components of collaboration were higher in the wiki group than in the control group (p < 0.001. No significant between-groups differences were found in any of the other outcome variables (i.e., overall course result, R-SPQ-2F deep approach score and subscores, GPQ positive interdependence score, social skills score, and composite score. Looking at the Wiki Questionnaire results, the subscale and composite scores we obtained were 31.5% to 37.7% lower than the norm. The wiki was used at a frequency of about 0.7 times per week per student. Recommendations for Practitioners: Using wiki technology in conjunction with the traditional face-to-face teaching method in a biostatistics course can enhance some aspects of undergraduate students’ collaborative learning
Background Existing methods of predicting DNA-binding proteins used valuable features of physicochemical properties to design support vector machine (SVM) based classifiers. Generally, selection of physicochemical properties and determination of their corresponding feature vectors rely mainly on known properties of binding mechanism and experience of designers. However, there exists a troublesome problem for designers that some different physicochemical properties have similar vectors of representing 20 amino acids and some closely related physicochemical properties have dissimilar vectors. Results This study proposes a systematic approach (named Auto-IDPCPs) to automatically identify a set of physicochemical and biochemical properties in the AAindex database to design SVM-based classifiers for predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains/proteins. Auto-IDPCPs consists of 1) clustering 531 amino acid indices in AAindex into 20 clusters using a fuzzy c-means algorithm, 2) utilizing an efficient genetic algorithm based optimization method IBCGA to select an informative feature set of size m to represent sequences, and 3) analyzing the selected features to identify related physicochemical properties which may affect the binding mechanism of DNA-binding domains/proteins. The proposed Auto-IDPCPs identified m=22 features of properties belonging to five clusters for predicting DNA-binding domains with a five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 87.12%, which is promising compared with the accuracy of 86.62% of the existing method PSSM-400. For predicting DNA-binding sequences, the accuracy of 75.50% was obtained using m=28 features, where PSSM-400 has an accuracy of 74.22%. Auto-IDPCPs and PSSM-400 have accuracies of 80.73% and 82.81%, respectively, applied to an independent test data set of DNA-binding domains. Some typical physicochemical properties discovered are hydrophobicity, secondary structure, charge, solvent accessibility, polarity, flexibility, normalized Van Der
A novel approach using metabolomics coupled with hematological and biochemical parameters to explain the enriching-blood effect and mechanism of unprocessed Angelica sinensis and its 4 kinds of processed products.
Ji, Peng; Wei, Yanming; Hua, Yongli; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yao, Wanling; Ma, Qi; Yuan, Ziwen; Wen, Yanqiao; Yang, Chaoxue
Angelica sinensis (AS), root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, an important kind of Chinese traditional herbal medicine, has been used for women to enrich the blood for thousands of years. It is mainly distributed in Gansu province of China. According to Traditional Chinese medicine usage, unprocessed AS (UAS) and its 4 kinds of processed products (ASs) are all used to treat different diseases or syndromes. The difference among the enriching-blood effects of ASs is unclear. And their exact mechanisms of enriching the blood are not fully understood. In this study, our aim is to compare the enriching-blood effect and explain the related mechanism of ASs, to lay the foundation for the blood deficiency diagnosis and the rational use of ASs in the clinic. ASs were used to intervene the blood deficiency syndrome model mice induced by acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). A novel approach using metabolomics coupled with hematological and biochemical parameters to explain the enriching-blood effect and mechanism of ASs was established. The blood routine examination, ATPase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, methemoglobin, glutathion peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and erythropoietin were measured. Two biofluids (plasma and urine) obtained from mice were analyzed with GC-MS. Distinct changes in metabolite patterns of the two biofluids after mice were induced by APH and CTX, and mice were intervened with ASs were analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Potential biomarkers were found using a novel method including variable importance in the projection (VIP) >1.0, volcano plot analysis, and significance analysis of microarray. The results of hematological, biochemical parameters and the integrated metabolomics all showed the blood deficiency syndrome model was built successfully, ASs exhibited different degree of enriching-blood effect, and AS pached with alcohol (AAS) exhibited the best enriching-blood effect. 16 metabolites in
Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa
Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample.
Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.
Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.
Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar
The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco
In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After
Harapan Siregar, Andi
Sade Kampong is one of the traditional kampongs in Indonesia, which located at Rambitan Village, Lombok. Lombok has been developed for tourism activity since years ago. The Lombok Province Government has identified Tourism as one of the key drives for the economic development. Hotel resort and others hospitalities buildings have been developed to all of the areas. Nowadays, the development of Sade Cultural Kampong will therefore open up new and demand oriented products (only focus on traditional woven of Sasak). Sade Kampong should be developed as a tourism destination with appreciated and developed its heritage and traditions with sustainability concepts (with the focus on social, economic, and environmental). This paper will elaborate some local potential Sade Kampong, such as architecture, culture, and landscape as a local potential for developing a new tourism destination.
Roo, F. de
The sound reflectivity of noise barriers elements is one of the major acoustic product characteristics. Traditionally this property was tested in reverberation rooms according to EN 1793-1 and the results were used to predict the effect of sound reflections in the far field. As in many cases these
Leng, Fong Yoke; Yeo, Donald; George, Stacey; Barr, Christopher
Professionals working with people with dementia need to develop new activities that occupy patients and increase positive emotions. Dementia care mapping is a reliable method of measuring well-being during activities with people with dementia. The iPad has many applications that may be suitable as a group activity for persons with dementia. Six people with dementia took part in two traditional and two iPad activities over two days. Well-being was recorded using dementia care mapping. Subjects displayed similar or better levels of well-being during iPad activities than traditional activities. A larger variation of behaviors was seen during iPad activities than traditional activities. With detailed planning using a person-centred care approach, iPad group activity has the potential to be as effective and engaging as other conventional activities in achieving well-being.
Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.
The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for
Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
Cooper, W. James [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Albertson, R Craig [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Jacob, Rick E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westneat, Mark W. [Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL (United States)
Here we present a re-description of Abudefduf luridus and reassign it to the genus Similiparma. We supplement traditional diagnoses and descriptions of this species with quantitative anatomical data collected from a family-wide geometric morphometric analysis of head morphology (44 species representing all 30 damselfish genera) and data from cranial micro-CT scans of fishes in the genus Similiparma. The use of geometric morphometric analyses (and other methods of shape analysis) permits detailed comparisons between the morphology of specific taxa and the anatomical diversity that has arisen in an entire lineage. This provides a particularly useful supplement to traditional description methods and we recommend the use of such techniques by systematists. Similiparma and its close relatives constitute a branch of the damselfish phylogenetic tree that predominantly inhabits rocky reefs in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, as opposed to the more commonly studied damselfishes that constitute a large portion of the ichthyofauna on all coral-reef communities.
Liviana Andreea Niminet
Full Text Available Behavioral are crucial for understanding both the consumer’s attitude and firms’ attitude as well as for understanding the market outcomes. The past ten years brought a lot of attention from researchers and policy-makers on the behavioral economics issue. Classical, traditional economic models rely on the assumptions of rationality and ordered preferences. Behavioral economics explores interactions between demand and supply including information framing, the use of heuristics in decision-making and time-inconsistent preferences. The research on behavioral economics has led to an extensive debate about the relative merits of both traditional and behavioral economics. First of all we propose to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of behavioral economics versus traditional economics on a very sensitive issue: the competition policy. Then we address market issues that can be solved by means of behavioral economics afterwards turning out attention to the remedies of behavioral economics and ,last but not least, the United Kingdom successful model on the matter of competition policy.
P. L. Jokiel
Full Text Available Over a period of many centuries the Polynesians who inhabited Hawai‘i developed a carefully regulated and sustainable “ahupua‘a” management system that integrated watershed, freshwater and nearshore marine resources based on the fundamental linkages between all ecosystems from the mountain tops to the sea. This traditional scheme employed adaptive management practices keyed to subtle changes in natural resources. Sophisticated social controls on resource utilization were an important component of the system. Over the past two centuries a “Western system” gradually replaced much of the traditional Hawaiian system. There are major differences between the two systems in the areas of management practices, management focus, knowledge base, dissemination of information, resource monitoring, legal authority, access rights, stewardship and enforcement. However, there is a recent shift toward incorporating elements of the traditional scheme using methods and terminology acceptable and appropriate to present day realities. This trend is exemplified by the management plan for the newly formed Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This is one of the largest protected areas in the world and is being managed with a focus on Native Hawaiian cultural values in relation to conservation, ecological, historical, scientific, and educational resource protection.
Abdul Ghani, Zuleen Delina Fasya; Husin, Juani Mazmin; Rashid, Ahmad Hazri Ab; Shaari, Khozirah; Chik, Zamri
Piper betle L. (PB) belongs to the Piperaceae family. The presence of a fairly large quantity of diastase in the betel leaf is deemed to play an important role in starch digestion and calls for the study of weight loss activities and metabolite profile from PB leaf extracts using metabolomics approach to be performed. PB dried leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol and the extracts were subjected to five groups of rats fed with high fat (HF) and standard diet (SD). They were then fed with the extracts in two doses and compared with a negative control group given water only according to the study protocol. The body weights and food intakes were monitored every week. At the end of the study, blood serum of the experimental animal was analysed to determine the biochemical and metabolite changes. PB treated group demonstrated inhibition of body weight gain without showing an effect on the food intake. In serum bioassay, the PB treated group (HF/PB (100mg/kg and 500mg/kg) showed an increased in glucose and cholesterol levels compared to the Standard Diet (SD/WTR) group, a decrease in LDL level and increase in HDL level when compared with High Fat Diet (HF/WTR) group. For metabolite analysis, two separation models were made to determine the metabolite changes via group activities. The best separation of PCA serum in Model 1 and 2 was achieved in principle component 1 and principle component 2. SUS-Plot model showed that HF group was characterized by high-level of glucose, glycine and alanine. Increase in the β-hydroxybutyrate level similar with SD group animals was evident in the HF/PB(500mg/kg) group. This finding suggested that the administration of 500mg/kg PB extracts leads to increase in oxidation process in the body thus maintaining the body weight and without giving an effect on the appetite even though HF was continuously consumed by the animals until the end of the studies and also a reduction in food intake, thus maintaining their body weight although they
Full Text Available Aim: The importance of phenolic maturity (depending on tannins and anthocyans of the grape is crucial at harvest and determines the final quality of wine. The work presented here aims to characterize the evolution of phenolic maturity of seeds for 3 varieties combining macroscopic analysis and biochemical analyzes of these tannins at phenological stages of interest. Methods and results: Using R software for macroscopic analyzes have been shown that the color varies dramatically (from green to dark brown in the two months between the bunch closure and maturity. Biochemical analysis (HPLC measurement shows that tannins in seeds are increasing from bunch closure to early veraison and decrease after this step until maturity. Conclusion: All together these results have shown that the color variation is correlated to the tannins content in the seeds. Significance of the study: Nowadays, no easy ways of prediction of phenolic maturity are known. The aim of this work is to use these results (usually considered independently to have an knowledge of seed level of phenolic maturity necessary without biochemical analysis to establish a date of great harvest for the most favorable conditions for the extraction of tannins required for the organoleptic quality of a wine .The originality of this work is to use the combined visual seeds and its biochemical composition in tannins (correlation established by CPA. Forward, these results will help to develop a decision support tool based on simply system to acquiring seed image easily usable by winemakers.
Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev; Gokcek, Nur; Kilic, Ziya; Kilic, Esma
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences (MI) teaching approach on 8th Grade students' achievement in and attitudes toward science. This study used a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. While the experimental group (n=30) was taught a unit on acids and bases using MI teaching approach, the…
Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R
Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Omar Alberto Garzón Chirivi
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios157.168 This article presents a state of the art of academic production concerning traditional and popular medicine in Latin America. It analyzes the relation between studies on chamanismo (the art of medicine men in indigenous communities in some Spanish-speaking countries (Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Spain and studies on curanderismo (the art of healers in urban contexts and evidences recurring elements of a magical, religious and medical kind in their therapeutic practices. Likewise, it shows the changes in the understanding of these systems of treatment and assistance to health and sickness, their permanence and incidence on collective practices associated to spirituality, as well as the construction of alternatives of individual and social health and the interdisciplinary character of the existing research studies. This article, too, proposes the existence of an analytical vacuum regarding gender, class and ethnic group in the studies on traditional and popular medicine.
D B Anantha Narayana
Full Text Available Botanicals constitute a large part of the drugs from the traditional medicine (TM and ethno medicine (EM known for their history of safe use (HOSU. Phytopharmaceuticals having a base of such origin offer high advantages as they come with safety profiles, and often allow extrapolation of the HOSU data, under certain circumstances. However, while current pharmaceutical technologies are being adopted by the industry to make phytopharmaceuticals with such origin, there is a need for preformulation research and development (R and D during formulation. Some suggestions for R and D studies in case of aqueous extracts known in Ayurveda, converted on an industrial scale to obtain a phytopharmaceutical, and formulated as a solid dosage form (granules, tablets, or capsules are discussed.
Identifying specific profiles in patients with different degrees of painful knee osteoarthritis based on serological biochemical and mechanistic pain biomarkers: a diagnostic approach based on cluster analysis.
Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Eskehave, Thomas Navndrup; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Hoeck, Hans Christian; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
Biochemical and pain biomarkers can be applied to patients with painful osteoarthritis profiles and may provide more details compared with conventional clinical tools. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal combination of biochemical and pain biomarkers for classification of patients with different degrees of knee pain and joint damage. Such profiling may provide new diagnostic and therapeutic options. A total of 216 patients with different degrees of knee pain (maximal pain during the last 24 hours rated on a visual analog scale [VAS]) (VAS 0-100) and 64 controls (VAS 0-9) were recruited. Patients were separated into 3 groups: VAS 10 to 39 (N = 81), VAS 40 to 69 (N = 70), and VAS 70 to 100 (N = 65). Pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation to pressure stimuli, and conditioning pain modulation were measured from the peripatellar and extrasegmental sites. Biochemical markers indicative for autoinflammation and immunity (VICM, CRP, and CRPM), synovial inflammation (CIIIM), cartilage loss (CIIM), and bone degradation (CIM) were analyzed. WOMAC, Lequesne, and pain catastrophizing scores were collected. Principal component analysis was applied to select the optimal variable subset, and cluster analysis was applied to this subset to create distinctly different knee pain profiles. Four distinct knee pain profiles were identified: profile A (N = 27), profile B (N = 59), profile C (N = 85), and profile D (N = 41). Each knee pain profile had a unique combination of biochemical markers, pain biomarkers, physical impairments, and psychological factors that may provide the basis for mechanism-based diagnosis, individualized treatment, and selection of patients for clinical trials evaluating analgesic compounds. These results introduce a new profiling for knee OA and should be regarded as preliminary.
Gaál, Ladislav; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Ján.
During the last 10-15 years, the Slovak hydrologists and water resources managers have been devoting considerable efforts to develop statistical tools for modelling probabilities of flood occurrence in a regional context. Initially, these models followed concepts to regional flood frequency analysis that were based on fixed regions, later the Hosking and Wallis's (HW; 1997) theory was adopted and modified. Nevertheless, it turned out to be that delineating homogeneous regions using these approaches is not a straightforward task, mostly due to the complex orography of the country. In this poster we aim at revisiting flood frequency analyses so far accomplished for Slovakia by adopting one of the pooling approaches, i.e. the region-of-influence (ROI) approach (Burn, 1990). In the ROI approach, unique pooling groups of similar sites are defined for each site under study. The similarity of sites is defined through Euclidean distance in the space of site attributes that had also proved applicability in former cluster analyses: catchment area, afforested area, hydrogeological catchment index and the mean annual precipitation. The homogeneity of the proposed pooling groups is evaluated by the built-in homogeneity test by Lu and Stedinger (1992). Two alternatives of the ROI approach are examined: in the first one the target size of the pooling groups is adjusted to the target return period T of the estimated flood quantiles, while in the other one, the target size is fixed, regardless of the target T. The statistical models of the ROI approach are inter-compared by the conventional regionalization approach based on the HW methodology where the parameters of flood frequency distributions were derived by means of L-moment statistics and a regional formula for the estimation of the index flood was derived by multiple regression methods using physiographic and climatic catchment characteristics. The inter-comparison of different frequency models is evaluated by means of the
Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Owens, Andrew
Through the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). A key aspect of these missions is the strategy that is employed to maintain and repair the spacecraft systems, ensuring that they continue to function and support the crew. Long duration missions beyond LEO present unique and severe maintainability challenges due to a variety of factors, including: limited to no opportunities for resupply, the distance from Earth, mass and volume constraints of spacecraft, high sensitivity of transportation element designs to variation in mass, the lack of abort opportunities to Earth, limited hardware heritage information, and the operation of human-rated systems in a radiation environment with little to no experience. The current approach to maintainability, as implemented on ISS, which includes a large number of spares pre-positioned on ISS, a larger supply sitting on Earth waiting to be flown to ISS, and an on demand delivery of logistics from Earth, is not feasible for future deep space human missions. For missions beyond LEO, significant modifications to the maintainability approach will be required.Through the EMC evaluations, several key findings related to the reliability and safety of the Mars spacecraft have been made. The nature of random and induced failures presents significant issues for deep space missions. Because spare parts cannot be flown as needed for Mars missions, all required spares must be flown with the mission or pre-positioned. These spares must cover all anticipated failure modes and provide a level of overall reliability and safety that is satisfactory for human missions. This will require a large amount of mass and volume be dedicated to storage and transport of spares for the mission. Further, there is, and will continue to be, a significant amount of uncertainty regarding failure rates for spacecraft
Full Text Available ‘Oketsu’ is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for ‘Oketsu’. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG, a representative Kampo medicine for improving ‘Oketsu’. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an ‘Oketsu’ (n = 19 or ‘non-Oketsu’ (n = 29 state according to Terasawa's ‘Oketsu’ scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the ‘Oketsu’ scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the ‘Oketsu’ and ‘non-Oketsu’ states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III. The majority (68.4% of ‘Oketsu’ samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining ‘Oketsu’ profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the ‘Oketsu’ state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for ‘Oketsu’. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16 gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine ‘Oketsu’ has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing ‘Oketsu’ using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods.
Schiozer, R.F. [Getulio Vargas Foundation, Sao Paolo (Brazil). School of Administration de Empresas; Costa Lima, G.A.; Suslick, S.B. [Unicamp, Campinas (Brazil). Center of Petroleum Studies
Due to increased demand for drilling rigs, specialized labor force and other resources, the costs of exploration, appraisal, development and production have significantly risen over the last five years. The change in costs has mostly been attributed to the increased activity in the oil and gas exploration and production (EP) industry, as a result of the increase in oil prices. It was hypothesized that operating costs in the EP industry were strongly correlated to the price of oil. However, the correlation between prices and costs has traditionally been overlooked in the capital budgeting process. This paper investigated the economic relationship between oil price and the operating costs in the EP industry. It also explored its implications for the capital budgeting process and decision-making. The paper demonstrated the evaluation of projects under traditional net present value (NPV) and real-option approaches. Empirical evidence was also provided on how costs correlated to oil prices. The differences between project valuation when cost-price correlation was taken into account or not was also discussed. Last, findings, conclusions and general implications of the results obtained for the decision-making process were identified. It was concluded that there was a positive correlation between price and operating costs, and that overlooking this relationship would have significant implications on the valuation of investment projects, both using a traditional NPV methodology, which resulted in undervalued projects, and under real option analysis, which resulted in overvaluing projects. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.
Schiozer, R.F.; Costa Lima, G.A.; Suslick, S.B.
Due to increased demand for drilling rigs, specialized labor force and other resources, the costs of exploration, appraisal, development and production have significantly risen over the last five years. The change in costs has mostly been attributed to the increased activity in the oil and gas exploration and production (EP) industry, as a result of the increase in oil prices. It was hypothesized that operating costs in the EP industry were strongly correlated to the price of oil. However, the correlation between prices and costs has traditionally been overlooked in the capital budgeting process. This paper investigated the economic relationship between oil price and the operating costs in the EP industry. It also explored its implications for the capital budgeting process and decision-making. The paper demonstrated the evaluation of projects under traditional net present value (NPV) and real-option approaches. Empirical evidence was also provided on how costs correlated to oil prices. The differences between project valuation when cost-price correlation was taken into account or not was also discussed. Last, findings, conclusions and general implications of the results obtained for the decision-making process were identified. It was concluded that there was a positive correlation between price and operating costs, and that overlooking this relationship would have significant implications on the valuation of investment projects, both using a traditional NPV methodology, which resulted in undervalued projects, and under real option analysis, which resulted in overvaluing projects. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs
Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia
A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers.
Reyes, Camilo; Mason, Eric; Solares, C. Arturo
Introduction A substantial body of literature has been devoted to the distinct characteristics and surgical options to repair the skull base. However, the skull base is an anatomically challenging location that requires a three-dimensional reconstruction approach. Furthermore, advances in endoscopic skull base surgery encompass a wide range of surgical pathology, from benign tumors to sinonasal cancer. This has resulted in the creation of wide defects that yield a new challenge in skull base reconstruction. Progress in technology and imaging has made this approach an internationally accepted method to repair these defects. Objectives Discuss historical developments and flaps available for skull base reconstruction. Data Synthesis Free grafts in skull base reconstruction are a viable option in small defects and low-flow leaks. Vascularized flaps pose a distinct advantage in large defects and high-flow leaks. When open techniques are used, free flap reconstruction techniques are often necessary to repair large entry wound defects. Conclusions Reconstruction of skull base defects requires a thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy, disease, and patient risk factors associated with high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Various reconstruction techniques are available, from free tissue grafting to vascularized flaps. Possible complications that can befall after these procedures need to be considered. Although endonasal techniques are being used with increasing frequency, open techniques are still necessary in selected cases. PMID:25992142
Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L
Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.
Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.
Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As
Arosio, Marcello; Martina, Mario L. V.
The emergent behaviour of the contemporary complex, socio-technical and interconnected society makes the collective risk greater than the sum of the parts and this requires a holistic, systematic and integrated approach. Although there have been major improvements in recent years, there are still some limitation in term of a holistic approach that is able to include the emergent value hidden in the connections between exposed elements and the interactions between the different spheres of the multi-hazards, vulnerability, exposure and resilience. To deal with these challenges it is necessary to consider the connections between the exposed elements (e.g. populations, schools, hospital, etc.) and to quantify the relative importance of the elements and their interconnections (e.g. the need of injured people to go to hospital or children to school). In a system (e.g. road, hospital and ecological network, etc.), or in a System of System (e.g. socio-technical urban service), there are critical elements that, beyond the intrinsic vulnerability, can be characterized by greater or lower vulnerability because of their physical, geographical, cyber or logical connections. To this aim, we propose in this study a comparative analysis between traditional reductionist approach and a new holistic approach to vulnerability assessment to natural hazards. The analysis considers a study case of a socio-economic complex system through an innovative approach based on the properties of graph G=(N,L). A graph consists of two sets N (nodes) and L (links): the nodes represent the single exposed elements (physical, social, environmental, etc.) to a hazard, while the links (or connections) represent the interaction between the elements. The final goal is to illustrate an application of this innovative approach of integrated collective vulnerability assessment.
Dobie, Katherine H; Shi, Yaping; Shotwell, Matthew S; Sandberg, Warren S
Regional anesthesia and analgesia for shoulder surgery is most commonly performed via interscalene nerve block. We developed an ultrasound-guided technique that specifically targets the C5 nerve root proximal to the traditional interscalene block and assessed its efficacy for shoulder analgesia. Prospective case series. Vanderbilt Bone and Joint Surgery Center. Patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy at an ambulatory surgery center. Thirty-five outpatient shoulder arthroscopy patients underwent an analgesic nerve block using a new technique where ultrasound visualization of the C5 nerve root served as the primary target at a level proximal to the traditional interscalene approach. The block was performed with 15mL of 0.5% plain ropivicaine. Post anesthesia care unit pain scores, opioid consumption, hand strength, and duration of block were recorded. Cadaver dissection after injection with methylene blue confirmed that the primary target under ultrasound visualization was the C5 nerve root. Pain scores revealed 97% patients had 0/10 pain at arrival to PACU, with 91% having a pain score of 3/10 or less at discharge from PACU. Medical Research Council (MRC) hand strength mean (SD) score was 4.17 (0.92) on a scale of 1-5. The mean (SD) duration of the block was 13.9 (3.5) hours. A new technique for ultrasound-guided blockade at the level of the C5 nerve root proximal to the level of the traditional interscalene block is efficacious for shoulder post-operative pain control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vieira, G. L. S.
Full Text Available Considering a direct correlation between projects requirements details levels and their performance, this paper aims to evaluate whether the adoption of more extensive and detailed cost, time and scope estimation processes based on both practices, traditional and agile, and executed concurrently with the supplier selection stage, could guarantee greater accuracy in these estimates, thus increasing project success rates. Based on a case study for the information system project implementation into the legal area of a large Brazilian company, five suppliers had their proposals analyzed and compared in terms of the costs and deadlines involved, as well as the project management processes used in theirs estimates. From the obtained results, it was possible to observe that not all companies follow, at least during the prospecting phase, their service proposals described management processes, according to the theory. Another important finding was that the proposals involving, at least partially, agile approach concepts, were more likely to justify their estimates. These proposals still presented lower values, whenever compared to those less adherents to the theoretical concepts, as those based on traditional concepts.
Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis: a novel approach to rapid identification of analytical markers for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine preparation.
Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Lu; Chen, Teng; Wang, Yuefei; Mo, Huanbiao; Qu, Haibin
The paper presents a novel strategy to identify analytical markers of traditional Chinese medicine preparation (TCMP) rapidly via direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). A commonly used TCMP, Danshen injection, was employed as a model. The optimal analysis conditions were achieved by measuring the contribution of various experimental parameters to the mass spectra. Salvianolic acids and saccharides were simultaneously determined within a single 1-min DART-MS run. Furthermore, spectra of Danshen injections supplied by five manufacturers were processed with principal component analysis (PCA). Obvious clustering was observed in the PCA score plot, and candidate markers were recognized from the contribution plots of PCA. The suitability of potential markers was then confirmed by contrasting with the results of traditional analysis methods. Using this strategy, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid A were rapidly identified as the markers of Danshen injections. The combination of DART-MS with PCA provides a reliable approach to the identification of analytical markers for quality control of TCMP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hettich, Robert L.
Although microbial metal reduction has been investigated intensively from physiological and biochemical perspectives, little is known about the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of certain bacteria to transform, detoxify, or immobilize a wide array of heavy metals contaminating DOE-relevant environments. The major goal of this work is to elucidate the molecular components comprising the chromium(VI) response pathway, with an emphasis on components involved in Cr(VI) detoxification and the enzyme complex catalyzing the terminal step in Cr(VI) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We have identified and characterized (in the case of DNA-binding response regulator [SO2426] and a putative azoreductase [SO3585]) the genes and gene products involved in the molecular response of MR-1 to chromium(VI) stress using whole-genome sequence information for MR-1 and recently developed proteomic technology, in particular liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS), in conjunction with conventional protein purification and characterization techniques. The proteome datasets were integrated with information from whole-genome expression arrays for S. oneidensis MR-1 (as illustrated in Figure 1). The genes and their encoded products identified in this study are of value in understanding metal reduction and bacterial resistance to metal toxicity and in developing effective metal immobilization strategies.
Van de Velde, Dominique; Devisch, Ignaas; De Vriendt, Patricia
Purpose To explore the perspectives of male clients in a neurological rehabilitation setting with regard to the occupational therapy they have received and the client-centred approach. Method This study involved a qualitative research design based on the grounded theory tradition. Individual in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Seven male participants from an inpatient neurological setting were included using a theoretical sampling technique. Results Three themes emerged to describe the approach of the therapists to client-centred practice: (a) a shared biomedical focus as the start of the rehabilitation process, (b) the un-simultaneous shift from a biomedical towards a psycho-social focus and (c) formal versus informal nature of gathering client information. Conclusion A client-centred approach entails a shift from the therapist focussing on recovery from the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term consequences of the disease. According to the client, this shift in reasoning must occur at a specific and highly subjective moment during the rehabilitation process. Identifying this moment could strengthen the client-centred approach. Implications for Rehabilitation Client-centred practice entails a shift from recovering the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term psycho-social consequences of the disease. To be effective in client-centred practice, the clients expect from the professional to be an authority with regard to biomedical issues and to be partner with regard to psycho-social issues. Client-centred practice is most likely to be successful when client is susceptible to discuss his psycho-social issues and finding this moment is a challenge for the professional. Using formal methods for goal setting do not necessarily cover all the information needed for a client-centred therapy programme. Rather, using informal methods could lead to a more valid image of the client.
The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.
Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John
Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.
Using Census of India data from 1901 to 2011 and national and international reports on women's condition in India, beginning with sex ratio trends according to regional distribution up to female infanticides and sex-selective abortions and dowry deaths, this study examines the sociological aspects of the gender imbalance in modern contemporary India. Gender inequality persistence in India proves that new values and structures do not necessarily lead to the disappearance of older forms, but they can co-exist with mutual adaptations and reinforcements. Data analysis suggests that these unexpected combinations are not comprehensible in light of a linear concept of social change which is founded, in turn, on a concept of social systems as linear interaction systems that relate to environmental perturbations according to proportional cause and effect relationships. From this perspective, in fact, behavioral attitudes and interaction relationships should be less and less proportionally regulated by traditional values and practices as exposure to modernizing influences increases. And progressive decreases should be found in rates of social indicators of gender inequality like dowry deaths (the inverse should be found in sex ratio trends). However, data does not confirm these trends. This finding leads to emphasize a new theoretical and methodological approach toward social systems study, namely the conception of social systems as complex adaptive systems and the consequential emergentist, nonlinear conception of social change processes. Within the framework of emergentist theory of social change is it possible to understand the lasting strength of the patriarchal tradition and its problematic consequences in the modern contemporary India.
This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)
Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the
Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell
In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…
Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise
Background Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Patients and methods A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). Results The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result. Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000–€80 000/LYG). PMID:29682331
Full Text Available A mathematical model of micro-finance investment using profit-loss sharing scheme are made and implemented to simulated data. Here profits from the venture will be shared in a portion between the investor and the entity running the business. The scheme can be classified as Musharaka type of investment in Sharia economy. The proposed model is theoretically implemented with data from small-scale traders at a local traditional market who have small turnover. They are common target of usurers who lend money with high interest rate and penalties. If the traders are in unfortunate conditions, they are potentially in poorer condition than before committing themselves to the usurer. In the conventional practices of the profit sharing scheme, the investor will get a fixed portion of the trader’s income, which is applied for all kind of small-scale traders. If the traders are diligent and hard worker and have very high turnover, then the investor will gain much more profit whether the contributed capital is small or large. In this paper, the scheme is implemented using Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach so that the profit-loss sharing scheme can achieve its intended goal, which is to make a profitable investment not only for the investor but also for traders. The approach is not fully using Fuzzy Logic because some variables are still in crisp numbers and the optimization problem is regular in the form of crisp numbers. Based on the existing data, the results show that the optimal profit share is depended on the income of the traders. The higher the income coming from the venture, the lesser the profit share for the investor which is reasonable with the fixed initial contributed capital.
Norum, Jan; Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Schlichting, Ellen; Mæhle, Lovise
Identification of BRCA mutation carriers among patients with breast cancer (BC) involves costs and gains. Testing has been performed according to international guidelines, focusing on family history (FH) of breast and/or ovarian cancer. An alternative is testing all patients with BC employing sequencing of the BRCA genes and Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis, employing data from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål (OUH-U) and a decision tree, was done. The societal and the healthcare perspectives were focused and a lifetime perspective employed. The comparators were the traditional FH approach used as standard of care at OUH-U in 2013 and the intervention (testing all patients with BC) performed in 2014 and 2015 at the same hospital. During the latter period, 535 patients with BC were offered BRCA testing with sequencing and MLPA. National 2014 data on mortality rates and costs were implemented, a 3% discount rate used and the costing year was 2015. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated in euros (€) per life-year gained (LYG). The net healthcare cost (healthcare perspective) was €40 503/LYG. Including all resource use (societal perspective), the cost was €5669/LYG. The univariate sensitivity analysis documented the unit cost of the BRCA test and the number of LYGs the prominent parameters affecting the result.Diagnostic BRCA testing of all patients with BC was superior to the FH approach and cost-effective within the frequently used thresholds (healthcare perspective) in Norway (€60 000-€80 000/LYG).
Qiao, Xue; Wang, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Miao, Wen-juan; Li, Yan-jiao; Xiang, Cheng; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min
Herbal medicines usually contain a large group of chemical components, which may be transformed into more complex metabolites in vivo. In this study, we proposed a knowledge-transmitting strategy for metabolites identification of compound formulas. Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD) is a classical formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is widely used to treat diarrhea and diabetes in clinical practice. However, only tens of metabolites could be detected using conventional approaches. To comprehensively identify the metabolites of GQD, a “compound to extract to formulation” strategy was established in this study. The metabolic pathways of single representative constituents in GQD were studied, and the metabolic rules were transmitted to chemically similar compounds in herbal extracts. After screening diversified metabolites from herb extracts, the knowledge was summarized to identify the metabolites of GQD. Tandem mass spectrometry (MSn), fragment-based scan (NL, PRE), and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) were employed to identify, screen, and monitor the metabolites, respectively. Using this strategy, we detected 131 GQD metabolites (85 were newly generated) in rats biofluids. Among them, 112 metabolites could be detected when GQD was orally administered at a clinical dosage (12.5 g/kg). This strategy could be used for systematic metabolites identification of complex Chinese medicine formulas. PMID:27996040
Hansen, Elo Harald
waste generation. Most recently, the socalled third generation of FIA has emerged, that is, the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach, the conceptual basis of which is to incorporate all the necessary unit operational manipulations required, and, when possible, even the detection device into a single small...... integrated microconduit, or “laboratory”, placed atop a selection valve. The lecture will detail the evolution of the three generations of FIA, emphasis being placed on the LOV approach. Proven itself as a versatile front end to a variety of detection techniques, its utility will be exemplified by a series...... of the renewable microcolumn concept. Despite their excellent analytical chemical capabilities, ETAAS as well as ICPMS often require that the samples are subjected to suitable pretreatment in order to obtain the necessary sensitivity and selectivity. Either in order to separate the analyte from potentially...
Hansen, Elo Harald
waste generation. Most recently, the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach has emerged. Termed the third generation of FIA, the conceptual basis of the LOV is to incorporate all the necessary unit operational manipulations required in a chemical assay, and, when possible, even the detection device, into a single...... small integrated microconduit, or “laboratory”, placed atop a selection valve. In the lecture emphasis will be placed on the LOV approach. Proven itself as a versatile front end to a variety of detection techniques, its utility will be exemplified by various applications. Particular focus......-phase microcolumn concept utilising hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bead materials. Although ETAAS and ICPMS both are characterised by excellent analytical chemical capabilities, they nevertheless often require that the samples be subjected to suitable pretreatment in order to obtain the necessary sensitivity...
Mitchell, Steve; Holmes, Elaine; Carmichael, Paul
Occasionally, a new idea emerges that has the potential to revolutionize an entire field of scientific endeavour. It is now within our grasp to be able to detect subtle perturbations within the phenomenally complex biochemical matrix of living organisms. The discipline of metabonomics promises an all-encompassing approach to understanding total, yet fundamental, changes occurring in disease processes, drug toxicity and cell function.
Wu, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Su-Yun; Li, Ji; Liu, Dong-Yang; Zhou, Ji; Xu, Ya; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Wei, Dong-yang; Yu, Lu-ji; Fang, Xiao-hang; Li, Shun-yi; Wang, Ke-ke
Greenhouse gases (GHGs, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2)) emissions from soil under wheat production are a significant source of agricultural carbon emissions that have not been mitigated effectively. A field experiment and a static incubation study in a lab were conducted to stimulate wheat growth and investigate its potential to reduce CO2 emissions from soil through intercropping with a traditional Chinese medicinal herb called Isatis indigotica. This work was conducted by adding I. indigotica root exudates based on the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of the DNA copy number of the rhizosphere or bulk soil microbial populations. This addition was performed in relation to the CO2 formation by cellulolytic microorganisms (Penicillium oxalicum, fungi and Ruminococcus albus) to elucidate the microbial ecological basis for the molecular mechanism that decreases CO2 emissions from wheat fields using I. indigotica. The results showed that the panicle weight and full grains per panicle measured through intercropping with I. indigotica (NPKWR) increased by 39% and 28.6%, respectively, compared to that of the CK (NPKW). Intercropping with I. indigotica significantly decreased the CO2 emissions from soil under wheat cultivation. Compared with CK, the total CO2 emission flux during the wheat growth period in the I. indigotica (NPKWR) intercropping treatment decreased by 29.26%. The intensity of CO2 emissions per kg of harvested wheat grain declined from 7.53 kg CO2/kg grain in the NPKW (CK) treatment to 5.55 kg CO2/kg grain in the NPKWR treatment. The qPCR analysis showed that the DNA copy number of the microbial populations of cellulolytic microorganisms (P. oxalicum, fungi and R. albus) in the field rhizosphere around I. indigotica or in the bulk soil under laboratory incubation was significantly lower than that of CK. This finding indicated that root exudates from I. indigotica inhibited the activity and number of cellulolytic microbial populations, which led
Traditional fermented condiments (dawadawa, iru, ogiri) based on vegetable proteins, and ... in the scope of the microbiology and biochemical changes of the raw materials. ... Fermented vegetable proteins have potential food uses as protein ...
Full Text Available Arjun SinghDepartment of Pathology, Sri Venkateshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pondicherry, IndiaPurpose: We use different methods to train our undergraduates. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS system is an innovative teaching–learning method that imparts knowledge, enhances intrinsic motivation, promotes self learning, encourages clinical reasoning, and develops long-lasting memory. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching pathology, assess its effectiveness, and assess students’ preference for POPS over didactic lectures.Method: One hundred fifty second-year MBBS students were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A was taught by POPS while group B was taught by traditional lectures. Pre- and post-test numerical scores of both groups were evaluated and compared. Students then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis.Results: The mean (SD difference in pre- and post-test scores of groups A and B was 15.98 (3.18 and 7.79 (2.52, respectively. The significance of the difference between scores of group A and group B teaching methods was 16.62 (P < 0.0001, as determined by the z-test. Improvement in post-test performance of group A was significantly greater than of group B, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS. Students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps in understanding topics, creates interest, and is a scientific approach to teaching. Feedback response on POPS was strong in 57.52% of students, moderate in 35.67%, and negative in only 6.81%, showing that 93.19% students favored POPS over simple lectures.Conclusion: It is not feasible to enforce the PBL method of teaching throughout the entire curriculum; However, POPS can be incorporated along with audiovisual aids to break the monotony of dialectic lectures and as alternative to PBL.Keywords: medical education, problem-solving exercise, problem-based learning
We use different methods to train our undergraduates. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching-learning method that imparts knowledge, enhances intrinsic motivation, promotes self learning, encourages clinical reasoning, and develops long-lasting memory. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching pathology, assess its effectiveness, and assess students' preference for POPS over didactic lectures. One hundred fifty second-year MBBS students were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A was taught by POPS while group B was taught by traditional lectures. Pre- and posttest numerical scores of both groups were evaluated and compared. Students then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis. The mean (SD) difference in pre- and post-test scores of groups A and B was 15.98 (3.18) and 7.79 (2.52), respectively. The significance of the difference between scores of group A and group B teaching methods was 16.62 (P effectiveness of POPS. Students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps in understanding topics, creates interest, and is a scientific approach to teaching. Feedback response on POPS was strong in 57.52% of students, moderate in 35.67%, and negative in only 6.81%, showing that 93.19% students favored POPS over simple lectures. It is not feasible to enforce the PBL method of teaching throughout the entire curriculum; However, POPS can be incorporated along with audiovisual aids to break the monotony of dialectic lectures and as alternative to PBL.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for the analysis of complex systems. In a recent paper, we have introduced a thermodynamically consistent variance-based sensitivity analysis approach for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems under uncertainty in the standard chemical potentials of the activated complexes of the reactions and the standard chemical potentials of the molecular species. In that approach, key sensitivity indices were estimated by Monte Carlo sampling, which is computationally very demanding and impractical for large biochemical reaction systems. Computationally efficient algorithms are needed to make variance-based sensitivity analysis applicable to realistic cellular networks, modeled by biochemical reaction systems that consist of a large number of reactions and molecular species. Results We present four techniques, derivative approximation (DA, polynomial approximation (PA, Gauss-Hermite integration (GHI, and orthonormal Hermite approximation (OHA, for analytically approximating the variance-based sensitivity indices associated with a biochemical reaction system. By using a well-known model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade as a case study, we numerically compare the approximation quality of these techniques against traditional Monte Carlo sampling. Our results indicate that, although DA is computationally the most attractive technique, special care should be exercised when using it for sensitivity analysis, since it may only be accurate at low levels of uncertainty. On the other hand, PA, GHI, and OHA are computationally more demanding than DA but can work well at high levels of uncertainty. GHI results in a slightly better accuracy than PA, but it is more difficult to implement. OHA produces the most accurate approximation results and can be implemented in a straightforward manner. It turns out that the computational cost of the
With increasing awareness of sustainability in our current society, alternative approaches to produce fuels and petro-derived chemicals are required. Biofuels and biochemicals produced from microbial cell factories provide an alternative to current fossil based chemicals. Meanwhile, microbial cell...
Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.
Full Text Available In the post-Cold War international scenario, the non-traditional nature of security threats conditions the states’ foreign policies. An example of the above is the policy employed by Brazil regarding the border shared with Colombia regarding the development that narcotraffic has been having since the end of the 20th century. Therefore, this article proposes a brief analysis around the influence exercised by the non-traditional nature of the drug traffic threat over the design of Brazilian foreign policy between 1999 and 2010.
Tendekayi H. Gadaga
Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.
Richter, G; Rao, J R
Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.
Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago
Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data.
Teng, Lida; Shaw, Debbie; Barnes, Joanne
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a popular form of ethnomedicine in the UK, and is accessed by Western, Chinese and other ethnic groups. The current regulatory regime does not effectively protect the public against poor-quality and unsafe TCMs. Understanding ethnopharmacological information on how TCM is promoted and practiced may help to inform initiatives aimed at ensuring the safe use of TCMs in the UK, and put laboratory-based ethnopharmacological investigations of TCMs in a broader context. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and practices of TCM retail outlets in London, UK, and to identify factors relevant to the safe use of TCM in the UK. TCM retail outlets ('shops') in London, UK, were identified using a systematic approach. A structured questionnaire including questions on shop business type was used to recruit participant shops. Shops consenting to participate were visited within six weeks of providing consent. A piloted semi-structured questionnaire on shop characteristics was used for data collection following observation. The British National Formulary 53 was used to classify medical conditions/uses for TCMs promoted in the shops. Data were stored and analysed using MS Access 2003, MS Excel 2003 and SPSS 13. In total, 54 TCM shops in London were identified, of which 94% offered TCM consultations with a TCM practitioner. Detailed characteristics were described within 35/50 shops that gave consent to observing their premises. Most shops labelled and displayed over 150 Chinese Materia Medica (CMMs; crude materials, particularly herbs) for dispensing after consultations with a TCM practitioner. Medical conditions/uses and Patent Chinese Medicines (PCMs) were commonly promoted. In total, 794 occurrences of 205 different medical conditions/uses (median=32, QL=19, QU=48) were identified. These conditions/uses most commonly related to the following therapeutic systems: central nervous system (160/794, 20.2%); musculoskeletal and joint disease
Armijos, Chabaco; Cota, Iuliana; González, Silvia
During the colonial period, the indigenous saraguros maintained their traditions, knowledge, and practices to restore and preserve the health of their members. Unfortunately, many of their practices and medicinal resources have not been documented. In this study, we sought to document the traditional healers' (yachakkuna saraguros) knowledge about medicinal and psychoactive plants used in the mesas and in magical-religious rituals. The study was conducted under a technical and scientific cooperation agreement between the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), the Dirección Provincial de Salud de Loja (DPSL), and the Saraguro Healers Council (Consejo de Sanadores de Saraguro). For the present study, the DPSL and Saraguro Healers Council selected the 10 yachakkuna most recognized for their knowledge and their use of sacred and psychoactive species. Ten interviews with the selected yachakkuna were conducted between 2010 and 2011 to ascertain how the Saraguro traditional healing system is structured and to obtain a record of the sacred and medicinal plant species used to treat supernatural diseases and for psychoactive purposes. The present study describes the traditional health system in the Saraguro indigenous community located in southern Ecuador. It also describes the main empirical methods used to diagnose diseases: direct physical examination of the patient, observation of the patient's urine, documentation of the patient's pulse, limpia, palpation and visionary methods, including supernatural diseases (susto, vaho de agua, mal aire, mal hecho, shuka) and reports of the use of sacred and medicinal psychoactive plants, such as the San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi), wandug (Brugmansia spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.). This study also describes the rituals (limpia, soplada) employed by the Saraguro yachakkuna to treat supernatural diseases. Finally, we report on the main plants used during limpia in the Saraguro community. The current traditional
The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...
Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance…
Celmira Laza Vásquez
Full Text Available En Colombia coexisten dos sistemas de atención del parto: el formal y el tradicional. El segundo sobrevive dada la baja cobertura de la atención de los eventos relacionados con la gestación, el parto y el puerperio por el sistema formal, y por factores de tipo cultural. Sin embargo, a pesar de la consolidación de la partería tradicional y la figura de la partera en las zonas rurales apartadas y las urbanas marginales, en el país persiste un desconocimiento científico de este evento que cobra trascendencia actual ya que es uno de los que interviene en la presentación de la mortalidad y morbilidad materna y perinatal. El presente artículo se propone discutir acerca de la necesidad del abordaje investigativo en el tema de la partería y la partera tradicional. Así, se presentan los escasos resultados de los avances investigativos en este tema, se plantean algunos saldos pendientes a responder desde investigación científica y el posible aporte que pudiera realizar la partería tradicional al mejoramiento de la salud de la mujer.In Colombia there are two systems of care delivery: the formal and traditional. The second is still in use because of the low health coverage associated with pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period provided by the proper system, and other cultural factors. However, despite the consolidation of traditional midwifery and existence of the midwife figure in remote rural areas and urban marginal in the country, the lack of scientific knowledge persist of this event; who takes current impact in the presentation of mortality and maternal and perinatal morbidity. This paper aims to discuss about the need for research addressing the issue of midwives and traditional birth attendant. It presents the few results of the research progress on this subject, we present some outstanding balances to respond from scientific research and the possible contribution that could perform the traditional midwives to improve the
A pilot study to compare the views of traditionally trained and CAM-trained therapists using the clinical exemplar of the management of neck/upper limb pain to assess barriers to effective integration of approaches.
Denyer, Karen; Smith, Helen; Davies, Kevin; Horne, Rob; Hankins, Matthew; Walker-Bone, Karen
In the UK, patients frequently choose complementary (CAM) therapies, particularly for chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions. It is widely agreed that better integration of complementary and traditional healthcare is desirable. We piloted the Benefits and Risks of Treatment Questionnaire to compare the views of different healthcare practitioners about traditional and alternative approaches in one clinical scenario in order to assess barriers to effective integration. A cross-sectional survey of healthcare practitioners (primary care practitioners, physiotherapists, pharmacists, osteopaths, chiropractors and acupuncturists) in the UK. The views of all healthcare providers were compared using the exemplar of neck, shoulder and upper arm pain to explore the perceived risks and benefits of different types of therapeutic intervention using a mathematical cluster approach. 448/1254 (36%) useable replies were received representing all six professions. A mean of 14.9 years of experience was reported by participants. The cluster analyses revealed distinct clusters of opinion of benefit: primary care physicians, physiotherapists and pharmacists were significantly more likely to rate a cluster including: anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, steroids, physiotherapy, paracetamol and antidepressants as beneficial for neck, shoulder and upper arm pain. In contrast, osteopaths and chiropractors, but not physiotherapists were significantly more likely to rate a cluster including chiropractic, osteopathy and physiotherapy as beneficial. The Beliefs about Risks and Benefits of Treatments Questionnaire can be applied using a postal approach and achieves similar response rates to other surveys amongst healthcare practitioners. Despite widespread agreement that increased integration of traditional and alternative approaches is desirable, the results of this study suggest that experienced practitioners show the strongest belief in the benefit of approaches closest to their
Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena
factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....
Describes an ESL department's whole language approach to writing and reading, replacing its traditional grammar-based ESL instructional sequence. Reports the positive quantitative and qualitative results of the first three years of using the new approach. (KEH)
Maaike J. Bruins
Full Text Available Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods.
Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...
Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs
de la Torre, Adela
Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with community…
Maroney, Barbara R.
This study explores persistence and non-persistence among adult undergraduate students with particular focus on these students' lives, their stressors, their coping resources including academic supports, and their styles of coping. The study approaches the issue of non-persistence not as a personal failure but rather as a consequence of multiple…
Full Text Available The article analyzes the transformation of the methodological toolkit for teaching humanities and sciences in the Russian Federation. The method of case study, being widely spread in modern higher education research, is used as an example to illustrate the attempts to implement the best practices of foreign educational technology into tertiary academic process in Russia. The author provides some historical aspects of introducing case studies in modern teaching practice. The article features peculiarities of the Soviet approach to the structure of cases. Content analysis helps identify similarities and differences in Soviet/post-Soviet approaches to case study construction and brings into focus the problem points which reveal misinterpretation and/or misuse of didactic materials designated as cases. The approach suggested in the article implies presenting the content of a case study as a collection of documents related to a certain topic. The case study "Istanbul in the life and work of the artist Martiros Saryan" demonstrates that a case can have invariable and variable parts to reflect the specificity of the didactic task within the discipline. Such approach is expected to support students’ cognitive activity, develop creativity in searching additional sources and missing materials, improve efficiency of students’ autonomous work on solving complex problem solution.
ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon
Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.
Caligiuri, Michael J.
Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.
Ferreira, Tiago Miguel; Maio, Rui; Vicente, Romeu
The buildings' capacity to maintain minimum structural safety levels during natural disasters, such as earthquakes, is recognisably one of the aspects that most influence urban resilience. Moreover, the public investment in risk mitigation strategies is fundamental, not only to promote social and urban and resilience, but also to limit consequent material, human and environmental losses. Despite the growing awareness of this issue, there is still a vast number of traditional masonry buildings spread throughout many European old city centres that lacks of adequate seismic resistance, requiring therefore urgent retrofitting interventions in order to both reduce their seismic vulnerability and to cope with the increased seismic requirements of recent code standards. Thus, this paper aims at contributing to mitigate the social and economic impacts of earthquake damage scenarios through the development of vulnerability-based comparative analysis of some of the most popular retrofitting techniques applied after the 1998 Azores earthquake. The influence of each technique individually and globally studied resorting to a seismic vulnerability index methodology integrated into a GIS tool and damage and loss scenarios are constructed and critically discussed. Finally, the economic balance resulting from the implementation of that techniques are also examined.
Yan, Bin-jun; Qu, Hai-bin
The efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on the combined effects of its constituents. Variation in chemical composition between batches of TCM has always been the deterring factor in achieving consistency in efficacy. The batch mixing process can significantly reduce the batch-to-batch quality variation in TCM extracts by mixing them in a well-designed proportion. However, reducing the quality variation without sacrificing too much of the production efficiency is one of the challenges. Accordingly, an innovative and practical batch mixing method aimed at providing acceptable efficiency for industrial production of TCM products is proposed in this work, which uses a minimum number of batches of extracts to meet the content limits. The important factors affecting the utilization ratio of the extracts (URE) were studied by simulations. The results have shown that URE was affected by the correlation between the contents of constituents, and URE decreased with the increase in the number of targets and the relative standard deviations of the contents. URE could be increased by increasing the number of storage tanks. The results have provided a reference for designing the batch mixing process. The proposed method has possible application value in reducing the quality variation in TCM and providing acceptable production efficiency simultaneously. PMID:24190450
Yan, Bin-jun; Qu, Hai-bin
The efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on the combined effects of its constituents. Variation in chemical composition between batches of TCM has always been the deterring factor in achieving consistency in efficacy. The batch mixing process can significantly reduce the batch-to-batch quality variation in TCM extracts by mixing them in a well-designed proportion. However, reducing the quality variation without sacrificing too much of the production efficiency is one of the challenges. Accordingly, an innovative and practical batch mixing method aimed at providing acceptable efficiency for industrial production of TCM products is proposed in this work, which uses a minimum number of batches of extracts to meet the content limits. The important factors affecting the utilization ratio of the extracts (URE) were studied by simulations. The results have shown that URE was affected by the correlation between the contents of constituents, and URE decreased with the increase in the number of targets and the relative standard deviations of the contents. URE could be increased by increasing the number of storage tanks. The results have provided a reference for designing the batch mixing process. The proposed method has possible application value in reducing the quality variation in TCM and providing acceptable production efficiency simultaneously.
Mokgobi, M G
Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.
Kong, Shengli; Cheng, Yuanping; Ren, Ting; Liu, Hongyong
Highlights: • The gas reservoirs characteristics are measured and analyzed. • A sequential approach to control gas of multi-gassy coal seams is proposed. • The design of gas drainage wells has been improved. • The utilization ways of different concentrations of gas production are shown. - Abstract: As coal resources become exhausted in shallow mines, mining operations will inevitably progress from shallow depth to deep and gassy seams due to increased demands for more coal products. However, during the extraction process of deeper and gassier coal seams, new challenges to current gas control methods have emerged, these include the conflict between the coal mine safety and the economic benefits, the difficulties in reservoirs improvement, as well as the imbalance between pre-gas drainage, roadway development and coal mining. To solve these problems, a sequential approach is introduced in this paper. Three fundamental principles are proposed: the mining-induced stress relief effect of the first-mined coalbed should be sufficient to improve the permeability of the others; the coal resource of the first-mined seams must be abundant to guarantee the economic benefits; the arrangement of the vertical wells must fit the underground mining panel. Tunlan coal mine is taken as a typical example to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The approach of integrating surface coalbed methane (CBM) exploitation with underground gas control technologies brings three major benefits: the improvement of underground coal mining safety, the implementation of CBM extraction, and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This practice could be used as a valuable example for other coal mines having similar geological conditions
Jobin, Benoît; Labrecque, Sandra; Grenier, Marcelle; Falardeau, Gilles
The traditional method of identifying wildlife habitat distribution over large regions consists of pixel-based classification of satellite images into a suite of habitat classes used to select suitable habitat patches. Object-based classification is a new method that can achieve the same objective based on the segmentation of spectral bands of the image creating homogeneous polygons with regard to spatial or spectral characteristics. The segmentation algorithm does not solely rely on the single pixel value, but also on shape, texture, and pixel spatial continuity. The object-based classification is a knowledge base process where an interpretation key is developed using ground control points and objects are assigned to specific classes according to threshold values of determined spectral and/or spatial attributes. We developed a model using the eCognition software to identify suitable habitats for the Grasshopper Sparrow, a rare and declining species found in southwestern Québec. The model was developed in a region with known breeding sites and applied on other images covering adjacent regions where potential breeding habitats may be present. We were successful in locating potential habitats in areas where dairy farming prevailed but failed in an adjacent region covered by a distinct Landsat scene and dominated by annual crops. We discuss the added value of this method, such as the possibility to use the contextual information associated to objects and the ability to eliminate unsuitable areas in the segmentation and land cover classification processes, as well as technical and logistical constraints. A series of recommendations on the use of this method and on conservation issues of Grasshopper Sparrow habitat is also provided.
Full Text Available Background: The use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM by breast cancer patients is growing. Few studies have examined the complexity of breast cancer survivors’ attitudes, lived experiences, barriers, and perceptions in using TCM as part of their treatment journey. This article examines breast cancer survivors’ experiences, perceptions of, and benefits (or not in using TCM. Methods: Qualitative research, using semi-structured interviews, was the chosen methodology. Results: Participants used TCM as a form of self-help and as a complement, not an alternative, to standard care. Overall, 100% of the participants used acupuncture, 62% used Chinese herbal medicine, 23% used Qigong, and 23% used Chinese dietary therapy. Participants reported perceived outcomes and health benefits from TCM usage ranging from increased coping mechanisms, relieving stress and side-effects of standard treatment, the desire to be pro-active in the treatment journey, and to have a locus of control. Some cited the need to have “time-out” and the therapeutic relationship with the practitioner as being important. Conclusion: There is a clear need to understand breast cancer survivors’ needs for physical and psychological support as they aim to regain control over their life through their experience of illness. More studies are needed to measure and evaluate these outcomes and to help identify breast cancer survivors’ healthcare seeking behaviours, during and after the acute treatment stage that addresses their physical, emotional, and spiritual needs. These results aim to inform future research design and evaluate and develop support services that are patient-centred and focus on whole health outcomes, shared decision-making, and quality of life.
Iațeșen Loredana Viorica
Full Text Available In the diverse space of contemporary music, the fascinating and controversial personality of the Welsh composer Karl Jenkins, which is surprising from several perspectives, stands out. Open to assimilating and processing music from various sources (academic, liturgical, folk, entertainment, oriental, exotic, the all-round musician Karl Jenkins impresses the public with unexpected artistic choices, giving up the hypostasis of instrumentalist of the jazz-rock band Nucleus and of the group Softmachine in favour of the postmodern creator he has become today, synthetizing trends from musical compositions of the last decades of the 20th century. Once with the return to the functional system, either through minimalism or through neo-romanticism, the artist has successfully covered a potential sonority path of modern opposites, also evoking references to creative models of the past. We are referring to the musical valorizing of the sacred in a synthetic vision between tradition and innovation, in the works included in the Adiemus cycle, in the opus choir Missa for Peace and, more particularly, in the Requiem (2005, a significant score in the contemporaneity. The manner in which the composer, while resorting to a musical genre originating from the Roman Catholic cult and drawing on the liturgical text of the Mass for the dead, inserted Japanese poetry, written following the structure of haiku, belonging to representative authors - Gozan Koshigaya, Issho Kosughi, Hokusai Katsushika, Kaga-no-Chiyo, is highly surprising. This study aims to highlight the interweaving imagined by Karl Jenkins between the two cultures as well as to conduct a semantic analysis of an opus in which the relationships between music and words entail a highly emotional response.
Becker, Sara J
The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed.
Becker, Sara J.
The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed. PMID:25937710
Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment
Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie
A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie
A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ~24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes.
Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.
Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues...... cuticle thickness, while Pegarinhos adds a thicker epidermis and palisade parenchyma to increase protection to water loss. These data is one of the first comparative approaches to the leaf characterization of these cultivars, and should now be combined with physiological and biochemical studies...
Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa
Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...
Zhang, Jiajun; Nie, Qing; Zhou, Tianshou
Traditional moment-closure methods need to assume that high-order cumulants of a probability distribution approximate to zero. However, this strong assumption is not satisfied for many biochemical reaction networks. Here, we introduce convergent moments (defined in mathematics as the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the probability-generating function at some point) to overcome this drawback of the moment-closure methods. As such, we develop a new analysis method for stochastic chemical kinetics. This method provides an accurate approximation for the master probability equation (MPE). In particular, the connection between low-order convergent moments and rate constants can be more easily derived in terms of explicit and analytical forms, allowing insights that would be difficult to obtain through direct simulation or manipulation of the MPE. In addition, it provides an accurate and efficient way to compute steady-state or transient probability distribution, avoiding the algorithmic difficulty associated with stiffness of the MPE due to large differences in sizes of rate constants. Applications of the method to several systems reveal nontrivial stochastic mechanisms of gene expression dynamics, e.g., intrinsic fluctuations can induce transient bimodality and amplify transient signals, and slow switching between promoter states can increase fluctuations in spatially heterogeneous signals. The overall approach has broad applications in modeling, analysis, and computation of complex biochemical networks with intrinsic noise.
Zhang, Jiajun [School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Nie, Qing [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Zhou, Tianshou, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Computational Science and School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
Traditional moment-closure methods need to assume that high-order cumulants of a probability distribution approximate to zero. However, this strong assumption is not satisfied for many biochemical reaction networks. Here, we introduce convergent moments (defined in mathematics as the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the probability-generating function at some point) to overcome this drawback of the moment-closure methods. As such, we develop a new analysis method for stochastic chemical kinetics. This method provides an accurate approximation for the master probability equation (MPE). In particular, the connection between low-order convergent moments and rate constants can be more easily derived in terms of explicit and analytical forms, allowing insights that would be difficult to obtain through direct simulation or manipulation of the MPE. In addition, it provides an accurate and efficient way to compute steady-state or transient probability distribution, avoiding the algorithmic difficulty associated with stiffness of the MPE due to large differences in sizes of rate constants. Applications of the method to several systems reveal nontrivial stochastic mechanisms of gene expression dynamics, e.g., intrinsic fluctuations can induce transient bimodality and amplify transient signals, and slow switching between promoter states can increase fluctuations in spatially heterogeneous signals. The overall approach has broad applications in modeling, analysis, and computation of complex biochemical networks with intrinsic noise.
Hansen, Benjamin J.; Liu, Ying; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Zhong Lin
the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby
Nuno Ornelas Martins
Copyright © 2012 World Economics Association. In this paper the use of mathematics in economics will be discussed, by comparing two approaches to mathematics, a Cartesian approach, and a Newtonian approach. I will argue that while mainstream economics is underpinned by a Cartesian approach which led to a divorce between mathematics and reality, the contributions of key authors of the Cambridge tradition, like Marshall, Keynes and Sraffa, are characterised by a Newtonian approach to mathema...
India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.
Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic
¿Hubo ciencia en la Medicina Tradicional China? Una mirada desde la epistemología de la complejidad Was there any science in traditional Chinese medicine? An approach from the epistemology of complexity
Orlando A Abréu Guirado
different disciplines and has been impacting the epistemological grounds of many sciences. The ancient philosophical eastern schools may be considered as a paradigm of the non-lineal thinking. As part of this view of the universe, the Traditional Chinese Medicine is a traditional medical system with a theoretical approach opposing essentially from the current western codes. This explains the increasing discussion on the scientific categories that it is based on. By the time European tribes were beginning to interact, ancient China, from a most advanced social dynamics, had already become a state and its traditional Chinese medicine had begun to exist. Objective: To explore, from the complexity approach, how much of science there was or was not in the origins of traditional Chinese medicine. Method: The historical evolution and environment of traditional Chinese medicine are analyzed from the perspective of complexity taking into account what science is nowadays, and evaluated considering the contextual hypothesis of the four hypotheses of the world according to Stephen Pepper. Results: Those interested in traditional Chinese medicine, must focus and place themselves in the centuries of its flourishing to value its historical development and judge it with the dialectical justice it deserves. Although little known, there are elements supporting that, for a long period of time, some methods were used and knowledge was systematized in the formation process of the theoretical approach of the traditional Chinese medicine. The view of complexity allows an evaluation of the deep contextual relation of this therapeutic system. Conclusions: There is much of science in traditional Chinese medicine and, in the roots of its conception, there WERE methods neither based on a formal nor mechanistic cosmogonic conception, but at least, contextual demanding another epistemological paradigm for its analysis.
ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ
Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the
Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.
Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text
Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.
Pistre, J.; Dejous, C.; Rebiere, D.
The market of chemical and biochemical sensors is increasing and represents a large opportunity. The problem of chemical and biochemicaldetection involves the use of one/several transducing layer/interface. Several types of detection exist. Among them, acoustic wave devices present many advantages. The paper deals with surface acoustic waves devices and their implementation. The role and properties of the sensing layer are discussed for chemical sensors and biochemical sensors as well. Examples of realizations are presented taking into account the microfluidic approach.
Hu, Jingfei; Liao, Haiyang; Su, Shilin; Ding, Hao; Liu, Suquan
The traditional biochemical detector exhibits poor adaptability, inconvenient carrying and slow detection, which can't meet the needs of first-aid under field condition like natural or man-made disasters etc. Therefore a scheme of first-aid biochemical detector based on MOMES Micro Spectrometer, UV LED and Photodiode was proposed. An optical detection structure combined continuous spectrum sweep with fixed wavelength measurement was designed, which adopted mobile detection optical path consisting of Micro Spectrometer and Halogen Lamp to detect Chloride (Cl-), Creatinine (Cre), Glucose (Glu), Hemoglobin (Hb). The UV LED and Photodiode were designed to detect Potassium (K-), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Sodium (Na+). According to the field diagnosis and treatment requirements, we designed the embedded control hardware circuit and software system, the prototype of first-aid biochemical detector was developed and the clinical trials were conducted. Experimental results show that the sample's absorbance repeatability is less than 2%, the max coefficient of variation (CV) in the batch repeatability test of all 7 biochemical parameters in blood samples is 4.68%, less than the clinical requirements 10%, the correlation coefficient (R2) in the clinical contrast test with AU5800 is almost greater than 0.97. To sum up, the prototype meets the requirements of clinical application.
Kim, Deog Yoon
Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays
Bruin, A. de
A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents
Physicists who were recruited to try and assist with the stubbornly constant mortality rates of cancer world-wide over the past 100 years have basically had the invitation withdrawn by the oncology community. The oncologists became annoyed with the independence of thought and the skepticism of some physicists with continuation of the present paradigm of the cancer genome as the rosette stone as the key to cancer. To quote a recent letter in Physics Today: ``Curing cancer is a complex biological problem to be solved by biologists''. Apparently our mission as minions is is to be high-level technicians. But I think that is wrong and will lead to continuation of the string of failures and deceptions foisted on the public at large by the Medical Industrial Complex, I think we really need to re-think cancer as a phenomena which is driven by evolution and may be desired by the organism and be a product of both the aging of the proteome and the genome. Further, searching for mutations (The Cancer Genome) may be completely the wrong direction, searching for protected genes may be as important as looking for mutated genes. I'll try to present the case that physicists should not have been kicked out of the Medical Industrial Complex that keeps the cancer business humming and profitable.
Alves, H.; Manhita, A.; Dias, C. Barrocas; Ferreira, T.
This paper describes a mini-project developed with 10th grade Portuguese students where, by using an experimental activity involving the use of natural dyes to colour wool, students acquired a better understanding of the concepts and relationship between the colour, the electromagnetic spectrum, and chemical bonding. As demonstrated by the results…
Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand, active learning changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class; moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant difference between active learning and traditional teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting active learning to traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.
Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.
Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad
Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.
Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja
'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.
Eric Almeida Xavier
Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.
Ingram, L O; Carey, V C; Dombek, K M; Holt, A S; Holt, W A; Osman, Y A; Walia, S K
Zymomonas mobilis offers many advantages for alcohol production including three- to five-fold higher rates of substrate conversion. Current progress and approaches are discussed for the biochemical and genetic improvement of this organism. These include the isolation of salt-resistant mutants and low pH-tolerant mutants. Gene banks of Lactobacillus heterohiochi are being screened for genes encoding alcohol resistance which can be subsequently introduced into Zymomonas mobilis. In addition, an enteric lactose operon has been inserted into Zymomonas mobilis and is expressed. These new strains are being further modified to increase the substrate range of Zymomonas mobilis to include lactose. This lactose operon serves as a model system to investigate the expression of foreign genes in Zymomonas mobilis. 25 references.
Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan
Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.
Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov
The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 22.214.171.124.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...
Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R
We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.
Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.
Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process
Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.
Harvey, H. R.; Ju, Se-J.; Son, S.-K.; Feinberg, L. R.; Shaw, C. T.; Peterson, W. T.
Euphausiids play a key role in many marine ecosystems as a link between primary producers and top predators. Understanding their demographic (i.e. age) structure is an essential tool to assess growth and recruitment as well as to determine how changes in environmental conditions might alter their condition and distribution. Age determination of crustaceans cannot be accomplished using traditional approaches, and here we evaluate the potential for biochemical products of tissue metabolism (termed lipofuscins) to determine the demographic structure of euphausiids in field collections . Lipofuscin was extracted from krill neural tissues (eye and eye-stalk), quantified using fluorescent intensity and normalized to tissue protein content to allow comparisons across animal sizes. Multiple fluorescent components from krill were observed, with the major product having a maximum fluorescence at excitation of 355 nm and emission of 510 nm. Needed age calibration of lipofuscin accumulation in Euphausia pacifica was accomplished using known-age individuals hatched and reared in the laboratory for over one year. Lipofuscin content extracted from neural tissues of laboratory-reared animals was highly correlated with the chronological age of animals ( r=0.87). Calibrated with laboratory lipofuscin accumulation rates, field-collected sub-adult and adult E. pacifica in the Northeast Pacific were estimated to be older than 100 days and younger than 1year. Comparative data for the Antarctic krill, E. superba showed much higher lipofuscin values suggesting a much longer lifespan than the more temperate species, E. pacifica. These regional comparisons suggest that biochemical indices allow a practical approach to estimate population age structure of diverse populations, and combined with other measurements can provide estimates of vital rates (i.e. longevity, mortality, growth) for krill populations in dynamic environments.
Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M
Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for
Edward F. Millen
The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...
Joseph A. Wayman
Full Text Available Cell-free systems offer many advantages for the study, manipulation and modeling of metabolism compared to in vivo processes. Many of the challenges confronting genome-scale kinetic modeling can potentially be overcome in a cell-free system. For example, there is no complex transcriptional regulation to consider, transient metabolic measurements are easier to obtain, and we no longer have to consider cell growth. Thus, cell-free operation holds several significant advantages for model development, identification and validation. Theoretically, genome-scale cell-free kinetic models may be possible for industrially important organisms, such as E. coli, if a simple, tractable framework for integrating allosteric regulation with enzyme kinetics can be formulated. Toward this unmet need, we present an effective biochemical network modeling framework for building dynamic cell-free metabolic models. The key innovation of our approach is the integration of simple effective rules encoding complex allosteric regulation with traditional kinetic pathway modeling. We tested our approach by modeling the time evolution of several hypothetical cell-free metabolic networks. We found that simple effective rules, when integrated with traditional enzyme kinetic expressions, captured complex allosteric patterns such as ultrasensitivity or non-competitive inhibition in the absence of mechanistic information. Second, when integrated into network models, these rules captured classic regulatory patterns such as product-induced feedback inhibition. Lastly, we showed, at least for the network architectures considered here, that we could simultaneously estimate kinetic parameters and allosteric connectivity from synthetic data starting from an unbiased collection of possible allosteric structures using particle swarm optimization. However, when starting with an initial population that was heavily enriched with incorrect structures, our particle swarm approach could converge
Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto
Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.
Latendresse, Mario; Malerich, Jeremiah P; Travers, Mike; Karp, Peter D
The complete atom mapping of a chemical reaction is a bijection of the reactant atoms to the product atoms that specifies the terminus of each reactant atom. Atom mapping of biochemical reactions is useful for many applications of systems biology, in particular for metabolic engineering where synthesizing new biochemical pathways has to take into account for the number of carbon atoms from a source compound that are conserved in the synthesis of a target compound. Rapid, accurate computation of the atom mapping(s) of a biochemical reaction remains elusive despite significant work on this topic. In particular, past researchers did not validate the accuracy of mapping algorithms. We introduce a new method for computing atom mappings called the minimum weighted edit-distance (MWED) metric. The metric is based on bond propensity to react and computes biochemically valid atom mappings for a large percentage of biochemical reactions. MWED models can be formulated efficiently as Mixed-Integer Linear Programs (MILPs). We have demonstrated this approach on 7501 reactions of the MetaCyc database for which 87% of the models could be solved in less than 10 s. For 2.1% of the reactions, we found multiple optimal atom mappings. We show that the error rate is 0.9% (22 reactions) by comparing these atom mappings to 2446 atom mappings of the manually curated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) RPAIR database. To our knowledge, our computational atom-mapping approach is the most accurate and among the fastest published to date. The atom-mapping data will be available in the MetaCyc database later in 2012; the atom-mapping software will be available within the Pathway Tools software later in 2012.
Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress.
Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.
Hendrix, Janey B.
A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…
This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.
In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos. Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. Date Released: 11/10/2007.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactic acid bacteria flora of mature Konya Kuflu cheese. Konya Kuflu cheese is a traditional blue cheese which is produced from raw milk without starter culture addition and mould growth occurs in uncontrolled conditions during its ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from 9 mature Konya Kuflu cheese samples were investigated using a combination of conventional biochemical tests, API test kits, and molecular approaches. For some isolates, different results were obtained according to the identification technique. The overall LAB profile of Konya Kuflu cheese samples revealed that Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are the predominant species. In addition, 1 Pediococcus parvulus and 1 Enterococcus durans were also identified.
Full Text Available The computer modelling and simulation of wastewater treatment plant and their specific technologies, such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs, are becoming increasingly useful to consultant engineers when designing, upgrading, retrofitting, operating and controlling these plant. This research uses traditional phenomenological mechanistic models based on MBR filtration and biochemical processes to measure the effectiveness of alternative and novel time series models based upon input–output system identification methods. Both model types are calibrated and validated using similar plant layouts and data sets derived for this purpose. Results prove that although both approaches have their advantages, they also have specific disadvantages as well. In conclusion, the MBR plant designer and/or operator who wishes to use good quality, calibrated models to gain a better understanding of their process, should carefully consider which model type is selected based upon on what their initial modelling objectives are. Each situation usually proves unique.
Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which
Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.
Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which
Supriya, K E
In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.
Lai, Martin C.; Lan, Ethan I.
Engineering cyanobacteria into photosynthetic microbial cell factories for the production of biochemicals and biofuels is a promising approach toward sustainability. Cyanobacteria naturally grow on light and carbon dioxide, bypassing the need of fermentable plant biomass and arable land. By tapping into the central metabolism and rerouting carbon flux towards desirable compound production, cyanobacteria are engineered to directly convert CO2 into various chemicals. This review discusses the d...
This thesis research aimed at valuating the suitability of biochemical and microbiological indicators in soil quality and soil health assessment, applying an interdisciplinary approach by means of different methodologies. As the concept of soil quality encompasses both functionality and biological diversity, two cases of study are proposed and each of them aimed at the description of this two aspects. The first case study examined the degree of interference of high soil copper contamination w...
Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi
Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.
Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.
Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...
Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications
Kang, Jung J; Reiter, Robert E; Kummer, Nicolas; DeKernion, Jean; Steinberg, Michael L; King, Christopher R
To examine the impact of positive surgical margin (PSM) laterality on failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). A PSM can influence local recurrence and outcomes after salvage radiation. Unlike intrinsic risk factors, a PSM is caused by intervention and thus iatrogenic failures may be elucidated by analyzing margin laterality as surgical approach is itself lateralized. We reviewed 226 RP patients between 1991 and 2013 with PSM. Data includes operation type, pre/postoperative PSA, surgical pathology, and margin type (location, focality, laterality). The median follow-up was 47 months. Biochemical recurrence after RP was defined as PSA≥0.1 ng/mL or 2 consecutive rises above nadir. Ninety-two patients received salvage radiation therapy (SRT). Failure after SRT was defined as any PSA≥0.2 ng/mL or greater than presalvage. Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate analyses compared relapse rates. The majority of PSM were iatrogenic (58%). Laterality was associated with differences in median relapse: right 20 versus left 51 versus bilateral 14 months (PRight-sided margins were more likely to progress than left (hazard ratio, 1.67; P=0.04). More right-sided margins were referred for SRT (55% right vs. 23% left vs. 22% bilateral), but were equally salvaged. Only T-stage and pre-SRT PSA independently influenced SRT success. Most PSM are iatrogenic, with right-sided more likely to progress (and sooner) than left sided. Margin laterality is a heretofore unrecognized independent predictor of biochemical relapse and hints at the need to modify the traditional unilateral surgical technique.
Full Text Available Presumptive identification of different Enterobacteriaceae species is routinely achieved based on biochemical properties. Traditional practice includes manual comparison of each biochemical property of the unknown sample with known reference samples and inference of its identity based on the maximum similarity pattern with the known samples. This process is labor-intensive, time-consuming, error-prone, and subjective. Therefore, automation of sorting and similarity in calculation would be advantageous. Here we present a MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI tool named BioCluster. This tool was designed for automated clustering and identification of Enterobacteriaceae based on biochemical test results. In this tool, we used two types of algorithms, i.e., traditional hierarchical clustering (HC and the Improved Hierarchical Clustering (IHC, a modified algorithm that was developed specifically for the clustering and identification of Enterobacteriaceae species. IHC takes into account the variability in result of 1–47 biochemical tests within this Enterobacteriaceae family. This tool also provides different options to optimize the clustering in a user-friendly way. Using computer-generated synthetic data and some real data, we have demonstrated that BioCluster has high accuracy in clustering and identifying enterobacterial species based on biochemical test data. This tool can be freely downloaded at http://microbialgen.du.ac.bd/biocluster/.
Exam Success at Undergraduate and Graduate-Entry Medical Schools: Is Learning Style or Learning Approach More Important? A Critical Review Exploring Links Between Academic Success, Learning Styles, and Learning Approaches Among School-Leaver Entry ("Traditional") and Graduate-Entry ("Nontraditional") Medical Students.
Feeley, Anne-Marie; Biggerstaff, Deborah L
PHENOMENON: The literature on learning styles over many years has been replete with debate and disagreement. Researchers have yet to elucidate exactly which underlying constructs are measured by the many learning styles questionnaires available. Some academics question whether learning styles exist at all. When it comes to establishing the value of learning styles for medical students, a further issue emerges. The demographics of medical students in the United Kingdom have changed in recent years, so past studies may not be applicable to students today. We wanted to answer a very simple, practical question: what can the literature on learning styles tell us that we can use to help today's medical students succeed academically at medical school? We conducted a literature review to synthesise the available evidence on how two different aspects of learning-the way in which students like to receive information in a learning environment (termed learning "styles") and the motivations that drive their learning (termed learning "approaches")-can impact on medical students' academic achievement. Our review confirms that although learning "styles" do not correlate with exam performance, learning "approaches" do: those with "strategic" and "deep" approaches to learning (i.e., motivated to do well and motivated to learn deeply respectively) perform consistently better in medical school examinations. Changes in medical school entrant demographics in the past decade have not altered these correlations. Optimistically, our review reveals that students' learning approaches can change and more adaptive approaches may be learned. Insights: For educators wishing to help medical students succeed academically, current evidence demonstrates that helping students develop their own positive learning approach using "growth mind-set" is a more effective (and more feasible) than attempting to alter students' learning styles. This conclusion holds true for both "traditional" and graduate
Construção de portfólios coletivos em currículos tradicionais: uma proposta inovadora de ensino-aprendizagem The construction of collective portfolios in traditional curriculums: an innovative approach in teaching-learning
Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, a educação em saúde se baseia em metodologias de transmissão de conhecimentos. Porém, agora se exige a formação de profissionais com perfil crítico-reflexivo e capazes de trabalhar em equipes. O que requer novas metodologias de ensino-aprendizagem, tendo na problematização um instrumento de transformação. É relatada experiência utilizando a construção de portfólios coletivos na aprendizagem, como mudança de atitudes e na avaliação de alunos de graduação, em contexto de estrutura curricular tradicional e por disciplinas. Estudo exploratório descritivo, com abordagem quali-quantitativa, fundamentado na análise de portfólios coletivos (n= 9, construídos pelos acadêmicos da disciplina Políticas de Saúde, complementado com a aplicação de um questionário aberto aos alunos (n=58 e com a realização de grupos focais (n=3. Os portfólios coletivos mobilizaram o pensamento crítico-reflexivo sobre a política do Sistema Único de Saúde, ampliando a concepção sobre o processo saúde-doença e as práticas relacionadas aos serviços de saúde, valorizando o trabalho em equipe e a busca ativa na construção do conhecimento, destacando-se os exercícios da alteridade, resiliência e empoderamento.Education to promote health has traditionally been based on knowledge transmission methodologies. However, the current scenario calls for the training of professionals with a critical-reflective profile, who are able to work in teams. We present the report of an innovative experience using the construction of collective portfolios as instruments of learning, changing attitudes and training of undergraduates, in a traditional subject-based curriculum structure context. It is a descriptive exploratory study, with a qualitative-quantitative approach, based on analysis of collective portfolios (n=9, built by Health Policy students, together with an open questionnaire to students who attended the course (n=58 and also
Lyumugabe Loshima, François
Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...
It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.
It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions
Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan
In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali
Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312
The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.
Chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of traditional and simplified decoction methods on the holistic quality of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Yan, Xuemei; Zhang, Qianying; Feng, Fang
Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction, consisting of Rheum officinale Baill, Mirabilitum, Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of jaundice. As described in "Jin Kui Yao Lue", a traditional multistep decoction of Da-Huang-Xiao-Shi decoction was required while simplified one-step decoction was used in recent repsorts. To investigate the chemical difference between the decoctions obtained by the traditional and simplified preparations, a sensitive and reliable approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established. As a result, a total of 105 compounds were detected and identified. Analysis of the chromatogram profiles of the two decoctions showed that many compounds in the decoction of simplified preparation had changed obviously compared with those in traditional preparation. The changes of constituents would be bound to cause the differences in the therapeutic effects of the two decoctions. The present study demonstrated that certain preparation methods significantly affect the holistic quality of traditional Chinese medicines and the use of a suitable preparation method is crucial for these medicines to produce special clinical curative effect. This research results elucidated the scientific basis of traditional preparation methods in Chinese medicines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full text: BACKGROUND: Globally, 52 million children under 5 are moderately/severely wasted. To date, Supplementary Feeding Program (SFP) has been most commonly used to address moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) (low weight-for-height) where food rations are distributed. However, recently, high levels of wasting are being found even in areas with food security. Thus, rather than creating a dependence on food aid, different approaches need to be explored to address the global burden of MAM. World Vision (WV) has been implementing Positive Deviance/Hearth (PDH) since 1999 and has now expanded to more than 40 countries. WV believes PDH is an effective sustainable rehabilitation program for underweight children (low weight-for-age). However, since 2012, WV began using PDH to also rehabilitate MAM children, especially in areas with food security and no treatment for children with acute malnutrition. PDH is a behaviour change program that aims to rehabilitate children in the context of their own homes, to sustain the rehabilitation and prevent future malnutrition using existing resources, local solutions, and a food-based approach. Internationally, to date, there are mixed results in the effectiveness of PDH and the traditional health and nutrition education program called, “Mother Care Groups” (MCG), in successfully improving the behaviours of caregivers and rehabilitating underweight children. As PDH was being implemented in Soroti, Uganda, it was assessed and compared to MCG. METHODS: A comparative case study – quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effectiveness of the two programs in improving the knowledge, behaviour and confidence levels of primary caregivers of malnourished children aged 6-36 months of age in child feeding, hygiene, caring, and health-seeking practices in Soroti, Uganda. If change was seen, the improvement in the nutritional status of malnourished children was also assessed. 64 caregivers with underweight children were included in
In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs
Alberty, Robert A
reactants. Thus loading this package makes available 774 mathematical functions for these properties. These functions can be added and subtracted to obtain changes in these properties in biochemical reactions and apparent equilibrium constants.
Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.
Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.
The changes were studied occurring in some biochemical indicators in blood at chronic peroral administration of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 in amounts resulting in accumulation of commensurable doses in critical organs corresponding to each isotope
Jul 22, 2015 ... biochemical characterization of GGOH 18-hydroxylase activity in the microsomal fraction from C. .... method as previously described (Chanama et al., 2009). Briefly, 30 g of frozen ..... Catalytic properties of the plant cytochrome.
MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.
San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.
Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)
Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh
Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.
Hening Tjaturina Pramesti
Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.
Full Text Available The mean elemental (C, H, N and biochemical composition (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins of some abundant crustacean zooplankton species of Italian insubric lakes has been estimated by the analysis of samples collected at different seasons from various environments (Lake Maggiore, Lake Varese, Lake Comabbio, Lake Monate. From each sample an adequate number of specimens of each abundant species was sorted and analyzed by a CHN elemental analyzer. The percentage of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and the calorific content were calculated from the elemental composition according to Gnaiger & Bitterlich (1984. Inter- and intraspecific variability of biochemical composition was quite high, while elemental composition and calorific content were less variable. An estimate of the mean elemental and biochemical composition of each species was obtained by pooling the data. These mean values have been used to estimate the pools of elements and compounds in the crustacean zooplankton of Lake Comabbio to provide an example of the importance of a multiple approach in zooplankton studies.
Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P
Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Daigle Bernie J
Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods
Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes
The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp
or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...
Custer Adrian V
Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to
A critical review is presented of English, French and some German language literature, mainly from 1983 onwards. It examines experimental evidence on the behaviour as barriers to biodegradation of lignins and phenolic polymers such as tannins and suberins. The different molecular mechanisms of lignolysis by fungi (mainly), actinomycetes and bacteria are examined. A new biochemical approach to the physiological mechanism of regulation of lignolytic activities is suggested based on the discoveries of ligniolytic enzymes: effects of nitrogen, oxygen and substrate are discussed. It is concluded that a better knowledge of the structure and reactivity of phenolic barriers is needed in order to control the process of lignolysis.
Full Text Available Education in the current times concerns to the intellectual autonomy, the capacity of decision and the possibilities of the student in making the difference. This work arose due to multi-transdisciplinary perception of an educator’s team from UFPE and UFRJ, to whom scientific research means intentional intellectual activity to attend human needs. As an answer to teacher’s questions about student difficulties of learning scientific methodology, it was included a ludic activity into classroom of high school, graduation and postgraduate levels. First of all a CD-ROM entitled: “O Método Científico: Uma Leitura Virtual” was made with adobe flash program and it was used as neurodidactic strategy (auditory and visual stimulus. After thirty minutes of ludic activities, discussions about importance and utility of scientific method took place, and the Science and the Technology as subjects matters arose. So, a democratic and interfacial environment was produced. As a result of using this didactic activity it was stimulated curiosity, awakened up attention, developed specific abilities of observation, eased association of ideas and improved capacity of analysis and synthesis in all the groups. Ludic activities in education create possibilities of sociability (such as consolidation of student’s individuality, and also stimulate the interest in the Sciences. In this way, for the development of educational projects focused on paradigms changes that lead to the rise of a new didactic culture, the use of diverse interfacial resources becomes necessary.
Aim: This prospective observational randomized ... Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 women having PCOS in addition to 20 normal .... Hughes IA, Read GF. Simultaneous plasma and saliva steroid measurements as an index of control in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). A longitudinal study.
Steroid influences on GABAergic neurotransmission are varied and complex. However, there has been little investigation into the behavioral relevance of steroid effects on GABA. GABA had been implicated in the control of lordosis, a steroid dependent posture exhibited by sexually receptive female rats, but with conflicting results. This data demonstrated that GABA plays a dual role in the regulation of lordosis; stimulation of GABAergic transmission in the medial hypothalamus enhances lordosis whereas stimulation of GABA in the preoptic area inhibits lordosis. In separate experiments it was determined that progesterone enhances binding of the GABA A agonist, muscimol, in an in vitro exchange assay utilizing synaptic membranes prepared from the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats. Scatchard analysis revealed a difference in affinity of the GABA A receptor between ovariectomized, receptive and post receptive females. In the preoptic area there was a significant decrease in the binding of 3 H-muscimol in receptive females versus post-receptive and ovariectomized rats. In other behavioral experiments, the influence of estrogen and progesterone on GABA-induced analgesia was assessed. Intrathecal infusion of a low dose of muscimol at the lumbar level of the spinal cord did not alter nociceptive thresholds in ovariectomized rats. However, when intact females were administered the same dose of muscimol, they exhibited differential responses over the estrous cycle. Females in estrus were analgesic after muscimol, whereas diestrus females did not differ from ovariectomized controls. Ovariectomized rats injected s.c. with progesterone (2mg) exhibited a pronounced analgesia after intrathecal muscimol beginning 15 minutes after steroid treatment, whereas similar treatment with estrogen (10ug) was without effect
Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.
Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.
Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S
Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.
Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare
Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
Roxana Ma Newman
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Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.
Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.
Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en
Chunqi Mao; Guoqing He; Xinyong Du; Meilin Cui; Shiyang Gao
A new bittern soy sauce was developed; the overall aim of this study was to characterize the quality of the soy sauce. Biochemical changes occurring during experimental soy sauce fermentations were described. Results revealed that, the contents of amino nitrogen, reducing sugars and enzyme activity were slightly lower in soy sauce prepared with bittern than with traditional one. No marked difference in pH was noted between the two types of soy sauce.
Constant K. Attchelouwa; Solange Aka-Gbézo; Florent K. N’guessan; Clémentine A. Kouakou; Marcellin K. Djè
In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C) for four days and at 4 °C for six days were assessed. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the yeast counts remained stable during the storage time. However, variations were observed in the lactic acid bacteria and aceti...
Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.
This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals
Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.
This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.
Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron
The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.
Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron
The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852
Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.
Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.
An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)
Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.
Full Text Available We consider the problem of verifying stochastic models of biochemical networks against behavioral properties expressed in temporal logic terms. Exact probabilistic verification approaches such as, for example, CSL/PCTL model checking, are undermined by a huge computational demand which rule them out for most real case studies. Less demanding approaches, such as statistical model checking, estimate the likelihood that a property is satisfied by sampling executions out of the stochastic model. We propose a methodology for efficiently estimating the likelihood that a LTL property P holds of a stochastic model of a biochemical network. As with other statistical verification techniques, the methodology we propose uses a stochastic simulation algorithm for generating execution samples, however there are three key aspects that improve the efficiency: first, the sample generation is driven by on-the-fly verification of P which results in optimal overall simulation time. Second, the confidence interval estimation for the probability of P to hold is based on an efficient variant of the Wilson method which ensures a faster convergence. Third, the whole methodology is designed according to a parallel fashion and a prototype software tool has been implemented that performs the sampling/verification process in parallel over an HPC architecture.
Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory
We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical kinetics networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscoplc, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach, which is similar to the Born-Oppenhelmer approximation in quantum mechanics, follows from the stochastic path Integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemIcal reactions, It produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, Interpretable representation and can be used for coarse-grained numerical simulation schemes with a small computational complexity and yet high accuracy. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions, and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations are in an agreement, but the coarse-gralned simulations are three orders of magnitude faster.
Schwacke John H
Full Text Available Abstract The method of mathematically controlled comparison provides a structured approach for the comparison of alternative biochemical pathways with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. Under this approach, alternative implementations of a biochemical pathway are modeled mathematically, forced to be equivalent through the application of selected constraints, and compared with respect to selected functional effectiveness measures. While the method has been applied successfully in a variety of studies, we offer recommendations for improvements to the method that (1 relax requirements for definition of constraints sufficient to remove all degrees of freedom in forming the equivalent alternative, (2 facilitate generalization of the results thus avoiding the need to condition those findings on the selected constraints, and (3 provide additional insights into the effect of selected constraints on the functional effectiveness measures. We present improvements to the method and related statistical models, apply the method to a previously conducted comparison of network regulation in the immune system, and compare our results to those previously reported.
Ullah, M; Schmidt, H; Cho, K H; Wolkenhauer, O
The analysis of complex biochemical networks is conducted in two popular conceptual frameworks for modelling. The deterministic approach requires the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs, reaction rate equations) with concentrations as continuous state variables. The stochastic approach involves the simulation of differential-difference equations (chemical master equations, CMEs) with probabilities as variables. This is to generate counts of molecules for chemical species as realisations of random variables drawn from the probability distribution described by the CMEs. Although there are numerous tools available, many of them free, the modelling and simulation environment MATLAB is widely used in the physical and engineering sciences. We describe a collection of MATLAB functions to construct and solve ODEs for deterministic simulation and to implement realisations of CMEs for stochastic simulation using advanced MATLAB coding (Release 14). The program was successfully applied to pathway models from the literature for both cases. The results were compared to implementations using alternative tools for dynamic modelling and simulation of biochemical networks. The aim is to provide a concise set of MATLAB functions that encourage the experimentation with systems biology models. All the script files are available from www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/ publications_matlab-paper.html.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. Science Academies Refresher Course on Traditional and Modern Approaches in Plant Taxonomy'. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 921-921 ...
Dec 19, 2012 ... more energy and utilities cost than the traditional energy technique. . " ' .... ,. Keywords: ... An additional major advantage of the Pinch approach is that ... modification before embarking on actual implementation.(Adefila, I 994}.
Pereira, Rúben F; Bártolo, Paulo J
Significance: The regeneration of healthy and functional skin remains a huge challenge due to its multilayer structure and the presence of different cell types within the extracellular matrix in an organized way. Despite recent advances in wound care products, traditional therapies based on natural origin compounds, such as plant extracts, honey, and larvae, are interesting alternatives. These therapies offer new possibilities for the treatment of skin diseases, enhancing the access to the healthcare, and allowing overcoming some limitations associated to the modern products and therapies, such as the high costs, the long manufacturing times, and the increase in the bacterial resistance. This article gives a general overview about the recent advances in traditional therapies for skin wound healing, focusing on the therapeutic activity, action mechanisms, and clinical trials of the most commonly used natural compounds. New insights in the combination of traditional products with modern treatments and future challenges in the field are also highlighted. Recent Advances: Natural compounds have been used in skin wound care for many years due to their therapeutic activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cell-stimulating properties. The clinical efficacy of these compounds has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo trials using both animal models and humans. Besides the important progress regarding the development of novel extraction methods, purification procedures, quality control assessment, and treatment protocols, the exact mechanisms of action, side effects, and safety of these compounds need further research. Critical Issues: The repair of skin lesions is one of the most complex biological processes in humans, occurring throughout an orchestrated cascade of overlapping biochemical and cellular events. To stimulate the regeneration process and prevent the wound to fail the healing, traditional therapies and natural products have been used
Ferjani Ben Abdallah
The study of GPI, PGM, AAT and peroxydase isozyme banding patterns in combination with berry colour has led to establish a classification of the 61 autochton varieties into 37 groups including 26 varieties definitely differentiated through the results of this biochemical study.
Reports findings of questionnaires sent to faculty in charge of biochemical education in medical schools and other programs from dentistry to agriculture. Total class hours have declined since 1984. New trends include bioethics and computer-assisted learning. Tables show trends in lecture hours, lecture content, laboratory hours, core subject…
A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...
This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the
Jan 4, 2007 ... The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and.
Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.
The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and basophiles counts were ...
Haematological and biochemical efects of sulphadmidine were studied in Nigerian mongrel dogs. Five Nigerian mongrel dogs of either sex weighing between 7 and 12 kg were used for the study. The pretreatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administraton of 100 ...
The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...
This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...
This enzyme and its gene are an attractive target for development of plaunotol production and its detailed biochemical properties need to be understood. Recently, even though the gene (CYP97C27) coding for GGOH 18-hydroxylase has been identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli system, the enzyme activity ...
Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.
Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Juvenile Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Water Soluble Fractions of ... niloticus were evaluated. After a preliminary determination of the 96 h-LC50 of ... evaporation, dissolution, emulsion, photolysis and biodegradation which generate a water soluble.
Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin assays: lessons learned from a unique testing algorithm at the Mayo Clinic. Honey V. Reddi Brittany C. Thomas Kurt S. Willkomm Matthew J. Ferber Kandelaria M. Rumilla Kimiyo M. Raymond John F. O'Brien W. Edward Highsmith. Research Note Volume ...
This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...
Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.
Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional
Jonathan Z.L. Zhao
Full Text Available Background: Gene signatures derived from transcriptomic data using machine learning methods have shown promise for biodosimetry testing. These signatures may not be sufficiently robust for large scale testing, as their performance has not been adequately validated on external, independent datasets. The present study develops human and murine signatures with biochemically-inspired machine learning that are strictly validated using k-fold and traditional approaches. Methods: Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO datasets of exposed human and murine lymphocytes were preprocessed via nearest neighbor imputation and expression of genes implicated in the literature to be responsive to radiation exposure (n=998 were then ranked by Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR. Optimal signatures were derived by backward, complete, and forward sequential feature selection using Support Vector Machines (SVM, and validated using k-fold or traditional validation on independent datasets. Results: The best human signatures we derived exhibit k-fold validation accuracies of up to 98% (DDB2, PRKDC, TPP2, PTPRE, and GADD45A when validated over 209 samples and traditional validation accuracies of up to 92% (DDB2, CD8A, TALDO1, PCNA, EIF4G2, LCN2, CDKN1A, PRKCH, ENO1, and PPM1D when validated over 85 samples. Some human signatures are specific enough to differentiate between chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Certain multi-class murine signatures have sufficient granularity in dose estimation to inform eligibility for cytokine therapy (assuming these signatures could be translated to humans. We compiled a list of the most frequently appearing genes in the top 20 human and mouse signatures. More frequently appearing genes among an ensemble of signatures may indicate greater impact of these genes on the performance of individual signatures. Several genes in the signatures we derived are present in previously proposed signatures. Conclusions: Gene signatures
Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.
Thomas, Philipp; Matuschek, Hannes; Grima, Ramon
The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with
Chepelev, Leonid L; Hastings, Janna; Ennis, Marcus; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel
The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of chemical data annotators and
Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of
Chepelev Leonid L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology
Rebecca Richardson Mouser
Full Text Available By employing an oral traditional approach to the text, this essay investigates how the use of alliteration and speech-acts in the _Alliterative Morte Arthure_ establishes a heroic register that marks the poem as participating in a tradition hearkening back to Old English heroic models. The text begins with an appeal to the audience to listen and to hear the tale, highlighting the importance of aurality and speech and signaling a way to “read” the poem that distinguishes it from Anglo-Norman literary tradition. By making such distinctions, this approach elucidates passages often deemed confusing, such as the two narrated deaths of the Roman Emperor Lucius.
Hamacher, Duane W.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan
Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our
Sanaye, Sushant Vilas; Pawar, Ashwini Pandurang; Rivonker, Chandrasheker Umanath; Sreepada, Rayadurga Anantha; Ansari, Zakir Ali; Ram, Anirudh
Considering the economic importance in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and lack of baseline information, we evaluated the proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, trace element content and C:N ratio in the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus. Amongst proximate principals, a crude protein formed the major biochemical component ((58.9±2.2)% dry weight). Mean percent concentrations (dry weight) of other components such as a total lipid (TL), ash and nitrogen-free extract measured were, (1.8±0.2)%, (19.2±2.2)% and (20.1±0.45)%, respectively. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of 27 saturated fatty acids (SFA) with 13 straight-chained and 14 branched-chained, 28 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) with 14 monounsaturated and 14 polyunsaturated and nine other minor fatty acids. Mean percent contributions of total SFAs and UFAs to TL were found to be (55.41±0.24)% and (44.05±0.25)%, respectively. Altogether, 16 different amino acids with an equal number of essential (EAA) and non-essential (NAA) ones were identified. Percent contributions by EAA and NAA to the total amino acid content were 38.11% and 61.89%, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in S. biaculeatus were generally low and their distribution followed the order, Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Hg>Co. The C:N ratio was (4.37±0.04)%. The profile of major biochemical constituents in alligator pipefish, S. biaculeatus revealed its potential use in TCM as well as a nutritional diet for human consumption. The results of the study would also form the basis for formulation and optimization of diets for the culture of S. biaculeatus.
J. J. M. Smit
Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.
J. J. M. Smit
Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.
Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei
With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...
Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.
Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium ... tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as ... liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes.
Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .
Carlos Angulo Barrios
Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.
A variety of experimental results over the past decades provide examples of near-optimal information processing in biological networks, including in biochemical and transcriptional regulatory networks. Computing information-theoretic quantities requires first choosing or computing the joint probability distribution describing multiple nodes in such a network --- for example, representing the probability distribution of finding an integer copy number of each of two interacting reactants or gene products while respecting the `intrinsic' small copy number noise constraining information transmission at the scale of the cell. I'll given an overview of some recent analytic and numerical work facilitating calculation of such joint distributions and the associated information, which in turn makes possible numerical optimization of information flow in models of noisy regulatory and biochemical networks. Illustrating cases include quantification of form-function relations, ideal design of regulatory cascades, and response to oscillatory driving.
Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.
Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...
George S. Tavlas
In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...
Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu
The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...
I.M. de O. Abrantes
Full Text Available Nematologists need correct species identification to carry out research, teaching, extension and other activities. Therefore, nematode taxonomy must be pursued diligently at all levels. The identification of plant-parasitic nematodes is not always easy and that of some species is especially difficult. Most of the information that nematologists use when characterizing and identifying specimens is based on morphological and morphometrical characters. Although these characters are of primary importance, in the last three decades they have been supplemented by biochemical/ molecular characters. Biochemical approaches include the separation of proteins (general proteins and isozymes by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-capillary gel electrophoresis. Serology has also been found effective in the identification and quantification of nematodes, monoclonal antibodies being a more useful immunological tool than polyclonal antibodies. Identification based on the direct examination of DNA is potentially a more powerful method to characterize inter- and intra-specific variability. The development of techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism has increased the accuracy and speed of nematode characterization/identification. Progress continues to be made and more and more nematologists are using molecular techniques for diagnostic purposes and to assess genetic variation.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced immunological environment on: a - Carbohydrate metabolism as reflected by immunoreactive insulin and blood sugar levels. b - Biochemical parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, reflecting liver function. c - Radioimmunological tests reflecting thyroid function. The study comprised 36 male rabbits, boscate strain of six months age assigned randomly to : control, albumin immunized and thyroglobulin immunized groups
Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Moscoviz, Roman; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe
Substrates for anaerobic digestion are composed of heterogeneous and complex organic matter. General parameters of the organic matter can be used to describe its composition such as sugar, protein and lipid contents, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and kinetic of methane production. These parameters are required for the monitoring of digesters but their characterization are time consuming and expensive; thus, these parameters are rarely assessed all together....
Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L
We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addit...
Kausar, T.; Salahuddin; Pervaiz, K.; Niazi, A.H.K.
Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days
Chemical and biochemical process design consists of designing the process that can sustainably manufacture an identified chemical product through a chemical or biochemical route. The chemical product tree is potentially very large; starting from a set of basic raw materials (such as petroleum...... for process intensification, sustainable process design, identification of optimal biorefinery models as well as integrated process-control design, and chemical product design. The lecture will present the main concepts, the decomposition based solution approach, the developed methods and tools together...
Reichert, P.; Borchardt, D.; Henze, Mogens
In this paper, biochemical process equations are presented as a basis for water quality modelling in rivers under aerobic and anoxic conditions. These equations are not new, but they summarise parts of the development over the past 75 years. The primary goals of the presentation are to stimulate...... transformation processes. This paper is part of a series of three papers. In the first paper, the general modelling approach is described; in the present paper, the biochemical process equations of a complex model are presented; and in the third paper, recommendations are given for the selection of a reasonable...
Vivek Kumar Dwivedi
Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.
Full Text Available Light manipulation has always been the fundamental subject in the field of optics since centuries ago. Traditional optical devices are usually designed using glasses and other materials, such as semiconductors and metals. Optofluidics is the combination of microfluidics and optics, which brings a host of new advantages to conventional solid systems. The capabilities of light manipulation and biochemical sensing are inherent alongside the emergence of optofluidics. This new research area promotes advancements in optics, biology, and chemistry. The development of fast, accurate, low-cost, and small-sized biochemical micro-sensors is an urgent demand for real-time monitoring. However, the fluid flow in the on-chip sensor is usually non-uniformed, which is a new and emerging challenge for the accuracy of optical detection. It is significant to reveal the principle of light propagation in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and the interaction between biochemical samples and light in flowing liquids. In this review, we summarize the current state of optofluidic lab-on-a-chip techniques from the perspective of light modulation by the unique dynamic properties of fluid in heterogeneous media, such as diffusion, heat transfer, and centrifugation etc. Furthermore, this review introduces several novel photonic phenomena in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and demonstrates their application in biochemical sensing.
Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg, an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood, poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities, given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption versus the possible adverse neurological damage. Several studies have shown that MeHg toxicity is influenced by a number of biochemical factors, such as glutathione (GSH, fatty acids, vitamins, and essential elements, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this paper is to outline the cellular response to dietary nutrients, as well as to describe the neurotoxic exposures to MeHg. In order to determine the cellular mechanism(s of toxicity, the effect of pretreatment with biochemical factors (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC; diethyl maleate, (DEM; docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA; selenomethionine, SeM; Trolox and MeHg treatment on intercellular antioxidant status, MeHg content, and other endpoints was evaluated. This paper emphasizes that the protection against oxidative stress offered by these biochemical factors is among one of the major mechanisms responsible for conferring neuroprotection. It is therefore critical to ascertain the cellular mechanisms associated with various dietary nutrients as well as to determine the potential effects of neurotoxic exposures for accurately assessing the risks and benefits associated with fish consumption.
Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.
A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Heller, Daniel; Watson, David; Komar, Jennifer; Min, Ji-A; Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine
We describe our ongoing program of research related to the assessment of contextualized personality, focusing on social roles and cultural cues as contextual factors. First, we present our research employing the traditional assessment approach, wherein participants are asked to rate explicitly their personality across several different roles. We argue that this hypothetical approach is potentially susceptible to the influence of stereotypes, social desirability, and demand characteristics. We therefore describe the development of three novel and subtle assessment procedures that are based on obtaining online self-representations that are activated while occupying a specific context. Finally, the strengths and limitations of all four approaches, as well as directions for future research in the study of contextualized personality, are discussed.
Louis Royce Botha
Full Text Available This paper outlines the use of a form of research intervention known as the Change Laboratory to illustrate how the processes of organisational change initiated at a secondary school can be applied to develop tools and practices to analyse and potentially re-make educational traditions in a bottom-up manner. In this regard it is shown how a cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT perspective can be combined with a relational approach to generate the theoretical and practical tools for managing change at a school. Referring to an ongoing research project at a school, the paper describes how teachers and management there, with the aid of the researcher, attempt to re-configure their educational praxis by drawing on past, present and future scenarios from their schooling activity. These are correlated with similarly historically evolving theoretical models and recorded empirical data using the Vygotskyian method of double stimulation employed by the Change Laboratory. A relational conceptualisation of the school’s epistemological, pedagogical and organisational traditions is used to map out the connections between various actors, resources, roles and divisions of labour at the school. In this way the research intervention proposes a model of educational change that graphically represents it as a network of mediated relationships so that its artefacts, practices and traditions can be clearly understood and effectively manipulated according to the shared objectives of the teachers and school management. Such a relationally-oriented activity theory approach has significant implications in terms of challenging conventional processes of educational transformation as well as hegemonic knowledge-making traditions themselves.
Fernandes, Denise; Zanuy, Silvia; Bebianno, Maria Joao; Porte, Cinta
There is little information regarding pollutant levels in farmed fish, and the risks associated to consumption. This study was designed to assess levels of exposure to metals, organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APEs) in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax from five aquacultures located in Southern Europe. Additionally, several biochemical responses (metallothionein, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, vitellogenin) were determined as complementary tools. The obtained data indicate that pollutants exposure in farmed fish is similar to the levels reported in wild specimens from the area. Nonetheless, some biochemical responses were observed in the studied organisms, viz. metallothionein induction in Cu exposed organisms, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and vitellogenin induction in PAHs and APEs exposed ones. The study further supports the usefulness of the biomarker approach as a first screening method to discriminate between basal and high levels of exposure in cultured fish. - Pollution assessment in cultured fish: chemical and biochemical tools
Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul
that each biochemical operation in an application is characterized by a worst-case execution time (wcet). However, during the execution of the application, due to variability and randomness in biochemical reactions, operations may finish earlier than their wcetswcets, resulting in unexploited slack...... in the schedule. In this paper, we first propose an online synthesis strategy that re-synthesizes the application at runtime when operations experience variability in their execution time, exploiting thus the slack to obtain shorter application completion times. We also propose a quasi-static synthesis strategy...... approaches have been proposed for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. Researchers have assumed...
Jan H. Vorster
Full Text Available This article shows how dialectic theology caused a loss of interest in the history of religion, which was seen as out of touch with the current world. The distinction between theology and the history of religion became increasingly vague. The article focuses on the contribution of Rainier Albertz in his two-volume Religionsgeschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit (History of Israelite religion in the Old Testament period, 1992. Albertz proposed that the history of religion should be restored to serve as the ‘more sensible discipline for abridging the Old Testament’. This article points out several advantages to this approach, namely a different kind of Old Testament theology, starting from current theological problems and searching through the thematic segments of Israel’s religious history and that of early Christianity for analogous insights relevant to the problems in question. This article develops the argument that Albertz’s suggestions open up possibilities for establishing a vibrant theological environment in South Africa, where theologians from a diverse society can start from different perspectives on current problems, consider the Bible as part of a uniquely defined set of relevant factors and present a kaleidoscope of cross-balancing ‘African’ theological perspectives. The aim of this approach is to enhance the possibilities of Albertz’s suggestions by relating them, in context, to insights from ethical theology in the hope of reviving the debate regarding repositioning the history of religion in a different kind of theological approach. This debate is long in coming: it may already have lost close to 20 years in deserved attention.
Jafari, Samineh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Soodabeh
Traditional systems of medicine have attained great popularity among patients in recent years. Success of this system in the treatment of disease warrants consideration, particularly in cases for which conventional medicine has been insufficient. This study investigates the similarities in principles and approaches of 3 traditional systems and explores whether conventional medicine is able to exploit the advantages of traditional systems. This study first identifies and explores the advantages of 3 well-known systems-traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), ayurveda, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-that are similar in their basic principles and methods. Second, it clarifies whether and how conventional medicine could exploit the advantages of traditional systems as it modernizes, to become more personalized. Finally, this study investigates the possibility that conventional medicine could benefit from traditional typology to improve its personalization. The acknowledgment of the unity of humans and nature, applying rational methods, and personalized approaches is fundamentally similar in the 3 systems. Additionally, they all promote the holistic view that health is harmony and disease is disharmony of the body. Other similarities include their recognition of the unique nature of every person and their categorization of people into different body types. Although conventional medicine has mostly failed to incorporate the advantages of traditional medicine, its integration with traditional medicine is achievable. For instance, exploiting traditional typologies in genomic and other studies may facilitate personalization of conventional medicine. From its review, the research team concludes that prospects are bright for the integration of traditional and conventional medicines and, consequently, for a dramatic improvement in health systems.
Hyacinthe, Berg P.
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.
Chen, Mingxue; Guo, Weimin; Gao, Shunag; Hao, Chunxiang; Shen, Shi; Zhang, Zengzeng; Wang, Zhenyong; Wang, Zehao; Li, Xu; Jing, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xueliang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Mingjie; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Wang, Yu; Sui, Xiang
Meniscus injuries are very common and still pose a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. Meniscus injuries in the inner two-thirds of the meniscus remain incurable. Tissue-engineered meniscus strategies seem to offer a new approach for treating meniscus injuries with a combination of seed cells, scaffolds, and biochemical or biomechanical stimulation. Cell- or scaffold-based strategies play a pivotal role in meniscus regeneration. Similarly, biochemical and biomechanical stimulation are also important. Seed cells and scaffolds can be used to construct a tissue-engineered tissue; however, stimulation to enhance tissue maturation and remodeling is still needed. Such stimulation can be biomechanical or biochemical, but this review focuses only on biochemical stimulation. Growth factors (GFs) are one of the most important forms of biochemical stimulation. Frequently used GFs always play a critical role in normal limb development and growth. Further understanding of the functional mechanism of GFs will help scientists to design the best therapy strategies. In this review, we summarize some of the most important GFs in tissue-engineered menisci, as well as other types of biological stimulation. PMID:29581987
Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane
The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.
Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe
The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of artichoke waste resulting from industrial transformation. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests was performed in order to evaluate the biochemical methane potential of the matrix in respect of the process. A comparison of the different performances of the laboratory-scale reactors operating in mesophilic conditions and utilizing three different values of the inoculum/substrate ratio was carried out. The best performance was achieved with an inoculum/substrate ratio of 2. Artichoke-processing byproducts showed a classical organic waste decomposition behaviour: a fast start-up phase, an acclimation stage, and a final stabilization phase. Following this approach, artichoke waste reached chemical oxygen demand removal of about 90% in 40 days. The high methane yield (average 408.62 mL CH4 gvs (-1) voltatile solids), makes artichoke waste a good product to be utilized in anaerobic digestion plants for biogas production.
Tikhonov, Mikhail; Bialek, William
The historical focus on network topology as a determinant of biological function is still largely maintained today, illustrated by the rise of structure-only approaches to network analysis. However, biochemical circuits and genetic regulatory networks are defined both by their topology and by a multitude of continuously adjustable parameters, such as the strength of interactions between nodes, also recognized as important. Here we present a class of simple perceptron-based Boolean models within which comparing the relative importance of topology versus interaction strengths becomes a quantitatively well-posed problem. We quantify the intuition that for generic networks, optimization of interaction strengths is a crucial ingredient of achieving high complexity, defined here as the number of fixed points the network can accommodate. We propose a new methodology for characterizing the relative role of parameter optimization for topologies of a given class.
Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Anisimov, B.N.
A series of experiments has been conducted in the last few years to explore the possibility of prolonging the storage life of meat in a cooled state. These experiments have shown that a clearly promising approach is to use relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (300-600 Krad). Irradiation of meat and fowl with such doses strongly reduced microbial contamination while increasing 3- to 5-fold the storage life of the products at low above-zero C temperatures. An important consideration is that the organoleptic and nutritive properties remain largely unchanged. The present communication reports the main results of biochemical studies necessary before an irradiation scheme for semifinished meat products can be developed. (E.T.)
Hansen, Benjamin J.
Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Wong, Mei Mei Jaslyn Elizabeth
. Most of the signalling components in the Nod factor signalling pathway have been identified through genetic approaches. The current symbiosis signalling model, however, lacks components that could link Nod factor perception at the plasma membrane to downstream responses, such as calcium influx and perinuclear calcium...... involved in peptidoglycan hydrolysis; the Cell Wall Lytic enzyme associated with cell Separation (CwlS) from Bacillus subtilis, and P60_Tth from Thermus thermopiles. Biochemical studies conducted on purified CwlS showed that multiple LysM modules function cooperatively to bind N-acetylglucosamine (NAG......-induced intermolecular dimerization was observed in the co-crystal structure of P60_2LysM and NAG6. Until today, this is the only structural evidence illustrating intermolecular dimerization of LysM proteins. Intermolecular dimerization of plant LysM receptor kinases (RK) has been proposed as a mechanism...
Dec 3, 2008 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... characterization of a simple custom expanded bed ... over the traditional methods of recovery, e.g. circum- ... may be considered to be currently limited by the.
Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical plant that had been attached by the termites.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing computer power, simulating the dynamics of complex systems in chemistry and biology is becoming increasingly routine. The modelling of individual reactions in (biochemical systems involves a large number of random events that can be simulated by the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA. The key quantity is the step size, or waiting time, τ, whose value inversely depends on the size of the propensities of the different channel reactions and which needs to be re-evaluated after every firing event. Such a discrete event simulation may be extremely expensive, in particular for stiff systems where τ can be very short due to the fast kinetics of some of the channel reactions. Several alternative methods have been put forward to increase the integration step size. The so-called τ-leap approach takes a larger step size by allowing all the reactions to fire, from a Poisson or Binomial distribution, within that step. Although the expected value for the different species in the reactive system is maintained with respect to more precise methods, the variance at steady state can suffer from large errors as τ grows. Results In this paper we extend Poisson τ-leap methods to a general class of Runge-Kutta (RK τ-leap methods. We show that with the proper selection of the coefficients, the variance of the extended τ-leap can be well-behaved, leading to significantly larger step sizes. Conclusions The benefit of adapting the extended method to the use of RK frameworks is clear in terms of speed of calculation, as the number of evaluations of the Poisson distribution is still one set per time step, as in the original τ-leap method. The approach paves the way to explore new multiscale methods to simulate (biochemical systems.
Full Text Available Background The statutory recognition of traditional healers as healthcare practitioners in South Africa in terms of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act 22 of 2007 is based on various assumptions, opinions and generalizations. One of the prominent views is that the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. It even has been alleged that this number can be as high as 80 per cent of the South African population. For medical doctors and other health practitioners registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA, this new statutory status of traditional health practitioners, means the required presence of not only a healthcare competitor that can overstock the healthcare market with service lending, medical claims and healthcare costs, but also a competitor prone to malpractice. Aims The study aimed to determine if the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study following the modern historical approach of investigation and literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers, as primary sources to determine if the majority of South Africans regularly consult traditional healers. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It is clear that there is no trustworthy statistics on the percentages of South Africans using traditional healers. A scientific survey is needed to determine the extent to which traditional healers are consulted. This will only be possible after the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 has been fully enacted and traditional health practitioners have become fully active in the healthcare sector. Conclusion In poorer, rural areas no more than 11.2 per cent of the South African population regularly consult traditional healers, while the figure for the total population seems to be no more than 1.4 per cent. The argument that the majority of South
Full Text Available Biochemical networks are the backbones of physiological systems of organisms. Therefore, a biochemical network should be sufficiently robust (not sensitive to tolerate genetic mutations and environmental changes in the evolutionary process. In this study, based on the robustness and sensitivity criteria of biochemical networks, the adaptive design rules are developed for natural selection in the evolutionary process. This will provide insights into the robust adaptive mechanism of biochemical networks in the evolutionary process. We find that if a mutated biochemical network satisfies the robustness and sensitivity criteria of natural selection, there is a high probability for the biochemical network to prevail during natural selection in the evolutionary process. Since there are various mutated biochemical networks that can satisfy these criteria but have some differences in phenotype, the biochemical networks increase their diversities in the evolutionary process. The robustness of a biochemical network enables co-option so that new phenotypes can be generated in evolution. The proposed robust adaptive design rules of natural selection gain much insight into the evolutionary mechanism and provide a systematic robust biochemical circuit design method of biochemical networks for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes in the future.
Elston Timothy C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from http://www.biospice.org. BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from http://x.amath.unc.edu/BioNetS. Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.
For decades, Bible stories have been a source of both conflict and healing. In earlier days, Christian missionaries often went to considerable lengths to question the accuracy of traditional northern Native stories, especially those with supernatural dimensions, and to discredit traditional Native spiritual leaders, such as medicine men and women, angakoks, and shamans. The missionaries’ efforts often undercut Native culture and sometimes contributed to the intergenerational trauma that creates widespread hurt and pain in northern Native communities today. At the same time, a significant number of northern Native people derive considerable solace and support from their Christian beliefs and church affiliations, and many Christian religious organizations active in the North today no longer oppose traditional Native stories, practices, and values. Many northern Native people recognize that there is great value in both Native stories and the stories found in the Bible, but some still feel a tension in trying to reconcile acceptance of both. In his presentation, Walter Porter provided an interesting perspective on this issue, and his approach has considerable potential for healing.
Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.
for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...
Wendt, Lynn M; Murphy, J Austin; Smith, William A; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W; Ray, Allison E; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N; Nguyen, Quang A
Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.
Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, OhÃ…Â™e and BÃƒÂlina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the BÃƒÂlina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the OhÃ…Â™e (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the BÃƒÂlina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.
Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha
Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to audit the introduction of the use of the CO2 laser into our department and to compare hearing outcomes and complication rates in patients who underwent either laser or mechanical stapedectomy. We found that the use of laser is at least as safe as the traditional approach with regards the rate of post-operative complications. One patient in the laser group suffered prolonged post-operative tinnitus, whilst one patient in the traditional group suffered prolonged post-operative vertigo. There was no evidence, however, of improved Air-Bone Gap closure compared to the traditional approach (Pre- and Post-Op Air Bone Gaps of 34 +\\/- 3 and 9 +\\/- 2 for laser stapedectomy versus 35 +\\/- 4 and 13 +\\/- 2 for traditional stapedectomy (mean +\\/- SEM)). In summary, therefore, CO2 laser surgery for otosclerosis is a safe surgical procedure resulting in similar hearing outcomes to that obtained following mechanical stapes surgery.
Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.
Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at
Gaur, N; Gautam, S; Gaur, M; Sharma, P; Dadheech, G; Mishra, S
The conclusive identification of specific etiological factors or pathogenic processes in the illness of schizophrenia has remained elusive despite great technological progress. The convergence of state-of-art scientific studies in molecular genetics, molecular neuropathophysiology, in vivo brain imaging and psychopharmacology, however, indicates that we may be coming much closer to understanding the genesis of schizophrenia. In near future, the diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia using biochemical markers may become a "dream come true" for the medical community as well as for the general population. An understanding of the biochemistry/ visa vis pathophysiology of schizophrenia is essential to the discovery of preventive measures and therapeutic intervention.
Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia
We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...
Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein like particle and is an important independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Few studies on Lp(a) level in Thai elderly to screening risk of CAD may concerned. Aims: To study the relation of Lp(a) level and routine biochemical parameters including lipid profiles and fasting blood glucose in elderly and to determine risk of subclinical symptoms by using Lp(a) levels as early risk predictor. Settings and Design: ...
Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.
The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs
Comparison of peer-tutoring learning model through problem-solving approach and traditional learning model on the cognitive ability of grade 10 students at SMKN 13 Bandung on the topic of Stoichiometry
Hayat, A. Z.; Wahyu, W.; Kurnia
This study aims to find out the improvement of cognitive ability of students on the implementation of cooperative learning model of peer-tutoring by using problem-solving approach. The research method used is mix method of Sequential Explanatory strategy and pretest post-test non-equivalent control group design. The participants involved in this study were 68 grade 10 students of Vocational High School in Bandung that consisted of 34 samples of experimental class and 34 samples of control class. The instruments used include written test and questionnaires. The improvement of cognitive ability of students was calculated using the N- gain formula. Differences of two average scores were calculated using t-test at significant level of α = 0.05. The result of study shows that the improvement of cognitive ability in experimental class was significantly different compared to the improvement in the control class at significant level of α = 0.05. The improvement of cognitive ability in experimental class is higher than in control class.
A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...
Thornell, John G.
Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…
Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…
intellectual property rights laws. 5 into traditional knowledge areas, in turn, has ... range of innovations in industrial, agricultural, environment and health ... Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2008 ..... Ghosh 2003 Colum J Asian L 106. 80 ..... Management'" 1998 Mich Law Rev 462-556.
Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…
what is still visible in the cityscapes. Furthermore, according to Greve’s publication “Learning from Tokyo urbanism: The urban sanctuaries”, they will figure out how traditions frame interactions between strangers. Thereby, the tea ceremony serves as an example for spaces in-between public and private...
CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.
How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…
Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...
Crigger, N J
Universal prescriptivism is a recently developed moral decision-making theory that combines utilitarian and Kantian theories with two levels of moral thinking. A combined approach offers a creative solution to the weaknesses inherent in traditional moral theories. The paper describes the theory and discusses important implications for nursing education, practical ethical decision-making, and research. The relationship of an ethical theory of caring to traditional moral theory is discussed.
Full Text Available Tradition and modernity are the eternal topics of art, especially in the age of information.Efficient mechanical production methods to improve the traditional jewelry production process, which achieved the demand for mass production of jewelry.However, with the development of society and the progress of science and technology, many traditional arts and crafts are lost.From the traditional culture, this paper analyzes the work of embroidery jewelry by studying the traditional Chinese embroidery culture and technique, summarizes the traditional embroidery technology and modern jewelry design techniques combined approach to guide the creative practice.On the basis of studying the theoretical method of combining traditional embroidery technology with modern jewelry, this paper focuses on the application of traditional embroidery techniques in jewelry creation, inspire the potential of traditional craft, to provide reference for modern jewelry design rich Chinese characteristics and attract the attention of Chinese jewelry industry and inherit the traditional arts.
Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.
The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation. PMID:27790232
Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L
The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.
Voytek, M. A.
Denitrification is carried out by a diverse array of microbes, mainly as an alternative mode of respiration that allows the organisms to respire using oxidized N compounds instead of oxygen. A common approach in biogeochemistry to the study of the regulation of denitrification is to assess activity by mass balance of substrates and products or direct rate measurements and has intrinsically assumed resource regulation of denitrification. Reported rates can vary significantly even among ecosystems characterized by similar environmental conditions, thus indicating that direct control by abiotic factors often is not sufficient to predict denitrification rates accurately in natural environments. Alternatively, a microbiological approach would proceed with the identification of the organisms responsible and an evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on the biochemical pathways involved. Traditional studies have relied on culturing techniques, such as most probable number enrichments, and have failed to assess the role of the predominately uncultivable members of the microbial community. A combination of biogeochemical measurements and the assessment of the microbial community is necessary and becoming increasingly possible with the development and application of molecular techniques. In order to understand how the composition and physiological behavior of the microbial community affects denitrification rates, we use a suite of molecular techniques developed for phylogenetic and metabolic characterization of denitrifying communities. Molecular tools available for quantifying denitrifying bacteria and assessing their diversity and activity are summarized. Their application is illustrated with examples from marine and freshwater environments. Emerging techniques and their application to ground water studies will be discussed.
Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P
The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.
Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.
Ihenetu, Kenneth; Mason, Darius
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), including protease inhibitors (PI) have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS). Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump), increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch), gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.
Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.
Eva Achjani Zulfa
Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.
Full Text Available Introduction: Vinegar is a popular condiment in the world that different materials and methods have been used to produce it. In Iran natural vinegar is also prepared mostly in a traditional way by using different fruits such as grapes and apples. Natural vinegar has beneficent properties and because of this, it is recommended to be used by traditional and Islamic medicine. Vinegar contains acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Acetic acid bacteria and yeasts are involved in the production of vinegar and lactic acid bacteria improve the flavor of vinegar. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria especially Lactobacillus brevis from traditional vinegar. Materials and methods: After collecting a few traditional vinegars, the vinegar samples cultured for isolation of lactic acid bacteria on MRS broth and agar media contained nystatin as an anti-yeast antibiotic. Then some microbiological tests including catalase, gram staining and fermentation of carbohydrates were performed. Then, they were cultured at different temperatures, pH and different concentrations of salts. Finally, three isolates bacteria with biochemical properties of Lactobacillus brevis were evaluated by16 srDNA gene amplification. Results: Twelve lactobacilli were isolated from three vinegar samples. All isolated bacteria were catalase-negative and gram-positive. They could be able to grow at pH around 4.5 and 5.6, and at 2, 4 and 5.6% of salt concentrations. Most of the bacteria grew at 15oC, whereas one isolated grew at 45oC. Sequencing and Blast results showed that the three strains are Lactobacillus brevis. Discussion and conclusion: Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantrum were found in traditional vinegars. Although isolation of Lactobacillus plantrum from vinegar was reported previously, as far as we could determine, it is for the first time that we could isolate Lactobacillus brevis from vinegar.
Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye
Early detection and estimation of the spread of a biochemical contaminant are major issues for homeland security applications. We present an integrated approach combining the measurements given by an array of biochemical sensors with a physical model of the dispersion and statistical analysis to solve these problems and provide system performance measures. We approximate the dispersion model of the contaminant in a realistic environment through numerical simulations of reflected stochastic diffusions describing the microscopic transport phenomena due to wind and chemical diffusion using the Feynman-Kac formula. We consider arbitrary complex geometries and account for wind turbulence. Localizing the dispersive sources is useful for decontamination purposes and estimation of the cloud evolution. To solve the associated inverse problem, we propose a Bayesian framework based on a random field that is particularly powerful for localizing multiple sources with small amounts of measurements. We also develop a sequential detector using the numerical transport model we propose. Sequential detection allows on-line analysis and detecting wether a change has occurred. We first focus on the formulation of a suitable sequential detector that overcomes the presence of unknown parameters (e.g. release time, intensity and location). We compute a bound on the expected delay before false detection in order to decide the threshold of the test. For a fixed false-alarm rate, we obtain the detection probability of a substance release as a function of its location and initial concentration. Numerical examples are presented for two real-world scenarios: an urban area and an indoor ventilation duct.
Raluca Dania TODOR
Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.
McQuaid, Sara Dybris
On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...
Hansis, M L
The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...
Aila Pullinen. 2015. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embr...
Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee; Rumbold, Bruce
Traditional healers (mor baan) played an important role in Thai health long before the introduction of Western medicine. Although modern health professional play a key role of health care provider of Thai health care system, traditional healers and their practice still exist in most rural areas of Thailand. In this article, we address the roles and practices of traditional healers in southern Thailand. An ethnographic method was employed. This approach is the hallmark method used to describe the role and the practice of traditional healers and to grasp in-depth understanding of their everyday life. Participation observation and unstructured interview with 18 traditional healers were conducted. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Most of the traditional healers chose their role because they were influenced by their ancestors, although a few others chose it because of individual interests and a desire to help ill people. All are trained in multiple skills, using supernatural spirits, ceremonies and natural plant products as resources for counteracting various health problems. They refer patients to modern hospitals or other healers if they cannot adequately manage illness themselves. Their service provision is flexible and based on a holistic approach that suits people's lifestyles and needs. The role of traditional healer tends not to attract the interest of younger generations, although traditional healers have contributed greatly to people's health. Their presence improves people's access to healthcare and offers an alternative to modern medicine, which often has a limited role. We conclude that the services of traditional healers should be incorporated into contemporary healthcare provision of Thai health care system.
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786
Ashok Kumar Panda
Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.
Liu, X.; Jiang, J.; Ajayi, O.; Gu, X.; Gilbert, D.; Sinnott, R.O.
The simulation of biochemical networks provides insight and understanding about the underlying biochemical processes and pathways used by cells and organisms. BioNessie is a biochemical network simulator which has been developed at the University of Glasgow. This paper describes the simulator and focuses in particular on how it has been extended to benefit from a wide variety of high performance compute resources across the UK through Grid technologies to support larger scale simulations.
Minkova, M [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya
An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, rho-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc.
Feb 27, 2014 ... The benefit of exploration and exploitation of crude oil to the Nigerian economy is not without its negative consequences. Apart from the indirect exposure to crude oil due to spillage, the consumption of this crude oil by the rural populace living in oil rich regions as traditional medicine for illnesses have.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate new and traditional surface materials for use in cattle barns. The evaluated concrete materials had different compositions and included different additives and coatings. Contact angle meter, optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy SEM were used for characterization of surface properties. Radiochemical methods and a biochemical adenosine triphosphate ATP method were used to determine cleanability. A specific methodological aim was to examine the correlations between these determination methods. A statistically significant difference was observed between contact angles of non-coated concretes, coated concretes and joint materials. In general, coatings smoothened surfaces and the joint materials were the roughest surfaces, as illustrated by profilometry and SEM. On the basis of the radiochemical determination methods, coatings improved the cleanability of concrete. An epoxy joint material was cleaned efficiently from the oil model soil and from the labelled feed soil when compared to the two cement-based joint materials. According to the results of the biochemical ATP method the manure test soil was cleaned better from a concrete including inorganic sealant than from the other materials examined. The cleanability results of oil model soil used in the radiochemical method correlated with the results of the test feed soil used in the biochemical ATP method. Both determination methods of cleanability appeared to be suitable for examining the cleanability of surfaces soiled with agricultural soils. Only the radiochemical determination gives detailed quantitative results, but it can be used only in laboratory studies. The results of this laboratory study will be used for selecting materials for a pilot study in a cattle barn.;
Ho, Allison; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Lee, Jun Hee (Michigan)
Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) are well-characterized promoters of aging and age-associated degenerative pathologies. Sestrins, a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins, are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways; however, the mechanistic basis of how Sestrins suppress these pathways remains elusive. In the past couple of years, breakthrough discoveries about Sestrin signaling and its molecular nature have markedly increased our biochemical understanding of Sestrin function. These discoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate aging and age-associated diseases.
Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten
techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...
Richter, G; Rao, J R
Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.
Elizabeth A Heller
Full Text Available Classical electron microscopic studies of the mammalian brain revealed two major classes of synapses, distinguished by the presence of a large postsynaptic density (PSD exclusively at type 1, excitatory synapses. Biochemical studies of the PSD have established the paradigm of the synapse as a complex signal-processing machine that controls synaptic plasticity. We report here the results of a proteomic analysis of type 2, inhibitory synaptic complexes isolated by affinity purification from the cerebral cortex. We show that these synaptic complexes contain a variety of neurotransmitter receptors, neural cell-scaffolding and adhesion molecules, but that they are entirely lacking in cell signaling proteins. This fundamental distinction between the functions of type 1 and type 2 synapses in the nervous system has far reaching implications for models of synaptic plasticity, rapid adaptations in neural circuits, and homeostatic mechanisms controlling the balance of excitation and inhibition in the mature brain.
Pignolet, Olivier; Jubeau, Sébastien; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Michaud, Philippe
The past decade has seen a surge in the interest in microalgae culture for biodiesel production and other applications as renewable biofuels as an alternative to petroleum transport fuels. The development of new technologies for the culture of these photosynthetic microorganisms and improved knowledge of their biochemical composition has spurred innovation in the field of high-value biomolecules. These developments are only economically viable if all the microalgae fractions are valorized in a biorefinery strategy. Achieving this objective requires an understanding of microalgae content and the cellular localization of the main biomolecular families in order to develop efficient harvest and sequential recovery technologies. This review summarizes the state of the art in microalgae compositions and topologies using some examples of the main industrially farmed microalgae.
Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.
Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674
For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a
Mišković, Ljubiša; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily
Mathematical modeling is an indispensable tool for research and development in biotechnology and bioengineering. The formulation of kinetic models of biochemical networks depends on knowledge of the kinetic properties of the enzymes of the individual reactions. However, kinetic data acquired from experimental observations bring along uncertainties due to various experimental conditions and measurement methods. In this contribution, we propose a novel way to model the uncertainty in the enzyme kinetics and to predict quantitatively the responses of metabolic reactions to the changes in enzyme activities under uncertainty. The proposed methodology accounts explicitly for mechanistic properties of enzymes and physico-chemical and thermodynamic constraints, and is based on formalism from systems theory and metabolic control analysis. We achieve this by observing that kinetic responses of metabolic reactions depend: (i) on the distribution of the enzymes among their free form and all reactive states; (ii) on the equilibrium displacements of the overall reaction and that of the individual enzymatic steps; and (iii) on the net fluxes through the enzyme. Relying on this observation, we develop a novel, efficient Monte Carlo sampling procedure to generate all states within a metabolic reaction that satisfy imposed constrains. Thus, we derive the statistics of the expected responses of the metabolic reactions to changes in enzyme levels and activities, in the levels of metabolites, and in the values of the kinetic parameters. We present aspects of the proposed framework through an example of the fundamental three-step reversible enzymatic reaction mechanism. We demonstrate that the equilibrium displacements of the individual enzymatic steps have an important influence on kinetic responses of the enzyme. Furthermore, we derive the conditions that must be satisfied by a reversible three-step enzymatic reaction operating far away from the equilibrium in order to respond to
Hakim, R M; Lazarus, J M
We analyzed biochemical data derived from 911 patients with renal insufficiency observed at our institution for periods up to 7 years. During early renal failure (RF) (creatinine less than 5 mg/dL), the rate of change of hematocrit, total CO2 (tCO2) and urea per unit change of creatinine was significantly higher than during moderate (creatinine between 5 and 10 mg/dL) or advanced (creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL) RF. For example, the rate of change of hematocrit (%, volume/volume [v/v]) was (mean +/- SEM) -2.15 +/- 0.15% for each 1 mg/dL increase in creatinine in the range of creatinine less than 5 mg/dL, whereas for the range of creatinine greater than 10 mg/dL, the rate of change was only -0.48 +/- 0.06% (P less than 0.001). Similarly, the rate of change of tCO2 was -1.68 +/- 0.09 mEq/L for each 1 mg/dL increment in creatinine concentration during early RF, and -0.19 +/- 0.09 mEq/L per unit increase in creatinine during advanced RF (P less than 0.001). Chloride concentration initially increased as a function of creatinine in early RF, but decreased in advanced RF, whereas the anion gap increased throughout the course of RF. Mean serum phosphate concentration also increased steadily, but remained below the upper range of normal (4.7 mg/dL) during early RF without the use of phosphate binders. These data suggest that different biochemical parameters change at different rates as a function of the severity of renal dysfunction, and that although phosphate retention may occur, hyperphosphatemia is not a hallmark of early RF.