De Win, Gunter; Van Bruwaene, Siska; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Crea, Nicola; Zhang, Zhewen; De Ridder, Dirk; Miserez, Marc
To investigate whether preclinical laparoscopy training offers a benefit over standard apprenticeship training and apprenticeship training in combination with simulation training. This randomized controlled trial consisted of 3 groups of first-year surgical registrars receiving a different teaching method in laparoscopic surgery. The KU LEUVEN Faculty of Medicine is the largest medical faculty in Belgium. Thirty final-year medical students starting a general surgical career in the next academic year. Thirty final-year medical students were randomized into 3 groups, which differed in the way they were exposed to laparoscopic simulation training but were comparable in regard to ambidexterity, sex, age, and laparoscopic psychomotoric skills. The control group received only clinical training during surgical residentship, whereas the interval group received clinical training in combination with simulation training. The registrars were allowed to do deliberate practice. The Centre for Surgical Technologies Preclinical Training Programme (CST PTP) group received a preclinical simulation course during the final year as medical students, but was not exposed to any extra simulation training during surgical residentship. At the beginning of surgical residentship and 6 months later, all subjects performed a standardized suturing task and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a POP Trainer. All procedures were recorded together with time and motion tracking parameters. All videos were scored by a blinded observer using global rating scales. At baseline the 3 groups were comparable. At 6 months, for suturing, the CST PTP group was better than both the other groups with respect to time, checklist, and amount of movements. The interval group was better than the control group on only the time and checklist score. For the cholecystectomy evaluation, there was a statistical difference between the CST PTP study group and both other groups on all evaluation scales in favor of the CST PTP
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2009
The graduate of the Communication Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) use a thorough knowledge of electrical and electronic theory and its application to communication and associated equipment used in the telecommunication industry; (3) understand…
CERN has a long tradition of training apprentices. The Organization’s apprenticeship programme, which is based on the Swiss apprenticeship system, dates back to 1965. Since then, over 200 apprentices have been trained at CERN. Each year, seven or eight apprentice electricians, library assistants and physics laboratory technicians qualify after three or four years of training, depending on the job. UIG prize ceremony 2014: Angelina Bakker (third from right), apprentice physics laboratory technician at CERN, receives her "Certificat fédéral de capacité". On Tuesday, 25 November 2014, CERN was presented with a prize for being the best apprenticeship training scheme provider in 2014. This prize is awarded each year to eight apprenticeship providers active in the different “vocational categories” in the canton of Geneva. The prizes are awarded by the Geneva Department of Public Education, Culture and Sport (DIP)...
Alberta Enterprise and Advanced Education, 2012
The graduate of the Motorcycle Mechanic apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair and maintain motorcycles and ATVs which are powered with internal combustion engines; (2) comprehend work orders, technical bulletins and estimates, and relate the information to the job at hand; (3) interpret warranty policy…
Lewis, Morgan V.; Stone, James R., III
Apprenticeship is one of several approaches to work-based learning (WBL). Apprenticeships have all the features needed to prepare workers for occupations that require extended study to attain competence. Apprentices begin with relatively simple tasks and progress to those requiring more complex skills. Apprenticeship has had a long history in the…
...-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards and Employer's Application To Provide Job Training) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of...-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards, (Training Programs Offered Under...
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012
The graduate of the Heavy Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) diagnose repair, and maintain by skills and knowledge gained through training and experience any of the working parts of diesel engines as well as the various components of mobile industrial equipment; (2) use, competently,…
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012
The graduate of the Agricultural Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair, diagnose and maintain by skill and knowledge gained through training and experience any of the working parts of diesel engines as well as the various components of mobile farm machinery; (2) use, competently,…
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011
The graduate of the Rig Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) take responsibility for personal safety and the safety of others; (2) supervise, coach and train apprentices and floor hands; (3) perform the duties of a motorhand, derrickhand or driller; and (4) perform assigned tasks in accordance…
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011
The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…
Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Rasmussen, Anders Rue
For years, Denmark has maintained and developed its apprenticeship system which is comparable to the German system. Today, about 40% of the youth cohorts get apprenticeship training. The paper describes the basic functioning of the labour market of apprentices. It is initially shown how the wage...... and unemployment rates of skilled workers who have served an apprenticeship differ from those of non-skilled workers. In recent years there have been periods with serious mismatches between the demand for and the supply of apprenticeships. Through the 80's subsidies were introduced to overcome this shortage....... The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible impact of these subsidies. A unique longitudinal data set that enables us to follow 1000 work places from 1980 to 1991 is applied. This makes it possible to control for observed and unobserved work place effects. The estimates show...
Berik, Günseli; Bilginsoy, Cihan; Williams, Larry S.
This paper uses micro data from Oregon to measure the gender and minority training gaps in apprenticeship training. Its methodological innovation is the use of on-the-job training credit hours of exiting workers as the measure of the quantity of training. Apprentices who started training between 1991 and 2002 are followed through 2007. Controlling for individual and program attributes, women and racial/ethnic minorities on average receive less training than men and whites, respectively. Union...
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This self-paced student training module on safety when using hand tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to teach students the correct safety techniques for operating common hand- and arm-powered tools, including selection, maintenance, technique, and uses. The module may…
Sparks, Alan; Ingram, Hadyn; Phillips, Sunny
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate an innovative way to train adult apprentices for the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: The paper emphasizes that, in order to address skills shortages for international construction, training methods must be improved. It looks at the example of an adult apprenticeship scheme in…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This instructor's guide accompanies the self-paced student training modules on welding, three of which are available separately as CE 032 889-891. Introductory materials include a description of the components of the pre-apprenticeship project, a discussion of the teacher's role in conducting the course, and scope and contents of the four phases…
Vasant, Dipesh H; Sharma, Amol; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Viswanathan, Lavanya; Rao, Satish S C
Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders affect 50% of patients seen in clinics, many gastroenterologists receive limited NGM training. One-month apprenticeship-based NGM training has been provided at ten centers in the USA for a decade, however, outcomes of this training are unclear. Our goal was to describe the effectiveness of this program from a trainees perspective. Areas covered: We describe the training model, learning experiences, and outcomes of one-month apprenticeship-based training in NGM at a center of excellence, using a detailed individual observer account and data from 12 consecutive trainees that completed the program. During a one-month training period, 302 procedures including; breath tests (BT) n = 132, anorectal manometry (ARM) n = 29 and esophageal manometry (EM) n = 28, were performed. Post-training, all trainees (n = 12) knew indications for motility tests, and the majority achieved independence in basic interpretation of BT, EM and ARM. Additionally, in a multiple-choice NGM written-test paper, trainees achieved significant improvements in test scores post-training (P = 0.003). Expert commentary: One-month training at a high-volume center can facilitate rapid learning of NGM and the indications, basic interpretation and utility of motility tests. Trainees demonstrate significant independence, and this training model provides an ideal platform for those interested in sub-specialty NGM.
... On-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards and Employer's Application To Provide Job Training) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of... for job training program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...
Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael
We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…
... (Monthly Certification of On-the- Job and Apprenticeship Training) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Monthly Certification of On-the-Job and Apprenticeship Training, VA Forms 22-6553d and 22-6553d-1. OMB Control Number: 2900-0178. Type of...
Cantor, Jeffrey A.
Presents findings from a case study of factors influencing successful cooperative apprenticeship programs. Indicates that apprenticeships are cost-effective mechanisms for bringing together the human and capital resources within a community to solve human resource education and business training needs. (21 citations). (MAB)
Tanggaard, Lene; Wegener, Charlotte
An apprenticeship perspective on learning in academia sheds light on the potential for mutual learning and production, and also reveals the diverse range of learning resources beyond the formal novice-–expert relationship. Although apprenticeship is a well-known concept in educational research......, in this case apprenticeship offers an innovative perspective on future practice and research in academia allowing more students access to high high-quality research training and giving supervisors a chance to combine their own research with their supervision obligations....
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006
The graduate of the Electric Motor Systems Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) understand the principles of sound and safe trade practices; (2) interpret drawings, plans, and be able to layout and develop projects according to specifications; (3) use the tools of the trade in a safe and proper…
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012
The graduate of the Transport Refrigeration Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) to diagnose repair, maintain and operate transport refrigeration equipment used to heat or cool the load as well as of diesel engines, APUs and other prime movers; (2) to use tools and equipment in order to carry out…
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012
The graduate of the Automotive Service Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair, maintain and overhaul or modify a motor vehicle; (2) comprehend work orders, technical bulletins and estimates, and relate the information to the job at hand; (3) interpret warranty policy in terms of service…
Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011
The graduate of the Natural Gas Compression Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to install, commission, maintain and repair equipment used to gather store and transmit natural gas. Advanced Education and Technology has prepared this course outline in partnership with the Natural Gas Compression…
limited skills to people who would not otherwise have ready access to training for construction; v. Upgrading and ... bondsmen as other sources of recruitment of apprentices before colonialization. With colonialization, the British introduced new building materials and building designs which needed specialized training to ...
Karmel, Tom; Misko, Josie
Apprenticeships have a very long history in Australia, building on the traditions of the medieval guilds. The essence of the apprenticeship is the contract of training--a legal contract between an individual, an employer and a training provider. The defining characteristic is the combination of employment and training. The purpose of this paper is…
Peugnet, Frederic; Dubois, Patrick; Rouland, Jean-Francois
Virtual reality is one of these recent technologies which can provide an efficient help in the field of surgical apprenticeship. We achieved an original training simulator for retinal photocoagulation destined to the residents of the ophthalmological department. This paper describes the comparison between this new training tool and the conventional practice. Two groups of residents, randomly selected, were trained exclusively by one of these methods. These two groups were under the responsibility of two distinct experts. A final evaluation was made by a third and different expert, ignoring the training mode practiced by each of the residents. The study lasted six months. The results show that this new training mode is at least as efficient as the current one in terms of elapsed time and efficiency. It may even reduce the training duration. These results confirm that a pedagogical simulator could give a new approach in the medical teaching, particularly in its management. Such a device may solve the problems of practitioner's lack of disponibility and of patients' safety and comfort during a conventional training. Furthermore, it could bring an objective way to value the students; practical ability. On the other hand, this preliminary study emphasizes the difficulties in introducing a new modality in a traditional teaching environment.
The paper discusses both the existing indigenous technological and modern institlltions and their importance in the implementation of the apprenticeship aspect of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) progrmme. The indigenous technological institlltions include potlery, spinning and weaving, leather work, sculpture, tying ...
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains nine modules covering boilers. The modules provide information on the following topics: fire and water tube types of boilers, construction, fittings, operation, cleaning, heat recovery systems, instruments and controls, and…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains five modules covering turbines. The modules provide information on the following topics: types, components, and auxiliaries of steam turbines; operation and maintenance of steam turbines; and gas turbines. Each module consists…
... Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC... Certification of On-the- Job and Apprenticeship Training): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission...
Education Scotland, 2015
This publication provides a quality framework to provide a structure for external review of Modern Apprenticeship off-the-job training.? The indicators in this framework are arranged under three key principles, addressing five questions which Education Scotland is adopting for evaluation purposes. These are underpinned by a wider principle on the…
The paper discusses an ongoing process of merging two university-based teaching traditions. The two traditions are alike in that both share a basic commitment to PBL-related values. Differences refer (as stated in the paper’s title) to one tradition being relatively more research oriented, whereas...
McLean, Kristen E; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Hagaman, Ashley K; Wagenaar, Bradley H; Therosme, Tatiana P; Kohrt, Brandon A
Despite growing support for supervision after task sharing trainings in humanitarian settings, there is limited research on the experience of trainees in apprenticeship and other supervision approaches. Studying apprenticeships from trainees’ perspectives is crucial to refine supervision and enhance motivation for service implementation. The authors implemented a multi-stage, transcultural adaptation for a pilot task sharing training in Haiti entailing three phases: 1) literature review and qualitative research to adapt a mental health and psychosocial support training; 2) implementation and qualitative process evaluation of a brief, structured group training; and 3) implementation and qualitative evaluation of an apprenticeship training, including a two year follow-up of trainees. Structured group training revealed limited knowledge acquisition, low motivation, time and resource constraints on mastery, and limited incorporation of skills into practice. Adding an apprenticeship component was associated with subjective clinical competency, increased confidence regarding utilising skills, and career advancement. Qualitative findings support the added value of apprenticeship according to trainees. PMID:26190953
... disclosure requirements for apprenticeship and training plans. (a) An employee welfare benefit plan that...) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE... information required to be contained in such notice is disclosed to employees of employers contributing to the...
Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: This study was carried out as a definitive work in order to determine the anxiety level and self-respect of the students studying in Denizli Apprenticeship Training Center. METHODS: The study population was composed of 1276 individuals registered at Denizli Apprenticeship Training Center. The size of the sample was established to be as 235 individuals considering the formula used in the conditions where the study population was determined but 231 individuals were contacted. Those recruited in the study were chosen with the stratified randomized sampling method. The data were obtained during February-March 2005 in the class via the questionnaire formed by the researcher, the State-Continuous Anxiety Inventory and Coopersmith Self-respect Scale. For the evaluation of the data mean, standard deviation, percentage and quantity estimations, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test, Mann-Whitney Test and one way ANOVA tests were employed. RESULTS: The mean age of the youngsters recruited in the study was 17.06 1.45. 75.3% of the subjects were male, 33.8% had 4 or more siblings, 79.7% were graduated from middle school and 76.7% were living with their families. Another working individual was present in 87.9% of the subjects. 16.5% of the subjects pointed out that they their master did not provided them assistance for a job they held for the first time whereas 35.5% of the subjects stated that they experienced difficulties in case when they needed license of absence. 40.3% of the students enunciated that they were obliged to do work that strain their power, and 29.9% stated that they were not appreciated. The difference between the sex of the subjects, the education status of their fathers and the anxiety level of the youngsters was found to be significant (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The anxiety level of the females involved in the study and the youngsters whose fathers education level was middle school or higher was detected to be greater. [TAF Prev Med
The 2008-2012 group of CERN apprentices has every right to be proud: as their stay at the Laboratory ends, all four have received diplomas. Well done! Alexandre Savoy (left) and Liridon Agushi (right) at the 2012 UGI award ceremony, 1 November. This year, four young CERN apprentices — Floriane Stauffer, Alexandre Savoy, Laurent Deillon (physics lab technicians) and Liridon Agushi (electronics technician) — received their diplomas, the Certificat Fédéral de Capacité (CFC). During their 2008-2012 apprenticeship under the supervision of Jean-Marc Bouché, who is responsible for the training of technical apprentices in the HR Department, they were trained by CERN professionals with qualifications in many different areas. Every year, the Geneva Industrial Union (UIG) awards its prizes for the best apprentices who graduate in mechatronics. This year, CERN got two of the prizes. Alexandre Savoy and Liridon Agushi are the hap...
Full Text Available Abstract: This article examines the notion of apprenticeship as experienced by trainee surgeons within the modern NHS, and attempts to demonstrate some unintended consequences of managerial target setting upon the training process. It argues that this situation is made more critical by the lack of explicit standards and curriculum by which trainees may assess their progress, and also that the potential grafting of behaviourist competence-based training models onto older notions of apprenticeship will be inadequate to meet the need for an holistic account of the development of professional practice. Alternative theoretical perspectives are examined, in particular social accounts of shared and collaborative expertise such as Lave and Wenger’s “community of practice” and Vygotsky’s thinking on the “zone of proximal development” with its emphasis on a highly active pedagogic role for both mentor and peers. A parallel is also suggested with Leder’s work on therapeutic discourse, in the sense that both patient and trainee actively construct shared interpretative modes with the doctor-mentor. These accounts challenge the traditional model of medical education which assumes a linear hierarchy of learning, effectively ignoring the cyclic nature of surgical development, and the mutual learning needs of “new comers” and “old-timers”. In order to initiate the modelling of surgical development, it is suggested that: • a dynamic and non-linear view of progress is required; • the link between formal structured training and opportunistic learning “on the job” is crucial; • assessment strategies are needed that promote, rather than hinder, the learning that derives from reflective practice.
Although apprenticeship training has been praised for its effectiveness in easing the transition of non-college-bound students from school to work, most studies rely on cross-country or cross-track comparisons. This study compares apprenticeship training students with non-apprentices within educational track in a relatively uncoordinated and decentralized institutional setting. Using a rich database and a unique set of observable individual-level characteristics as well as local labor market fixed effects to control for the potential selection bias, the results show that there are no significant differences in employment opportunities between apprentices and non-apprentices within just a year after graduation. This might be due to the failure of the Hungarian firms to enhance the skills of apprentices and thus increase their chances of entering the labor market compared to their school-trained peers. However, some immediate positive effect of apprenticeship training within sub-populations is apparent, which are likely to be the result of screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chan, Peter; Miller, Ronald; Monroe, Eula
Cognitive apprenticeship is a teaching approach proponed by social constructivist educators that scaffolds upon students' "zones of proximal development" in authentic situations. It is an effective approach used by teachers of instructional technology when teaching student practitioners. Nevertheless, implementation of instructional design…
Helper, Susan; Noonan, Ryan; Nicholson, Jessica R.; Langdon, David
The basic components of apprenticeships are the same today as in 1937, when the National Apprenticeship Act set the foundation for apprenticeships in the United States. Apprentices enter into a structured training program of classroom and paid on-the-job training under the guidance of a mentor. As their skills increase, so do their wages. Upon…
Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Ringsted, Charlotte
performance.A total of 16 respiratory physicians, without EBUS experience, were randomised to either virtual-reality simulator training or traditional apprenticeship training on patients, and then each physician performed EBUS-TBNA procedures on three patients. Three blinded, independent assessor assessed......-trained novices and apprenticeship-trained novices failing the test, respectively; pVirtual-reality simulator training was shown to be more...
What better way is there to get good training than by alternating classwork with practical work? This is what CERN offers with its long-standing apprenticeship training programme, which this year again saw two young participants win awards from the Union industrielle genevoise (UIG). Graduation ceremony at ARENA. If you think you’ve seen this story before, that’s because you have: for several years now, CERN's apprentices have been awarded the UIG prize. The apprenticeship training programme is intended for young people aged between 15 and 21. It runs over four years and is available for two trades: electronics technicians and physics laboratory technicians (see box). This year, once again, the programme proved its mettle. Each year, prizes are awarded to the best apprentices in the canton of Geneva at a special ceremony at which the 1 700 apprentices get their CFC (Certificat fédéral de capacité) diplomas. Despite its formal nature&...
Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Hakkarainen, Kai
In order to address the requirements of future education in different fields of academic professional activity, a model called Academic Apprenticeship Education was initiated in Finland in 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the development of expert networks in the context of a 1-year Academic Apprenticeship Education model in the field…
Full Text Available “Apprenticeship is a combination of on-the-job training (OJT and related classroom instruction under the supervision of a journey-level craft person or trade professional in which workers learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a highly skilled occupation. After completing an apprenticeship programme, the worker's journey-level2 status provides an additional benefit of nationwide mobility at journey level scale”3 . The aim of the present paper is to examine the apprenticeship system in France and other European countries and also in USA.
Short Abstract: There are twenty-seven statutory Apprenticeships in Ireland. The Department of Education and Skills has a strategy to develop over a hundred new Apprenticeships. This paper addresses the steps being taken to develop these programmes and to encourage stakeholders to engage with Apprenticeship as a mode of education. Full Abstract: There are twenty-seven statutory Apprenticeships in Ireland. The Department of Education and Skills has a strategy to develop over a hundred...
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with miscellaneous job skills needed by persons working in power plants. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: transformers, circuit protection, construction of foundations…
Ball, K.; Freeland, B.
A study examined key determinants of apprentice and trainee employment in small and medium-sized enterprises that play an increasing role in providing employment-based training in Australia. It used unit record data from four waves of the Australian Bureau of Statistics business growth and performance surveys 1994-95 to 1997-98, which sent…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with boilers. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: firetube and watertube boilers; boiler construction; procedures for operating and cleaning boilers; and boiler fittings,…
Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel
Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with turbines. addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: types and components of steam turbines, steam turbine auxiliaries, operation and maintenance of steam turbines, and gas…
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with combustion. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: the combustion process, types of fuel, air and flue gases, heat transfer during combustion, and wood combustion. Each…
Young, Darius R.; Gauss, Patricia A.
Describes Alberta's registered apprenticeship plan (RAP), a three-year program in which students spend part of their time in school and part in industry as a registered apprenticeship. Compares RAP to the federal youth apprenticeship proposed in the United States and the European model. (JOW)
In 1961, based on the finding that the evolution of the labour market created a growing need for qualified staff, a first agreement between the Republic and Canton of Geneva and CERN was signed. One of the objectives of this agreement was the vocational training of young electronics and physics laboratory technicians. CERN, an important stakeholder in the local economy, highlighted with this agreement its willingness to participate in the local social and economic development. The first apprentice arrived at CERN in 1965. In 1971, the apprenticeship centre was created; it now hosts over twenty apprentices in total and welcomes about six new apprentices each year. These apprenticeships are for young people aged between 15 and 21 years, coming from one of the CERN Member States, and having completed their mandatory education, e.g. 11th grade in Switzerland or 3ème in France. The training is divided between working time at CERN and one or two days per week at school (CFPT in Geneva for electronics or ...
Ott, T; Schmidtmann, I; Limbach, T; Gottschling, P F; Buggenhagen, H; Kurz, S; Pestel, G
Simulation-based training (SBT) has developed into an established method of medical training. Studies focusing on the education of medical students have used simulation as an evaluation tool for defined skills. A small number of studies provide evidence that SBT improves medical students' skills in the clinical setting. Moreover, they were strictly limited to a few areas, such as the diagnosis of heart murmurs or the correct application of cricoid pressure. Other studies could not prove adequate transferability from the skills gained in SBT to the patient site. Whether SBT has an effect on medical students' skills in anesthesiology in the clinical setting is controversial. To explore this issue, we designed a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial that was integrated into the undergraduate anesthesiology curriculum of our department during the second year of the clinical phase of medical school. This study intended to explore the effect of SBT on medical students within the mandatory undergraduate anesthesiology curriculum of our department in the operating room with respect to basic skills in anesthesiology. After obtaining ethical approval, the participating students of the third clinical semester were randomized into two groups: the SIM-OR group was trained by a 225 min long SBT in basic skills in anesthesiology before attending the operating room (OR) apprenticeship. The OR-SIM group was trained after the operating room apprenticeship by SBT. During SBT the students were trained in five clinical skills detailed below. Further, two clinical scenarios were simulated using a full-scale simulator. The students had to prepare the patient and perform induction of anesthesia, including bag-mask ventilation after induction in scenario 1 and rapid sequence induction in scenario 2. Using the five-point Likert scale, five defined skills were evaluated at defined time points during the study period. 1) application of the safety checklist, 2) application of
Juan Carlos Segura Ortiz
Full Text Available The apprenticeship contract (AC is a training for work strategy that combines training in vocational aspects with a practical phase in a company. This dual training model presents advantages in terms of the improvement of workers’ employability perspectives and income, together with a reduced employee selection risk. Given the formal purpose of this training instrument in Colombia, there is an interest in evaluating its results in order to improve and correct the instrument’s current performance and to optimize its effective impact. Here, the authors offer a proposal for the assessment of the impact of ACs, based on the measurement of differences in levels of income of individuals who, having chosen technical vocational training, chose this contract as an alternative in the process’ practical phase. The text also includes a review of the relevant literature on AC, a description of the type of statistical model that has to be used in the evaluation, and a description of the data necessary to help the company advance.
Marlow, Nicholas; Altree, Meryl; Babidge, Wendy; Field, John; Hewett, Peter; Maddern, Guy J
Training in basic laparoscopic skills can be undertaken using traditional methods, where trainees are educated by experienced surgeons through a process of graduated responsibility or by simulation-based training. This study aimed to assess whether simulation trained individuals reach the same level of proficiency in basic laparoscopic skills as traditional trained participants when assessed in a simulated environment. A prospective study was undertaken. Participants were allocated to one of two cohorts according to surgical experience. Participants from the inexperienced cohort were randomized to receive training in basic laparoscopic skills on either a box trainer or a virtual reality simulator. They were then assessed on the simulator on which they did not receive training. Participants from the experienced cohort, considered to have received traditional training in basic laparoscopic skills, did not receive simulation training and were randomized to either the box trainer or virtual reality simulator for skills assessment. The assessment scores from different cohorts on either simulator were then compared. A total of 138 participants completed the assessment session, 101 in the inexperienced simulation-trained cohort and 37 on the experienced traditionally trained cohort. There was no statistically significant difference between the training outcomes of simulation and traditionally trained participants, irrespective of the simulator type used. The results demonstrated that participants trained on either a box trainer or virtual reality simulator achieved a level of basic laparoscopic skills assessed in a simulated environment that was not significantly different from participants who had been traditionally trained in basic laparoscopic skills. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Videodisc skills training programs developed by Industrial Training Corporation are being used and evaluated by major industrial facilities. In one such study, interactive videodisc training programs were compared to videotape and instructor-based training to determine the effectiveness of videodisc in terms of performance, training time and trainee attitudes. Results showed that when initial training was done using the interactive videodisc system, trainee performance was superior to the performance of trainees using videotape, and approximately equal to the performance of those trained by an instructor. When each method was used in follow-up training, interactive videodisc was definitely the most effective. Results also indicate that training time can be reduced using interactive videodisc. Attitudes of both trainees and instructors toward the interactive videodisc training were positive
Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... Historically, the traditional apprenticeship is recognized the world over as a sources of acquiring skills in a trade. ... base on instruction, lack of standards, lack of modern facilities and others.
Wolek, Francis W.
Case studies of apprenticeship in the Japanese tea ceremony, traditional crafts, and strategic thinking illustrate novices' growth in internal knowledge through reflective practice of skilled processes. As skilled experts, adult educators are engaged in continually improving the skilled processes they model. (SK)
Focuses on the comparative use of training from human performance technology (HPT) and traditional training perspectives, based on taxonomy. Concludes that the primary difference is a holistic systems performance improvement approach by eliminating barriers with HPT versus reaction or response to a set of business objectives in traditional…
Impact of Training traditional birth attendants on maternal mortality and ... with focus on reducing the high rate of maternal and new-born mortality in rural settings in ... What is needed is to identify TBAs, map their distribution and train them on ...
Tsang, J S
Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.
Eminov, Farid; Golitsyna, Irina
The paper presents issues of modern IT-specialists training. Formation of information-educational environment of IT-professionals is discussed. Studying of enterprise infocommunication infrastructure and its management features within a framework of the traditional educational process is considered. [For the complete proceedings, see ED579395.
Another perfect record for CERN's Apprenticeship Programme: double diplomas for all this year's graduates! Maxime Aebischer (4th from left) at the Prix de l’Union industrielle genevoise award ceremony. The prizes were presented by Pierre Lathuilière, UIG apprenticeship officer (far left), and Pierre-François Unger, Geneva state councillor (2nd from left). CERN's apprentices can be proud of themselves yet again. All five of the 2009-2013 students who left CERN in June went away with two diplomas in their pockets: the CFC (Certificat Fédéral de Capacité) and the Maturité professionnelle. We would like to congratulate Melinda Hiltbrand and Sydney Bussard, laboratory technician apprentices, and Maxime Aebischer, Marc-André Duverney and Tanguy Ruggiero, electronics apprentices. Maxime Aebischer, who obtained excellent results throughout his four-year apprenticeship at CERN, was also aw...
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014
To reduce high unemployment among their young people, countries are looking to others for help. During the economic downturn, some countries have performed better and youth unemployment has remained relatively low, for example in Germany, the Netherlands and Austria. This has been attributed in part to their apprenticeships or "dual'"…
Alice Ciolino, a midwife from London spent eight months in Ethiopia with Doctors of the World. Her mission was to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Based in the Somali region of Ethiopia, access to healthcare facilities was limited; indeed Kebri Dehar had the only hospital in the region. Here Alice shares her experience of what it is like to live and work in a remote part of the world, far from the medical facilities we take for granted in the West.
Finegold, David; Wagner, Karin
A case study of German banking apprentices found that, if employers are entirely motivated by the logic of consequences (recruitment cost savings, workplace flexibility), the system might be undermined by head hunting for apprentices trained by others. The logic of appropriateness fosters trust among employers and creates mechanisms to keep the…
Thomas W. Kaminski
Full Text Available Protocols for strengthening muscle are important for fitness, rehabilitation, and the prevention of myotendinous injuries. In trained individuals, the optimal method of increasing strength remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a traditional method of strengthening with a method that allowed for enhanced-eccentric training, on changes in elbow flexor strength in trained subjects. Thirty-nine (8 male, 31 female trained subjects with normal elbow function participated in this study. Subjects were rank-ordered according to isometric force production and randomly assigned to one of three training groups: control (CONT, traditional concentric/eccentric (TRAD, and concentric/enhanced-eccentric (NEG. The training groups completed 24 training sessions. An evaluator blinded to training group performed all testing. Mixed model ANOVA techniques were used to determine if differences existed in concentric one repetition maximum strength, and isometric force production among groups. Changes in peak and average isokinetic force production were also compared. Type 1 error was maintained at 5%. While both groups improved concentric one repetition maximum (NEG = 15.5%, TRAD = 13.8% neither training group statistically differed from changes demonstrated by the CONT group. Nor did either training group show significant improvements in isometric or isokinetic force production over the CONT group. These results do not support the superiority of enhanced-eccentric training for increasing force production in trained subjects.
Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.
The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…
Jaarsma, T.; Maat, H.; Richards, P.; Wals, A.E.J.
Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site
Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Wals, Arjen
Although the concept of the apprenticeship seems to be universal, its institutional form and status differ around the world. This article discusses informal apprenticeship training as it occurs among car mechanics in the informal industrial complex of the Suame Magazine, Kumasi, Ghana. Using on-site research and theories of social learning and…
Carlson, Nancy Margaret; May, William Edgar; Loertscher, R.; Cobia, C.
In the workplace, teacher-mentors guide apprentices in communities of practice. Apprenticeship teaches complex physical and cognitive skills, conveys tacit knowledge, and enculturates learners into the community. Apprenticeships must be well planned and monitored and offer experiences aligned with core practices.
Seezink, Audrey; Poell, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.
Seezink, A., Poell, R. F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Teachers' individual action theories about competence-based education: The value of the cognitive apprenticeship model. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 61, 203-215.
Jaarsma, Thomas; Maat, Harro; Wals, Arjen; Richards, Paul
Jaarsma, T., Maat, H., Richards, P., & Wals, A. (2011). The role of materiality in apprenticeships: The case of the suame magazine, kumasi, ghana. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 63(3), 439-449.
Patricia E. Bailey
Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect that a training intervention for traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Guatemala had on the detection of obstetric complications, the referral of patients with complications to the formal health care system, and, ultimately, those patients' utilization of essential obstetric care services. Methods. Using a quasi-experimental design, a surveillance system of births was implemented to collect population-based information from 3 518 women between 1990 and 1993. All women were interviewed postpartum by physicians. There were three key independent variables in our study: 1 geographical area (intervention community and non-intervention community, 2 time in relation to the training intervention (before or after, and 3 presence or absence of a TBA at the time of the complication. The key dependent variables for women interviewed were 1 development of an obstetric complication, 2 detection of the problem by the TBA, 3 referral to a health facility, 4 compliance with referral, and 5 use of services. Results. The incidence of postpartum complications decreased after the intervention, controlling for intervention community. On the other hand, after the intervention TBAs were less likely to recognize most maternal complications, and referral rates did not increase significantly. The likelihood of using health care services increased six-fold among women who were not attended by TBAs, and no increase was observed among those who were attended by TBAs. Conclusion. Training TBAs may have had a positive effect on the rate, detection, and referral of postpartum complications. However, the evidence is less convincing for overall increases in the detection of complications, in referral to the formal health care system, and in the utilization of essential obstetric services among women attended by TBAs.
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
Dual systems of vocational education and training that build on the tradition of apprenticeship, have many attractive qualities, seen from a political perspective. VET systems that comprise a significant amount of work-based training, provide a valuable alternative for young people who chose...... not to pursue an academic career. Countries with strong apprenticeship systems tend to have less youth unemployment and a smoother transition to the labour market than others. Furthermore, from a learning perspective, the out-comes of work-based training and informal learning are enhanced when they are combined...
Causer, Joe; Harvey, Adrian; Snelgrove, Ryan; Arsenault, Gina; Vickers, Joan N
We examined the effectiveness of technical training (TT) and quiet eye training (QE) on the performance of one-handed square knot tying in surgical residents. Twenty surgical residents were randomly assigned to the 2 groups and completed pretest, training, retention, and transfer tests. Participants wore a mobile eye tracker that simultaneously recorded their gaze and hand movements. Dependent variables were knot tying performance (%), QE duration (%), number of fixations, total movement time (s), and hand movement phase time (s). The QE training group had significantly higher performance scores, a longer QE duration, fewer fixations, faster total knot tying times, and faster movement phase times compared with the TT group. The QE group maintained performance in the transfer test, whereas the TT group significantly decreased performance from retention to transfer. QE training significantly improved learning, retention, and transfer of surgical knot tying compared with a traditional technical approach. Both performance effectiveness (performance outcome) and movement efficiency (hand movement times) were improved using QE modeling, instruction, and feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, 5Department of Obstetrics and ... Aim: The aim was to audit childbirth emergency referrals by trained TBAs to a ..... training of TBAs has been documented by previous African.
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten
The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary-task reaction time testing at baseline and during the procedure in both training modalities. The national Danish temporal bone course. A total of 40 novice otorhinolaryngology residents. Reaction time was increased by 20% in VR simulation training and 55% in cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy compared with baseline measurements. Traditional dissection training increased CL significantly more than VR simulation training (p < 0.001). VR simulation training imposed a lower CL than traditional cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy. Learning complex surgical skills can be a challenge for the novice and mastoidectomy skills training could potentially be optimized by employing VR simulation training first because of the lower CL. Traditional dissection training could then be used to supplement skills training after basic competencies have been acquired in the VR simulation. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla
Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…
This year again, two CERN apprentices have received awards at the end of their training. CERN’s broad range of technical skills means that it can provide training in a wide variety of trades and professions. Denis Fernier receives congratulations from Pierre-François Unger, Counsel state of the canton of Geneva in charge of the department of economics and health. Denis Fernier and Coralie Husi (right) at the prize-giving ceremony of the Union Industrielle de Genève.Every year, CERN hosts six technical apprentices for a four-year period: three electronics technicians and three physics lab technicians. And every year, at the end of their apprenticeships, one or more of them receives an award for being among the best apprentices in Geneva. On 23 September, two young apprentices were honoured by the Union industrielle genevoise (UIG) on passing their exams: Coralie Husi, a physics lab apprentice...
CERN starting training apprentices in 1966 at the request of the Geneva authorities. The programme was consolidated with the opening of the training centre in 1971. In recent years CERN has taken on seven new technical apprentices each year (four in electronics, three in physics laboratory work), plus one or two administrative apprentices, such that there always are around 30 apprentices in total at CERN. The programme is highly regarded in Geneva by the authorities, industry, schools and young people, and contributes very positively to CERN's local image. Since the beginning 160 young people have now successfully completed their apprenticeships at CERN. Unlike some other employers, as a general rule CERN does not take on its ex-apprentices as staff; on completing their years at CERN the apprentices usually go on to higher education or are sought after by other employers.
Haddad, F.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Wada, R.; Xiao, B.; David, C.; Freslier, M.; Aichelin, J.
Utilization of a neural network for determining the value of the impact parameter in heavy ion reactions is a two stage process: a apprenticeship stage followed by a utilization stage. During the first stage one determines the network parameters by means of a trial game for which the inputs and outputs are known. To realize the trial game a numerical simulation code was used. In order to estimate the biases of this procedure we generated trial games by resorting to two different models: a transport dynamical model (QMD) coupled to a deexcitation code (GEMINI) and a event generator based on a statistical approach (EUGENE). The procedure was applied to determine the impact parameter in 40 Ca + 40 Ca reactions. The effect of the model dependence of the apprenticeship procedure is studied thoroughly. In the two cases the outputs provided by the network are smaller then 7 fm which can be expected in case of complete events. The network trained with QMD gives outputs for input parameters within a larger range of values which is due to the fact that EUGENE does not contain 'Deep Inelastic'
and children. My wife’s patience, understanding, and sacrifice permitted me to focus on the academic material and writing , neither of which came...for a training strategy that leverages the RPA weapon system’s unique modularity to produce well-trained RPA pilots more quickly. vii...momentum. He states, “The social constructivists have a key to understanding the behavior of young systems; technical
Dankbaar, Mary E W; Storm, Diana J; Teeuwen, Irene C; Schuit, Stephanie C E
Introduction There is a demand for more attractive and efficient training programmes in postgraduate health care training. This retrospective study aims to show the effectiveness of a blended versus traditional face-to-face training design. For nurses in postgraduate Acute and Intensive Care training, the effectiveness of a blended course design was compared with a traditional design. Methods In a first pilot study 57 students took a traditional course (2-h lecture and 2-h workshop) and 46 students took a blended course (2-h lecture and 2-h online self-study material). Test results were compared for both groups. After positive results in the pilot study, the design was replicated for the complete programme in Acute and Intensive Care. Now 16 students followed the traditional programme (11 days face-to-face education) and 31 students did the blended programme (7 days face-to-face and 40 h online self-study). An evaluation was done after the pilot and course costs were calculated. Results Results show that the traditional and blended groups were similar regarding the main characteristics and did not differ in learning results for both the pilot and the complete programme. Student evaluations of both designs were positive; however, the blended group were more confident that they had achieved the learning objectives. Training costs were reduced substantially. Conclusion The blended training design offers an effective and attractive training solution, leading to a significant reduction in costs.
Høyer, Ellen; Jahnsen, Reidun; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik; Strand, Liv Inger
Treadmill training with body weight support (TTBWS) for relearning walking ability after brain damage is an approach under current investigation. Efficiency of this method beyond traditional training is lacking evidence, especially in patients needing walking assistance after stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate change in walking and transfer abilities, comparing TTBWS with traditional walking training. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty patients referred for multi-disciplinary primary rehabilitation were assigned into one of two intervention groups, one received 30 sessions of TTBWS plus traditional training, the other traditional training alone. Daily training was 1 hr. Outcome measures were Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC), Walking, Functional Independence Measure (FIM); shorter transfer and stairs, 10 m and 6-min walk tests. Substantial improvements in walking and transfer were shown within both groups after 5 and 11 weeks of intervention. Overall no statistical significant differences were found between the groups, but 12 of 17 physical measures tended to show improvements in favour of the treadmill approach. Both training strategies provided significant improvements in the tested activities, suggesting that similar outcomes can be obtained in the two modalities by systematic, intensive and goal directed training.
Dodd, Caleb D.; Burris, Scott; Fraze, Steve; Doerfert, David; McCulloch, Abigail
The incorporation of hot and cold food bars into grocery stores in an effort to capture a portion of the home meal replacement industry is presenting new challenges for retail food establishments. To ensure retail success and customer safety, employees need to be educated in food safety practices. Traditional methods of training are not meeting…
Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.
Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.
These training standards for fuel and electrical systems mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related…
There are several different methods of learning motor skills, like traditional (linear) and differential (nonlinear) learning training. The traditional motor learning approach proposes that learners improve a skill just by repeating it. According to the teaching principles, exercises are selected along continua from easy to hard and from simple to…
Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G
A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children.
Paddock, Michael T; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J
Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants' FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group's skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between
Henri J.M. Claessen
Full Text Available In this article some methods and types of education in traditional Polynesia will be presented. The emphasis will fall on the second half of the eighteenth century. This period has been selected for on the one hand it covers the final years of the Polynesian culture before it was deeply influenced by good intended efforts of missionaries and administrators who tried to erase heathen customs and introduce dresses, and introducing reading and writing and the negative forces of traders, whalers and colonizers, who came to the islands to relax after arduous travels, and to buy cheap goods and food. On the other hand many voyagers, missionaries, administrators and traders left us in their logs and journals detailed descriptions of the islanders and their cultures as they had seen them and tried to understand them. These publications will be considered here as ‘sources’.
Serwetnyk, Tara M; Filmore, Kristi; VonBacho, Stephanie; Cole, Robert; Miterko, Cindy; Smith, Caitlin; Smith, Charlene M
Basic Life Support certification for nursing staff is achieved through various training methods. This study compared three American Heart Association training methods for nurses seeking Basic Life Support renewal: a traditional classroom approach and two online options. Findings indicate that online methods for Basic Life Support renewal deliver cost and time savings, while maintaining positive learning outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence level of participants.
: beliefs, practices, institutions, and also things. In this sense, the meaning of the term in social research is very close to its usage in common language and is not always theoretically well developed (see Shils, 1971: 123). But the concept of tradition has also been central to major theoretical debates...... on the nature of social change, especially in connection with the notion of modernity. Here tradition is linked to various forms of agency as a factor of both stability and intentional change....
Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.
Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...
This document describes an apprenticeship training program for hazardous material technician. This entry-level category is achieved after approximately 216 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. Procedures for evaluating performance include in-class testing, use of on-the-job checks, and the assignment of an apprentice mentor for each trainee
Rivière, Maxence; Louit, Loic; Strokosch, Alasdair; Seitz, Laurent B
Rivière, M, Louit, L, Strokosch, A, and Seitz, LB. Variable resistance training promotes greater strength and power adaptations than traditional resistance training in elite youth rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 947-955, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, velocity, and power adaptations in youth rugby league players in response to a variable resistance training (VRT) or traditional free-weight resistance training (TRAD) intervention. Sixteen elite youth players were assigned to a VRT or TRAD group and completed 2 weekly upper- and lower-body strength and power sessions for 6 weeks. Training programs were identical except that the VRT group trained the bench press exercise with 20% of the prescribed load coming from elastic bands. Bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and bench press mean velocity and power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM were measured before and after the training intervention, and the magnitude of the changes was determined using effect sizes (ESs). The VRT group experienced larger increases in both absolute (ES = 0.46 vs. 0.20) and relative (ES = 0.41 vs. 0.19) bench press 1RM. Similar results were observed for mean velocity as well as both absolute and relative mean power at 35, 45, 65, 75, and 85% of 1RM. Furthermore, both groups experienced large gains in both velocity and power in the heavier loads but small improvements in the lighter loads. The improvements in both velocity and power against the heavier loads were larger for the VRT group, whereas smaller differences existed between the 2 groups in the lighter loads. Variable resistance training using elastic bands may offer a greater training stimulus than traditional free-weight resistance training to improve upper-body strength, velocity, and power in elite youth rugby league players.
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015
Apprenticeships are changing. The increasing proportions of people entering apprenticeships at various levels of ability and backgrounds are stimulating demand for alternative pathways to completions. This good practice guide assembles the key findings for education practitioners and workplace supervisors from three related research reports on…
Campos, Francisco; Frese, Michael; Goldstein, Markus; Iacovone, Leonardo; Johnson, Hillary C; McKenzie, David; Mensmann, Mona
Standard business training programs aim to boost the incomes of the millions of self-employed business owners in developing countries by teaching basic financial and marketing practices, yet the impacts of such programs are mixed. We tested whether a psychology-based personal initiative training approach, which teaches a proactive mindset and focuses on entrepreneurial behaviors, could have more success. A randomized controlled trial in Togo assigned microenterprise owners to a control group ( n = 500), a leading business training program ( n = 500), or a personal initiative training program ( n = 500). Four follow-up surveys tracked outcomes for firms over 2 years and showed that personal initiative training increased firm profits by 30%, compared with a statistically insignificant 11% for traditional training. The training is cost-effective, paying for itself within 1 year. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Ching, Cynthia Carter
This study deals with the construct of apprenticeship, a well-documented phenomena in anthropological and cultural studies, but which is treated here in unique ways. Whereas most existing work examines apprenticeship among adults in traditional vocational settings, this research is situated among a community of fourth and fifth grade schoolchildren with different levels of previous experience "learning through design" and programming science simulations, thus making them relative oldtimers and newcomers to the culture and practices of design. This work examines teams of children as they create computer simulations, and documents the practices that characterize their apprenticeship to one another. This research also describes how children conceptualize their own roles as newcomers or oldtimers to design. Finally, this study investigates how cognitive benefits realized in an apprenticeship environment are distinctive from that in non-apprenticeship classroom communities, due to the addition of a comparison group of fourth and fifth grade students all engaged in learning through design for the first time. Results reveal that design apprenticeship among schoolchildren shares some crucial characteristics with vocational apprenticeships. Oldtimers initially break down tasks into component parts for newcomers to perform, newcomers move from peripheral to fuller participation in the design process as the project progresses, and tacit pedagogical interactions initiated by oldtimers are intimately tied to the immediate design context on a day-to-day basis. Oldtimers are also more reflective about their interactions with other designers, and they have a more differentiated view of the design process as a whole, than newcomers or comparison first-time designers. The learning benefits realized in an apprenticeship environment are characterized not by a significant difference over the comparison class in the amount of science content or programming code students mastered, but
Grau, Glen, Ed.; Kerlan, Julius H., Ed.
The information contained within this booklet describes for high school students the occupation itself, training terms, and desirable qualifications for the sixteen most active apprenticeable trades, namely: electrical wireman, carpenter, plumer, machinist, pipefitter, auto mechanic, lithographer, sheet metal worker, pressman, floor coverer,…
Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo
As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque
Satishchandra, D M; Naik, V A; Wantamutte, A S; Mallapur, M D
To study the impact of training of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) on the Newborn care in resource poor setting in rural area. A community based study in the Primary Health Center (PHC) area was conducted over one year period between March 2006 to February 2007. The study participants were 50 Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs)who conduct home deliveries in the PHC area. Training was conducted for two days which included topics on techniques of conducting safe delivery and newborn care practices. Pre-test evaluation regarding knowledge and practices about newborn care was done. Post-test evaluation was done at first month (early) and at fifth month (late) after the training. Analysis was done by using Mc. Nemer's test, Chi- square test with Yates's correction and Fischer's exact test. Pre-test evaluation showed that, knowledge and practices about newborn care services provided by the previously trained TBAs and untrained TBAs were poor. Early and late post-test evaluation showed that, there was a progressive improvement in the newborn care provided by both the groups. Preintervention period (one year prior to the training) and postintervention period (one year after the training) showed that, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in the perinatal deaths (11 to 3) and neonatal deaths (10 to 2) among the deliveries conducted by TBAs after the training. Training programme for TBAs with regular reinforcements in the resource poor setting will not only improve the quality of newborn care but also reduces perinatal deaths.
Sutrisno, Dardiri, Ahmad; Sugandi, R. Machmud
This study aimed to address the procedure, effectiveness, and problems in the implementation of learning model for Building Engineering Apprenticeship Training Programme. This study was carried out through survey method and experiment. The data were collected using questionnaire, test, and assessment sheet. The collected data were examined through description, t-test, and covariance analysis. The results of the study showed that (1) the model's procedure covered preparation course, readiness assessment, assignment distribution, handing over students to apprenticeship instructors, task completion, assisting, field assessment, report writing, and follow-up examination, (2) the Learning Community model could significantly improve students' active learning, but not improve students' hard skills and soft skills, and (3) the problems emerging in the implementation of the model were (1) students' difficulties in finding apprenticeship places and qualified instructors, and asking for relevant tasks, (2) teachers' difficulties in determining relevant tasks and monitoring students, and (3) apprenticeship instructors' difficulties in assigning, monitoring, and assessing students.
Full Text Available This article explores the principles of musical discourse among the farmers of the Kathmandu Valley as revealed through the teaching of the dhimay drum. During ritual apprenticeship, the transmission of a corpus of musical compositions based on mimetic syllables that the discourse of authority of the masters expresses. Compositions played during religious processions originate from these syllables, which imitate the sounds of the drum. In addition, dhimay drum apprenticeship is inextricably linked to that of acrobatics, which includes the handling of a bamboo pole. This essay discusses the nature of this musical language in its traditional context, as well as its recent transformations in Newar society.
... considerations at this time in view of the current widespread and national interest in the role apprenticeship...-traditional industries such as, but not limited to manufacturing, energy, and healthcare; (3) ways to more..., veterans, women, minorities and other under-utilized and disadvantaged populations; and (5) efforts to...
Watson, Eric J
Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.
Sissine, Mysha; Segan, Robert; Taylor, Mathew; Jefferson, Bobby; Borrelli, Alice; Koehler, Mohandas; Chelvayohan, Meena
Another one million community healthcare workers are needed to address the growing global population and increasing demand of health care services. This paper describes a cost comparison between two training approaches to better understand costs implications of training community health workers (CHWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our team created a prospective model to forecast and compare the costs of two training methods as described in the Dalburge Report - (1) a traditional didactic training approach ("baseline") and (2) a blended eLearning training approach ("blended"). After running the model for training 100,000 CHWs, we compared the results and scaled up those results to one million CHWs. A substantial difference exists in total costs between the baseline and blended training programs. RESULTS indicate that using a blended eLearning approach for training community health care workers could provide a total cost savings of 42%. Scaling the model to one million CHWs, the blended eLearning training approach reduces total costs by 25%. The blended eLearning savings are a result of decreased classroom time, thereby reducing the costs associated with travel, trainers and classroom costs; and using a tablet with WiFi plus a feature phone rather than a smartphone with data plan. The results of this cost analysis indicate significant savings through using a blended eLearning approach in comparison to a traditional didactic method for CHW training by as much as 67%. These results correspond to the Dalberg publication which indicates that using a blended eLearning approach is an opportunity for closing the gap in training community health care workers.
Colquhoun, Ryan J; Gai, Christopher M; Walters, Jeoffrey; Brannon, Andrew R; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; DʼAgostino, Dominic P; Campbell, Bill I
Colquhoun, RJ, Gai, CM, Walters, J, Brannon, AR, Kilpatrick, MW, D'Agostino, DP, and Campbell, WI. Comparison of powerlifting performance in trained men using traditional and flexible daily undulating periodization. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 283-291, 2017-Daily undulating periodization (DUP) is a growing trend, both in practice and in the scientific literature. A new form of DUP, flexible daily undulating periodization (FDUP), allows for athletes to have some autonomy by choosing the order of their training. The purpose of this study was to compare an FDUP model to a traditional model of DUP on powerlifting performance in resistance-trained men. Twenty-five resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: FDUP (N = 14) or DUP (N = 11). All participants possessed a minimum of 6 months of resistance training experience and were required to squat, bench press, and deadlift 125, 100, and 150% of their body mass, respectively. Dependent variables assessed at baseline and after the 9-week training program included bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, powerlifting total, Wilks Coefficient, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Dependent variables assessed during each individual training session were motivation to train, Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (Session RPE), and satisfaction with training session. After the 9-week training program, no significant differences in intensity or volume were found between groups. Both groups significantly improved bench press 1RM (FDUP: +6.5 kg; DUP: +8.8 kg), squat 1RM (FDUP: +15.6 kg; DUP: +18.0 kg), deadlift 1RM (FDUP: +14.8 kg; DUP: +13.6 kg), powerlifting total (FDUP: +36.8 kg; DUP: +40.4 kg), and Wilks Coefficient (FDUP: +24.8; DUP: +26.0) over the course of study (p = <0.001 for each variable). There was also a significant increase in FFM (FDUP: +0.8 kg; DUP: +0.8 kg) for both groups (p = 0.003). There were no differences in motivation to train, session RPE, or satisfaction with
Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V
The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p velocity and jumping ability. Key PointsSimilar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs.Both the stability and instability approaches seem suitable for healthy, physically-active individuals with or with limited experience in resistance training.RPE emerged as a useful tool to monitor exercise intensity during instability strength training.
Deegan, Donna; Wims, Padraig; Pettit, Tony
Purpose: In this article the use of blended learning multimedia materials as an education tool was compared with the traditional approach for skills training. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was conducted in Ireland using a pre-test, post-test experimental design. All students were instructed on how to complete two skills using either a…
J M Sarabia
Full Text Available It has been suggested that strength training effects (i.e. neural or structural vary, depending on the total repetitions performed and velocity loss in each training set.The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two training programmes (i.e. one with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions, and the other following traditional power training.Twenty-five males were divided into three groups (optimum power [OP = 10], traditional training [TT = 9] and control group [CG = 6]. The training load used for OP was individualised using loads that maximised power output (41.7% ± 5.8 of one repetition maximum [1RM] and repetitions at maximum power (4 to 9 repetitions, or 'reps'. Volume (sets x repetitions was the same for both experimental groups, while intensity for TT was that needed to perform only 50% of the maximum number of possible repetitions (i.e. 61.1%-66.6% of 1RM. The training programme ran over 11 weeks (2 sessions per week; 4-5 sets per session; 3-minute rests between sets, with pre-, intermediate and post-tests which included: anthropometry, 1RM, peak power output (PPO with 30%, 40% and 50% of 1RM in the bench press throw, and salivary testosterone (ST and cortisol (SC concentrations. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE and power output were recorded in all sessions.Following the intermediate test, PPO was increased in the OP group for each load (10.9%-13.2%. Following the post-test, both experimental groups had increased 1RM (11.8%-13.8% and PPO for each load (14.1%-19.6%. Significant decreases in PPO were found for the TT group during all sets (4.9%-15.4%, along with significantly higher RPE (37%.OP appears to be a more efficient method of training, with less neuromuscular fatigue and lower RPE.
Powell, Philip; Walsh, Anita
A Degree Apprenticeship model has recently been introduced into the United Kingdom (UK) Higher Education system as part of wider changes to vocational training. The system has experienced numerous rapid changes in regulation and funding, and it is now little understood by many stakeholders. Distinguishing different phases in UK Higher Education,…
This article analyses the structure and development of Austrian apprenticeship in the context of the country's wider vocational education and training (VET) system. In doing so, it draws on official data and survey results as well as the available, related literature on historical institutionalism. It begins with an analysis of the basic structure…
Full Text Available The features of construction of the traditional system of preparation of young sportsmen are certain on the stage of the preliminary base training. In researches 200 players took part in age 12-15 years. The indexes of frequency of cardiac rhythm, expenses of energy, competition activity of young sportsmen are presented. Indexes are fixed during implementation of the different typical trainings programs, participating in bilateral and official games. The typical rations of feed are analysed. The results of deep medical inspection are rotined.
Prestigious awards for two apprentices who did their practical training at CERN. Sylvain Heinzen, apprentice physics lab technician at CERN, receiving his award from Pierre-François UNGER, State Councillor responsible for the Federal Department of the Economy and Health. The other award-winner, Cédric Gerber, is on the right of the photo.Among Geneva’s top apprentices who were honoured by the Fondation sociale de l’Union industrielle genevoise (UIG) on 28 October this year, were two CERN apprentices. Electronics technician Cédric Gerber and physics lab technician Sylvain Heinzen both did their four-year sandwich course at CERN, obtaining their professional qualification, the Certificat fédéral de capacité (CFC), in June. On top of that, Cédric Gerber, who had been a particularly outstanding apprentice, received two further distinctions at the CFC awards ceremony - the State Council prize for achieving one of the top-ten o...
Terriff, Colleen M; McKeirnan, Kimberly
This study compared traditional training (TT) and just-in-time training (JITT) of P3 student pharmacists regarding interest, confidence, and comfort pre- and post-training (primary objective); and assessment and administration competency (secondary objective) during a simulated influenza vaccination clinic. Student pharmacists were randomized 1:1 to receive either TT or JITT, completed pre- and post-training surveys assessing interest, confidence and comfort; and evaluated on performance during a simulated emergency infant vaccination. An infant manikin simulated a child <1 year of age, and an actor role-played the mother. All students received a briefing about the simulated mass vaccination prior to their performance assessment. Survey differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA. The competency assessment was analyzed by a Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for individual steps and Student t-test for mean scores. Pre-training interest was high and maintained post-training. Pre-training confidence and comfort levels were low and improved in both groups. Mean competency scores were comparable between the TT and JITT groups. Comparing groups, TT students more commonly missed proper injection site selection and care; while JITT missed distracting the infant and administration documentation. JITT for student pharmacists to learn skills required to immunize infants elicits similar outcomes (interest, confidence, comfort, and administration competency) as TT for emergency pediatric influenza vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
M. Erol Demirseren
Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.
Kaminski, A; Nauerth, A; Pfefferle, P I
activity programs as an integrated unit in the daily life in schools and at the working places are necessary to increase the awareness for health-related life-style factors and to counterbalance the effects of occupational exposure. Based on the results both partners of the dual vocational training are challenged to implement effective and coordinated programmes to maintain health in this population.
Satishchandra, D M; Naik, V A; Wantamutte, A S; Mallapur, M D; Sangolli, H N
To study the impact of Training of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) on maternal health care in a rural area. An interventional study in the Primary Health Center area was conducted over 1-year period between March 2006 and February 2007, which included all the 50 Traditional Birth Attendants (30 previously trained and 20 untrained), as study participants. Pretest evaluation regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices about maternal care was done. Post-test evaluation was done at the first month (early) and at the fifth month (late) after the training. Analysis was done by using Mc. Nemer's test, Chi-square test with Yates's correction and Fischer's exact test. Early and late post-test evaluation showed that there was a progressive improvement in the maternal health care provided by both the groups. Significant reduction in the maternal and perinatal deaths among the deliveries conducted by TBAs after the training was noted. Training programme for TBAs with regular follow-ups in the resource-poor setting will not only improve the quality of maternal care but also reduce perinatal deaths.
José Luis Maté-Muñoz
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10 or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX® (IRT, n = 12. Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM, average (AV and peak velocity (PV, average (AP and peak power (PP, all during bench press (BP and back squat (BS exercises, along with squat jump (SJ height and counter movement jump (CMJ height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05 in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%, CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%, 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%, 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%, AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%, AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%, PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%, PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%, AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%, and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%. Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM, power, movement velocity and jumping ability.
Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H
Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village s...
Schembri, Laura; Fenech, Pauline; Sacco, Mark
This randomised controlled trial (RCT) employed a pre-test/post-test design to compare the effects of core training (Pilates method) and traditional back exercises on a population with low back pain (LBP). Therapeutic intervention related to the Pilates method has recently become popular, but there is little evidence to prove it works. In this study, 120 individuals with LBP were allocated to three different groups. Group A was the control group, Group B was given modifie...
Engum, Scott A; Jeffries, Pamela; Fisher, Lisa
Virtual reality simulators allow trainees to practice techniques without consequences, reduce potential risk associated with training, minimize animal use, and help to develop standards and optimize procedures. Current intravenous (IV) catheter placement training methods utilize plastic arms, however, the lack of variability can diminish the educational stimulus for the student. This study compares the effectiveness of an interactive, multimedia, virtual reality computer IV catheter simulator with a traditional laboratory experience of teaching IV venipuncture skills to both nursing and medical students. A randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design was employed. A total of 163 participants, 70 baccalaureate nursing students and 93 third-year medical students beginning their fundamental skills training were recruited. The students ranged in age from 20 to 55 years (mean 25). Fifty-eight percent were female and 68% percent perceived themselves as having average computer skills (25% declaring excellence). The methods of IV catheter education compared included a traditional method of instruction involving a scripted self-study module which involved a 10-minute videotape, instructor demonstration, and hands-on-experience using plastic mannequin arms. The second method involved an interactive multimedia, commercially made computer catheter simulator program utilizing virtual reality (CathSim). The pretest scores were similar between the computer and the traditional laboratory group. There was a significant improvement in cognitive gains, student satisfaction, and documentation of the procedure with the traditional laboratory group compared with the computer catheter simulator group. Both groups were similar in their ability to demonstrate the skill correctly. CONCLUSIONS; This evaluation and assessment was an initial effort to assess new teaching methodologies related to intravenous catheter placement and their effects on student learning outcomes and behaviors
Asadi, Abbas; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6-week cluster versus traditional plyometric training sets on jumping ability, sprint and agility performance. Thirteen college students were assigned to a cluster sets group (N=6) or traditional sets group (N=7). Both training groups completed the same training program. The traditional group completed five sets of 20 repetitions with 2min of rest between sets each session, while the cluster group completed five sets of 20 [2×10] repetitions with 30/90-s rest each session. Subjects were evaluated for countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), t test, 20-m and 40-m sprint test performance before and after the intervention. Both groups had similar improvements (Psets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Notice of Revision; Notice of the Advisory Committee on Apprenticeship (ACA) Open Meeting and New Members AGENCY: Employment and Training... that the Committee Charter has been recently renewed. The current 2009 ACA charter remains in effect...
Moya-Ramón, M.; Hernández-Davó, J. L.; Fernandez-Fernandez, J.; Sabido, R.
Background It has been suggested that strength training effects (i.e. neural or structural) vary, depending on the total repetitions performed and velocity loss in each training set. Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two training programmes (i.e. one with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions, and the other following traditional power training). Methods Twenty-five males were divided into three groups (optimum power [OP = 10], traditional training [TT = 9] and control group [CG = 6]). The training load used for OP was individualised using loads that maximised power output (41.7% ± 5.8 of one repetition maximum [1RM]) and repetitions at maximum power (4 to 9 repetitions, or ‘reps’). Volume (sets x repetitions) was the same for both experimental groups, while intensity for TT was that needed to perform only 50% of the maximum number of possible repetitions (i.e. 61.1%–66.6% of 1RM). The training programme ran over 11 weeks (2 sessions per week; 4–5 sets per session; 3-minute rests between sets), with pre-, intermediate and post-tests which included: anthropometry, 1RM, peak power output (PPO) with 30%, 40% and 50% of 1RM in the bench press throw, and salivary testosterone (ST) and cortisol (SC) concentrations. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output were recorded in all sessions. Results Following the intermediate test, PPO was increased in the OP group for each load (10.9%–13.2%). Following the post-test, both experimental groups had increased 1RM (11.8%–13.8%) and PPO for each load (14.1%–19.6%). Significant decreases in PPO were found for the TT group during all sets (4.9%–15.4%), along with significantly higher RPE (37%). Conclusion OP appears to be a more efficient method of training, with less neuromuscular fatigue and lower RPE. PMID:29053725
Pallavi Sahay, MPT; Santosh Kr. Prasad, MSc; Shahnawaz Anwer, MPT; P.K. Lenka, PhD; Ratnesh Kumar, MS
The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques in comparison to traditional prosthetic training (TPT) in improving ambulatory function in transtibial amputees. Thirty study participants (19 men and 11 women) with unilateral transtibial amputation participated in the study. They were randomly allocated to either the traditional training group (i.e., TPT) (n = 15) or the PNF training group (n = 15). Th...
Kayombo, Edmund J
This paper presents discussion on impact of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on overall improvement of reproductive health care with focus on reducing the high rate of maternal and new-born mortality in rural settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The importance of TBAs for years has been denied by professional western trained health practitioners and other scientists until during the late 1980s, when World Health Organization through Safe motherhood 1987 found TBAs have a significant role in reducing maternal and new-born mortality. Trained TBAs in sub-Sahara Africa can have positive impact on reducing maternal and new-born mortality if the programme is well implemented with systematic follow-up after training. This could be done through joint meeting between health workers and TBAs as feed and learning experience from problem encountered in process of providing child delivery services. TBAs can help to break socio-cultural barriers on intervention on reproductive health programmes. However projects targeting TBAs should not be of hit and run; but gradually familiarize with the target group, build trust, transparency, and tolerance, willing to learn and creating rappour with them. In this paper, some case studies are described on how trained TBAs can be fully utilized in reducing maternal and new-born mortality rate in rural areas. What is needed is to identify TBAs, map their distribution and train them on basic primary healthcare related to child deliveries and complications which need to be referred to conventional health facilities immediately.
Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Monroy, Antonio J. Antón; Jodra Jiménez, Pablo; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.
The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10) or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX®) (IRT, n = 12). Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM), average (AV) and peak velocity (PV), average (AP) and peak power (PP), all during bench press (BP) and back squat (BS) exercises, along with squat jump (SJ) height and counter movement jump (CMJ) height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05) in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%), CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%), 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%), 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%), AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%), AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%), PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%), PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%), AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%), and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%). Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM), power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Key Points Similar adaptations in terms of gains in strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability were produced in response to both training programs. Both the stability and instability approaches
VanLandingham, Paul G.
The apprenticeship system in the United States is primarily a private institution, separate from vocational-technical schools. Apprenticeships establish their own guidelines as to the required course of study. Apprentices do not get licensed unless they successfully complete a written and practical exam. Culinary apprenticeships vary. Many large…
Ravgiala, Rebekah Rae
Theories regarding the development of expertise hold implications for alternative and traditional certification programs and the teachers they train. The literature suggests that when compared to experts in the field of teaching, the behaviors of novices differ in ways that are directly attributed to their pedagogical content knowledge. However, few studies have examined how first and second year biology teachers entering the profession from traditional and alternative training differ in their demonstration of subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge. The research problem in this multicase, naturalistic inquiry investigated how subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge was manifested among first and second year biology teachers in the task of transforming subject matter into forms that are potentially meaningful to students when explicit formal training has been and has not been imparted to them as preservice teachers. Two first year and two second year biology teachers were the subjects of this investigation. Allen and Amber obtained their certification through an alternative summer training institute in consecutive years. Tiffany and Tricia obtained their certification through a traditional, graduate level training program in consecutive years. Both programs were offered at the same northeastern state university. Participants contributed to six data gathering techniques including an initial semi-structured interview, responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Science questionnaire (Hewson & Hewson, 1989), three videotaped biology lessons, evaluation of three corresponding lesson plans, and a final semi-structured interview conducted at the end of the investigation. An informal, end-of-study survey intended to offer participants an opportunity to disclose their thoughts and needs as first year teachers was also employed. Results indicate that while conceptions of teaching science may vary slightly among participants, there is no evidence to suggest that
Meerschman, Iris; Van Lierde, Kristiane; Van Puyvelde, Caro; Bostyn, Astrid; Claeys, Sofie; D'haeseleer, Evelien
Background: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy…
Gill, Christopher J; Guerina, Nicholas G; Mulenga, Charity; Knapp, Anna B; Mazala, Grace; Hamer, Davidson H
To provide relevant details on how interventions in the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project (LUNESP) were developed and how Zambian traditional birth attendants (TBAs) were trained to perform them. The study tested 2 interventions: a simplified version of the American Academy of Pediatrics' neonatal resuscitation protocol (NRP); and antibiotics with facilitated referral (AFR). Key elements that enabled the positive study result were: focusing on common and correctible causes of mortality; selecting a study population with high unmet public health need; early community mobilization to build awareness and support; emphasizing simplicity in the intervention technology and algorithms; using a traditional training approach appropriate to students with low literacy rates; requiring TBAs to demonstrate their competence before completing each workshop; and minimizing attrition of skills by retraining and reassessing the TBAs regularly throughout the study. An effective NRP training model was created that is suitable for community-based neonatal interventions, in research or programmatic settings, and by practitioners with limited obstetric skills and low rates of literacy. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00518856. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roland Gay of the HR Department (at right) recently received a special diploma from the Geneva Industrial Union (UIG). Presented by Carlo Lamprecht, Head of the Department of Economy, Employment and External Affairs of the State of Geneva, the diploma was awarded in recognition of the 199 CERN apprentices Roland has guided through the Certificat Fédéral de Capacité (CFC), an end-of-apprenticeship certificate awarded by the Cantonal authorities. Roland will be retiring in December 2004 after 37 years of service, 32 of which he spent in the role of apprenticeship supervisor.
Garcés, Ana; McClure, Elizabeth M; Hambidge, Michael; Krebs, Nancy F; Mazariegos, Manolo; Wright, Linda L; Moore, Janet; Carlo, Waldemar A
To evaluate the impact of birth attendant training using the World Health Organization Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course among traditional birth attendants, with a particular emphasis on the effect of acquisition of skills on perinatal outcomes. Population-based, prospective, interventional pre-post design study. 11 rural clusters in Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Health care providers. This study analyzed the effect of training and implementation of the ENC health care provider training course between September 2005 and December 2006. The primary outcome measure was the rate of death from all causes in the first seven days after birth in fetuses/infants ≥1500g. Secondary outcome measures were overall rate of stillbirth, rate of perinatal death, which included stillbirths plus neonatal deaths in the first seven days in fetuses/infants ≥1500g. Perinatal mortality decreased from 39.5/1000 pre-ENC to 26.4 post-ENC (RR 0.72; 95%CI 0.54-0.97). This reduction was attributable almost entirely to a decrease in the stillbirth rate of 21.4/1000 pre-Essential Newborn Care to 7.9/1000 post-ENC (RR 0.40; 95%CI 0.25-0.64). Seven-day neonatal mortality did not decrease (18.3/1000 to 18.6/1000; RR 1.05; 95%CI 0.70-1.57). Essential Newborn Care training reduced stillbirths in a population-based controlled study with deliveries conducted almost exclusively by traditional birth attendants. Scale-up of this intervention in other settings might help assess reproducibility and sustainability. © Published . This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Full Text Available The search for a practical apprenticeship place can be the first step in the business world for German students. The students have to apply for this placement, as Companies require applicants. Facebook is one of the most often used social networks among the younger generation in Germany, which can provide a direct communication channel between businesses and candidates. The research evaluates the reasons to use Facebook to identify a solid apprenticeship training platform for German students. Research methods applied: scientific publication analysis, survey (by paper-based questionnaire of German students of the ninth and tenth grade. Analysis of survey data by main indicators of descriptive statistics: arithmetic mean, mode, median, and standard deviations to get an impression of evaluations on analysed aspects by survey respondents. Analysis of variance – ANOVA – is applied to study the difference of the assessments between female and male school children and the differences between the ninth and tenth classes. The existence of correlations between the intensity of use of social network sites (SNS and the apprenticeship seeking process have been investigated. The results of the research have shown that there are differences in evaluations, on analysed aspects, between female and male school children in the analysed classes on the occasion career entry by the apprenticeship.
Hou, Yang; Shi, Jiangang; Lin, Yanping; Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen
The cervical screw placement is one of the most difficult procedures in spine surgery, which often needs a long period of repeated practices and could cause screw placement-related complications. We performed this cadaver study to investigate the effectiveness of virtual surgical training system (VSTS) on cervical pedicle screw instrumentation for residents. A total of ten novice residents were randomly assigned to two groups: the simulation training (ST) group (n = 5) and control group (n = 5). The ST group received a surgical training of cervical pedicle screw placement on VSTS and the control group was given an introductory teaching session before cadaver test. Ten fresh adult spine specimens including 6 males and 4 females were collected, and were randomly allocated to the two groups. The bilateral C3-C6 pedicle screw instrumentation was performed in the specimens of the two groups, respectively. After instrumentation, screw positions of the two groups were evaluated by image examinations. There was significantly statistical difference in screw penetration rates between the ST (10%) and control group (62.5%, P VSTS as an advanced training tool exhibited promising effects on improving performance of novice residents in cervical pedicle screw placement compared with the traditional teaching methods.
Sibley, Lynn; Ann Sipe, Theresa
to summarise the available published and unpublished studies on traditional birth attendant (TBA) training effectiveness. a meta-analysis. sixty studies (n=60) spanning 1971-1999 from 24 countries and three regions. the effect size index, Cohen's h for each outcome; the variance-weighted mean effect size and 95% confidence interval for sub-group of outcomes; homogeneity tests on the distribution of the weighted mean effect sizes; and sensitivity analysis to detect the presence of publication bias. TBA training was associated with significant increases in attributes such as TBA 'knowledge' (90%), 'attitude' (74%), 'behaviour' (63%) and 'advice' (90%) over the untrained TBA baseline. Results for 'behaviour' and 'advice' in specific content areas related to peri-neonatal health outcome, however, reveal sources of variability and underscore the conflicting evidence on TBA training. TBA training was also associated with small but significant decreases in peri-neonatal mortality (8%) and birth asphyxia mortality (11%). Incomplete reporting limited the assessment of neonatal mortality due to tetanus and acute respiratory infection, maternal mortality, as well as assessment of the relationship between intervention characteristics and outcomes. The quality of studies included in the meta-analysis lack sufficient rigour to address the question of causality. Thus, while the data suggest that TBA training is effective in terms of the outcomes measured, we are unable to demonstrate that it is a cost-effective intervention. skilled attendance at birth is a distant reality in many developing countries and effective community-based strategies are needed to help reduce high levels of mortality. Given the magnitude of peri-neonatal mortality, the associations observed between TBA training peri-neonatal and birth asphyxia mortality, and TBA attributes in content relevant to peri-neonatal survival, we suggest that these strategies may usefully include TBA training in appropriate
de Hoyo Moisés
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.
Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Barry, Danika
Background Between the 1970s and 1990s, the World Health Organization promoted traditional birth attendant (TBA) training as one strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. To date, evidence in support of TBA training is limited but promising for some mortality outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of TBA training on health behaviours and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (18 June 2012), citation alerts from our work and reference lists of studies identified in the search. Selection criteria Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCT), comparing trained versus untrained TBAs, additionally trained versus trained TBAs, or women cared for/living in areas served by TBAs. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data in the original and first update review. Three authors and one external reviewer independently assessed study quality and two extracted data in this second update. Main results Six studies involving over 1345 TBAs, more than 32,000 women and approximately 57,000 births that examined the effects of TBA training for trained versus untrained TBAs (one study) and additionally trained TBA training versus trained TBAs (five studies) are included in this review. These studies consist of individual randomised trials (two studies) and cluster-randomised trials (four studies). The primary outcomes across the sample of studies were perinatal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal deaths (early, late and overall). Trained TBAs versus untrained TBAs: one cluster-randomised trial found a significantly lower perinatal death rate in the trained versus untrained TBA clusters (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.83), lower stillbirth rate (adjusted OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.83) and lower neonatal death rate (adjusted OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.82). This study also found the maternal death
Kuzhabekova Aliya; Zhaparova Raina
Active learning instruction is promoted by the most recent version of the National Program for the Development of Education in Kazakhstan as it is believed to provide more meaningful learning and deeper understanding compared to traditional instruction. In order to achieve greater utilization of the instructional approach at schools, teachers must be aware of active learning techniques and know how to use them. This paper studies whether ‘apprenticeship of observation’ during a graduate cours...
Inspired by studies of apprenticeship and theories of situated learning, this study argues that learning should be understood in relation to ongoing social practice. Using interview material and participant observation studying piano students' learning at the Academy of Music in Aarhus, it describes how transparency and access to the music culture…
Verderese, Maria de Lourdes; Turnbull, Lily M.
The publication provides guidelines for assisting developing countries in determining strategies for the utilization and training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). TBA's are persons (usually women in rural areas) who assist the mother at childbirth and who initially acquired their skills through experience rather than formal training. After…
Schürer, S; Schellberg, D; Schmidt, J; Kallinowski, F; Mehrabi, A; Herfarth, Ch; Büchler, M W; Kadmon, M
The medical faculty of Heidelberg University implemented a new problem-based clinical curriculum (Heidelberg Curriculum Medicinale, or Heicumed) in 2001. The present study analyses the evaluation data of two student cohorts prior to the introduction of Heicumed. Its aim was to specify problems of the traditional training and to draw conclusions for implementation of a new curriculum. The evaluation instrument was the Heidelberg Inventory for the Evaluation of Teaching (HILVE-I). The data were analysed calculating differences in the means between defined groups, with the 13 primary scales of the HILVE I-instrument as dependent variables. Teaching method and subject had no systematic influence on evaluation results. Thus, didactic lecture in orthopedic surgery achieved better results than small group tutorials, while the data on vascular and general surgery showed opposite results. Major factors for success were continuity and didactic training of lecturers and tutors. This is convincingly reflected by the results of the lecture course "Differential diagnosis in general surgery". The good evaluation data on small group tutorials resulted largely from the "participation" and "discussion" scales, which represent interactivity in learning. The results of the present study suggest the importance of two major pedagogic ideas: continuity and didactic training of lecturers and tutors. These principles were widely implemented in Heicumed and have contributed to the success of the new curriculum.
Prata, Ndola; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Bohl, Daniel D; Hossain, Shahed; Azmi, Ashrafi Jahan; Begum, Mohsina
A 50-fold disparity in maternal mortality exists between high- and low-income countries, and in most contexts, the single most common cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In Bangladesh, as in many other low-income countries, the majority of deliveries are conducted at home by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or family members. In the absence of skilled birth attendants, training TBAs in the use of misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat to measure postpartum blood loss may strengthen the ability of TBAs to manage PPH. These complementary interventions were tested in operations research among 77,337 home births in rural Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBAs' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and changes in attitudes and practices related to PPH management in home births after undergoing training on the use of misoprostol and the blood collection delivery mat. We conclude that the training was highly effective and that the two interventions were safely and correctly used by TBAs at home births. Data on TBA practices indicate adherence to protocol, and 18 months after the interventions were implemented, TBA knowledge retention remained high. This program strengthens the case for community-based use of misoprostol and warrants consideration of this intervention as a potential model for scale-up in settings where complete coverage of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) remains a distant goal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... levels. B. Purpose: The WANTO Act's purpose is to provide technical assistance to employers and labor... occupation, core industry skills training such as tool identification, industry math/science, and industry... participants to a more achievable level of placement of at least 50 participants annually into apprenticeships...
Karmel, Tom; Mlotkowski, Peter
The primary focus of this research is the impact of wages on the decision not to continue with an apprenticeship or traineeship. The approach taken is to model three wages relevant to apprentices and trainees: the wage during training; the expected wage in alternative employment; and, the expected wage on completion. The results of these models…
Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H
To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers' homes, in rural village settings. 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by intervention birth attendants (0.37, 0.17 to 0.81) and by 81% within the first two days
Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H
Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by
MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C
Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality.
Geon Ha Kim
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly.ClnicalTrials.gov NCT01596205.
Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins
The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.
Clark, Anna D; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Candy, Nicholas G; Budohoski, Karol P; Hofmann, Riikka; Barone, Damiano G; Santarius, Thomas; Kirollos, Ramez W; Trivedi, Rikin A
Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging is increasingly used in the teaching of neuroanatomy and although this is mainly aimed at undergraduate medical students, it has enormous potential for enhancing the training of neurosurgeons. This study aims to assess whether 3D lecturing is an effective method of enhancing the knowledge and confidence of neurosurgeons and how it compares with traditional two-dimensional (2D) lecturing and cadaveric training. Three separate teaching sessions for neurosurgical trainees were organized: 1) 2D course (2D lecture + cadaveric session), 2) 3D lecture alone, and 3) 3D course (3D lecture + cadaveric session). Before and after each session, delegates were asked to complete questionnaires containing questions relating to surgical experience, anatomic knowledge, confidence in performing procedures, and perceived value of 3D, 2D, and cadaveric teaching. Although both 2D and 3D lectures and courses were similarly effective at improving self-rated knowledge and understanding, the 3D lecture and course were associated with significantly greater gains in confidence reported by the delegates for performing a subfrontal approach and sylvian fissure dissection. Stereoscopic 3D lectures provide neurosurgical trainees with greater confidence for performing standard operative approaches and enhances the benefit of subsequent practical experience in developing technical skills in cadaveric dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Okafor, I I; Arinze-Onyia, S U; Ohayi, Sar; Onyekpa, J I; Ugwu, E O
The essence of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is to attend to women in uncomplicated labor and to refer them immediately to hospitals when complications develop. The aim was to audit childbirth emergency referrals by trained TBAs to a specialist hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. A retrospective study of 205 childbirth emergencies referred to Semino Hospital and Maternity (SHM), Enugu by trained TBAs from August 1, 2011 to January 31, 2014. Data analysis was descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Most of the patients (185/205, 90.2%) were married and (100/205, 48.8%) had earlier booked for antenatal care in formal health facilities. There were obstetric danger signs or previous bad obstetric histories (pregnancies with unfavorable outcome) in 110 (110/205, 53.7%) women on admission at SHM. One hundred and fifteen (115/205, 56.1%) women walked into the hospital by themselves while 50 (50/205, 24.39%) could not walk. The fetal heart sounds were normal in 94 (94/205, 45.6%), abnormal in 65 (65/205, 31.8%) and absent in 42 (42/205, 20.4%) of the women on admission. Five healthy babies were delivered by the TBAs before referring their mothers. Delays of more than 12 h had occurred in 155 (155/205, 76.6%) of the women before referrals. Prolonged labor (100/205, 48.8%), obstructed labor (40/205, 19.5%), attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery (40/205, 19.5%) and malpresentation (30/205, 14.6%) were the common indications for referrals. The maternal mortality and perinatal mortality ratios were 610/100,000 live births and 228/1000 total births respectively. Delays at TBA centers are common before referral and most patients are referred in poor clinical state. Further training and re-training of the TBAs with more emphasis on recognition of obstetric danger signs and bad obstetric histories may help in screening high-risk patients for prompt referral to hospitals before complications develop.
Mardegan, Karen J; Schofield, Margot J; Murphy, Gregory C
Basic Life Support (BLS) is a life-saving and fundamental skill in resuscitation. However, studies have reported limitations in BLS training outcomes for both health professional and lay populations, and noted the resource and time-intensive nature of traditional training approaches. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive CD-based BLS training programme that included unsupervised manikin practice compared with a traditional instructor-led BLS training programme involving demonstration and supervised practice. A quasi-experimental post-test with follow-up design was used. The sample was comprised of two cohorts: Novice second-year undergraduate Nursing students (n=187) and Practising Nurses (n=107) in their first year of hospital employment. BLS skill outcomes were assessed at one week and again at eight weeks post training. No statistically significant differences were found between the CD and traditional instructor-led BLS training methods in BLS skills of Novice and Practising Nurses at one week and eight weeks post training. However, there was a decrement in skill between one week and eight weeks post-training across both groups and an overall low level of competence. The failure to find a difference between the CD-based BLS programme with unsupervised manikin practice and a resource-intensive traditional instructor-led BLS training programme may indicate equivalence of the programmes or, even study design limitations. It is concerning that competence displayed by trainees from both groups was less than optimal and suggests the need for renewed efforts to develop and evaluate BLS training programmes which can achieve high rates of competence with acceptable skill retention over time. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Activity; Comment Request: Other On-the-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards and Employer's Application To Provide Job Training AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... requirements for job training program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection...
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.1 No.2 June. 2008 ... physical/mental ability requirements' (51.9%); 'perceived dirty nature of the occupation' (36.1%); and, ..... Held at Greens Pound Hotel, Ibadan, 13th-15th.
Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola
Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.
Elledge, Ross; Houlton, Samantha; Hackett, Stephanie; Evans, Martin J
While virtual learning environments (VLE) can be used in medical education as stand-alone educational interventions, they can also be used in preparation for traditional "face-to-face" training sessions as part of a "flipped classroom" model. We sought to evaluate the introduction of this model in a single module on maxillofacial radiology from a course on trauma skills. Course delegates were randomised into two groups: one was given access to an e-learning resource (test group) and the other attended a traditional didactic lecture (control group). Knowledge and confidence were assessed before and after the course with a 20-question single-best-answer paper and a 10-situation 100mm visual analogue scale (VAS) paper, respectively. All participants were then given free access to the VLE for 30days and were invited to take part in an e-survey. Neither group showed improvements in the single-best-answer scores, but both groups showed comparable improvements in VAS (control: median (range) values improved from 40.8 (17.7-82.5) mm to 62.8 (35.3-88.7) mm, p=0.001; test group: from 47.7 (10.9-58.1) mm to 60.5 (32.4-75.6) mm, p=0.005). Half of the respondents stated that they preferred the "flipped classroom" approach, and 22/22 stated that they would be "likely" or "very likely" to use an e-learning resource with expanded content. The "flipped classroom" approach was well received and there were comparable improvements in confidence. As maxillofacial radiology lends itself to online instruction with its reliance on the recognition of patterns, and problem-based approach to learning, a piloted e-learning resource could be developed in this area. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Although simulation-based training is increasingly used for medical education, its benefits in continuing medical education (CME are less established. This study seeks to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating simulation-based training into a CME conference and compare its effectiveness with the traditional workshop in improving knowledge and self-reported confidence. Methods: Participants (N=27 were group randomized to either a simulation-based workshop or a traditional case-based workshop. Results: Post-training, knowledge assessment score neither did increase significantly in the traditional group (d=0.13; p=0.76 nor did significantly decrease in the simulation group (d= − 0.44; p=0.19. Self-reported comfort in patient assessment parameters increased in both groups (p<0.05 in all. However, only the simulation group reported an increase in comfort in patient management (d=1.1, p=0.051 for the traditional group and d=1.3; p= 0.0003 for the simulation group. At 1 month, comfort measures in the traditional group increased consistently over time while these measures in the simulation group increased post-workshop but decreased by 1 month, suggesting that some of the effects of training with simulation may be short lived. Discussion: The use of simulation-based training was not associated with benefits in knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, or comfort in patient assessment. It was associated with superior outcomes in comfort in patient management, but this benefit may be short-lived. Further studies are required to better define the conditions under which simulation-based training is beneficial.
Fisher, Nelli; Bernstein, Peter S; Satin, Andrew; Pardanani, Setul; Heo, Hye; Merkatz, Irwin R; Goffman, Dena
To compare eclampsia and magnesium toxicity management among residents randomly assigned to lecture or simulation-based education. Statified by year, residents (n = 38) were randomly assigned to 3 educational intervention groups: Simulation→Lecture, Simulation, and Lecture. Postintervention simulations were performed for all and scored using standardized lists. Maternal, fetal, eclampsia management, and magnesium toxcity scores were assigned. Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon rank sum and χ(2) tests were used for analysis. Postintervention maternal (16 and 15 vs 12; P < .05) and eclampsia (19 vs 16; P < .05) scores were significantly better in simulation based compared with lecture groups. Postintervention magnesium toxcitiy and fetal scores were not different among groups. Lecture added to simulation did not lead to incremental benefit when eclampsia scores were compared between Simulation→Lecture and Simulation (19 vs 19; P = nonsignificant). Simulation training is superior to traditional lecture alone for teaching crucial skills for the optimal management of both eclampsia and magnesium toxicity, 2 life-threatening obstetric emergencies. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Naur, Therese Maria Henriette; Nilsson, Philip Mørkeberg; Pietersen, Pia Iben
. The studies included participants of varying experience and most commonly used a virtual reality simulator as a training modality. Assessment of the participants' skills was based on simulator metrics or on an assessment tool. Some studies included performance on patients for assessment of the operator after...... training on a simulator. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training was demonstrated to be more efficient than the traditional apprenticeship model. Physical models and virtual reality simulators complement each other. Simulation-based education should be based on a mastery learning approach and structured...
A college education is not everyone's cup of tea. The United States needs other ways to instill job skills in the younger generation. The German apprenticeship system is sometimes viewed as an appealing alternative. But substantially increasing apprenticeship opportunities in the United States may not be as easy or inviting as it sounds. The…
Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.
Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…
Vansintejan, G A; Glaser, W A
During the 1980's in Karawa, Northwestern Zaire, a motion picture was produced which showed the interaction of the modern and traditional systems. The maternity center of the Karawa hospital was central to this effort. Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) became leading participants. Locally trained midwives were key trainers. The training and supervision programs had been ongoing for 2 years when Karawa was chosen as the movie site in 1986. The script was written by a midwife who had trained trainers of TBAs and TBAs themselves. All the steps in the selection, training, supervision, and supplying of TBAs in Karawa and its neighboring villages are included in the script. A Zairian team shot the script. The 5-member crew were employees of the Office Zairois de la Radio-Television (OZRT), the country's official television, radio, and film service. "Wibange" has separate sound tracks in French and English. Costs of the movie were met by contributions from both the US Agency for International Development and from Zaire. "Wibange--Traditional Birth Attendants: Their Training and Supervision" was developed in New York City. There are 2 final productions, a French and an English version. Running time is 23 minutes.
Kerr, Brendan; Hawkins, Trisha Lee-Ann; Herman, Robert; Barnes, Sue; Kaufmann, Stephanie; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene W. Y.
Introduction Although simulation-based training is increasingly used for medical education, its benefits in continuing medical education (CME) are less established. This study seeks to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating simulation-based training into a CME conference and compare its effectiveness with the traditional workshop in improving knowledge and self-reported confidence. Methods Participants (N=27) were group randomized to either a simulation-based workshop or a traditional case-based workshop. Results Post-training, knowledge assessment score neither did increase significantly in the traditional group (d=0.13; p=0.76) nor did significantly decrease in the simulation group (d= − 0.44; p=0.19). Self-reported comfort in patient assessment parameters increased in both groups (psimulation-based training was not associated with benefits in knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, or comfort in patient assessment. It was associated with superior outcomes in comfort in patient management, but this benefit may be short-lived. Further studies are required to better define the conditions under which simulation-based training is beneficial. PMID:23870304
The fact that many companies outsource jobs and contracts for manufactured products can be attributed to the shortage of technically trained and skilled workers in America's workforce. Today, business and industry, educators, parents, and students are significantly interested in STEM education and technological literacy. With the majority of…
Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Wang, Jung-Der; Ward, Aimee Lou; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chiang, Hung-Che; Kolola-Dzimadzi, Rose; Nyasulu, Yohane M Z; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung
to evaluate the effectiveness of continuing training for traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on their reproductive knowledge and performance. Mzuzu Central Hospital in the northern region of Malawi. PARTICIPANTS AND ANALYSIS: a total of 81 TBAs trained during 2004 and 2006 in Mzuzu, Malawi received continuing training courses. Their reproductive knowledge was assessed by a structured questionnaire during 2004 and 2007. A multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was constructed to determine the associations between their reproductive knowledge scores and age, years of education, time since the last training course, test frequency and number of babies delivered. from July 2004 to June 2007, a total of 1984 pregnant women visited these trained TBAs. A total of 79 (4.0%) mothers were referred to health facilities before the birth due to first-born or difficult pregnancies. No maternal deaths occurred among the remaining mothers. There were 26 deaths among 1905 newborn babies, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 13.6 per 1000 live births. The GEE model demonstrated that knowledge scores of TBAs were significantly higher for TBAs under the age of 45 years, TBAs with more than five years of education, TBAs who had taken a training course within one year, and TBAs with a higher test frequency. continuing training courses are effective to maintain the reproductive knowledge and performance of trained TBAs. It is recommended that continuing training should be offered regularly, at least annually. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose : to identify the degree of efficiency traditionally used in Ukraine, the organization and conduct classes on football with students 6 to 10 years. Material : the study involved 57 students, ages 6-10 years. Investigations were carried out through the use of Polar Team System. Results : the indexes of the pulse energy and the cost of various options for training sessions, traditionally held in the sections with the children in groups of initial training. Marked reaction parameters organism beginners to competitive load. Substantiated quantitative characteristics of the diet of children. The data of the comparative analysis of energy cost of training sessions and daily food intake of children. Conclusions : It was found that classes with beginners accompanied by the use of heavy loads, often diet does not provide full recovery in children.
Gellman, Gregg W
This thesis proposes that it is possible to create an adjunct to traditional instructor-led training that will reduce training time and costs and at the same time improve performance using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) software...
Full Text Available In just a few years of preparation, emergency medicine (EM trainees must achieve expertise across the broad spectrum of skills critical to the practice of the specialty. Though education occurs in many contexts, much learning occurs on the job, caring for patients under the guidance of clinical educators. The cognitive apprenticeship framework, originally described in primary and secondary education, has been applied to workplace-based medical training. The framework includes a variety of teaching methods: scaffolding, modeling, articulation, reflection, and exploration, applied in a safe learning environment. Without understanding these methods within a theoretical framework, faculty may not apply the methods optimally. Here we describe a faculty development intervention during which participants articulate, share, and practice their own applications of cognitive-apprenticeship methods to learners in EM. We summarize themes identified by workshop participants, and provide suggestions for tailoring the application of these methods to varying levels of EM learners. The cognitive-apprenticeship framework allows for a common understanding of the methods used in clinical teaching toward independence. Clinical educators should be encouraged to reflect critically on their methods, while being offered the opportunity to share and learn from others.
Geel, Regula; Mure, Johannes; Backes-Gellner, Uschi
According to standard human capital theory, firm-financed training cannot be explained if the skills obtained are general in nature. Nevertheless, in German-speaking countries, firms invest heavily in apprenticeship training although the skills are assumed to be general. In our paper, we study the extent to which apprenticeship training is general…
Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....
Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....
This research investigated the limitations of Albert Bandura's theory of observational training (also known as observational learning) when applied to e-learning. The study focused on professional employees in different industries around the United States. These professionals engaged in continuous training either in the classroom or on in an…
Lyons, Kayley; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Khanova, Julia; Roth, Mary T
Cognitive apprenticeship theory emphasizes the process of making expert thinking "visible" to students and fostering the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes required for expertise. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the use of cognitive apprenticeship theory with the primary aim of understanding how and to what extent the theory has been applied to the design, implementation, and analysis of education in the health sciences. The initial search yielded 149 articles, with 45 excluded because they contained the term "cognitive apprenticeship" only in reference list. The remaining 104 articles were categorized using a theory talk coding scheme. An in depth qualitative synthesis and review was conducted for the 26 articles falling into the major theory talk category. Application of cognitive apprenticeship theory tended to focus on the methods dimension (e.g., coaching, mentoring, scaffolding), with some consideration for the content and sociology dimensions. Cognitive apprenticeship was applied in various disciplines (e.g., nursing, medicine, veterinary) and educational settings (e.g., clinical, simulations, online). Health sciences education researchers often used cognitive apprenticeship to inform instructional design and instrument development. Major recommendations from the literature included consideration for contextual influences, providing faculty development, and expanding application of the theory to improve instructional design and student outcomes. This body of research provides critical insight into cognitive apprenticeship theory and extends our understanding of how to develop expert thinking in health sciences students. New research directions should apply the theory into additional aspects of health sciences educational research, such as classroom learning and interprofessional education.
a family practice, and training is by apprenticeship. Records are kept by oral ... conservative method of fracture treatment, and all fractures ... In order to guarantee safety and ... safety and effective primary fracture care service delivery in Nigeria.
This study investigated how firms in Germany and Australia compare when dealing with the institutional arrangements for apprenticeship training in their countries, with particular attention given to factors which may impact on their training motivation. Apprenticeships are a well-established pathway to employment across many countries, with a…
Sloane, Stephanie; Liechty, Janet M.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Donovan, Sharon M.
Transdisciplinary (TD) approaches are increasingly used to address complex public health problems such as childhood obesity. Compared to traditional grant-funded scientific projects among established scientists, those designed around a TD, team-based approach yielded greater publication output after three to five years. However, little is known about how a TD focus throughout graduate school training may affect students’ publication-related productivity, impact, and collaboration. The objective of this study was to compare the publication patterns of students in traditional versus TD doctoral training programs. Productivity, impact, and collaboration of peer-reviewed publications were compared between traditional (n = 25) and TD (n = 11) students during the first five years of the TD program. Statistical differences were determined by t-test or chi square test at p students was 5.2 ± 10.1 (n = 56) compared to 3.6 ± 4.5 per traditional student (n = 82). Publication impact indicators were significantly higher for TD students vs. traditional students: 5.7 times more citations in Google Scholar, 6.1 times more citations in Scopus, 1.3 times higher journal impact factors, and a 1.4 times higher journal h-index. Collaboration indicators showed that publications by TD students had significantly more co-authors (1.3 times), and significantly more disciplines represented among co-authors (1.3 times), but not significantly more organizations represented per publication compared to traditional students. In conclusion, compared to doctoral students in traditional programs, TD students published works that were accepted into higher impact journals, were more frequently cited, and had more cross-disciplinary collaborations. PMID:29244832
Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Jones, Ben
Investigate the acute and short-term (i.e., 24 h) effects of traditional (TRAD), superset (SS), and tri-set (TRI) resistance training protocols on perceptions of intensity and physiological responses. Fourteen male participants completed a familiarisation session and three resistance training protocols (i.e., TRAD, SS, and TRI) in a randomised-crossover design. Rating of perceived exertion, lactate concentration ([Lac]), creatine kinase concentration ([CK]), countermovement jump (CMJ), testosterone, and cortisol concentrations was measured pre, immediately, and 24-h post the resistance training sessions with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within/between protocols. TRI reported possible to almost certainly greater efficiency and rate of perceived exertion, although session perceived load was very likely lower. SS and TRI had very likely to almost certainly greater lactate responses during the protocols, with changes in [CK] being very likely and likely increased at 24 h, respectively. At 24-h post-training, CMJ variables in the TRAD protocol had returned to baseline; however, SS and TRI were still possibly to likely reduced. Possible increases in testosterone immediately post SS and TRI protocols were reported, with SS showing possible increases at 24-h post-training. TRAD and SS showed almost certain and likely decreases in cortisol immediately post, respectively, with TRAD reporting likely decreases at 24-h post-training. SS and TRI can enhance training efficiency and reduce training time. However, acute and short-term physiological responses differ between protocols. Athletes can utilise SS and TRI resistance training, but may require additional recovery post-training to minimise effects of fatigue.
Heinicke, K; Heinicke, I; Schmidt, W; Wolfarth, B
It is well known that altitude training stimulates erythropoiesis, but only few data are available concerning the direct altitude effect on red blood cell volume (RCV) in world class endurance athletes during exposure to continued hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of three weeks of traditional altitude training at 2050 m on total hemoglobin mass (tHb), RCV and erythropoietic activity in highly-trained endurance athletes. Total hemoglobin mass, RCV, plasma volume (PV), and blood volume (BV) from 6 males and 4 females, all members of a world class biathlon team, were determined on days 1 and 20 during their stay at altitude as well as 16 days after returning to sea-level conditions (800 m, only males) by using the CO-rebreathing method. In males tHb (14.0 +/- 0.2 to 15.3 +/- 1.0 g/kg, p altitude and returned to near sea-level values 16 days after descent. Similarly in females, tHb (13.0 +/- 1.0 to 14.2 +/- 1.3 g/kg, p altitude training period, whereas PV was not altered. In male athletes, plasma erythropoietin concentration increased up to day 4 at altitude (11.8 +/- 5.0 to 20.8 +/- 6.0 mU/ml, p altitude training period, both parameters indicating enhanced erythropoietic activity. In conclusion, we show for the first time that a three-week traditional altitude training increases erythropoietic activity even in world class endurance athletes leading to elevated tHb and RCV. Considering the relatively fast return of tHb and RCV to sea-level values after hypoxic exposure, our data suggest to precisely schedule training at altitude and competition at sea level.
Colvard, Benjamin; Shames, Murray; Schanzer, Andres; Rectenwald, John; Chaer, Rabih; Lee, Jason T
The first 2 integrated vascular residents in the United States graduated in 2012, and in 2013, 11 more entered the job market. The purpose of this study was to compare the job search experiences of the first cohort of integrated 0 + 5 graduates to their counterparts completing traditional 5 + 2 fellowship programs. An anonymous, Web-based, 15-question survey was sent to all 11 graduating integrated residents in 2013 and to the 25 corresponding 5 + 2 graduating fellows within the same institution. Questions focused on the following domains: training experience, job search timelines and outcomes, and overall satisfaction with each training paradigm. Survey response was nearly 81% for the 0 + 5 graduates and 64% for the 5 + 2 graduates. Overall, there was no significant difference between residents and fellows in the operative experience obtained as measured by the number of open and endovascular cases logged. Dedicated research time during the entire training period was similar between residents and fellows. Nearly all graduates were extremely satisfied with their training and had positive experiences during their job searches with respect to starting salaries, numbers of offers, and desired practice type. More 0 + 5 residents chose academic and mixed practices over private practices compared with 5 + 2 fellowship graduates. Although longer term data are needed to understand the impact of the addition of 0 + 5 graduating residents to the vascular surgery work force, preliminary survey results suggest that both training paradigms (0 + 5 and 5 + 2) provide positive training experiences that result in excellent job search experiences. Based on the current and future need for vascular surgeons in the work force, the continued growth and expansion of integrated 0 + 5 vascular surgery residency positions as an alternative to traditional fellowship training is thus far justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Catenazzi, Nadia; Sommaruga, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Kylene; Gabbianelli, Giulio
Within the C95-Challenge Erasmus+ project, mobile learning technologies are adopted and tested for bus and truck drivers training according to the EU 2003/59/EC Directive. Different kinds of training contents are developed in the form of interactive slides, hyper-videos, interactive quizzes and delivered on mobile devices. Existing apps and games…
Tamara J. Somers
Full Text Available Psychosocial pain management interventions are efficacious for cancer pain but are underutilized. Recent advances in mobile health (mHealth technologies provide new opportunities to decrease barriers to access psychosocial pain management interventions. The objective of this study was to gain information about the accessibility and efficacy of mobile pain coping skills training (mPCST intervention delivered to cancer patients with pain compared to traditional in-person pain coping skills training intervention. This study randomly assigned participants (N=30 to receive either mobile health pain coping skills training intervention delivered via Skype or traditional pain coping skills training delivered face-to-face (PCST-trad. This pilot trial suggests that mPCST is feasible, presents low burden to patients, may lead to high patient engagement, and appears to be acceptable to patients. Cancer patients with pain in the mPCST group reported decreases in pain severity and physical symptoms as well as increases in self-efficacy for pain management that were comparable to changes in the PCST-trad group (p’s < 0.05. These findings suggest that mPCST, which is a highly accessible intervention, may provide benefits similar to an in-person intervention and shows promise for being feasible, acceptable, and engaging to cancer patients with pain.
Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Alejandro; Carretero, Manuel; Nakamura, Fabio Y
The aim of this study was to compare changes in young soccer player's fitness after traditional bilateral vs. unilateral combined plyometric and strength training. Male athletes were randomly divided in two groups; both received the same training, including strength training for knee extensors and flexors, in addition to horizontal plyometric training drills. The only difference between groups was the mode of drills technique: unilateral (UG; n = 9; age, 17.3 ± 1.1 years) vs. bilateral (TG; n = 9; age, 17.6 ± 0.5 years). One repetition maximum bilateral strength of knee muscle extensors (1RM_KE) and flexors (1RM_KF), change of direction ability (COD), horizontal and vertical jump ability with one (unilateral) and two (bilateral) legs, and limb symmetry index were measured before and after an 8-week in-season intervention period. Some regular soccer drills were replaced by combination of plyometric and strength training drills. Magnitude-based inference statistics were used for between-group and within-group comparisons. Beneficial effects ( p plyometric training should be complemented with unilateral drills, in order to maximize adaptations.
Moody, J.R.; Amos, T.M. Jr.
Traditionally, the construction industry has depended on apprenticeship, technical and vocational schools, and experience through informal on-the-job training to meet the industry's demands for skilled manpower. However, as increasingly larger heavy construction projects, such as nuclear power plants, have come to demand more and more skilled craftsmen, the traditional methods of developing construction labor have become insufficient both in terms of the number of workers made available and in the quality of their skills. Over the past eight years, Brown and Root, Inc., has developed a task oriented modular system for training construction workers which supplements a worker's on-the-job training and decreases the time it requires the individual to become a productive member of the project workforce in his work. This training approach is not a series of the semester-long courses which have typified apprenticeship and vocational training in the past, but a systems approach to designing and implementing a program of classroom modules for craft development programs which emphasize both the hands-on tasks a construction worker must perform in his craft as well as the related theory required. The system consists of a number of modular courses which can be sequenced, for each craft, to develop construction skills in each worker according to both his needs and the needs of the project. The training modules for a particular craft program are developed utilizing Instructional Systems Development (ISD). This process is divided into five major phases: analysis, establishment of objectives, preparation of tests, planning and developing instructional content, and evaluation
Walsh, Catharine M; Sherlock, Mary E; Ling, Simon C; Carnahan, Heather
Traditionally, training in gastrointestinal endoscopy has been based upon an apprenticeship model, with novice endoscopists learning basic skills under the supervision of experienced preceptors in the clinical setting. Over the last two decades, however, the growing awareness of the need for patient safety has brought the issue of simulation-based training to the forefront. While the use of simulation-based training may have important educational and societal advantages, the effectiveness of virtual reality gastrointestinal endoscopy simulators has yet to be clearly demonstrated. To determine whether virtual reality simulation training can supplement and/or replace early conventional endoscopy training (apprenticeship model) in diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and/or sigmoidoscopy for health professions trainees with limited or no prior endoscopic experience. Health professions, educational and computer databases were searched until November 2011 including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Biosis Previews, CINAHL, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, ERIC, Education Full Text, CBCA Education, Career and Technical Education @ Scholars Portal, Education Abstracts @ Scholars Portal, Expanded Academic ASAP @ Scholars Portal, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering and Computer & Information Systems Abstracts. The grey literature until November 2011 was also searched. Randomised and quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality endoscopy (oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy) simulation training versus any other method of endoscopy training including conventional patient-based training, in-job training, training using another form of endoscopy simulation (e.g. low-fidelity simulator), or no training (however defined by authors) were included. Trials comparing one method of virtual reality training versus
Edrich, Thomas; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias; Scheiermann, Patrick; Heim, Markus; Chan, Wilma; Stone, Michael B; Dankl, Daniel; Aichner, Jonathan; Hinzmann, Dominik; Song, Pingping; Szabo, Ashley L; Frendl, Gyorgy; Vlassakov, Kamen; Varelmann, Dirk
Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a well-established method that can exclude pneumothorax by demonstration of pleural sliding and the associated ultrasound artifacts. The positive diagnosis of pneumothorax is more difficult to obtain and relies on detection of the edge of a pneumothorax, called the "lung point." Yet, anesthesiologists are not widely taught these techniques, even though their patients are susceptible to pneumothorax either through trauma or as a result of central line placement or regional anesthesia techniques performed near the thorax. In anticipation of an increased training demand for LUS, efficient and scalable teaching methods should be developed. In this study, we compared the improvement in LUS skills after either Web-based or classroom-based training. We hypothesized that Web-based training would not be inferior to "traditional" classroom-based training beyond a noninferiority limit of 10% and that both would be superior to no training. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this short training session would lead to LUS skills that are similar to those of ultrasound-trained emergency medicine (EM) physicians. After a pretest, anesthesiologists from 4 academic teaching hospitals were randomized to Web-based (group Web), classroom-based (group class), or no training (group control) and then completed a posttest. Groups Web and class returned for a retention test 4 weeks later. All 3 tests were similar, testing both practical and theoretical knowledge. EM physicians (group EM) performed the pretest only. Teaching for group class consisted of a standardized PowerPoint lecture conforming to the Consensus Conference on LUS followed by hands-on training. Group Web received a narrated video of the same PowerPoint presentation, followed by an online demonstration of LUS that also instructs the viewer to perform an LUS on himself using a clinically available ultrasound machine and submit smartphone snapshots of the resulting images as part of a portfolio system
Wilson, Amie; Gallos, Ioannis D; Plana, Nieves; Lissauer, David; Khan, Khalid S; Zamora, Javier; MacArthur, Christine; Coomarasamy, Arri
To assess the effectiveness of strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants on the outcomes of perinatal, neonatal, and maternal death in developing countries. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, the Allied and Complementary Medicine database, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, BioMed Central, PsycINFO, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, African Index Medicus, Web of Science, Reproductive Health Library, and Science Citation Index (from inception to April 2011), without language restrictions. Search terms were "birth attend*", "traditional midwife", "lay birth attendant", "dais", and "comadronas". Review methods We selected randomised and non-randomised controlled studies with outcomes of perinatal, neonatal, and maternal mortality. Two independent reviewers undertook data extraction. We pooled relative risks separately for the randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, using a random effects model. We identified six cluster randomised controlled trials (n=138 549) and seven non-randomised controlled studies (n=72 225) that investigated strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants. All six randomised controlled trials found a reduction in adverse perinatal outcomes; our meta-analysis showed significant reductions in perinatal death (relative risk 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.88, Ptraditional birth attendants.
Rodrigo dos Santos Crepalde
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The treatment given to traditional knowledge by school science tends to devalue it, subjecting it to naive, common sense, and even mythological vision. As a way of promoting dialogue and exchange between different cultures, which populate the classroom, interculturallity assumes that science education should be considered as the acquisition of yet another culture, without overcoming the validity of the others. This article presents a concrete case of teaching and learning of the physical sciences as an example of promoting the recognition of traditional knowledge about the Moon in a context of intercultural rural science teacher education. They are discussed representative excerpts of written productions of undergraduate rural education, major in natural sciences, conducted in the discipline of Introduction to Physics that aimed to argue about how scientific and traditional knowledge are related to the Moon and its implications for science teaching. It is noted that traditional knowledge is strongly intertwined with the social practices of communities of these graduates, pointing out the necessary inclusion of this knowledge in the intercultural rural science teacher education that stimulates the exchange and mutual enrichment.
Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.
We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…
Today organizations have adopted a corporate university model to meet their training requirements, a model that adds value to the business in terms of revenue and profit, improvement in customer retention, improved employee productivity, cost reduction and retention of talented employees. This paper highlights the radical change and an evolution…
Barry, Helen; Milner, Brigid
A survey of 56 small/medium-sized Irish enterprises showed that 46% were highly proficient in electronic commerce, 42% were at the basic level. Media pressure significantly influenced adoption. In 40% of firms, owner-managers were the driving force. E-commerce was not yet business critical and relevant training was not yet a comprehensive…
Lloyd, Rhodri S; Radnor, John M; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 6-week training interventions using different modes of resistance (traditional strength, plyometric, and combined training) on sprinting and jumping performances in boys before and after peak height velocity (PHV). Eighty school-aged boys were categorized into 2 maturity groups (pre- or post-PHV) and then randomly assigned to (a) plyometric training, (b) traditional strength training, (c) combined training, or (d) a control group. Experimental groups participated in twice-weekly training programs for 6 weeks. Acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height, and reactive strength index data were collected pre- and postintervention. All training groups made significant gains in measures of sprinting and jumping irrespective of the mode of resistance training and maturity. Plyometric training elicited the greatest gains across all performance variables in pre-PHV children, whereas combined training was the most effective in eliciting change in all performance variables for the post-PHV cohort. Statistical analysis indicated that plyometric training produced greater changes in squat jump and acceleration performances in the pre-PHV group compared with the post-PHV cohort. All other training responses between pre- and post-PHV cohorts were not significant and not clinically meaningful. The study indicates that plyometric training might be more effective in eliciting short-term gains in jumping and sprinting in boys who are pre-PHV, whereas those who are post-PHV may benefit from the additive stimulus of combined training.
Mist, Scott; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Aickin, Mikel
To investigate whether a training process that focused on a questionnaire-based diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and developing diagnostic consensus, would improve the agreement of TCM diagnoses among 10 TCM practitioners evaluating patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD). Evaluation of a diagnostic training program at the Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, and the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine, Portland, Oregon. Screened participants for a study of TCM for TMJD. PRACTITIONERS: Ten (10) licensed acupuncturists with a minimum of 5 years licensure and education in Chinese herbs. A training session using a questionnaire-based diagnostic form was conducted, followed by waves of diagnostic sessions. Between sessions, practitioners discussed the results of the previous round of participants with a focus on reducing variability in primary diagnosis and severity rating of each diagnosis: 3 waves of 5 patients were assessed by 4 practitioner pairs for a total of 120 diagnoses. At 18 months, practitioners completed a recalibration exercise with a similar format with a total of 32 diagnoses. These diagnoses were then examined with respect to the rate of agreement among the 10 practitioners using inter-rater correlations and kappas. The inter-rater correlation with respect to the TCM diagnoses among the 10 practitioners increased from 0.112 to 0.618 with training. Statistically significant improvements were found between the baseline and 18 month exercises (p reliability of TCM diagnosis may be improved through a training process and a questionnaire-based diagnosis process. The improvements varied by diagnosis, with the greatest congruence among primary and more severe diagnoses. Future TCM studies should consider including calibration training to improve the validity of results.
Hohnecker, E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Strassenbau und Eisenbahnwesen
Profitability and capacity in public guided transport must be increased. One option is automatic, driverless train control. There are many questions surrounding the legal, technical and operational aspects of automated control which need to be answered. These intrinsic aspects of the system will be presented and discussed. The various options leading to automatic train control as well as the necessary technical measures will also be presented. (orig.) [German] Die Wirtschaftlichkeit und die Leistungsfaehigkeit im oeffentlichen spurgefuehrten Verkehr muessen erhoeht werden. Als Loesung bietet sich zukuenftig auch der automatische und fahrerlose Betrieb an. Das Fahren ohne Triebfahrzeugfuehrer wirft jedoch eine Vielzahl von Fragestellungen auf, die sowohl in juristischer, technischer und betrieblicher Hinsicht beantwortet werden muessen. Diese systemimmanenten Aspekte werden dargestellt und diskutiert. Anschliessend werden die Moeglichkeiten auf dem Weg zum Fahrautomaten aufgezeigt und die technischen Massnahmen zur Umsetzung des automatischen Fahrens erlaeutert. (orig.)
Gambin, Lynn; Hogarth, Terence
Lack of progression to higher education amongst those who complete an Advanced Apprenticeship in England and the country's need for higher level skills led to the introduction of Higher Apprenticeships in 2009. Whilst Higher Apprenticeships would be expected to facilitate learner progression, the volume of these has remained low. In this paper,…
Soares, Enrico Gori; Brown, Lee E.; Gomes, Willy Andrade; Corrêa, Daniel Alves; Serpa, Érica Paes; da Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas; Junior, Guanis de Barros Vilela; Fioravanti, Gustavo zorzi; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique
The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of pre-exhaustion vs. traditional exercise order on neuromuscular performance and sEMG in trained men. Fourteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height: 174.9 ± 4.1 cm, and total body mass: 80.0 ± 11.1 kg) took part of this study. All tests were randomized and counterbalanced for all subjects and experimental conditions. Volunteers attended one session in the laboratory. First, they performed ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests for each exercise (bench press and triceps pushdown) separately. Secondly, they performed all three conditions at 10RM: pre-test (bench press and triceps pushdown, separately), pre-exhaustion (triceps pushdown+bench press, PE) and traditional (bench press+triceps pushdown, TR), and rested 30 minutes between conditions. Results showed that pre-test was significantly greater than PE (p = 0.031) but not different than TR, for total volume load lifted. There was a significant difference between the pre-test and the time-course of lactate measures (p = 0.07). For bench press muscle activity of the pectoralis major, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). Also, for muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.001, PE: p = 0.005, and TR: p = 0.006). For triceps pushdown, muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). For RPE, there were no significant differences between PE and TR (p = 0.15). Our results suggest that exercise order decreases repetitions performed, however, neuromuscular fatigue, lactate, and RPE are not impacted. The lack of difference in total volume load lifted between PE and TR might explain, at least in part, the similar metabolic and perceptual
Jenna B Gillen
Full Text Available We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session.Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2 performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9 or MICT (n = 10 for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6. SIT involved 3x20-second 'all-out' cycle sprints (~500W interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W. Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W.Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both. Insulin sensitivity index (CSI, determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002 and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10-4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013 (p<0.05. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001. The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99, CSI (p = 0.63 and CS (p = 0.97.Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment.
Full Text Available Background: For several years, educators have criticized the lecture-based approach to teaching and learning. Experts have rightly stressed on acquisition of a number of critical skills rather than focusing on lectures. Purpose. To compare students' pe1jormance after self-education with VCD and manikin, with thei performance after standard BLS training.Methods: In this randomized controlled study, twenty first-year nursing students were divided into two groups randomly, and were provided with basic life support (BLS instruction either in the traditional format of lecturing or with VCD and manikin without tutor. The students’ Performance was evaluated on a manikin with a checklist including all steps in BLS.Results: With traditional instruction, students' mean score was 42.2±3.91, while it was 46.3±3.86 with self-education, showing no significant difference.Conclusion: In nursing students with no previous BLS training, access to VCD and manikin facilitates immediate achievement of educational objectives similar to those of a standard BLS course. Self learning BLS with VCD should be enhanced with a short period of hands-on practice.Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, nursing students, cpr skills, education
M. Claire Horner-Devine
Full Text Available While the biological sciences have achieved gender parity in the undergraduate and graduate career stages, this is not the case at the faculty level. The WEBS (Women Evolving the Biological Sciences symposia go beyond traditional scientific training and professional development to address factors critical to women’s persistence in faculty careers: community and empowerment. Through a series of panel discussions, personal reflections and skills workshops, WEBS creates a community-based professional development experience and a space for participants to grapple with central issues affecting their scientific careers. Longitudinal qualitative survey data suggest that WEBS bolsters the participants’ confidence and empowerment, in addition to providing concrete skills for addressing a range of issues necessary to navigating scientific careers, leading to increased career satisfaction and career self-efficacy (i.e., the belief in one’s capacity to pursue their chosen career. These results highlight the importance and need for programs and opportunities for women in STEM that go beyond training in scientific skills and traditional professional development to include those that create a sense of community and empowerment.
The Effect of Laboratory Training Model of Teaching and Traditional Method on Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Skills-Components of Achievement, Total Achievement and Retention Level in Chemistry
The present study aimed at finding the effectiveness of the Laboratory Training Model of Teaching (LTM) and comparing it with the traditional methods of teaching chemistry to seventh standard students. It strived to determine whether the (LTM) method in chemistry would be significantly more effective than the Traditional method in respect to the…
McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Ly, V.
NASA's Indigenous Capacity Building Initiative is aimed to provide remote sensing training, mentoring, and research opportunities to the indigenous community. A key programmatic goal is the co-production of place-based trainings where participants have the opportunity to address specific natural resource research and management issues facing their tribal lands. Three primary strategies have been adopted to engage with our tribal partners, these include: (1) the use of existing tribal networks and conferences such as the National Tribal GIS Conference, (2) coordination with other federal agencies such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and tribal liaisons at regional Climate Science Centers, and (3) connecting with tribes directly. Regional partner visits with tribes, such as meetings with the Samish Indian Nation, are integral to cultivate trusting, collaborative, and sustained partnerships and an understanding of how Earth Observations can be applied to the unique set of challenges and goals each tribe faces. As the program continues to grow, we aim to increase our incorporation of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) into technical methods and to develop trainings tailored to thematic areas of interest to specific tribes. Engagement and feedback are encouraged to refine our approaches to increase capacity within the indigenous community to utilize NASA Earth Observations.
Puckette, J.O.; Suneson, N.H.
The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped
Huang, Po-Yu; Lin, Wen-Chen; Chiu, Bill Yuan-Chi; Chang, Hen-Hong; Lin, Kang-Ping
Pulse palpation was an important part of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) vascular examination. It is challenging for new physicians to learn to differentiate between palpations of various pulse types, due to limited comparative learning time with established masters, and so normally it takes many years to master the art. The purpose of this study was to introduce an offline TCM skill evaluation and comparison system that makes available learning of palpation without the master's presence. We record patient's radial artery pulse using an existing pressure-based pulse acquisition system, then annotate it with teachers' evaluation when palpating the same patient, assigned as likelihood of it being each pulse type, e.g. wiry, slippery, hesitant. These training data were separated into per-doctor and per-skill databases for evaluation and comparison purposes, using the following novel procedure: each database was used as training data to a panel of time-series data-mining algorithms, driven by two validation tests, with the created training models evaluated in mean-squared-error. Each validation of the panel and training data yielded an array of error terms, and we chose one to quantitatively evaluate palpation techniques, giving way to compute self consistency and mutual-similarity across different practitioners and techniques. Our experiment of two practitioners and 396 per-processing samples yielded the following: one of the physicians has much higher value of self-consistency for all tested pulse types. Also, the two physicians have high similarity in how they palpate the slipper pulse (P) type, but very dissimilar for hesitant (H) type. This system of skill comparisons may be more broadly applied in places where supervised learning algorithms can detect and use meaningful features in the data; we chose a panel of algorithms previously shown to be effective for many time-series types, but specialized algorithms may be added to improve feature-specific aspect
A training program for unskilled operators at the Rossing Uranium Mine provides on avenue for a number of Namibians to become skilled workers without doing an apprenticeship and despite a lack of basic education. The Patterson plan has worked well so far for the purpose. A cadet scheme for leadership and trust foundation for scholarship have also been implemented.
A training program for unskilled operators at the Rossing Uranium Mine provides on avenue for a number of Namibians to become skilled workers without doing an apprenticeship and despite a lack of basic education. The Patterson plan has worked well so far for the purpose. A cadet scheme for leadership and trust foundation for scholarship have also been implemented
Cooper, Teo O. H.
-based curriculum. The overall findings hold important implications for science education reform, including its potential to influence how preservice teacher training and inservice teacher professional development in science are perceived and implemented. Additionally, given the noteworthy results obtained over the relatively short durations, CAIC interventions may also provide an effective means of achieving improvements in preservice and inservice teachers' STEB more expeditiously than traditional approaches.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare changes in young soccer player's fitness after traditional bilateral vs. unilateral combined plyometric and strength training. Male athletes were randomly divided in two groups; both received the same training, including strength training for knee extensors and flexors, in addition to horizontal plyometric training drills. The only difference between groups was the mode of drills technique: unilateral (UG; n = 9; age, 17.3 ± 1.1 years vs. bilateral (TG; n = 9; age, 17.6 ± 0.5 years. One repetition maximum bilateral strength of knee muscle extensors (1RM_KE and flexors (1RM_KF, change of direction ability (COD, horizontal and vertical jump ability with one (unilateral and two (bilateral legs, and limb symmetry index were measured before and after an 8-week in-season intervention period. Some regular soccer drills were replaced by combination of plyometric and strength training drills. Magnitude-based inference statistics were used for between-group and within-group comparisons. Beneficial effects (p < 0.05 in 1RM_KE, COD, and several test of jumping performance were found in both groups in comparison to pre-test values. The limb symmetry index was not affected in either group. The beneficial changes in 1RM_KE (8.1%; p = 0.074 and 1RM_KF (6.7%; p = 0.004, COD (3.1%; p = 0.149, and bilateral jump performance (from 2.7% [p = 0.535] to 10.5% [p = 0.002] were possible to most likely beneficial in the TG than in the UG. However, unilateral jump performance measures achieved likely to most likely beneficial changes in the UG compared to the TG (from 4.5% [p = 0.090] to 8.6% [p = 0.018]. The improvements in jumping ability were specific to the type of jump performed, with greater improvements in unilateral jump performance in the UG and bilateral jump performance in the TG. Therefore, bilateral strength and plyometric training should be complemented with unilateral drills, in order to maximize adaptations.
Nan, L.; Zhao, X.; Liu, L.; Wang, H.; Li, H.
The aim of this study was to compare the ecophysiology character of Ecolly grape (Vitis vinifera L.) with the new technology-single crawled cordon training (SCCT) and traditional method-independent long-stem pruning (ILSP). The connections among net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), instantaneous water utilization efficiency (WUEi), stomatal conductance (Cs) and intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci) were always mutual and inextricable in the trial. The leaves in every stage had the highest Pn respectively when growing under the light irradiance of the different period. The ILSP showed a lower total photosynthetic capacity than the SCCT. There was the total semblable Tr for two pruning plants, but lower Tr in ILSP at the every position of the prior stage and riping stage (PS and RS) excluding the growing stage (GS). The WUEi declined because of the net CO/sub 2/ assimilation saturated and the transpiration constantly fleetly increased before the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) increased to 600 meu mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. The increased WUEis from the first to the second stage deduced that stomatal closure at high irradiance reduced more Tr than Pn, while the values decreased again in the last stage indicated that stomatal opening at low irradiance added more Tr than Pn. These results suggested that it may be possible technology to change trellises in order to obtain better ecophysiology character in this study. The growth variability of vine may be affected by a particular training style. (author)
Prieske, Olaf; Krüger, Tom; Aehle, Markus; Bauer, Erik; Granacher, Urs
Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST ( n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT ( n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group ( n = 16, 23 ± 2 years). RST and TPT exercised for 6 weeks with three training sessions/week each lasting 45-60 min. RST comprised frontal and lateral sprint exercises using an expander system with increasing levels of resistance that was attached to a treadmill (h/p/cosmos). TPT included ballistic strength training at 40% of the one-repetition-maximum for the lower limbs (e.g., leg press, knee extensions). Before and after training, sprint (20-m sprint), change-of-direction speed (T-agility test), jump (drop, countermovement jump), and balance performances (Y balance test) were assessed. ANCOVA statistics revealed large main effects of group for 20-m sprint velocity and ground contact time (0.81 ≤ d ≤ 1.00). Post-hoc tests showed higher sprint velocity following RST and TPT (0.69 ≤ d ≤ 0.82) when compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to 4.5% for RST [90%CI: (-1.1%;10.1%), d = 1.23] and 2.6% for TPT [90%CI: (0.4%;4.8%), d = 1.59]. Additionally, ground contact times during sprinting were shorter following RST and TPT (0.68 ≤ d ≤ 1.09) compared to the control group, but no difference between RST and TPT. Pre-to-post changes amounted to -6.3% for RST [90%CI: (-11.4%;-1.1%), d = 1.45) and -2.7% for TPT [90%CI: (-4.2%;-1.2%), d = 2.36]. Finally, effects for change
The Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP) is described. This program is designed to provide engineering experience for gifted female and minority high school students. The students from this work study program which features trips, lectures, written reports, and job experience describe their individual work with their mentors.
Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.
A study assessed the feasibility and attractiveness of youth apprenticeship in Arkansas in over 80 interviews with employers in 5 key Arkansas industries and occupations. They were allied health, food processing (equipment repair and maintenance and lab technician/quality control), information services, metalworking, and self-employment and…
International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). Human Resources Dept.
This monograph provides an analytical comparison of the background and evaluation of apprenticeship in the eight European countries of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, The Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Its primary purpose is to determine how the rules and conditions of apprenticeship…
Riggall, Michaela; Skues, Jason; Wise, Lisa
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the definition, prevalence, antecedents, consequences and coping behaviours associated with apprenticeship bullying in the building and construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprises 13 participants aged between 22 and 27 (M = 23.8, SD = 1.26) who were all men who had…
Akkerman, S.; Bakker, A.
In vocational education, there is an ongoing discussion about problems occurring in school-work transitions and in relating school and work-based learning processes. Apprenticeships have been identified as valuable learning and working trajectories for making successful transitions and relations
This article uses the science studies of Latour (1993; 1999), the network theory of Collins (1998; 2004), and the formalization studies of Stinchcombe (2001) to trace the apprenticeship of one masters student into an academic community. It traces her implication within ever expanding intellectual networks and their academic ...
... the completion of the industry standard for on-the-job learning (at least 2,000 hours) (time-based... the individual apprentice's completion of at least 2,000 hours of on-the-job learning as described in... learning component of Registered Apprenticeship. The program standards must address how on-the-job learning...
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
patterns from apprenticeships to higher education in recent decades and examines why the transition rate has declined. Explanations for the decline are identified at the structural, the institutional and the individual levels. It concludes by pointing at a dilemma behind the policies pursued: Trying...
Whole-Body High-Intensity Interval Training Induce Similar Cardiorespiratory Adaptations Compared With Traditional High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Healthy Men.
Schaun, Gustavo Z; Pinto, Stephanie S; Silva, Mariana R; Dolinski, Davi B; Alberton, Cristine L
Schaun, GZ, Pinto, SS, Silva, MR, Dolinski, DB, and Alberton, CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols that use the body weight as resistance could be an interesting and inexpensive alternative to traditional ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Therefore, our aim was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of whole-body HIIT (HIIT-WB), HIIT-T, and MICT on maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), and running economy (RE) outcomes. Fifty-five healthy men (23.7 ± 0.7 years, 1.79 ± 0.01 m, 78.5 ± 1.7 kg) were randomized into 3 training groups (HIIT-T = 17; HIIT-WB = 19; MICT = 19) for 16 weeks (3× per week). The HIIT-T group performed eight 20-second bouts at 130% of the velocity associated to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) interspersed by 10-second passive recovery on a treadmill, whereas HIIT-WB group performed the same protocol but used calisthenics exercises at an all-out intensity instead of treadmill running. Finally, MICT group exercised for 30 minutes at 90-95% of the heart rate (HR) associated to VT2. After the intervention, all groups improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, time to exhaustion (Tmax), VT2, velocity associated with VT2 (vVT2), and time to reach VT2 (tVT2) significantly (p HIIT-T compared with HIIT-WB (p HIIT-WB can be as effective as traditional HIIT while also being time-efficient compared with MICT to improve health-related outcomes after 16 weeks of training. However, HIIT-T and MICT seem preferable to enhance performance-related outcomes compared with HIIT-WB.
Vidal, Victoria L; Ohaeri, Beatrice M; John, Pamela; Helen, Delles
This quasi-experimental study, with a control group and experimental group, compares the effectiveness of virtual reality simulators on developing phlebotomy skills of nursing students with the effectiveness of traditional methods of teaching. Performance of actual phlebotomy on a live client was assessed after training, using a standardized form. Findings showed that students who were exposed to the virtual reality simulator performed better in the following performance metrics: pain factor, hematoma formation, and number of reinsertions. This study confirms that the use of the virtual reality-based system to supplement the traditional method may be the optimal program for training.
Korak, J Adam; Paquette, Max R; Brooks, Justin; Fuller, Dana K; Coons, John M
Rest-pause (4-s unloaded rest between repetitions) training effects on one repetition maximum (1 RM), lifting volume, and neural activation via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training programme design. Therefore, this study compared 1 RM, neural activation via (EMG), and volume differences between rest-pause vs. traditional resistance training. Trained males (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either a rest-pause or a traditional training group. Pre- and post-1 RM testing was recorded. Training sessions were completed twice a week for 4 weeks and consisted of four sets of bench press to volitional fatigue at 80% of pre-test 1 RM with a 2-min rest between sets. Total volume completed was recorded on each training day. Neural activation of the pectoralis major was measured on the first and last training days. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated both groups significantly increased their 1 RMs following the 4-week training protocol (p .05). An independent samples t test indicated that total volume lifted was significantly higher for the rest-pause group (56,778 vs. 38,315 lbs; p < .05) throughout the protocol and independently during weeks 2, 3, and 4. While strength and neural activation changes did not differ between groups, both increased 1 RMs and the rest-pause group achieved greater increases in volume than the traditional group. If volume is the focus of training, the rest-pause method should be utilized.
Silvia Erika Kober
Full Text Available Neurofeedback (NF is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI application, in which the brain activity is fed back to the user in real-time enabling voluntary brain control. In this context, the significance of the feedback design is mainly unexplored. Highly immersive feedback scenarios using virtual reality (VR technique are available. However, their effects on subjective user experience as well as on objective outcome measures remain open. In the present article, we discuss the general pros and cons of using VR as feedback modality in BCI applications. Furthermore, we report on the results of an empirical study, in which the effects of traditional two-dimensional and three-dimensional VR based feedback scenarios on NF training performance and user experience in healthy older individuals and neurologic patients were compared. In conclusion, we suggest indications and contraindications of immersive VR feedback designs in BCI applications. Our results show that findings in healthy individuals are not always transferable to patient populations having an impact on serious game and feedback design.
Gellman, Gregg W
.... The simulator, as part of a blended learning solution, was shown to be as effective as traditional instructor-based learning but was conceived at a fraction of the cost and with a significant reduction in total training time. Both of these factors are increasingly being valued in today's reality of increased operational tempo and reduced resources.
World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).
Guidelines for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of nationwide programs for the training and utilization of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are presented. The guide begins with a chart outlining the steps in the development and evaluation of TBA programs. The next section discusses the formulation of basic policies regarding the…
Roppolo, Lynn P; Heymann, Rahm; Pepe, Paul; Wagner, James; Commons, Bradford; Miller, Ronna; Allen, Emilie; Horne, Leyla; Wainscott, Michael P; Idris, Ahamed H
The primary purpose of this study was to compare two, shorter, self-directed methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education for healthcare professionals (HCP) to traditional training with a focus on the trainee's ability to perform two-person CPR. First-year medical students with either no prior CPR for HCP experience or prior training greater than 5 years were randomized to complete one of three courses: 1) HeartCode BLS System, 2) BLS Anytime, or 3) Traditional training. Only data from the adult CPR skills testing station was reviewed via video recording by certified CPR instructors and the Laerdal PC Skill Reporter software program (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). There were 180 first-year medical students who met inclusion criteria: 68 were HeartCode BLS System, 53 BLS Anytime group, and 59 traditional group Regarding two-person CPR, 57 (84%) of Heartcode BLS students and 43 (81%) of BLS Anytime students were able to initiate the switch compared to 39 (66%) of traditional course students (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the quality of chest compressions or ventilations between the three groups. There was a trend for a much higher CPR skills testing pass rate for the traditional course students. However, failure to "clear to analyze or shock" while using the AED was the most common reason for failure in all groups. The self-directed learning groups not only had a high level of success in initiating the "switch" to two-person CPR, but were not significantly different from students who completed traditional training. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aziato, Lydia; Omenyo, Cephas N
Prior to the advent of modern obstetric services, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have rendered services to pregnant women and women in labour for a long time. Although it is anticipated that women in contemporary societies will give birth in hospitals and clinics, some women still patronize the services of TBAs. The study therefore sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the initiation of TBAs and their traditional and spiritual practices employed during pregnancy and childbirth in Ghana. The design was an exploratory qualitative one using in-depth individual interviews. Data saturation was reached with 16 participants who were all of Christian faith. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview guide, audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was employed to generate findings. The findings showed that TBAs were initiated through apprenticeship from family members who were TBAs and other non-family TBAs as well as through dreams and revelations. They practice using both spiritual and physical methods and their work was founded on spiritual directions, use of spiritual artefacts, herbs and physical examination. TBAs delay cutting of the cord and disposal of the placenta was associated with beliefs which indicated that when not properly disposed, it will have negative consequences on the child during adulthood. Although, TBAs like maternal health professionals operate to improve maternal health care, some of their spiritual practices and beliefs may pose threats to their clients. Nonetheless, with appropriate initiation and training, they can become useful.
Gill, Christopher John; MacLeod, William B; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Mirochnick, Mark; Knapp, Anna B; Hamer, Davidson H
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In populations with limited access to health care, early identification of bacterial infections and initiation of antibiotics by community health workers (CHWs) could be lifesaving. It is unknown whether this strategy would be feasible using traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a cadre of CHWs who typically have limited training and educational backgrounds. We analyzed data from the intervention arm of a cluster-randomized trial involving TBAs in Lufwanyama District, Zambia, from June 2006 to November 2008. TBAs followed neonates for signs of potential infection through 28 days of life. If any of 16 criteria were met, TBAs administered oral amoxicillin and facilitated referral to a rural health center. Our analysis included 1,889 neonates with final vital status by day 28. TBAs conducted a median of 2 (interquartile range 2-6) home visits (51.4% in week 1 and 48.2% in weeks 2-4) and referred 208 neonates (11%) for suspected sepsis. Of referred neonates, 176/208 (84.6%) completed their referral. Among neonates given amoxicillin, 171/183 (93.4%) were referred; among referred neonates, 171/208 (82.2%) received amoxicillin. Referral and/or initiation of antibiotics were strongly associated with neonatal death (for referral, relative risk [RR] = 7.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4-14.3; for amoxicillin administration, RR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.4-8.7). Neonates clinically judged to be "extremely sick" by the referring TBA were at greatest risk of death (RR = 8.61, 95% CI = 4.0-18.5). The strategy of administering a first dose of antibiotics and referring based solely on the clinical evaluation of a TBA is feasible and could be effective in reducing neonatal mortality in remote rural settings.
Qayumi, A K; Kurihara, Y; Imai, M; Pachev, G; Seo, H; Hoshino, Y; Cheifetz, R; Matsuura, K; Momoi, M; Saleem, M; Lara-Guerra, H; Miki, Y; Kariya, Y
This study aimed to compare the effects of computer-assisted, text-based and computer-and-text learning conditions on the performances of 3 groups of medical students in the pre-clinical years of their programme, taking into account their academic achievement to date. A fourth group of students served as a control (no-study) group. Participants were recruited from the pre-clinical years of the training programmes in 2 medical schools in Japan, Jichi Medical School near Tokyo and Kochi Medical School near Osaka. Participants were randomly assigned to 4 learning conditions and tested before and after the study on their knowledge of and skill in performing an abdominal examination, in a multiple-choice test and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), respectively. Information about performance in the programme was collected from school records and students were classified as average, good or excellent. Student and faculty evaluations of their experience in the study were explored by means of a short evaluation survey. Compared to the control group, all 3 study groups exhibited significant gains in performance on knowledge and performance measures. For the knowledge measure, the gains of the computer-assisted and computer-assisted plus text-based learning groups were significantly greater than the gains of the text-based learning group. The performances of the 3 groups did not differ on the OSCE measure. Analyses of gains by performance level revealed that high achieving students' learning was independent of study method. Lower achieving students performed better after using computer-based learning methods. The results suggest that computer-assisted learning methods will be of greater help to students who do not find the traditional methods effective. Explorations of the factors behind this are a matter for future research.
Rämö , Johanna; Oinonen , Lotta; Vikberg , Thomas
International audience; Extreme Apprenticeship (XA) is an educational method that has been used in teaching undergraduate mathematics in the University of Helsinki. In this paper, we analyse the course assignments and exam questions of a certain lecture course that has recently been reformed to an XA-based course. The results show that the XA method has made it possible to move the emphasis from rote learning towards understanding the concepts behind the procedures.
Sunyoto, Widodo, Joko; Samsudi
The purpose of this study is to develop an apprenticeship model that focuses on the preparation of graduates of Vocational School to become entrepreneurs (entrepreneurs). The study was conducted by using Research and Development (R & D) method. The subjects were five Vocational Schools (State and Private) in Central Java. Data were collected through interview method and questionnaire. There were 26 teachers of Vocational School involved as respondent. In this research has produced an entrepreneurship-based model that is ready to be implemented at Vocational School. All respondents (100%) support the implementation of the offered model. There is only a small difference in the determination apprentice place whether at the business or industry sector. Most respondents (92.7%) agreed that apprenticeship place is in the small industry where the students can learn entrepreneurship from the entrepreneur. The rest of 7.7% of respondents prefer conduct the apprenticeship in the middle to upper industry where they would experience a modern and complete facility. It can be concluded that this model can be implemented with partners in small, medium, and large industries with a record of students can learn directly aspects of management with business owners instead of learning the technical aspects to employees only.
Tay, Charison; Khajuria, Ankur; Gupte, Chinmay
Traditional orthopaedic training has followed an apprenticeship model whereby trainees enhance their skills by operating under guidance. However the introduction of limitations on training hours and shorter training programmes mean that alternative training strategies are required. To perform a literature review on simulation training in arthroscopy and devise a framework that structures different simulation techniques that could be used in arthroscopic training. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Databases were performed. Search terms included "virtual reality OR simulator OR simulation" and "arthroscopy OR arthroscopic". 14 studies evaluating simulators in knee, shoulder and hip arthroplasty were included. The majority of the studies demonstrated construct and transference validity but only one showed concurrent validity. More studies are required to assess its potential as a training and assessment tool, skills transference between simulators and to determine the extent of skills decay from prolonged delays in training. We also devised a "ladder of arthroscopic simulation" that provides a competency-based framework to implement different simulation strategies. The incorporation of simulation into an orthopaedic curriculum will depend on a coordinated approach between many bodies. But the successful integration of simulators in other areas of surgery supports a possible role for simulation in advancing orthopaedic education. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Chun-Yen; Jack, Brady Michael; Huang, Tai-Chu; Yang, Jin-Tan
This study investigated how the instruction of argumentation skills could be promoted by using an online argumentation system. This system entitled "Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation" (CAWA) system was based on cognitive apprenticeship model. One hundred eighty-nine fifth grade students took part in this study. A quasi-experimental…
Lerman, Robert I.; Pouncy, Hillard
Developing a youth apprenticeship in the United States would boost productivity, improve the preparation of youths for the skill demands of a global economy, and simultaneously offer minority youth an avenue into the economic mainstream. Germany's "dual system" of youth apprenticeship could be adopted to form a national skill-building…
Helmer, Matt; Blair, Amy; Gerber, Allison
This publication shares research from site visits conducted to construction pre-apprenticeship programs in Baltimore, Hartford, Milwaukee and Portland (OR). Findings from the site visits, which included interviews and focus groups with pre-apprenticeship program staff, public officials, philanthropic leaders, construction industry leaders and…
This paper examines recent changes in the Scottish apprenticeship system of skill formation for joiners through an occupational skill ecosystem lens. Building trade apprenticeships in Scotland are based around a social partnership model more akin to "dual systems" than typical arrangements elsewhere in the UK. Drawing on in-depth…
As a learning model, apprenticeship is well known for its capacity to develop skills and vocational identities. It is also increasingly appealing for its potential to develop soft skills and enhance dispositions. This article focuses on the nature and role of apprenticeship and employers in developing dispositions and soft skills. It draws on a…
Ahmad, J I; Mishra, R K
The establishment of minimal access surgery (MAS) in the last three decades brought new dimensions to surgical training. The sole role of traditional apprenticeship training model was challenged and adjunctive surgical simulation models were introduced. Knowledge of the trainees' educational needs is important in designing MAS training curriculum. To study the MAS educational needs of trainees from Africa, review MAS training models and offer recommendations for MAS training. Data was obtained from questionnaires filled by trainees from Africa who attended the monthly MAS training at the World Laparoscopy Hospital, India from October 2013 to May 2014 about their MAS educational needs. There were 38 trainees from different parts of Africa (Central, East, North, South and West Africa) with average age of 41.92 ± 8.67 years (minimum-28 years and maximum 63 years) and majority were males (92%). General surgeons constituted 57% while Gynaecologists were 41%. Only a quarter have MAS training integrated in their training curriculum. Box trainers, Animal models, live human surgeries and virtual reality simulation were the commonest models used in previous trainings and favoured in the educational needs for MAS training. Using cadaveric models and self sponsorship were deemphasised. Widespread application of MAS, globalisation and trainees educational needs call for establishing training programmes. Box trainers, animal models, live human surgeries and virtual reality simulators should be adopted and a synergy between Postgraduate surgical programmes, biomedical industry, universities and trainees will facilitate the setting of MAS skills laboratories and programmes.
Jefferies, L. [Hydro Ottawa Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)
Hydro Ottawa is a local distribution company (LDC) with a workforce of 551 people and 127 line maintainers. Apprentices are required due to the physically demanding nature of power line maintenance as well as due to the fact that the utility's workforce is aging. Hydro Ottawa's apprenticeship program was designed as a long-term investment in the utility's future. The cost of the program is offset by a reduced need for hiring contractors. Experienced trades staff are re-deployed to fill many other positions within the utility. The program includes constant monitoring of new recruits during probation to ensure that potential employees are suited to the job. Training resources are optimized to create a safe, focused environment that focuses on the development of core skills. The recruitment process has a strong marketing focus and has the following 5 stages: (1) resume screening, (2) college testing, (3) an interview, (4) a heights and confined space test, and (5) a physical fitness test and medical. The first year of the program involves dedicated training, a boot camp, bi-weekly individual reviews, and testing at a facility. Formal trades training is also conducted. The second year of the program includes a yearly site rotation and attendance at a formal trade school. The third year includes a 4 month stint on an emergency response team. figs.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the comparison of traditional exercises & body weight supported training (BWST exercises on sensory-motor function, quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons. Materials & Methods: 17 voluntary paraplegic spinal cord injured persons (Asia B,C, age 32.53±1.793 years, height 175.71±1.658 cm, weight 71.59±2.442 kg, and body mass index (BMI 23.18 ± 0.828 kg/m2 availability. The subjects were randomly assigned to BWSTT group (N=10 and Traditional exercises group (N=7 according to sensory and motor score. The subjects trained for 12 weeks, four times per week and 60 min per session. BWSTT include 15 min warm-up on fixed gear bike, 45 min BWSTT with 50% body weight and 10 min cold-down finally. 10% load was added each week. Traditional exercises included 15 min warm-up plus 45 min stretch exercise and resistance training. Results: The data showed that there were significant differences in changes of sensory function Pin score (P=0.002 and Light Score (P=0.002 sensory function, motor function (P=0.000, Walking index Spinal cord injury (WISCI (P=0.002, 6 min walking test (P=0.001 and 10 meter walking (P=0.001 between BWSTT and traditional exercise. Conclusion: BWSTT in comparison with traditional exercise can improve sensory-motor function and quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons.
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
not to pursue an academic career. Countries with strong apprenticeship systems tend to have less youth unemployment and a smoother transition to the labour market than others. Furthermore, from a learning perspective, the outcomes of work-based training and informal learning are enhanced when they are combined...... with formal education in a dual system. In all the Nordic Countries full time work based apprenticeship has given way to more school-based forms of VET – though to very different extent: Sweden has integrated VET in a comprehensive Gymnasium while Denmark has maintained the apprenticeship model. The evolution...
Selden, Sally; Sherrier, Tom; Wooters, Robert
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a new approach to performance appraisal training. Motivated by split-brain theory and existing studies of cognitive information processing and performance appraisals, this exploratory study examined the effects of a whole-brain approach to training managers for implementing performance…
Dong Ling; Si Xulan
Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)
Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, where the rates of maternal mortality continue to be inappropriately high, there has been recognition of the importance of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs to help improve outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth. In Guatemala, there is no national comprehensive training program in place despite the fact that the majority of women rely on TBAs during pregnancy and childbirth. This community case study presents a unique education program led by TBAs for TBAs in rural Guatemala. Discussion of this training program focuses on programming implementation, curriculum development, sustainable methodology, and how an educational partnership with the current national health-care system can increase access to health care for women in LMICs. Recent modifications to this training model are also discussed including how a change in the clinical curriculum is further integrating TBAs into the national health infrastructure. The training program has demonstrated that Guatemalan TBAs are able to improve their basic obstetrical knowledge, are capable of identifying and referring early complications of pregnancy and labor, and can deliver basic prenatal care that would otherwise not be provided. This training model is helping transform the role of the TBA from a sole cultural practitioner to a validated health-care provider within the health-care infrastructure of Guatemala and has the potential to do the same in other LMICs.
Hernandez, Sasha; Oliveira, Jessica Bastos; Shirazian, Taraneh
In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the rates of maternal mortality continue to be inappropriately high, there has been recognition of the importance of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to help improve outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth. In Guatemala, there is no national comprehensive training program in place despite the fact that the majority of women rely on TBAs during pregnancy and childbirth. This community case study presents a unique education program led by TBAs for TBAs in rural Guatemala. Discussion of this training program focuses on programming implementation, curriculum development, sustainable methodology, and how an educational partnership with the current national health-care system can increase access to health care for women in LMICs. Recent modifications to this training model are also discussed including how a change in the clinical curriculum is further integrating TBAs into the national health infrastructure. The training program has demonstrated that Guatemalan TBAs are able to improve their basic obstetrical knowledge, are capable of identifying and referring early complications of pregnancy and labor, and can deliver basic prenatal care that would otherwise not be provided. This training model is helping transform the role of the TBA from a sole cultural practitioner to a validated health-care provider within the health-care infrastructure of Guatemala and has the potential to do the same in other LMICs.
Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob
This study compared physiological, physical and technical demands of Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches. Data were initially collected from 11 amateur, male cricket players (age: 22.2 ± 3.3 year, height: 1.82 ± 0.06 m body mass: 80.4 ± 9.8 kg) during four Battlezone and four traditional cricket training sessions encompassing different playing positions. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion and movement patterns of players were measured. Retrospective video analysis was performed to code for technical outcomes. Similar data were collected from 42 amateur, male cricket players (23.5 ± 4.7 year, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 81.4 ± 11.4 kg) during one-day matches. Significant differences were found between Battlezone, traditional cricket training and one-day matches within each playing position. Specifically, Battlezone invoked the greatest physiological and physical demands from batsmen in comparison to traditional cricket training and one-day matches. However, the greatest technical demand for batsmen was observed during traditional cricket training. In regards to the other playing positions, a greater physiological, physical and technical demand was observed during Battlezone and traditional training than during one-day matches. These results suggest that the use of Battlezone and traditional cricket training provides players with a suitable training stimulus for replicating the physiological, physical and technical demands of one-day cricket.
Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...
This volume consolidates selected articles from the 2016 Apprenticeship Program at the Fields Institute, part of the larger program on Combinatorial Algebraic Geometry that ran from July through December of 2016. Written primarily by junior mathematicians, the articles cover a range of topics in combinatorial algebraic geometry including curves, surfaces, Grassmannians, convexity, abelian varieties, and moduli spaces. This book bridges the gap between graduate courses and cutting-edge research by connecting historical sources, computation, explicit examples, and new results.
Schoberberger, C; Schober, E; Frisch, H
Chronic diseases like diabetes may be a disadvantage in several professions. The aim of the study was to analyse the situation of juvenile diabetics searching for apprenticeship in Austria. 177 individuals (30 adolescent diabetics, 50 healthy adolescents of the same age and 97 masters) were asked by a special questionnaire about their opinions concerning employment and professional changes of juvenile diabetics. Following dimensions were tested: subjective knowledge about juvenile diabetes, objective knowledge about juvenile diabetes, physical capacity, psychological factors, life expectation, stay at home because of illness--admittance to hospital, diabetes--profession, exceptions necessary at work because of diabetes, attitude of the state towards the professional situation of the diabetics.
Rodrigues, Yuna; Teicheire, Ana Carolina A.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.
This paper reports the results of the computation applications development using virtual reality techniques, teaching purposes and scientific disclosure. The objective is to develop applications that can can facilitate the apprenticeship, using the computational resources that make easy to the students a ludic activity, in a way to improve their involvement with the approached themes, in order to facilitate the absorption their knowledge. The developed application results are presented, with the perspective of their utilization through presentations in laboratories of the two involved institutions
Lerman, Robert I.
Can expanded apprenticeship reduce the concerns about the U.S. workforce? The U.S. labor market faces a rise in unemployment rates, sharp declines in the employed share of U.S. adults, extremely high youth unemployment, high wage inequality, and low or stagnant wage growth for workers below the BA degree. Currently, the primary solution advanced by policymakers helping more people go to college is both expensive and of limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, the U.S. policy debate is rarely...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who provides the Job Placement and Training? 26.12... AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.12 Who provides the Job Placement and Training? The... associations or small business establishments with apprenticeship or on-the-job training (OJT) programs leading...
Schooling has been the main approach for transmitting knowledge and skills in both Eastern and Western cultures. The conservatory, for instance, has been the main cradle of great musicians. However, traditional folk arts in the East relied on apprenticeship using an oral approach for transmission. Applying Lave and Wenger's theory of legitimate…
Full Text Available In contrast to the relatively limited attention given in the past to apprenticeships and apprenticeship-related issues in Greece, the crisis has triggered a definite interest in this area. This is largely due to the serious implications of the crisis, in conjunction with the idea that apprenticeships could be an alternative educational pathway for boosting labour market integration, an idea also promoted by EU institutions. Against this backdrop, the present article is, essentially, the first effort made to highlight, in a succinct and critical way, the crucial dimensions of an under-researched key aspect of the apprenticeships in Greece: company engagement. Drawing on the findings of a large-scale, mostly qualitative, research project (December 2015–March 2017 that reviewed apprenticeship programmes in this country, and during which, inter alia, 150 stakeholders were surveyed and an online survey was conducted with 828 employers, the article highlights the strengths characterizing company involvement in apprenticeships, but also severe shortcomings which overshadow the strengths. It is argued that there is an urgent need for restructuring. Otherwise, the potential of apprenticeships in Greece to be an alternative educational pathway to boost employment at a time of extremely high unemployment, especially for young people, will be undermined.
Naida Macias Hernández
Full Text Available This article is a description of how to put into practice pedagogical actions in the school of Medicine “Rafael Ferro Macías” in Sandino where youngsters from more than 25 nations of the world study medicine, and whose traditions and customs are different, although there are some which are common. The plan of pedagogical actions was conceived considering the study about the common customs and traditions. The actions were centered in the collective participation of the students in tasks which were organized without considering the nationalities and allowing each nation to show its customs and traditions so that they could be known and gradually accepted by the others. In that way, cooperation, friendship, and respect have been achieved, and even couples from different nationalities were conformed as an expression of close friendship.
K. Tsimaras Vasileios
Full Text Available Traditional dance is gaining popularity as an intervention choice for improving poor balance ability of people with intellectual disability (ID. Balance improvement for individuals with ID through dance provides opportunities for participation in sport activities and promotes independent living. This short review provides in brief research evidence of dynamic balance improvement as measured by means of a balance deck in duration of 30, 45, and 60 sec intervals, highlighting the need to incorporate traditional dance programs in Physical Education (PE lessons applied on participants with ID. Overall, traditional dances provide emotional and cognitive interaction that has a direct positive effect on quality of life and successful motor performance of individuals with ID.
Vasileios K. Tsimaras
Full Text Available Traditional dance is gaining popularity as an intervention choice for improving poor balance ability of people with intellectual disability (ID. Balance improvement for individuals with ID through dance provides opportunities for participation in sport activities and promotes independent living. This short review provides in brief research evidence of dynamic balance improvement as measured by means of a balance deck in duration of 30, 45, and 60 sec intervals, highlighting the need to incorporate traditional dance programs in Physical Education (PE lessons applied on participants with ID. Overall, traditional dances provide emotional and cognitive interaction that has a direct positive effect on quality of life and successful motor performance of individuals with ID.
De Lorenzo, Robert A; Abbott, Cynthia A
Until recently, the U.S. Army Combat Medic School used a traditional teaching model with heavy emphasis on large group lectures. Skills were taught separately with minimal links to didactics. To evaluate whether the adult learning model improves student learning in terms of cognitive performance and perception of proficiency in military medic training. The study population was two sequential groups of randomly selected junior, enlisted, active duty soldiers with no prior formal emergency medical training who were enrolled in an experimental model of a U.S. Army Combat Medic School. The control population was a similar group of students enrolled in the traditional curriculum. Instructors were drawn from the same pool, with experimental group instructors receiving two weeks of training in adult-learning strategies. The study population was enrolled in the experimental program that emphasized the principles of adult learning, including small-group interactive approach, self-directed study, multimedia didactics, and intensive integrated practice of psychomotor skills. Instructors and students were also surveyed at the end of the course as to their confidence in performing four critical skills. The survey instrument used a five-point scale ranging from "strongly disagree" through "undecided" to "strongly agree." Proficiency for this survey was defined as the sum of the top two ratings of "agree" or "strongly agree" to questions regarding the particular skill. Both experimental and control programs lasted ten weeks and covered the same academic content and nonacademic (e.g., physical fitness) requirements, and the two groups of students had similar duty days. Evaluations included performance on internal and National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) written examinations and other measures of academic and nonacademic performance. One hundred fifty students (experimental n = 81, control n = 69) were enrolled in 1999-2000. The scores for internal course
Simanjuntak, M. V.; Abdullah, A. G.; Puspita, R. H.; Mahdan, D.; Kamaludin, M.
The level of accident in industry is very high caused by lack of knowledge and awareness of workers toward the health and safety. Health and Safety are efforts to create a comfortable and productive atmosphere to accomplish a purpose or goal as maximum risk in the workplace. Vocational Education students must conduct training on business and industry, prior to that they should have a clear understanding on occupational health and safety. The purpose of this research is to analyze the understanding, preparation, and implementation of work health and safety of the students. Method used is descriptive method and data are collected using instrument, observation and interview. The result of study is conclusion of understanding occupational health and safety of vocational education students.
The modern education institutes play an important role in fostering professional talents, reproducing knowledge and studies, and forming the identities of certain academic fields and vocational communities. It is a matter of common knowledge that the absence of an official Korean medicine medical school during the Japanese colonial era was a severely disadvantageous factor in the aspects of academic progress, fostering follow-up personnel, and establishment of social capability. Therefore, the then Korean medicine circle put emphasis on inadequate official education institutes as the main factor behind oppression. Furthermore, as the measure to promote the continuance of Korean medicine, the circle regarded establishing civilian Korean medicine training schools as their long-cherished wish and strived to accomplish the mission even after liberation. This study looked into how the Korean medicine circle during the Japanese colonial era utilized civilian training schools to conduct the Korean medicine education conforming to modern medical school and examined how the operation of these training schools influenced the changes in the traditional Korean medicine. After the introduction of the Western medical science, the Korean medicine circle aimed to improve the quality of Korean medicine doctors by establishing modern Korean medicine medical schools. However, after the annexation of Korea and Japan, official Korean medicine medical schools were not established since policies were organized centered on the Western medical science. In this light, the Korean medicine circle strived to nurture the younger generation of Korean medicine by establishing and operating the civilian Korean medicine training schools after the annexation between Korea and Japan. The schools were limited in terms of scale and status but possessed the forms conforming to the modern medical schools in terms of education system. In other words, the civilian training schools not only adhered to the
Gould, D.A.; Kessel, D.O.; Healey, A.E.; Johnson, S.J.; Lewandowski, W.E.
Training in interventional radiology (IR) relies on a traditional apprenticeship; to protect patients, expert supervision is mandatory until knowledge, attitudes and practical skills have been certified as satisfactory. However, the current quality of IR training is threatened by reduced time for trainees to learn, as well as a loss of basic diagnostic, training cases to non-invasive imaging. At the same time, IR techniques are becoming a focus of interest to a range of other clinical specialities. To address this training shortfall there is a need to develop novel training alternatives such as simulator models. Few simulator models in any medical field have been successfully validated to show improved clinical skills in treating patients. To date no endovascular simulator has met this standard. A good simulator must be based around key performance measures (metrics) derived from careful analysis of the procedure to be replicated. Metrics can be determined by trained psychologists from a direct analysis of the content of the job or task to be tested. The identification of these critical measures of performance is a complex process which must be tailored to a training curriculum to be effective. Simulators based on flawed metrics will invariably lead to unsatisfactory assessment. It follows that simulator development must involve the statutory licensing authorities. Equally it is essential that we do not assume that training on a particular simulator will correlate with the ability to perform the task in the real world. This 'transfer of training' must be rigorously proven by validation studies
Bell, Suzanne; Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola
A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs' important role in the community and in home deliveries and
Full Text Available This is a story about the creation of a co-authored research article. The purpose is to emphasize co-writing as a significant pedagogic practice within doctoral supervision. Regarding apprenticeship as a pedagogical methodology as well as a theoretical framework makes co-writing more than an output-driven technique for increasing productivity. Becoming a researcher requires intense involvement in real research, and it is difficult to teach somebody how to do it. It entails practice. This practice is presented by means of an e-mail correspondence between a doctoral student and her supervisor during the article production. These real-time reflections show that effective apprenticeship in this context is a matter of giving access to the practice of doing research, opening up the field and thereby providing direction. However, it is also a theoretical perspective concerned with adding materiality and real tasks to the relational space between supervisor and the novice researcher. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303149
Skinner, Natalie; Roche, Ann M.; Freeman, Toby; Mckinnon, Anna
Aim: This article presents a critical review of research on health professionals' attitudes towards alcohol and other drug (AOD)-related work relevant to both researchers and practitioners. It moves beyond education and training programs to examine the relevance of organizational culture in influencing attitudes. Method: A review of research…
Traditional dance is gaining popularity as an intervention choice for improving poor balance ability of people with intellectual disability (ID). Balance improvement for individuals with ID through dance provides opportunities for participation in sport activities and promotes independent living. This short review provides in brief research evidence of dynamic balance improvement as measured by means of a balance deck in duration of 30, 45, and 60 sec intervals, highlighting the need to incor...
Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Hamer, Davidson H; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z; Snetro-Plewman, Gail; Kambikambi, Chilobe; Sakala, Amon; Filumba, Stephen; Sichamba, Bias; Marsh, David R
Teaming is an accepted approach in health care settings but rarely practiced at the community level in developing countries. Save the Children trained and deployed teams of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) and trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential newborn and curative care for children aged 0-59 months in rural Zambia. This paper assessed whether CHWs and trained TBAs can work as teams to deliver interventions and ensure a continuum of care for all children under-five, including newborns. We trained CHW-TBA teams in teaming concepts and assessed their level of teaming prospectively every six months for two years. The overall score was a function of both teamwork and taskwork. We also assessed personal, community and service factors likely to influence the level of teaming. We created forty-seven teams of predominantly younger, male CHWs and older, female trained TBAs. After two years of deployment, twenty-one teams scored "high", twelve scored "low," and fourteen were inactive. Teamwork was high for mutual trust, team cohesion, comprehension of team goals and objectives, and communication, but not for decision making/planning. Taskwork was high for joint behavior change communication and outreach services with local health workers, but not for intra-team referral. Teams with members residing within one hour's walking distance were more likely to score high. It is feasible for a CHW and a trained TBA to work as a team. This may be an approach to provide a continuum of care for children under-five including newborns.
The United States Air Force High School Apprenticeship Program's (USAF HSAP) purpose is to place outstanding high school students whose interests are in the areas of mathematics, engineering, and science to work in a laboratory environment...
...), which includes members from the employer, labor, and public sectors, has identified the need to apply... Colleges (AACC) representatives, and leadership from DOL's Office of Apprenticeship (OA) and DOE/OVAE has...
Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Jensen, Steen Lund; Sørensen, Lilli
outcome measure was change from baseline to 12 weeks in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were randomized to PHLE (n = 49) or LLE (n = 51). Mean changes in the DASH questionnaire were 7...... benefit from PHLE over traditional LLE among patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Further investigation of the possible interaction between exercise type and corticosteroid injection is needed to establish optimal and potentially synergistic combinations of these 2 factors. REGISTRATION: NCT01984203...
Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of two different types of Tai Chi programs on the Functional Movement Screening (FMS in older adults. Methods. Ninety older adults (65.5 ± 4.6 years old who met the eligibility criteria were randomized into three different groups based on a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1: a traditional Tai Chi exercise (TTC, a simplified Tai Chi exercise (TCRT, or a control group (routine activity. The FMS consisted of the deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg rise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability, which was used to measure physical function before the present study and after six months of Tai Chi interventions. Results. Seventy-nine participants completed the present study (control = 27, TTC = 23, and TCRT = 29. Significant improvement on the FMS tests between the baseline and after the six-month intervention was observed in both Tai Chi programs, whereas no significant improvement was observed in the control group. In addition, participants in the TCRT group demonstrated greater improvement than those in the TTC group. Conclusions. The TCRT is more effective in improving the physical function in older adults when compared to the traditional Tai Chi modality, particularly for improving balance.
Learning by doing has been the mantra of engineering education for decades, however, the constraints of semester length courses limits the types and size of experiences that can be offered to students. The Space Systems Engineering Program (SSEP) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks provides interdisciplinary engineering and science students with hands-on experience in all aspects of space systems engineering through a design, build, launch paradigm applied to balloon and rocket payloads and small satellites. The program is structured using an apprenticeship model such that students, freshmen through graduate, can participate in multi-year projects thereby gaining experiences appropriate to their level in college. Students enter the lab in a trainee position and receive training on lab processes and design software. Depending on the student's interests they learn how to use specific lab equipment and software design tools. Trainees provide support engineering under guidance of an upper classman. As the students' progress in their degree program and gain more expertise, they typically become part of a specific subsystem team, where they receive additional training in developing design documents and in writing requirements and test documents, and direct their efforts to meeting specific objectives. By the time the student reaches their senior year, they have acquired the leadership role for a specific subsystem and/or a general leadership role in the lab. If students stay to pursue graduate degrees, they assume the responsibility of training and mentoring other undergraduates in their areas of expertise. Throughout the program upper class students mentor the newer students. The Space Systems Engineering Program strives to reinforce a student's degree program through these large scale projects that place engineering in context.
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
to the employment system, but has weak links to general and higher education (Jørgensen, 2013; Ebner and Nikolai, 2012). Since the 1970s, reforms in the other Nordic countries have taken steps to establish a unified upper secondary school in accordance with the idea of the Nordic model of education. In con......The aim of this chapter is to explore the development of the Danish VET-system from 1945 until 2015 with a problem-based approach. The Danish VET-system is based on the apprenticeship model, and it is organised separately from general education (the Gymnasiums). The system is closely linked......-trast to this, Denmark has maintained a strong form of tracking between general and vocational education. The chapter explores why the Danish VET-system developed along a special trajectory, and what this implies for the current situation for VET. It takes a problem-based approach that examines how the main...
de Jager, B.; Reezigt, G.J.; Creemers, B.P.M.
This study concerns the effects of teacher training in instructional behaviour based on new insights in the field of learning and instruction. In an experiment, eight teachers were trained to apply a cognitive apprenticeship model and five teachers were trained to apply a direct instruction model in
Mokgobi, M G
Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.
Khouli, Hassan; Jahnes, Katherine; Shapiro, Janet; Rose, Keith; Mathew, Joseph; Gohil, Amit; Han, Qifa; Sotelo, Andre; Jones, James; Aqeel, Adnan; Eden, Edward; Fried, Ethan
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a preventable cause of a potentially lethal ICU infection. The optimal method to teach health-care providers correct sterile techniques during central vein catheterization (CVC) remains unclear. We randomly assigned second- and third-year internal medicine residents trained by a traditional apprenticeship model to simulation-based plus video training or video training alone from December 2007 to January 2008, with a follow-up period to examine CRBSI ending in July 2009. During the follow-up period, a simulation-based training program in sterile techniques during CVC was implemented in the medical ICU (MICU). A surgical ICU (SICU) where no residents received study interventions was used for comparison. The primary outcome measures were median residents' scores in sterile techniques and rates of CRBSI per 1,000 catheter-days. Of the 47 enrolled residents, 24 were randomly assigned to the simulation-based plus video training group and 23 to the video training group. Median baseline scores in both groups were equally poor: 12.5 to 13 (52%-54%) out of maximum score of 24 (P = .95; median difference, 0; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0). After training, median score was significantly higher for the simulation-based plus video training group: 22 (92%) vs 18 (75%) for the video training group (P training in sterile techniques during CVC is superior to traditional training or video training alone and is associated with decreased rate of CRBSI. Simulation-based training in CVC should be routinely used to reduce iatrogenic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00612131; URL: clinicaltrials.gov.
Woolley, Norman N; Jarvis, Yvonne
The acquisition of a range of diverse clinical skills is a central feature of the pre-registration nursing curriculum. Prior to exposure to clinical practice, it is essential that learners have the opportunity to practise and develop such skills in a safe and controlled environment under the direction and supervision of clinical experts. However, the competing demands of the HE nursing curriculum coupled with an increased number of learners have resulted in a reduced emphasis on traditional apprenticeship learning. This paper presents an alternative model for clinical skills teaching that draws upon the principles of cognitive apprenticeship [Collins, A., Brown, J.S., Newman, S., 1989. Cognitive Apprenticeship: teaching the crafts of reading, writing and mathematics. In: Resnick, L.B. (Ed.) Knowing. Learning and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, pp. 453-494] and situated cognition within a technologically rich and authentic learning environment. It will show how high quality DVD materials illustrating clinical skills performed by expert practitioners have been produced and used in conjunction with CCTV and digital recording technologies to support learning within a pedagogic framework appropriate to skills acquisition. It is argued that this model not only better prepares the student for the time they will spend in the practice setting, but also lays the foundation for the development of a clinically competent practitioner with the requisite physical and cognitive skills who is fit for purpose [UKCC, 1999. Fitness for Practice: The UKCC Commission for Nursing and Midwifery Education. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, London].
Kaltsatou, A; Kouidi, E; Fountoulakis, K; Sipka, C; Theochari, V; Kandylis, D; Deligiannis, A
To examine the effects of an eight-month exercise training programme with Greek traditional dancing on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Randomized controlled trial. Sports Medicine Laboratory. A total of 31 patients, aged 59.9 ± 14.1 years. They were randomly assigned either to a Greek traditional dancing programme (Group A) or to a sedentary control group (Group B). A functional capacity assessment was performed at baseline and the end of the study. Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were also used. Quality of life was examined using the Quality of Life and Satisfaction questionnaire. After the eight months, Group A increased walking distance in the 6-minute walk test (328.4 ± 35.9 vs. 238.0 ± 47.6 m), sit-to-stand test (19.1 ± 1.8 vs. 25.1 ± 1.4 seconds), Berg Balance Scale score (53.1 ± 2.1 vs. 43.2 ± 6.7), lower limbs maximal isometric force (77.7 ± 25.7 vs. 51.0 ± 29.8 lb), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score (77.0 ± 23.1 vs. 82.0 ± 24.4), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale total score (51.3 ± 15.5 vs. 47.7 ± 13.3) and Quality of Life total score (34.9 ± 5.2 vs. 28 ± 4.5), compared with Group B. Our results demonstrate that Greek traditional dances improve functional capacity and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2014.
The assumption that the "purpose" of school foreign language teaching is to serve "instrumental" ends may largely underlie the present adolescent dropout. In this article the author proposes a two-stage foreign language apprenticeship. A two-stage apprenticeship would include a carefully planned diagnostic element, preparing…
Mobeen, N; Durocher, J; Zuberi, Nf; Jahan, N; Blum, J; Wasim, S; Walraven, G; Hatcher, J
to determine if misoprostol is safe and efficacious in preventing postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when administered by trained traditional birth attendants (TBA) at home deliveries. a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. a total of 1119 women giving birth at home. from June 2006 to June 2008, consenting women were randomised to receive 600 microg oral misoprostol (n = 534) or placebo (n = 585) after delivery to determine whether misoprostol reduced the incidence of PPH (≥ 500 ml). the primary outcomes were measured blood loss ≥ 500 ml after delivery and drop in haemoglobin >2 g/dl from before to after delivery. oral misoprostol was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of PPH (≥ 500 ml) (16.5 versus 21.9%; relative risk 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97). There were no measurable differences between study groups for drop in haemoglobin >2 g/dl (relative risk 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.02); but significantly fewer women receiving misoprostol had a drop in haemoglobin >3 g/dl, compared with placebo (5.1 versus 9.6%; relative risk 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.83). Shivering and chills were significantly more common with misoprostol. There were no maternal deaths among participants. postpartum administration of 600 microg oral misoprostol by trained TBAs at home deliveries reduces the rate of PPH by 24%. Given its ease of use and low cost, misoprostol could reduce the burden of PPH in community settings where universal oxytocin prophylaxis is not feasible. Continual training and skill-building for TBAs, along with monitoring and evaluation of programme effectiveness, should accompany any widespread introduction of this drug.
Leemann, Regula Julia; Imdorf, Christian
In training networks, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises pool their resources to train apprentices within the framework of the dual VET system, while an intermediary organisation is tasked with managing operations. Over the course of their apprenticeship, the apprentices switch from one training company to another on a (half-) yearly…
The present study analyses views of early childhood music teachers and conservatory teachers on relations between theory and practice and between teacher training and teaching practice. Tentative conclusions were a.o. that teachers and even more educators tend to value practical over theoretical...... knowledge; educators tend to understand teacher training in terms of apprenticeship rather than acquisition of theoretical as well as practical based professional competence in teaching; teacher training is in effect vocational rather than professional, though it is claimed to be so....
The function of SHARP is to recognize high school juniors who have demonstrated unusually high promise for sucess in mathemtics and science. Twenty academically talented students who will be seniors in high school in September were chosen to participate in SHARP 83. Mentors were selected to provide students with first-hand experiences in a research and development environment in order that each student might try out his or her tentative professional career choice. Some special features of SHARP included field trips to private industries doing similar and related research, special lectures on topics of research here at ARC, individual and group counseling sessions, written research papers and oral reports, and primarily the opportunity to be exposed to the present frontiers in space exploration and research. The long-range goal of SHARP is to contribute to the future recruitment of needed scientists and engineers. This final report is summary of all the phases of the planning and implemenation of the 1983 Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP).
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to re-examine the unique political economy of Germany's dual apprenticeship training model and its underlying philosophy of corporatist governance. It responds to recent arguments suggesting that Germany's collectivist skill regime is under threat, increasingly giving way to the introduction of…
Bustamante Valles, Karla; Montes, Sandra; Madrigal, Maria de Jesus; Burciaga, Adan; Martínez, María Elena; Johnson, Michelle J
Stroke rehabilitation in low- and middle-income countries, such as Mexico, is often hampered by lack of clinical resources and funding. To provide a cost-effective solution for comprehensive post-stroke rehabilitation that can alleviate the need for one-on-one physical or occupational therapy, in lower and upper extremities, we proposed and implemented a technology-assisted rehabilitation gymnasium in Chihuahua, Mexico. The Gymnasium for Robotic Rehabilitation (Robot Gym) consisted of low- and high-tech systems for upper and lower limb rehabilitation. Our hypothesis is that the Robot Gym can provide a cost- and labor-efficient alternative for post-stroke rehabilitation, while being more or as effective as traditional physical and occupational therapy approaches. A typical group of stroke patients was randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The intervention group received rehabilitation using the devices in the Robot Gym, whereas the control group (n = 10) received time-matched standard care. All of the study subjects were subjected to 24 two-hour therapy sessions over a period of 6 to 8 weeks. Several clinical assessments tests for upper and lower extremities were used to evaluate motor function pre- and post-intervention. A cost analysis was done to compare the cost effectiveness for both therapies. No significant differences were observed when comparing the results of the pre-intervention Mini-mental, Brunnstrom Test, and Geriatric Depression Scale Test, showing that both groups were functionally similar prior to the intervention. Although, both training groups were functionally equivalent, they had a significant age difference. The results of all of the upper extremity tests showed an improvement in function in both groups with no statistically significant differences between the groups. The Fugl-Meyer and the 10 Meters Walk lower extremity tests showed greater improvement in the intervention group compared to the
If Europe is to develop an integrated knowledge society and ERA, the research practice has to be developed. Further development of the research practice can among others take place through training of young researchers, which is not only based on the principles of apprenticeship, but a training w...
Forsblom, Lara; Negrini, Lucio; Gurtner, Jean-Luc; Schumann, Stephan
In the Swiss vocational education system, which is often called a "Dual System", trainees enter into an apprenticeship contract with a training company. On average, 25% of those contracts are terminated prematurely (PCT). This article examines the relationship between training companies' selection methods and PCTs. The investigation is…
Sabin, Lora L; Knapp, Anna B; MacLeod, William B; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Kasimba, Joshua; Hamer, Davidson H; Gill, Christopher J
The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP") was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness. We calculated LUNESP's financial and economic costs and the economic cost of implementation for a forecasted ten-year program (2011-2020). In each case, we calculated the incremental cost per death avoided and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted in real 2011 US dollars. The forecasted 10-year program analysis included a base case as well as 'conservative' and 'optimistic' scenarios. Uncertainty was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The estimated financial and economic costs of LUNESP were $118,574 and $127,756, respectively, or $49,469 and $53,550 per year. Fixed costs accounted for nearly 90% of total costs. For the 10-year program, discounted total and annual program costs were $256,455 and $26,834 respectively; for the base case, optimistic, and conservative scenarios, the estimated cost per death avoided was $1,866, $591, and $3,024, and cost per DALY averted was $74, $24, and $120, respectively. Outcomes were robust to variations in local costs, but sensitive to variations in intervention effect size, number of births attended by TBAs, and the extent of foreign consultants' participation. Based on established guidelines, the strategy of using trained TBAs to reduce neonatal mortality was 'highly cost effective'. We strongly recommend consideration of this approach for other remote rural populations with limited access to health care.
Lora L Sabin
Full Text Available The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP" was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness.We calculated LUNESP's financial and economic costs and the economic cost of implementation for a forecasted ten-year program (2011-2020. In each case, we calculated the incremental cost per death avoided and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted in real 2011 US dollars. The forecasted 10-year program analysis included a base case as well as 'conservative' and 'optimistic' scenarios. Uncertainty was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The estimated financial and economic costs of LUNESP were $118,574 and $127,756, respectively, or $49,469 and $53,550 per year. Fixed costs accounted for nearly 90% of total costs. For the 10-year program, discounted total and annual program costs were $256,455 and $26,834 respectively; for the base case, optimistic, and conservative scenarios, the estimated cost per death avoided was $1,866, $591, and $3,024, and cost per DALY averted was $74, $24, and $120, respectively. Outcomes were robust to variations in local costs, but sensitive to variations in intervention effect size, number of births attended by TBAs, and the extent of foreign consultants' participation.Based on established guidelines, the strategy of using trained TBAs to reduce neonatal mortality was 'highly cost effective'. We strongly recommend consideration of this approach for other remote rural populations with limited access to health care.
A pilot study to compare the views of traditionally trained and CAM-trained therapists using the clinical exemplar of the management of neck/upper limb pain to assess barriers to effective integration of approaches.
Denyer, Karen; Smith, Helen; Davies, Kevin; Horne, Rob; Hankins, Matthew; Walker-Bone, Karen
In the UK, patients frequently choose complementary (CAM) therapies, particularly for chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions. It is widely agreed that better integration of complementary and traditional healthcare is desirable. We piloted the Benefits and Risks of Treatment Questionnaire to compare the views of different healthcare practitioners about traditional and alternative approaches in one clinical scenario in order to assess barriers to effective integration. A cross-sectional survey of healthcare practitioners (primary care practitioners, physiotherapists, pharmacists, osteopaths, chiropractors and acupuncturists) in the UK. The views of all healthcare providers were compared using the exemplar of neck, shoulder and upper arm pain to explore the perceived risks and benefits of different types of therapeutic intervention using a mathematical cluster approach. 448/1254 (36%) useable replies were received representing all six professions. A mean of 14.9 years of experience was reported by participants. The cluster analyses revealed distinct clusters of opinion of benefit: primary care physicians, physiotherapists and pharmacists were significantly more likely to rate a cluster including: anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, steroids, physiotherapy, paracetamol and antidepressants as beneficial for neck, shoulder and upper arm pain. In contrast, osteopaths and chiropractors, but not physiotherapists were significantly more likely to rate a cluster including chiropractic, osteopathy and physiotherapy as beneficial. The Beliefs about Risks and Benefits of Treatments Questionnaire can be applied using a postal approach and achieves similar response rates to other surveys amongst healthcare practitioners. Despite widespread agreement that increased integration of traditional and alternative approaches is desirable, the results of this study suggest that experienced practitioners show the strongest belief in the benefit of approaches closest to their
Konge, Lars; Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Clementsen, Paul Frost
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) plays a key role in the staging of lung cancer, which is crucial for allocation to surgical treatment. EBUS-TBNA is a complicated procedure and simulation-based training is helpful in the first part of the long learning curve prior to performing the procedure on actual patients. New trainees should follow a structured training programme consisting of training on simulators to proficiency as assessed with a validated test followed by supervised practice on patients. The simulation-based training is superior to the traditional apprenticeship model and is recommended in the newest guidelines. EBUS-TBNA and oesophageal ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA or EUS-B-FNA) are complementary to each other and the combined techniques are superior to either technique alone. It is logical to learn and to perform the two techniques in combination, however, for lung cancer staging solely EBUS-TBNA simulators exist, but hopefully in the future simulation-based training in EUS will be possible. PMID:28840013
Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs
Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral
David G. Behm
Full Text Available Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics, there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with
Born in Paris on September 28, 1852, son of an eastern railways' employee and of a dressmaker, Henri Moissan's secondary schooling in Meaux did not allow him to get access to the sesame diploma "baccalauréat" (GCE). In 1869, he did obtain a special certificate of secondary schooling so that he could become an apprentice in watch making. That could have been the end of the story, but dreadful event for France appeared to have beneficial effects for Moissan. Under the threat of the Prussian army, Moissan's family took refuge near Paris. This gave the young Henri the opportunity to register as a student for the second-class pharmacy diploma, which did not need, at the time, the GCE. Moissan became then a trainee in pharmacy in 1871. Meanwhile, he followed the special schooling of "Ecole de chimie" founded by E. Frémy, and then joined the laboratory of Dehérain at the Museum, where he worked in plant physiology. He finally obtained the famous "baccalauréat" (GCE) and could register as a student in first-class pharmacy. He became a pharmacist as well as a doctor in sciences. In 1883, Moissan was named professor at the school of pharmacy in Paris. In 1886, he isolated fluorine by electrolysis of fluorhydric acid, in the presence of potassium fluoride, at a low temperature. He then studied diamond synthesis and gave a start to high temperature chemistry, designing his famous furnace. These findings and many others allowed Moissan to rise to membership in many learned academies around the world. Crowning achievement, Moissan won the Nobel Prize in 1906. A man of culture, collector of autographs and paintings, he died in 1907. Nothing of that would have been possible if there had not been a second-class pharmacist diploma. The history of Henri Moissan is one of a rise from apprenticeship to the Nobel Prize.
The Australian economy is in transition. Its future prosperity will depend on greater economic diversification and on innovation and entrepreneurship, hallmarks of Industry 4.0. This has implications for skills development for future workers and for those needing to move into new jobs or roles. It also has a direct impact on apprenticeships--an…
Rice, Olivia; Hudson, Jordan; Foster, Laura Rasmussen; Klein, Steven
Work-based learning, an educational strategy that provides students with technical skills and knowledge in an authentic work setting, is often delivered through a Career Technical Education (CTE) or Registered Apprenticeship (RA) program. Both have overlapping structures and content, including experiential learning and career exploration…
Smith, Erica; Walker, Arlene; Kemmis, Ros Brennan
Attrition in apprenticeships and traineeships is an ongoing concern for employers and government alike, with completion standing at around 50% on average. One possible explanation for this high attrition rate is that there is a mismatch between the respective expectations of apprentices/trainees and employers. This research uses the concept of the…
Rowlands, Bruce; Chappell, Clive
A qualitative study examined 18 small and medium-sized business owners' decision to adopt or reject Australia's new apprenticeship system. Participation was based on three interconnected processes: psychological commitment, financial justification, and operational choice. Contextual elements in the internal and external environment influenced…
Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh
Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…
Character of clinical skills training is always influenced by technical improvement and cultural changes. Over the last years, two trends have changed the way of traditional apprenticeship-style training in regional anaesthesia: firstly, the development in ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, and secondly, the reduced acceptance of using patients as mannequins for invasive techniques. Against this background, simulation techniques are explored, ranging from simple low-fidelity part-task training models to train skills in needle application, to highly sophisticated virtual reality models – the full range is covered. This review tries to discuss all available options with benefits and neglects. The task in clinical practice will be in choosing the right level of sophistication for the desired approach and trainee level. However, the transfer of simulated skills to clinical practice has not been evaluated. It has to be proven whether simulation-trained skills could, as a last consequence, reduce the risk to patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forest, Emmanuelle; Lenzen, Benoît; Öhman, Marie
The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss similarities and differences between the curricula for physical education (PE) in secondary schools in Sweden, France and the canton of Geneva (Switzerland) in the light of PE teaching traditions (PETTs). Teaching traditions concern ideas about the goals of school disciplines and therefore about the…
Marins, E.R.; Cotelli do Espírito Santo, A.; Abreu Mól, A. C. de; Cunha, G.; Landau, L.
A technician undergoing radioprotection training must learn to use radiation detectors. Practical exercises involve being near to radiation sources. The work here presented reduces the exposure to individuals using a virtual environment to achieve preliminary apprenticeship prior using real radioactive sources. (authors)
In the face of escalating youth unemployment, some new approaches are needed for training out-of-school youth in Australia. The current system of apprenticeship has become outmoded because many of the skilled trades that the system prepares young people for will soon be non-existent. One approach to this problem has been implementation of…
The Young Apprenticeship (YA) programme is the latest in a long line of vocational qualifications to exist fleetingly within the English education system. Introduced in 2004, the YA programme offered Key Stage 4 students the opportunity to combine academic and vocational study within specific industrial sectors.Evaluative studies of a quantitative nature evidence a positive response, both in terms of perceived usefulness and actual success (90% completion rate of the Sport YA, (SkillsActive, ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School and to analyze the affecting factors. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out among 192 students who educated at Meram Apprenticeship School during 2004-2005 academic years. Of 192 students whom participated in this study, 95.8 % ( n= 184 were male, and 4.2 % (n= 8 were female, minimum age was 15, maximum age was 20 (median value= 17 years. When the smoking status was evaluated, 50.5 % (n= 97 were ever-smokers, 7.3 % (n= 14 were ex-smokers, 42.2 % (n=81 were never smokers. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7 years, the highest age was 18 years and the median value was 13 years. When the reasons to start smoking were analysed, 41 students of 97 current smokers stated that they had started smoking because of affecting of social environment and friend groups (40.6 %, n=41, affectation and enthusiasm (27.7 %, n=28, stress and anxiety (21.8 % n=22. According to Fagerstrom criterion, 43 students (42.2 % were assessed very low addictive level, 23 students (n=22.5% were high addictive level. Our results showed that the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School was an important matter. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 424-433
Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.
Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
during the latest decades. This is seen especially in three areas: VET as an instrument for social inclusion of disadvantaged youth, the state initiative to establish school-based training (training centres) and an initiative for unification of vocational and general education (the eux programme)......The paper examines the development of initial vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark in relation to the Nordic model of education. The egalitarian ideal of this model is to provide equal opportunities for education for all at all levels. This ideal has been pursued by policies in all...... the Nordic countries to establish public, free and comprehensive schooling. Key principles are the equal access for all regardless of social background and gender, and full permeability from the lowest to the highest levels with no dead ends in the education system (Blossing et al., 2014). This implies...
Souto-Otero, Manuel; Ure, Odd Bjorn
Coherence of national education and training systems is increasingly tabled in European policy debates. Leaning on literature about the emergence and consolidation of national education systems, this article explores the rationale for VET reforms in Norway and Spain by scrutinising attempts to strengthen the coherence of their VET systems.…
Currie, Sheila; Foley, Kelly; Schwartz, Saul; Taylor-Lewis, Musu
In 1998, Canada's Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC) conducted case studies of two work-based training and skill development programs for street youth in Vancouver, British Columbia. The BladeRunners program places youth on construction sites while encouraging them to work toward an apprenticeship in the building trades. The…
... Find a Job Veterans.Gov Apprenticeship Occupations and Careers Women Who Served Programs & Services Transition GPS Frequently Asked Questions Hire a Veteran Find qualified Veterans Policy & Compliance Employer Toolkit Apprenticeships HIRE Vets Medallion Program Service Providers Grants & ...
Mastellos, Nikolaos; Tran, Tammy; Dharmayat, Kanika; Cecil, Elizabeth; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Wong, Cybele C Peng; Mkandawire, Winnie; Ngalande, Emmanuel; Wu, Joseph Tsung-Shu; Hardy, Victoria; Chirambo, Baxter Griphin; O'Donoghue, John Martin
Despite the increasing uptake of information and communication technologies (ICT) within healthcare services across developing countries, community healthcare workers (CHWs) have limited knowledge to fully utilise computerised clinical systems and mobile apps. The 'Introduction to Information and Communication Technology and eHealth' course was developed with the aim to provide CHWs in Malawi, Africa, with basic knowledge and computer skills to use digital solutions in healthcare delivery. The course was delivered using a traditional and a blended learning approach. Two questionnaires were developed and tested for face validity and reliability in a pilot course with 20 CHWs. Those were designed to measure CHWs' knowledge of and attitudes towards the use of ICT, before and after each course, as well as their satisfaction with each learning approach. Following validation, a randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the two learning approaches. A total of 40 CHWs were recruited, stratified by position, gender and computer experience, and allocated to the traditional or blended learning group using block randomisation. Participants completed the baseline and follow-up questionnaires before and after each course to assess the impact of each learning approach on their knowledge, attitudes, and satisfaction. Per-item, pre-post and between-group, mean differences for each approach were calculated using paired and unpaired t-tests, respectively. Per-item, between-group, satisfaction scores were compared using unpaired t-tests. Scores across all scales improved after attending the traditional and blended learning courses. Self-rated ICT knowledge was significantly improved in both groups with significant differences between groups in seven domains. However, actual ICT knowledge scores were similar across groups. There were no significant differences between groups in attitudinal gains. Satisfaction with the course was generally high in both
Diehl, Claudia; Friedrich, Michael; Hall, Anja
In this article, we examine the extent and the causes of ethnic inequalities in access to apprenticeship training positions within the German system of vocational training. Analyses are based on pooled data from three surveys of high school graduates conducted at the German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB). The role of the following differences between German and applicants with an immigrant background for vocational training positions is analyzed: their preferen...
The commercialization of drugs started toward the end of Heian period (794-1192) when not only aristocrats and monks who were traditional patrons to drug makers, but also local clans and landlords who became powerful as a result of the disbanding of aristocratic manors accumulated enough wealth to spend money on medicine. Although traveling around the country was still a dangerous endeavor, merchants assembled groups to bring lucrative foreign drugs (mainly Chinese) to remote areas. The spread of commercial drugs to common people, however, did not happen until the early Edo period (1603-1867), when the so-called barrier system was installed nationwide to make domestic travel safe. Commercialization started in large cities and gradually spread to other areas. Many nostrums popular until recently appeared in the Genroku period (1688-1703) or later. Many such nostrums were all-cures, often consisting of such active ingredients as Saussureae radix, Agalloch, or Gambir. Even in the Edo period, many people living in agricultural or fishing villages, as well as those in the lower tier, were still poor. Much of the medication available to those people was therefore made of various plant or animal-derived substances that were traditionally used as folk medicines.
Full Text Available The article presents the kaleidoscopic view on the concept of metacognition. There are a lot of implications showing the link between metacognitive skills, learning and teaching. Metacognitive skills such as self-direction, self-evaluation, and self-control, as well as orientation, planning, monitoring, testing, diagnosing, repairing, evaluation and reflection play an important role in facilitating the process of transition from teacher-centered environment to autonomous foreign language studies. Synthetic Cognitive Apprenticeship model is suggested as possible way to help students enhance their metacognitive skills thus becoming more prepared for autonomous foreign language studies.
Maulana, I.; Sumarto; Nurafiati, P.; Puspita, R. H.
This research aims to find out the evaluation program of the Industrial apprenticeship (Prakerin) in electrical engineering. This research includes on four variables of CIPP. (1). Context (a). programme planning (b). design. (2). Input (a). readiness of students (b). performance of vocational education teachers (c). Facilities and infrastructure, (3). process (a). performance students (b). performance mentors, (4). Product (a). readiness of student work. This research is a type of program evaluation research with Stake model approach. Data collection methods used are questionnaires with closed questions and frequently asked questions.
Beasley, Gary S; Murphy, Anne M; Brenner, Joel I; Ravekes, William J
Johns Hopkins has been a leader in paediatric cardiology for over 85 years. In the 1940s, Dr Helen Taussig began training fellows in paediatric cardiology at Johns Hopkins at a time when the diagnosis and treatment of CHD were in the earliest stage. Under her leadership, the fellowship developed a strong foundation that has continued to evolve to meet the current needs of learners and educators. In the current era, the Johns Hopkins programme implements the current theories of adult education and actively engages our fellows in learning as well as teaching. The programme uses techniques such as flipped classroom, structured case-based small-group learning, observed and structured clinical examination, simulations, and innovative educational technology. These strategies combined with our faculty and rich history give our fellows a unique educational experience.
The transition to work through apprenticeship is one taken by many young people. A sense of belonging to a workplace is posited to be an important precursor for initial and on-going engagement with practice communities. This article details a study of beginning apprentices in ten trades. The project sought to identify factors influencing…
Aydeniz, Mehmet; Baksa, Kristen; Skinner, Jane
The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students' understanding of science and scientific inquiry were collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic…
On the macro level (federal level) and exo level (state or regional level), the German Dual Apprenticeship System shows a high degree of institutionalised collaboration. However, the companies and vocational schools on the meso level (institutional level and level of the actors), in contrast, are just loosely coupled with a dominant partner (i.e.,…
Brîndușa Oana Vartolomei
Full Text Available Changes and additions made to the Law on apprenticeship contract and call into question the manner in which the Romanian legislator understands that give efficiency to this legal institutions. The scientific research aims to identify substantive changes made to the legal text by Law no. 179/2013 and to explore opportunities in the current context of national and European legislation.
This article presents apprenticeship as an ethnographic method suitable for researching topics concerning gender and space. To use this method, the researcher takes up a practice, such as a sport. Emphasis lies in understanding one’s topic ‘by body’, and the article argues that such an embodied
Turbin, Jill; Fuller, Alison; Wintrup, Julie
There is growing research and policy interest in the extent to which government supported Apprenticeship in England provides a platform for educational and career progression in different occupational sectors. This paper makes a contribution to this debate by presenting research on the healthcare sector undertaken in a regional health authority in…
Presented by Carlo Lamprecht, Head of the Department of Economy, Employment and External Affairs of the State of Geneva, the diploma was awarded in recognition of the 199 CERN apprentices Roland has guided through the Certificat Fédéral de Capacité (CFC), an end-of-apprenticeship certificate awarded by the Cantonal authorities. Roland will be retiring in December 2004 after 37 years of service, 32 of which he spent in the role of apprenticeship supervisor.
Engineering enrollments are rising in universities; however the graduate engineering shortage continues. Particularly, women and minorities will be underrepresented for many years. As one means of solving this shortage, Federal agencies facing future scientific and technological challenges were asked to participate in the Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP). This program was created to provide an engineering experience for gifted female and minority high school students at an age when they could still make career and education decisions. The SHARP program is designed for high school juniors who are U.S. citizens, are 16 years old, and who have very high promise in math and science through outstanding academic performance in high school. Students who are accepted into this summer program will earn as they learn by working 8 hr days in a 5-day work week. Reports from SHARP students are presented.
In 1985, a total of 126 talented high school students gained first hand knowledge about science and engineering careers by working directly with a NASA scientist or engineer during the summer. This marked the sixth year of operation for NASA's Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP). The major priority of maintaining the high standards and success of prior years was satisfied. The following eight sites participated in the Program: Ames Research Center, Ames' Dryden Flight Research Facility, Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard's Wallop Flight Facility, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Tresp Associates served as the SHARP contractor and worked closely with NASA staff at headquarters and the sites just mentioned to plan, implement, and evaluate the program.
Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.
This study aims to get an in-depth understanding of the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation. This study is experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The subject of this study is the students’ of the eighth grade from junior high schools in Bandung: high-level and middle-level. In each school, two parallel groups were chosen as a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group was given cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI) treatment while the control group was given conventional learning. The results show that the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation who obtained CAI treatment was better than the conventional one, viewed which can be observed from the overall, mathematical prior knowledge (MPK), and school level. It can be concluded that CAI can be used as a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ mathematical representation.
Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.
The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.
Revisitando la pedagogía con la perspectiva sociocultural: Artefactos para la práctica reflexiva en el oficio de enseñar psicología. Profesores de psicología en formación y formados en comunidades de aprendizaje de prácticas de enseñanza del profesorado de psicología Re-Visiting Pedagogy With Socio-Cultural Perspectiva: Artifacts To Develop Reflective Practice At Work Of Teaching Psychology. Teachers Of Psychology In Training And Trained In Communities Of Learning Of Teaching Apprenticeship Of Psychology Teaching Course
Full Text Available El objetivo es investigar modelos mentales de intervención de profesores de Psicología en situaciones-problemas que construyen estudiantes universitarios de Didáctica Especial y Prácticas de Enseñanza. Unidades de análisis: "giro contextualista" del aprendizaje. Marco teórico: enfoques socioculturales y pedagogía, modelos mentales y cambio cognitivo, reflexión sobre profesión y competencias. Se administró un Cuestionario de Situaciones- Problema de Intervención a 93 estudiantes y 22 docentes del profesorado en 2007. Se analizan diferencias cualitativas entre pre-test y post-test de 53 "profesores en formación" en ejes y dimensiones de profesionalización. Fortalezas: problemas complejos, inferencias, objetivos. Nudos críticos: ahistoricidad, agencia unilateral, herramientas, atribución. Figuras de profesor centradas en potenciación de sujeto psicológico, más que en contenido y significado de enseñanza disciplinar. Implicación en procesos de internalización/externalización para apropiación del rol: tensiones, oportunidades de cambio, construcción e intercambio de sentidos. Modelo mental: unidad de análisis multidimensional, heterogénea, situada en tramas intersubjetivas, institucionales e históricas.The AIM is to explore mental models of intervention of Psychology teachers in educational problem-situations that University students build at their Undergraduate Teaching Apprenticeship. Units of analysis: "contextualist shift" of learning. Frame: sociocultural theories and pedagogy, mental models and cognitive change, reflection over profession and competences. A Questionnaire of Problem-Situations was given to 93 students and 22 teachers in 2007. Qualitative differences between pretest and post-test in axes and dimensions of the process of becoming professionnals are analysed in 53 futur teachers of Psychology. Strengths: complex problems, inferences, aims. Critical knots: ahistoricity, unilateral agency, tools and
J. J. M. Smit
Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.
J. J. M. Smit
Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.
Mazur, Joan M; Westneat, Susan
Why do generations of farmers tolerate the high-risk work of agricultural work and resist safe farm practices? This study presents an analysis inspired by empirical data from studies conducted from 1993 to 2012 on the differing effects of farm safety interventions between participants who live or work on farms and those who don't, when both were learning to be farm safety advocates. Both groups show statistically significant gains in knowledge and behavioral change proxy measures. However, non-farm participants' gains consistently outstripped their live/work farm counterparts. Drawing on socio-cultural perspectives, a grounded theory qualitative analysis focused on identifying useful constructs to understand the farmers' resistance to adopt safety practices. Understanding apprenticeships of observation and its relation to experiential learning over time can expose sources of deeply anchored beliefs and how they operate insidiously to promote familiar, albeit unsafe farming practices. The challenge for intervention-prevention programs becomes how to disrupt what has been learned during these apprenticeships of observation and to address what has been obscured during this powerful socialization process. Implications focus on the design and implementation of farm safety prevention and education programs. First, farm safety advocates and prevention researchers need to attend to demographics and explicitly explore the prior experiences and background of safety program participants. Second, farm youth in particular need to explore, explicitly, their own apprenticeships of observations, preferably through the use of new social media and or digital forms of expression, resulting in a story repair process. Third, careful study of the organization of work and farm experiences and practices need to provide the foundations for intervention programs. Finally, it is crucial that farm safety programs understand apprenticeships of observation are generational and ongoing over time
Full Text Available Because students' ability to use statistics, which is mathematical in nature, is one of the concerns of educators, embedding within an e-learning system the pedagogical characteristics of learning is 'value added' because it facilitates the conventional method of learning mathematics. Many researchers emphasize the effectiveness of cognitive apprenticeship in learning and problem solving in the workplace. In a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, skills are learned within a community of practitioners through observation of modelling and then practice plus coaching. This study utilized an internet-based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (i-CAM in three phases and evaluated its effectiveness for improving statistics problem-solving performance among postgraduate students. The results showed that, when compared to the conventional mathematics learning model, the i-CAM could significantly promote students' problem-solving performance at the end of each phase. In addition, the combination of the differences in students' test scores were considered to be statistically significant after controlling for the pre-test scores. The findings conveyed in this paper confirmed the considerable value of i-CAM in the improvement of statistics learning for non-specialized postgraduate students.
Saadati, Farzaneh; Ahmad Tarmizi, Rohani; Mohd Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi; Abu Bakar, Kamariah
Because students' ability to use statistics, which is mathematical in nature, is one of the concerns of educators, embedding within an e-learning system the pedagogical characteristics of learning is 'value added' because it facilitates the conventional method of learning mathematics. Many researchers emphasize the effectiveness of cognitive apprenticeship in learning and problem solving in the workplace. In a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, skills are learned within a community of practitioners through observation of modelling and then practice plus coaching. This study utilized an internet-based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (i-CAM) in three phases and evaluated its effectiveness for improving statistics problem-solving performance among postgraduate students. The results showed that, when compared to the conventional mathematics learning model, the i-CAM could significantly promote students' problem-solving performance at the end of each phase. In addition, the combination of the differences in students' test scores were considered to be statistically significant after controlling for the pre-test scores. The findings conveyed in this paper confirmed the considerable value of i-CAM in the improvement of statistics learning for non-specialized postgraduate students.
Michael R Clay
Full Text Available Training anatomic and clinical pathology residents in the principles of bioinformatics is a challenging endeavor. Most residents receive little to no formal exposure to bioinformatics during medical education, and most of the pathology training is spent interpreting histopathology slides using light microscopy or focused on laboratory regulation, management, and interpretation of discrete laboratory data. At a minimum, residents should be familiar with data structure, data pipelines, data manipulation, and data regulations within clinical laboratories. Fellowship-level training should incorporate advanced principles unique to each subspecialty. Barriers to bioinformatics education include the clinical apprenticeship training model, ill-defined educational milestones, inadequate faculty expertise, and limited exposure during medical training. Online educational resources, case-based learning, and incorporation into molecular genomics education could serve as effective educational strategies. Overall, pathology bioinformatics training can be incorporated into pathology resident curricula, provided there is motivation to incorporate, institutional support, educational resources, and adequate faculty expertise.
Dorothy A. Andriole
Full Text Available Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence of college laboratory research apprenticeship (CLRA participation among students considering medical careers and to examine the relationship between CLRA participation and medical-school acceptance among students who applied to medical school. Methods: We used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of: 1 CLRA participation in a national cohort of 2001–2006 Pre-Medical College Admission Test (MCAT Questionnaire (PMQ respondents and 2 among those PMQ respondents who subsequently applied to medical school, medical-school acceptance by June 2013, reporting adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: Of 213,497 PMQ respondents in the study sample (81.2% of all 262,813 PMQ respondents in 2001–2006, 72,797 (34.1% reported CLRA participation. Each of under-represented minorities in medicine (URM race/ethnicity (vs. white, aOR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01–1.06, Asian/Pacific Islander race/ethnicity (vs. white, aOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.17–1.22, and high school summer laboratory research apprenticeship (HSLRA participation (aOR: 3.95; 95% CI: 3.84–4.07 predicted a greater likelihood of CLRA participation. Of the 213,497 PMQ respondents in the study sample, 144,473 (67.7% had applied to medical school and 87,368 (60.5% of 144,473 medical-school applicants had been accepted to medical school. Each of female gender (vs. male, aOR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.16–1.22, URM race/ethnicity (vs. white, aOR: 3.91; 95% CI: 3.75–4.08, HSLRA participation (aOR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03–1.19, CLRA participation (aOR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.09–1.15, college summer academic enrichment program participation (aOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21–1.31, and higher MCAT score (per point increase, aOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.30–1.31 predicted a greater likelihood of medical-school acceptance. Conclusions: About one-third of all PMQ respondents had participated in CLRAs prior to taking the MCAT, and such participation
The traditional operator job is changing, which among other things has generated a need for better job training. Surprisingly increased process automation has lead to increased operator qualifications, i.e. basic job training but also up-date and rehearsal training within certain fixed intervals. There are several, similar models for instructional system development available in the literature. One model which is of special interest integrates Operator Training development and Man-Machine Interfaces development. The extent to which Systematic Operator Training has been implemented varies with branches and companies. The nuclear power branch is given as an example in the report. This branch probably represents something better than the average among the process industries.(author)
Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen
Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.
Engineering enrollments are rising in universities; however, the graduate engineer shortage continues. Particularly, women and minorities will be underrepresented for years to come. As one means of solving this shortage, Federal agencies facing future scientific and technological challenges were asked to participate in the Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP). This program was created 4 years ago to provide an engineering experience for gifted female and minority high school students at an age when they could still make career and education decisions. The SHARP Program is designed for high school juniors (women and minorities) who are U.S. citizens, are 16 years old, and who have unusually high promise in mathematics and science through outstanding academic performance in high school. Students who are accepted into this summer program will earn as they learn by working 8 hours a day in a 5-day work week. This work-study program features weekly field trips, lectures and written reports, and job experience related to the student's career interests.
Pettit, E. C.; Conner, L.; Tzou, C.
Expeditionary science differs from laboratory science in that expeditionary science teams conduct investigations in conditions that are often physically and socially, as well as intellectually, challenging. Team members live in close quarters for extended periods of time, team building and leadership affect the scientific process, and research tools are limited to what is available on site. Girls on Ice is an expeditionary science experience primarily for disadvantaged girls; it fully immerses girls in a mini scientific expedition to study alpine, glacierized environments. In addition to mentoring the girls through conducting their own scientific research, we encourage awareness and discussion of different sociocultural perspectives on the relation between the natural world, science, and society. The experience aligns closely with the apprenticeship model of learning, which can be effective in enhancing identification with science. Using a mixed-methods approach, we show that the Girls on Ice model helps girls (1) increase their interest and engagement in science and build a stronger science identity, (2) develop confidence, importantly they develop a combined physical and intellectual confidence; (3) engage in authentic scientific thinking, including critical thinking and problem solving; and (4) enhance leadership self-confidence. We discuss these results in a learning sciences framework, which posits that learning is inseparable from the social and physical contexts in which it takes place.
Full Text Available Although a large body of literature has suggested that doctoral supervisors play an important role in their students’ attempts at scholarly publishing, few studies have focused specifically on what roles they play. This study sought to address this gap by zooming in on the various roles a group of Chinese doctoral students found their supervisors playing in their scholarly publishing endeavors. Our analysis revealed four important roles played by the supervisors: ‘prey’ searchers, managers, manuscript correctors and masters. The results showed that the supervisors not only facilitated the doctoral students’ publishing output, but also fostered their apprenticeship in scholarly publishing and the academic community. However, the results also unveiled a general unavailability of sorely-needed detailed and specific guidance on students’ early publishing attempts and some supervisors’ limited ability to correct students’ English manuscripts. These findings underscore the important contributions doctoral supervisors can make to their students’ academic socialization. They also suggest a need for external editorial assistance with doctoral students’ English manuscripts and ample opportunities for their scaffolded initiation into the tacit conventions and practices of scholarly publishing.
Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R
Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared
Full Text Available The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this principle hinges on the collaborative effort of the key project stakeholders. The client should be willing to absorb extra cost and delays in the project; the design and contract documentation should facilitate on-site training, and the consultant actively guide the contractor and the construction processes to achieve the training objectives. The exploratory research method was adopted in this study and research revealed that this principle was used in a project in the UK and in the development of infrastructure in the tourism industry of South Africa .It is being recommended that the principle be adapted by the public sector for the development of small size infrastructures that can be repeated in many places. This will boost the quality and quantity of artisans, enhance employability, reduce rural urban migration and alleviate poverty.Keywords: Skilled artisans, on-site training, progressive construction processes, project stakeholders, contract documentation.
Introduction. One of the strategies Ministries of Health and their partners have adopted with the aim of promoting safe motherhood since the 1980's is training unskilled traditional birth attendants (TBAs). However, the assumption that training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) would contribute greatly to reduce maternal ...
Background Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered a hallmark of asthma. Other methods are helpful in epidemiological respiratory health studies including Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) and Eosinophils Percentage (EP) in nasal lavage fluid measuring markers for airway inflammation along with the Forced Oscillatory Technique measuring Airway resistance (AR). Can their outcomes discriminate profiles of respiratory health in healthy subjects starting apprenticeship in occupations with a risk of asthma? Methods Rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma-like symptoms, FEV1 and AR post-Methacholine Bronchial Challenge (MBC) test results, FENO measurements and EP were all investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers not suffering from asthma. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was simultaneously conducted in relation to these groups and this generated a synthetic partition (EI). Associations between groups of subjects based on BHR and EI respectively, as well as risk factors, symptoms and investigations were also assessed. Results Among the 441 apprentice subjects, 45 (10%) declared rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms, 18 (4%) declared asthma-like symptoms and 26 (6%) suffered from BHR. The mean increase in AR post-MBC test was 21% (sd = 20.8%). The median of FENO values was 12.6 ppb (2.6-132 range). Twenty-six subjects (6.7%) had EP exceeding 14%. BHR was associated with atopy (p < 0.01) and highest FENO values (p = 0.09). EI identified 39 subjects with eosinophilic inflammation (highest values of FENO and eosinophils), which was associated with BHR and atopy. Conclusions Are any of the identified markers predictive of increased inflammatory responsiveness or of development of symptoms caused by occupational exposures? Analysis of population follow-up will attempt to answer this question. PMID:20604945
Tai, Robert H.; Kong, Xiaoqing; Mitchell, Claire E.; Dabney, Katherine P.; Read, Daniel M.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Andriole, Dorothy A.; Wathington, Heather D.
Do summer laboratory research apprenticeships during high school have an impact on entry into MD/PhD programs? Apart from the nearly decade-long span of time between high school and matriculation into an MD/PhD program, young people have many life-shaping experiences that presumably impact their education and career trajectories. This quantitative…
Lee, Bridget Kiger; Dawson, Kathryn; Cawthon, Stephanie
The University of Texas at Austin Master of Fine Arts (MFA) program offers a cognitive apprenticeship for graduate students in drama-based pedagogy (DBP) through Drama for Schools (DFS), a professional development program for K-12 educators. This article presents findings from an exploratory case study investigation of graduate students'…
Wu, Hsiao-Chi; Shen, Pei-Di; Chen, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Chia-Wen
Web-based learning is generally a solitary process without teachers' on-the-spot assistance. In this study, a quasi-experiment was conducted to explore the effects of various combinations of Web-Based Cognitive Apprenticeship (WBCA) and Time Management (TM) on the development of students' computing skills. Three class cohorts of 124 freshmen in a…
Oktaviyanthi, R.; Dahlan, J. A.
This study aims to develop student worksheets that correspond to the Cognitive Apprenticeship learning approach. The main subject in this student worksheet is Functions and Limits with the branch of the main subject is Continuity and Limits of Functions. There are two indicators of the achievement of this learning that are intended to be developed in the student worksheet (1) the student can explain the concept of limit by using the formal definition of limit and (2) the student can evaluate the value of limit of a function using epsilon and delta. The type of research used is development research that refers to the development of Plomp products. The research flow starts from literature review, observation, interviews, work sheet design, expert validity test, and limited trial on first-year students in academic year 2016-2017 in Universitas Serang Raya, STKIP Pelita Pratama Al-Azhar Serang, and Universitas Mathla’ul Anwar Pandeglang. Based on the product development result obtained the student worksheets that correspond to the Cognitive Apprenticeship learning approach are valid and reliable.
Nuclear power plant simulators have become the most important tool in training nuclear power plant operators. Yet, as these machines continue to become even more sophisticated, highly trained and experienced instructors with unique skills and insights are still essential in order to achieve effective and meaningful training. The making of a qualified simulator instructor involves training and techniques that exceed the traditional programs required of a Senior Reactor Operator (SRO). This paper discusses (i) the training necessary to produce a competent simulator instructor; and (ii) the continuing task of maintaining his or her proficiency. (author)
..., Training Project Manager, Corporate Training Development, United Parcel Service, Atlanta, Georgia. Mr. Wes... Training, United Association of Journeymen & Apprentices of the Plumbing & Pipe Fitting Industry of the U.S... America, Pomfret Center, Connecticut. Ms. Charissa Raynor, Executive Director, Service Employees...
While developing a commercial training program to improve teamwork in control room crews, General Electric's Nuclear Training Services made an important discovery. Traditional training methods for developing teamwork and enhancing diagnostics capabilities are incomplete. Traditional methods generally help, but fail to fulfill the long-term needs of most teams. Teamwork has been treated as a short-term performance problem. Traditional diagnostic training suffers from a similar problem. Too often, it covers only the basic principles of decision-making, ignoring the development of expert diagnostic capabilities. In response to this discovery, they have developed comprehensive training in Team Building and Diagnostics
ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ
Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the
Jorissen, A.J.M.; Hamer, den J.; Leijten, A.J.M.; Salenikovich, A.
Due to new possibilities traditional timber framing has become increasingly popular since the beginning of the 21e century. Although traditional timber framing has been used for centuries, the expected mechanical behaviour is not dealt with in great detail in building codes, guidelines or text
Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.
Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja
'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.
The need for the training of mechanics is discussed, and the increased interest within the utility industry of placing a similar importance on this training as it has traditionally placed on operator training, is expressed. Effective approaches and techniques are described. Fundamental mechanical maintenance concepts and their practical application are discussed, including the use of supporting video programs. The importance of follow-up practical shop exercise which reinforces classroom instruction is stressed, drawing from practical utility experience. Utilizing success in training as a measure of eligibility for advancement is discussed as well as the interface between training and the company bargaining unit
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Dec 1, 2015 ... this technology and presented how to integrat VR with traditional instructional ... training has forced organizations to adopt new .... skills in a safe, controlled environment ... phone charger battery pack [B] connected to.
Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure. One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women's clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined, it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history. These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated . The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. According to the findings of the study, traditional Kastamonu women's clothing are examined and adapted to todays’ clothing.
Altitud y deportes de equipo: métodos tradicionales desafiados por un entrenamiento innovador y específico en hipoxia. [Altitude and team sports: traditional methods challenged by innovative sport-specific training in hypoxia].
Full Text Available Entre los diferentes métodos de entrenamiento en altitud, el "entrenamiento hipóxico intermitente" (IHT – método en el cual los atletas viven al nivel del mar pero se entrenan en condiciones de hipoxia – ha ganado una popularidad sin precedentes. Un análisis exhaustivo de los estudios que incluyen IHT muestra los beneficios sorprendentemente pobres para la mejora del rendimiento al nivel del mar, en comparación con el mismo entrenamiento realizado en normoxia. A pesar de las adaptaciones moleculares positivas observadas después de varias modalidades IHT, las características de estímulo del entrenamiento óptimo en hipoxia son todavía confusas y su traducción funcional en una mejora de rendimiento general es mínima. Para superar algunas limitaciones inherentes al IHT (carga de trabajo inferior debido a la hipoxia, estudios recientes han investigado un nuevo método, llamado RSH, de entrenamiento basado en la repetición de sprints con recuperaciones incompletas en hipoxia. Además, el creciente interés científico acerca de la aplicación práctica del entrenamiento hipóxico legitima el desarrollo de tecnologías innovadoras que sirven a los atletas de un deporte específico. Los objetivos de esta revisión son triples. Primero, analizar los resultados de los estudios que implican ejercicios de alta intensidad realizados en hipoxia para mejorar el rendimiento al nivel del mar diferenciando IHT y RSH. Segundo, discutir los posibles mecanismos que sustentan su eficacia y sus limitaciones inherentes. Tercero, presentar los beneficios potenciales del uso de innovaciones tecnológicas que indudablemente contribuirán a mejorar la comprensión de las adaptaciones fisiológicas inducidas por hipoxia mediante la realización de investigaciones pertinentes con un ajuste "ecológico" específico. Abstract Among the different altitude training methods, intermittent hypoxic training (IHT; i.e., a method where athletes live at or near sea
Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
Edward F. Millen
The study of traditional food and healthy eating habits has been one of the fast growing areas. All humans, both men and women, require food for their survival. However, both men and women indulge in food as if it were their sole purpose of existence. Hence, eating disorders are common among men and women. Then media has played an effective role not only in establishing faulty standards for traditional healthy food but also it has highlighted the importance of healthy eating. It has brought t...
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of births in Nigeria still occur at homes of traditional birth attendant. Traditional birth attendants are popular in developing and low resource countries. They lack no formal education or medical training and their clients end up with obstetric complications which lead to severe morbidity ...
Full Text Available Chinese noodles originated in the Han dynasty, which has more than 4,000 years of history. There are many stories about the origin of noodles. To a certain extent, noodles also reflect the cultural traditions and customs of China, which essentially means “human nature” and “worldly common sense”. There are thousands of varieties of noodles in China, according to the classification of the shape of noodles, seasoning gravy, cooking craft, and so on. Many noodles have local characteristics. Noodles are accepted by people from all over the world. The industrial revolution and the development of the food industry realized the transition from a traditional handicraft industry to mass production using machinery. In addition, the invention of instant noodles and their mass production also greatly changed the noodle industry. In essence, noodles are a kind of cereal food, which is the main body of the traditional Chinese diet. It is the main source of energy for Chinese people and the most economical energy food. Adhering to the principle of “making cereal food the main food”, is to maintain our Chinese good diet tradition, which can avoid the disadvantages of a high energy, high fat, and low carbohydrate diet, and promote health. The importance of the status of noodles in the dietary structure of residents in our country and the health impact should not be ignored.
Hendrix, Janey B.
A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…
This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)
This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.
In this podcast, a Latina nutrition educator shows how a community worked with local farmers to grow produce traditionally enjoyed by Hispanic/Latinos. Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. Date Released: 11/10/2007.
The appropriate use of forceps, vacuums or spatulas facilitates the rapid delivery of foetuses faced with life-threatening situations. It also makes possible the relief of certain cases of prolonged second-stage labor. In France, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) accounts for approximately 10% of all births. OVD training aims to optimize maternal, as well as neonatal safety. It should enable trainees to indicate or contraindicate an OVD safely, as well as to choose the appropriate instrument, use it correctly, and master quality control principles. Traditional OVD training is confronted with both spatial and time-related limitations. Spatial constraints involve both the teacher and trainee who only have limited visual access to the pelvic canal, and the head of the foetus; the time constraint occurs whenever the OVD occurs in an emergency setting. These limitations have been further aggravated by new constraints: decreasing time dedicated to training (European safety rules prohibit work the day after night duty), increasing litigation, and constraints imposed by society. Training by means of simulation removes such limitations making it possible to both avoid exposing pregnant women to the hazards of traditional training, and adapt the training to the skills of each trainee. OVD training should include forceps, vacuums and the use of spatulas. The OVD skills of obstetricians should be audited regularly on both a personal and a confidential level. Such audits could be based on a method using a simulator. Prospective studies comparing traditional and simulation-based training should be encouraged.
Supriya, K E
In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.
Pannell, Summer; Peltier-Glaze, Bernnell M.; Haynes, Ingrid; Davis, Delilah; Skelton, Carrie
This study sought to determine the effectiveness on increasing student achievement of principals trained in a traditional principal preparation program and those trained in an alternate route principal preparation program within the same Mississippi university. Sixty-six Mississippi principals and assistant principals participated in the study. Of…
Lim-Dunham, Jennifer E; Ensminger, David C; McNulty, John A; Hoyt, Amy E; Chandrasekhar, Arcot J
The principles of Collins' cognitive apprenticeship model were used to design a radiology curriculum in which medical students practice radiological skills using online case-based modules. The modules are embedded within clinical third-year clerkships, and students are provided with personalized feedback from the instructors. We describe the development of the vertical online radiology curriculum and evaluate its impact on student achievement and learning process using a mixed method approach. The curriculum was developed over a 2-year period. Student participation was voluntary in the first year and mandatory in the second year. For quantitative curriculum evaluation, student metrics for voluntary versus mandatory groups were assessed using independent sample t tests and variable entry method regression analysis. For qualitative analysis, responses from a survey of students about the value of the curriculum were organized into defined themes using consensus coding. Mandatory participation significantly improved (p = .001) the mean radiology examination score (82 %) compared to the voluntary group (73%), suggesting that mandatory participation had a beneficial effect on student performance. Potential preexisting differences in underlying general academic performance were accounted for by including mean basic science grades as the first variable in the regression model. The significant increase in R(2) from .16 to .28 when number of radiology cases completed was added to the original model, and the greater value of the standardized beta for this variable, suggest that the curriculum made a significant contribution to students' radiology examination scores beyond their baseline academic performance. Five dominant themes about curricular characteristics that enhanced student learning and beneficial outcomes emerged from consensus coding. These themes were (1) self-paced design, (2) receiving feedback from faculty, (3) clinical relevance of cases, (4) gaining
Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet
Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…
Kohnen, Angela M.
As states continue to implement CCSS, science teachers will be asked to incorporate more discipline-specific reading and writing in their classes. Yet, according to national studies, few science teachers have previous experience to draw upon and most have little to no training in writing pedagogy. This article reports on one science teacher's…
The author estimates the impacts of the local rate of unemployment and the Great Recession on the quit and graduation rates of the U.S. construction trade apprentices over the 2001-2014 period. Trade union participation in training sponsorship had a strong influence on attrition rates. The impacts of the business cycle and the Great Recession on…
Florian Métral, an electronics apprentice at CERN, accepting his prize at the award ceremony.CERN's exhibition stand at the Cité des Métiers et des Formations. CERN has just taken part in the Cité des Métiers et des Formations for the first time. This job and training fair, designed to assist both young people and adults in their choice of profession, training or career change, was held at Palexpo, Geneva's main exhibition centre, from 13 to 19 November. CERN had its own stand, where the Laboratory's activities and its many different trades and training opportunities were on display. Throughout the week and the weekend, a series of guides and members of the HR Department took it in turns to present CERN and the wide range of training it offers students and apprentices. Apprentices came into the spotlight on 13 November, when the Union Industrielle Genevoise awarded prizes to the eight most meritorious apprentices in the field of mecatronics (mechanical and electronics engineering) in the Canton of Gene...
Cocks, Errol; Thoresen, Stian H.; Lee, Elinda Ai Lim
People with disabilities have low participation rates in employment and vocational education and training. Thirty adults with disabilities were sampled from an Australian longitudinal study of economic and social outcomes achieved by graduate apprentices and trainees. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to identify pathways from high school…
Full Text Available Sadum is one of the traditional cloths of the Batak people in North Sumatra. It is woven on a back strap loom with supplementary weft technique. Sadum is a warp faced weaving made of cotton and beads woven into the cloth. Ritually it is used as a shoulder cloth, gifts exchanges, and in dances. It also bears the symbol of good tidings and blessings for the receiver. The cloth has change during times in technique, color, patterns, as well as in functions. But the use as a ritual cloth stays the same. The basic weaving techniques and equipments used to create it hasn’t change, but its material and added techniques has made this cloth become more rich in color, pattern, and texture. Most changes began when the Europeans came to Indonesia and introduced new material such as synthetic fibers and colors. In the 70s traditional cloth of Indonesia got its boost when the government declared batik as Indonesian national attire. This encourages other traditional weavings to develop into contemporary clothing. Later, new techniques and material were introduced to the Sadum weavings including embroidery, silk and golden threads which were never used before.
Kamangar, Farin; Silver, Gillian; Hohmann, Christine; Hughes-Darden, Cleo; Turner-Musa, Jocelyn; Haines, Robert Trent; Jackson, Avis; Aguila, Nelson; Sheikhattari, Payam
Undergraduate students who are interested in biomedical research typically work on a faculty member's research project, conduct one distinct task (e.g., running gels), and, step by step, enhance their skills. This "apprenticeship" model has been helpful in training many distinguished scientists over the years, but it has several potential drawbacks. For example, the students have limited autonomy, and may not understand the big picture, which may result in students giving up on their goals for a research career. Also, the model is costly and may greatly depend on a single mentor. The NIH Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) Initiative has been established to fund innovative undergraduate research training programs and support institutional and faculty development of the recipient university. The training model at Morgan State University (MSU), namely " A S tudent- C entered En trepreneurship D evelopment training model" (ASCEND), is one of the 10 NIH BUILD-funded programs, and offers a novel, experimental "entrepreneurial" training approach. In the ASCEND training model, the students take the lead. They own the research, understand the big picture, and experience the entire scope of the research process, which we hypothesize will lead to a greater sense of self-efficacy and research competency, as well as an enhanced sense of science identity. They are also immersed in environments with substantial peer support, where they can exchange research ideas and share experiences. This is important for underrepresented minority students who might have fewer role models and less peer support in conducting research. In this article, we describe the MSU ASCEND entrepreneurial training model's components, rationale, and history, and how it may enhance undergraduate training in biomedical research that may be of benefit to other institutions. We also discuss evaluation methods, possible sustainability solutions, and programmatic challenges that can affect all
Full Text Available An exploratory case study was carried out to investigate if the use of mobile phones as a tool for learning could address concerns over the current learning of the carpentry and joinery apprentices in the Dublin Institute of Technology. The concerns are regarding a lack of learner self-direction and engagement with the learning content. A high level of mobile phone usage was apparent among the apprentice cohort. It was decided to take advantage of the potential learning opportunity offered by mobile technologies to promote the learning and engagement of the apprentices. Towards this goal, a compatible resource was developed, hosting presentations, course content, videos and questions. This study explored the views of the learners in the carpentry and joinery trade apprenticeship and their attitudes towards developing an m-learning resource. The aim of the research was to explore if this m-learning resource encouraged self-direction and engagement. Further objectives of this study were to establish a start point for further research projects and resource development.
Donovan Casas Patiño
Full Text Available Mexico has a great history and tradition in relation to the training of resident physicians, but what we find behind this process?, Power relations implied and not implied, unnoticed or ignored for convenience by the academic and health institutions, with the aggravation of forgetting its commitment to the training of men and women "professionals" and limited to meet another indicator of "human resources for health." The resident physician in academic and scientific training is immersed in this dehumanized maelstrom and ends up becoming a character for the domain of knowledge as power, forgetting that his act and its rationale lies in the principle of "primum non nocere" to that we would add: nor your person, nor your fellowman, much less whom you have the moral, ethical and civic responsibility to convey some of your knowledge and your experience, that is, part of your essence”.
Japan, which occupied Korea from 1910 through the end of World War II, transformed traditional medicine. Japanese colonialists propagandized the "benefits of modern civilization such as western medicine" and rejected the advantages of traditional medicine. This bias against Korean traditional medicine mirrored the government's rejection of its own traditional medicine. So, Korean traditional medicine was marginalized in the national health care system: traditional doctors were excluded from public institutions and references to traditional medicine were purged from school textbooks and newspapers. The wars that Japan waged between 1931 and 1944 effected a favorable change toward traditional medicines, however. The wars created a severe shortage of drugs and medical personnel. Thus the colonial government was eager for Koreans to cultivate and gather herbal drugs; it also built a large research institute for herbalism at the Keijo Imperial University in 1938. The colonial government made pharmacopoeia for traditional herbal drugs including plant and animal drugs from 1937 to 1942, independently from Japan. Under these conditions, the prestige of traditional medicine was greatly improved. Influential newspapers and magazines covered the traditional medicine and public lectures on traditional medicine drew large audiences. The wartime government abandoned its opposition to traditional medicine, and appointed a traditional practitioner to the staff of the public hospital in 1934. Moreover, the government allowed the association of the traditional medical doctors in Seoul to train three hundred more practitioners between 1937 and 1942. Japanese colonial policy toward traditional medicine reflected the contradiction between modernizing ideology and the reality of poor colonial medical care. Japanese propaganda promised that the colonial regime would provide more advanced medicine to Korea, but the promise was an empty one. In this situation, traditional medical doctors
Lyumugabe Loshima, François
Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...
It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.
It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions
Diano, Oscar F
The changing strategic environment has necessitated a shift in Army training from traditional maneuver warfare to full-spectrum operations to defeat irregular, catastrophic, and disruptive challenges more effectively...
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Language Training Françoise Benz tel. 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 email@example.com General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.
convenient document retrieval and internal voice communications system. 12-12 AFOSR High School Apprenticeship Program July 22-August 16 1991 Gene ...with the computer software packages used here at Sverdrup; Gene Smith and Gail Arnold for their aid in faxing my pay voucher every two weeks. GENERAL...10M .,.n Z~ w z .; z z ZZ r3r M z X E X 2 z Y ZiMZ . Z Z Z Z X2X Z X Z X 2 rZ Z Z W: I. I 1 It W6 hfe II 1 - -- m _ V m-! ’ =t2Csu C1 M 0 oNt - ;I
In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs
Pimmer, Christoph; Pachler, Norbert; Nierle, Julia; Genewein, Urs
Today's healthcare can be characterised by the increasing importance of specialisation that requires cooperation across disciplines and specialities. In view of the number of educational programmes for interdisciplinary cooperation, surprisingly little is known on how learning arises from interdisciplinary work. In order to analyse the learning and teaching practices of interdisciplinary cooperation, a multiple case study research focused on how consults, i.e., doctor-to-doctor consultations between medical doctors from different disciplines were carried out: semi-structured interviews with doctors of all levels of seniority from two hospital sites in Switzerland were conducted. Starting with a priori constructs based on the 'methods' underpinning cognitive apprenticeship (CA), the transcribed interviews were analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. The research contributes to three debates: (1) socio-cognitive and situated learning, (2) intra- and interdisciplinary learning in clinical settings, and (3), more generally, to cooperation and problem solving. Patient cases, which necessitate the cooperation of doctors in consults across boundaries of clinical specialisms, trigger intra- as well as interdisciplinary learning and offer numerous and varied opportunities for learning by requesting doctors as well as for on-call doctors, in particular those in residence. The relevance of consults for learning can also be verified from the perspective of CA which is commonly used by experts, albeit in varying forms, degrees of frequency and quality, and valued by learners. Through data analysis a model for collaborative problem-solving and help-seeking was developed which shows the interplay of pedagogical 'methods' of CA in informal clinical learning contexts.
Birhan, Wubet; Giday, Mirutse; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun
Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2%) efficacy, 109 (35.6%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0%) cost and 6 (2.0%) dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%), young age (20-40 years, 65.0%), never married (56.9%), orthodox (73.9%), Amhara (52.3%), educational status above grade 12 (34.6%) and government employees (29.4%) were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based apprenticeship was the sources of knowledge for majority of the
apprenticeship was the sources of knowledge for majority of the healers. Conclusions The study conducted showed that for the majority of patients interviewed traditional healers' clinics were one of the options to solve their health problems that indicated the considerable contribution of these clinics to the public health care system in Addis Ababa. Nevertheless, in this study the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to the public health system would have been better shown if individuals who are not users of the traditional healers' clinics were included in the interview. However, the study might be useful as a base line data for future evaluation of the significance of traditional healers' clinics for public health system and the services rendered in these clinics.
Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje
A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...
Newcomb, Anna; Trickey, Amber W; Lita, Elena; Dort, Jonathan
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to assess communication skills and provide feedback to residents. We aimed to develop a feasible data collection process that generates objective clinical performance information to guide training activities, inform ACGME milestone evaluations, and validate assessment instruments. Residents care for patients in the surgical clinic and in the hospital, and participate in a communication curriculum providing practice with standardized patients (SPs). We measured perception of resident communication using the 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), collecting data from patients at the surgery clinic and surgical wards in the hospital, and from SP encounters during simulated training scenarios. We developed a handout of CAT example behaviors to guide patients completing the communication assessment. Independent academic medical center. General surgery residents. The primary outcome is the percentage of total items patients rated "excellent;" we collected data on 24 of 25 residents. Outpatient evaluations resulted in significantly higher scores (mean 84.5% vs. 68.6%, p communication assessments in their concurrent patient population (p = 0.017), and (2) receiving CAT example instructions was associated with a lower percentage of excellent ratings by 9.3% (p = 0.047). Our data collection process provides a model for obtaining meaningful information about resident communication proficiency. CAT evaluations of surgical residents by the inpatient population had not previously been described in the literature; our results provide important insight into relationships between the evaluations provided by inpatients, clinic patients, and SPs in simulation. Our example behaviors guide shows promise for addressing a common concern, minimizing ceiling effects when measuring physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by
Durak, Halil Ibrahim; Certuğ, Agah; Calişkan, Ayhan; van Dalen, Jan
Although the Basic Life Support (BLS) ability of a medical student is a crucial competence, poor BLS training programs have been documented worldwide. Better training designs are needed. This study aims to share detailed descriptions and the test results of two cognitive-constructivist training models for the BLS skills in the first year of medical curriculum. A BLS skills training module was implemented in the first year curriculum in the course of 6 years (1997-2003). The content was derived from the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines. Initially, a competence-based model was used and was upgraded to a cognitive apprenticeship model in 2000. The main performance-content type that was expected at the end of the course was: competent application of BLS procedures on manikins and peers at an OSCE as well as 60% achievement in a test consisting of 25 MCQ items. A retrospective cohort survey design using exam results and a self-completed anonymous student ratings' questionnaire were used in order to test models. Training time for individual students varied from 21 to 29 hours. One thousand seven hundred and sixty students were trained. Fail rates were very low (1.0-2.2%). The students were highly satisfied with the module during the 6 years. In the first year of the medical curriculum, a competence-based or cognitive apprenticeship model using cognitive-constructivist designs of skills training with 9 hours theoretical and 12-20 hours long practical sessions took place in groups of 12-17 students; medical students reached a degree of competence to sufficiently perform BLS skills on the manikins and their peers. The cognitive-constructivist designs for skills training are associated with high student satisfaction. However, the lack of controls limits the extrapolation of this conclusion.
Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.
This report summarizes several group discussions with parents of high school students, high school students, and nursing students regarding the world of work and the advantages and disadvantages of a youth apprenticeship program. Section I is an executive summary that describes the methodology, summarizes key attitudes toward youth apprenticeships…
Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.
A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this…
Burgin, Stephen R.; McConnell, William J.; Flowers, Alonzo M., III
This study describes an investigation of a research apprenticeship program that we developed for diverse high-school students often underrepresented in similar programs and in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professions. Through the apprenticeship program, students spent 2 weeks in the summer engaged in biofuels-related research practices within working university chemistry and engineering laboratories. The experience was supplemented by discussions and activities intended to impact nature of science (NOS) and inquiry understandings and to allow for an exploration of STEM careers and issues of self-identity. Participants completed a NOS questionnaire before and after the experience, were interviewed multiple times, and were observed while working in the laboratories. Findings revealed that as a result of the program, participants (1) demonstrated positive changes in their understandings of certain NOS aspects many of which were informed by their laboratory experiences, (2) had an opportunity to explore and strengthen STEM-related future plans, and (3) examined their self-identities. A majority of participants also described a sense of belonging within the laboratory groups and believed that they were making significant contributions to the ongoing work of those laboratories even though their involvement was necessarily limited due to the short duration of the program. For students who were most influenced by the program, the belonging they felt was likely related to issues of identity and career aspirations.
Borel-Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Hamming, Jaap F.
Surgical training in the Netherlands has traditionally been characterized by learning on the job under the classic master-trainee doctrine. Over the past decades, it has become regionally organized with intensive structural training courses, and a peer-based quality control system. Recently, the
One of the biggest challenges for healthcare professionals working in developing countries is the lack of trained personnel to carry out much needed health care provision. Shirley Stronge worked as a nurse/midwife tutor in a rural area in the north of Malawi. Millennium Development Goals four and five have focused our attention on the care required by mothers and newborns. Shirley has chosen to reflect on the role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the north of Malawi and their positive impact on maternity services in this area.
in mortuary ceremonies, whose form and content are passionately contested by different groups of relatives. Through prolonged negotiations, Ton learns how Baluan people perform and transform their traditions and not least what role he plays himself. The film is part of long-term field research, in which...... insights prompted by filmmaking grounded in long-term familiarity and involvement with a community. It also demonstrates the benefits of an anthropologically trained film crew. … As an ethnographic film that demonstrates the value and developing insights of long-term fieldwork,this is excellent.” — Mike...
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp
or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...
Connie K. Haley
Full Text Available This study was designed to explore and describe the relationships between preference for online training and traditional face-to-face training. Included were variables of race, gender, age, education, experience of library employees, training providers, training locations, and institutional professional development policies, etc. in the library context. The author used a bivariate test, KruskalWallis test and Mann-Whitney U test to examine the relationship between preference for online training and related variables.
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 email@example.com General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...
Roxana Ma Newman
Full Text Available
Abstract: Hausa, a major language of West Africa, is one of the most widely studied languagesof Sub-Saharan Africa. It has a rich lexicographic tradition dating back some two centuries. Sincethe first major vocabulary published in 1843 up to the present time, almost 60 lexicographic works— dictionaries, vocabularies, glossaries — have been published, in a range of metalanguages, fromEnglish to Hausa itself. This article traces the historical development of the major studies accordingto their type and function as general reference works, specialized works, pedagogical works, andterminological works. For each work, there is a general discussion of its size, accuracy of the phonological,lexical, and grammatical information, and the adequacy of its definitions and illustrativematerial. A complete list of the lexicographic works is included.
Keywords: ARABIC, BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DIALECTAL VARIANTS, DICTIONARIES,ENGLISH, ETYMOLOGIES, FRENCH, GERMAN, GLOSSARIES, GRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, HAUSA, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LOANWORDS, NEOLOGISMS, NIGER,NIGERIA, ORTHOGRAPHY, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION, PHONOLOGY, RUSSIAN, STANDARDDIALECT, STANDARDIZATION, TERMINOLOGY, VOCABULARIES, WEST AFRICA.
Opsomming: Die leksikografiese tradisie in Hausa. Hausa, 'n belangrike taal vanWes-Afrika, is een van die tale van Afrika suid van die Sahara wat die wydste bestudeer word. Dithet 'n ryk leksikografiese tradisie wat ongeveer twee eeue oud is. Van die eerste groot woordeboekwat in 1843 gepubliseer is tot die hede is ongeveer 60 leksikografiese werke — woordeboeke,naamlyste, woordelyste — gepubliseer in 'n reeks metatale van Engels tot Hausa self. Hierdie artikelgaan die historiese ontwikkeling van die groter studies aan die hand van hulle tipe en funksieas algemene naslaanwerke, gespesialiseerde werke, opvoedkundige werke, en terminologiesewerke na. Vir elke werk is daar 'n algemene bespreking oor sy grootte, akkuraatheid van die fonologiese,leksikale en
The dual system of vocational training, utilising both company training and vocational school attendance, is generally acknowledged to be a successful model for reducing youth unemployment. However, the decreasing number of training opportunities in countries with this system poses a crisis for the approach. One strategy for overcoming the problem…
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Toftgård, Rie Castella; Nørgaard, Cita
supervision of clinical skills (formative assessment). Demonstrations of these principles will be presented as video podcasts during the session. The learning outcomes of video supervision and peer-feedback were assessed in an online questionnaire survey. Results Results of the supervision showed large self......Objective New technology and learning principles were introduced in a clinical skills training laboratory (iLab). The intension was to move from apprenticeship to active learning principles including peer feedback and supervision using video. The objective of this study was to evaluate student...... learning outcomes in a manual skills training subject using video during feedback and supervision. Methods The iLab classroom was designed to fit four principles of teaching using video. Two of these principles were (a) group work using peer-feedback on videos produced by the students and, (b) video...
Full Text Available The successive colonization of Istria with culturally differentiated populations, and peripheral position of the peninsula regarding both the Latin and Slav worlds, has conditioned interesting phenomena which defines the traditional life of the province. On the spiritual level it is primarily reflected in two cultural dimensions: the language and traditional music.
Ch'ong, S.L.; Myint Aye Mu; Ch'ng, H.M.; Pathmanathan, R.
Use of information technology as one of the instructional tools in problem based learning in the discipline of chemical pathology is receiving widespread interest (1). This will hopefully speed up the process of information access, retrieval, rehearsal, cognitive apprenticeship which will ultimately improve the understanding of chemical pathology and the optimal uses of laboratory investigation techniques. This program is written for self-directed training in steroid receptor assay (we believe to be the first of its kind) with a multimedia software Authorware (purchased from Macromedia, Inc. ) to create a rich blend of animation, colours, graphics, sounds and interactive questions (without giving the answer away). It is hoped that this software can assist the trainee in the process of learning by presenting to him/her sequence of 'related' problems with feedback for success or failure-learning from error, but with assistance - in a real-world job problem or case situated learning- cognitive apprenticeship to assist the trainee in appropriate neuro-networking to make the appropriate response
Rybarczyk, Brian; Lerea, Leslie; Lund, P. Kay; Whittington, Dawayne; Dykstra, Linda
Postdoctoral training in the biological sciences continues to be an important credential for academic careers. Traditionally, this training is focused on an independent research experience. In this article, we describe a postdoctoral training program designed to prepare postdoctoral scholars for the responsibilities of an academic career that…
The following topics to be covered in this report are: Design principles for training programmes; training methods, materials and facilities; national and international organization; training assessment and documentation; relation between supplier and customer, licensing requirements and practices. (orig.)
Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.
Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional
chemistry in life, the role of the adult as teacher, educator, and facilitator of learning, reference book for ... Chemistry was not an abstract idea to me, rather a practice, knowledge about doing certain things ... classroom with a trained teacher. .... indigenous traditional knowledge as well as in modern scientific knowledge.
Modern art on the other hand is referred to as a marriage of the old tradition with the new artistic expression in terms of materials, techniques and tools by the college-trained artists. The current state of the arts in Nigeria is examined and suggestions are made for the reconstruction and revitalization of the art profession, and ...
Janes, Joseph; McClure, Charles R.
This preliminary study suggests that the same level of timeliness and accuracy can be obtained for answers to reference questions using resources in freely available World Wide Web sites as with traditional print-based resources. Discusses implications for library collection development, new models of consortia, training needs, and costing and…
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in...
Mautner Markhof, F.
This paper presents the reasons for acceptance of SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) as the best international practice in respect to training of NPP personnel and the differences in comparison to traditional approaches to training. The identification and evaluation of the new training needs, resources and other requirements for implementing SAT are discussed as well as new approaches and existing training capabilities and involvement of Regulatory body in training of NPP personnel. The IAEA Guidebook on NPP Personnel Training (TRS-380) was used a a basis for discussion of the mentioned topics with the emphasis on achieving the best possible training programmes for NPP personnel
Wayne G. Ganpat
Full Text Available To address the aging farmer population in Trinidad, W.I., a situation common to the Caribbean region, a Youth Apprenticeship Program in Agriculture (YAPA was initiated. An assessment of its effectiveness was conducted in 2007. Results indicated that present trainees went into agriculture to make “additional” income and for self employment, with “contributing to national food security” being ranked lower. They were generally satisfied with the extent of field work, the experience gained and trainers’ knowledge and skills. However, they would leave agriculture if they received other employment opportunities or if they were not provided with key resources such as land and soft loans. Past YAPA trainees had significantly changed (p
Kellogg, Ronald T.
Full Text Available Writing skills typically develop over a course of more than two decades as a child matures and learns the craft of composition through late adolescence and into early adulthood. The novice writer progresses from a stage of knowledge-telling to a stage of knowledgetransforming characteristic of adult writers. Professional writers advance further to an expert stage of knowledge-crafting in which representations of the author's planned content, the text itself, and the prospective reader's interpretation of the text are routinely manipulated in working memory. Knowledge-transforming, and especially knowledge-crafting, arguably occur only when sufficient executive attention is available to provide a high degree of cognitive control over the maintenance of multiple representations of the text as well as planning conceptual content, generating text, and reviewing content and text. Because executive attention is limited in capacity, such control depends on reducing the working memory demands of these writing processes through maturation and learning. It is suggested that students might best learn writing skills through cognitive apprenticeship training programs that emphasize deliberate practice.
ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon
Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.
General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:email@example.com
Hamacher, Duane W.
Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.
Young Min Kang
Full Text Available Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6–7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.
Kang, Young Min; Komakech, Richard; Karigar, Chandrakant Shivappa; Saqib, Asma
Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM) basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6-7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.
Slovenske elektrarne considers a specific training and education of experienced experts to be a key issue. The company gradually undergoes quite demanding change in the field of education and training of the nuclear power plants staff. We have an ambitious vision - to create one of the best training organisations in Europe by the means of systematic approach to the training. (author)
Nos, V.; Faig, J.; Plesa, P.; Delgado, J. L.
The systematic approach to training is internationally accepted as the best method to achieve and maintain the qualification and competence of power plant personnel and to guarantee the quality of their training. Following the recommendations and guidelines of international organisations competent in the field, TECNATOM SA has developed projects based on the systematic approach to training for all Spanish nuclear power plants. One of the latest projects was the systematic approach to training developed for the operation personnel of ASCO Nuclear Power Plant. In this case, certain results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) which complement the systematic safety and reliability criteria of the systematic approach to training process have been incorporated in the traditional processes of work and task analysis and training plan design. This incorporation provides the training manager with additional criteria based not only on safety aspects obtained through the statistical treatment of considerations of skilled technical personnel (operators, operation chief supervisors, etc), but also on the independent criterion of the PSA. The inclusion of this approach basically affects all systematics in two of its stages: During the selection process of operating practices in SMR or SGI, the possible scenarios have been associated with all those situations where human actions which lead to an initiating event or human actions to mitigate an initiating event, may take place, as defined in the PSA. During the scenario development process, the instruments involved in the performance of human actions which originate or mitigate an event taking place have been identified. This pakes it possible to reconcile the scenario event sequence with the sequence considered in the PSA study, as the most likely to provoke a more serious accident. The incorporation of these PSA results contributes to the strengthening of safety aspects in training in an objective way, and confirms that
Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei
With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... TCM, it is important to separate questions about traditional theories and ... of modern science-based medicine and health promotion practices. The ...
Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.
Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.
Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...
George S. Tavlas
In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put money directly into circulation. This policy stance distinguished th...
Dorin Vicentiu Popescu; Manoela Popescu
The internet represents new opportunities for the traditional companies, including the diversification of the given services and also the promotion of the new ones, which are personalized and attractive and they are possible thanks to the information and communication technologies. According to this, the Internet impact, which has allowed the development of a new form of commerce- the commerce via Internet (which is a component of the electronic commerce), against the traditional global comme...
The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...
This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...
Via, Allegra; Blicher, Thomas; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Brazas, Michelle D; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; Fernandes, Pedro L; van Gelder, Celia; Jacob, Joachim; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyrö nen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Attwood, Teresa K
concepts. Providing bioinformatics training to empower life scientists to handle and analyse their data efficiently, and progress their research, is a challenge across the globe. Delivering good training goes beyond traditional lectures and resource
Research on psychoanalytical education within the IPA may be clarified by reflecting on the ethic behind each of the three main models (Eitingonian, French and Uruguayan). In fact, the ethic underpinning psychoanalytical education, whatever the model, is confronted by irreducible conflicts between transmitting psychoanalysis by means of analytical experience or by means of academic teaching. Transmission by experience is essentially based on the ethic of psychoanalytic practice, which is difficult to regulate through institutional standards, whereas the academic aspect can be evaluated by objective and public criteria. The importance of both aspects and their relative weight in the training process depend on the conception of psychoanalysis underlying each model. This paper will look primarily at the French training model, the essentially analytical aspects of which favour the transmission of the very ethical foundations of psychoanalytic practice itself: the application of the method both as a working tool and as a tool of evaluation. It presupposes expanding the observation and analysis of transference beyond the framework of treatment to that of supervision. From this analysis, the paper will attempt to demonstrate how the French model proposes dealing with the inevitable conflicts between transmission by means of analysis and training by means of apprenticeship.
Vivek Kumar Dwivedi
Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.
Oker, N; Alotaibi, Naif H; Reichelt, A C; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, Andreas E
ORL-students and residents have an ongoing debate about the "best" programme in Europe. Aim of this study was to comparatively assess differences among programmes in training, satisfaction, quality of life (QoL) of residents and recent otorhinolaryngologist (ORL) specialists in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Austria, and Belgium. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, structured in ten sections including general information, provided guidance, working environment, training structure, teaching of medical students, publication work, QoL, and satisfaction with training, were emailed to residents and recent ORL specialists. 476 returned questionnaires from 6 countries revealed that daily work hours were the highest in France and Belgium with 11 and 10.4 h on average, respectively. QoL, work conditions, and salary were best in Germany followed by Austria in terms of possibility of part-time contracts, better respect for post-duty day off, and compensation for overtime. Satisfaction with training including support and guidance of seniors was lowest in Italy, but, on the other hand, the publication work and support had a more important place than in other countries. In Belgium, there was some gap between the quality of teaching and feedback from seniors as well as apprenticeship. The highest satisfaction with training was in France and Spain followed by Austria. The study results provide guidance before choosing an ORL training programme in Europe. Country-specific strengths could be included into future harmonization efforts to improve all programmes, facilitate professional exchange and, finally, establish standards-of-care carried out by well-trained doctors also looking after a satisfying work-life balance.
Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva
Analysis of museum learning practice and related work has revealed that communication of historical processes resembles school teaching and it may hinder children's participation in museum learning activities. Starting from this issue, a new playful installation was designed actively involving...... a group of primary school children. Results from this process suggest that museum learning practice could be enriched, by moving toward a more non-formal learning approach, in which children and adults are engaged together in shared problem solving. Moreover, introduction of play is envisioned...
This case-study investigates the implementation of blended learning in two undergraduate bachelor educations. The main focus is how blended learning affects the knowledge development in these educations. It is stressed, that knowledge development among students as well as in the professions...... implication for knowledge development in blended learning environments, and how it might have consequences for the development of the profession. The research draws on a theoretical foundation of theories of practice and organizational theory of knowledge development. The methodology of the research uses...... a pragmatic approach of mixed method. The empirical data are derived from survey, document analysis, observation studies and focus group interviews of students, lectures, and practitioners. Data are collected in the first half year of the students’ education at a university college in Denmark in the years...
Adejo, A A
The Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) runs a program to integrate modern contraception into the practice of traditional medicine. Under the project, traditional healers, largely male, are trained on the ideals of nonprescriptive contraceptives such as condoms, the oral contraceptive pill, and foaming tablets, and how to offer such services to their clients. They participate in a two-week, highly participatory training course which confers a comprehensive introduction to basic and integrated reproductive health care service delivery, simple human anatomy and physiology, and human reproduction. The benefits of modern contraception are reviewed along with community mobilization and counseling. Simple communication techniques such as songs, drama, and role play are discussed. Information on maternal and child health and child survival, basic hygiene, nutrition, and AIDS is also incorporated into the course. 136 traditional healers have thus far been trained in three local government areas (LGAs) of Lagos State and 150 in six other LGAs in Benue State. The project has resulted in strong referral linkages between traditional healers, modern practitioners, and PPFN.
General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 languag...
La prochaine session se déroulera du 04 octobre 2004 au 11 février 2005 (interruption de 3 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web : http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter M. Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants ...
In the financial services sector in Germany the proportion of trainees qualified to go on to university is particularly high. But what induces school leavers not to go (straight) to university? A written survey of over 500 trainees in the banking and insurance sectors examined the motivations for the choice of educational pathway. Only some of the…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.
Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane
The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.
Nabavi, A; Schipper, J
Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study...... aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. DESIGN: A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary...... surgical skills can be a challenge for the novice and mastoidectomy skills training could potentially be optimized by employing VR simulation training first because of the lower CL. Traditional dissection training could then be used to supplement skills training after basic competencies have been acquired...
Full Text Available Surveys on traditional medical plants affected by termites have been conducted since June to August 2010 at Ketambe, northern Aceh. Traditional medical plants and their natural habitats were obtained through interviewing local people. Termites were collected by adopted a Standardized Sampling Protocol and final. taxonomic confirmation was done with the help of Termite Research Group (the Natural History Museum, London. About 20 species of medical plants were attacked by termites with various levels. Nine genera and 20 species were collected from various habitats throughout Ketambe, Simpur as well as Gunung Setan villages. Coffe (Coffea arabica, hazelnut (Aleurites moluccana , and areca (Area catechu were among the worse of traditional medical plant that had been attached by the termites.
Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.
for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...
The Parisian Transit Authority (RATP) has beguntesting a new train it hopes will be the 'metro① of theyear 2000': a 150-foot-long continuous tube dubbed② the'Boa.' The train is not sectioned off into cars③, thusallowing as many as 890 passengers to walk from one endof the Boa to the other. Swiveling axles beneath the train
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Toftgård, Rie Castella; Nørgaard, Cita
resources of varying quality on the internet if this is not made available during teaching. The objective of this project was to design a new clinical skills laboratory with IT and video facilities to support learning processes. Methods Teaching principles were described before decisions on the design......Objective The principles of apprenticeship in clinical skills training are increasingly being challenged. First, most students are proficient in learning from visual multimedia and will expect this to be part of a modern university education. Second, students will often find visual teaching...... on a priori described teaching and learning designs related to active learning principles. This was a complex process involving teachers, IT-experts, e-learning specialists and a variety of university employees....
Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee; Rumbold, Bruce
Traditional healers (mor baan) played an important role in Thai health long before the introduction of Western medicine. Although modern health professional play a key role of health care provider of Thai health care system, traditional healers and their practice still exist in most rural areas of Thailand. In this article, we address the roles and practices of traditional healers in southern Thailand. An ethnographic method was employed. This approach is the hallmark method used to describe the role and the practice of traditional healers and to grasp in-depth understanding of their everyday life. Participation observation and unstructured interview with 18 traditional healers were conducted. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Most of the traditional healers chose their role because they were influenced by their ancestors, although a few others chose it because of individual interests and a desire to help ill people. All are trained in multiple skills, using supernatural spirits, ceremonies and natural plant products as resources for counteracting various health problems. They refer patients to modern hospitals or other healers if they cannot adequately manage illness themselves. Their service provision is flexible and based on a holistic approach that suits people's lifestyles and needs. The role of traditional healer tends not to attract the interest of younger generations, although traditional healers have contributed greatly to people's health. Their presence improves people's access to healthcare and offers an alternative to modern medicine, which often has a limited role. We conclude that the services of traditional healers should be incorporated into contemporary healthcare provision of Thai health care system.
A survey on the production practices and mode of utilization of mumu – a traditional, ready-to-eat Nigerian cereal-based food product - was conducted to be able to provide information that would be used to improve on the processing, nutritional quality and acceptability of the product. 83 % of respondents indicated the use ...
Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand, active learning changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class; moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant difference between active learning and traditional teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting active learning to traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.
Thornell, John G.
Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…
Waldorf Schools represent the largest nonsectarian school movement in the world, shunning fads and technology and relying on the creative gifts of teachers and students. Studies include eurythmy, woodworking, weaving, and traditional academic subjects, and no commercial textbooks are used. Despite teacher/funding shortages, the system continues to…
intellectual property rights laws. 5 into traditional knowledge areas, in turn, has ... range of innovations in industrial, agricultural, environment and health ... Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2008 ..... Ghosh 2003 Colum J Asian L 106. 80 ..... Management'" 1998 Mich Law Rev 462-556.
Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…
what is still visible in the cityscapes. Furthermore, according to Greve’s publication “Learning from Tokyo urbanism: The urban sanctuaries”, they will figure out how traditions frame interactions between strangers. Thereby, the tea ceremony serves as an example for spaces in-between public and private...
CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.
How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…
Hinduism cannot be understood without the Great Goddess and the goddess-orientated Śākta traditions. The Goddess pervades Hinduism at all levels, from aniconic village deities to high-caste pan-Hindu goddesses to esoteric, tantric goddesses. Nevertheless, the highly influential tantric forms...
Ricardo Di Bartolomeo
Full Text Available The aim of this research was investigate how gamification can help to generate solutions for Training and Development area, identifying its concepts, how and why apply it in training programs. The research instrument used was the literature review on exiting information about gamification, training and development. The research has an exploratory nature, with the aim of improving the ideas on the training models. The results compared the traditional models of training to training based upon the gamified systems. It concluded that gamified systems show better results than more traditional systems.
Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Ioannidis, Dionysis; Giannousi, Maria
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between an exergame-based and a traditional balance training program, in undergraduate Physical Education students. Thirty two third-year undergraduate students at the Democritus University of Thrace were randomly divided into two training program groups of 16 students each,…
Full Text Available In the new economy there are various forms of training for human resources. In this paper we are trying to make a parallel into new forms of training and traditional ones. We will discus about this in the new economy context.
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants per class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people ...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people w...
K, Anbarasi; K, Kasim Mohamed; Vijayaraghavan, Phagalvarthy; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam
To design and implement flipped clinical training for undergraduate dental students in removable complete denture treatment and predict its effectiveness by comparing the assessment results of students trained by flipped and traditional methods. Flipped training was designed by shifting the learning from clinics to learning center (phase I) and by preserving the practice in clinics (phase II). In phase I, student-faculty interactive session was arranged to recap prior knowledge. This is followed by a display of audio synchronized video demonstration of the procedure in a repeatable way and subsequent display of possible errors that may occur in treatment with guidelines to overcome such errors. In phase II, live demonstration of the procedure was given. Students were asked to treat three patients under instructor's supervision. The summative assessment was conducted by applying the same checklist criterion and rubric scoring used for the traditional method. Assessment results of three batches of students trained by flipped method (study group) and three traditionally trained previous batches (control group) were taken for comparison by chi-square test. The sum of traditionally trained three batch students who prepared acceptable dentures (score: 2 and 3) and unacceptable dentures (score: 1) was compared with the same of flipped trained three batch students revealed that the number of students who demonstrated competency by preparing acceptable dentures was higher for flipped training (χ 2 =30.996 with p<0.001). The results reveal the supremacy of flipped training in enhancing students competency and hence recommended for training various clinical procedures.
Di Loreto, Ines; Mora, Simone; Divitini, Monica
Games for crisis management offer an interesting complement to traditional training. Experiments on their usage show that games can be promising tools able to address some of the limitations of traditional training. Also our first assessment with a board game for panic management shows that this particular kind of game could be useful for soft…
Chemical and Engineering News, 1982
The University of Texas (Dallas) has initiated a new Ph.D. program specifically to train chemists for doctoral level work in industry (Doctor of Chemistry). Participants will complete three research practica (at an industrial site and in two laboratory settings) instead of the traditional dissertation, emphasizing breadth and flexibility in…
Han, Jing L; Pappas, Theodore N
There has been much discussion in the medical literature about the importance of empathy and physician communication style in medical practice. Empathy has been shown to have a very real positive effect on patient outcomes. Most of the existing literature speaks to its role in medical education, with relatively little empiric study about empathy in the surgical setting. Review of empathy and its importance as it pertains to the surgeon-patient relationship and improving patient outcomes, and the need for increased education in empathy during surgical training. The published, peer-reviewed literature on patient-physician and patient-surgeon communication, medical student and resident education in empathy, and empathy research was reviewed. PubMed was queried for MESH terms including "empathy," "training," "education," "surgery," "resident," and "communication." There is evidence of a decline in empathy that begins during the clinical years of medical school, which continues throughout residency training. Surgeons are particularly susceptible to this decline as by-product of the nature of their work, and the current lack of formalised training in empathic patient communication poses a unique problem to surgical residents. The literature suggests that empathy training is warranted and should be incorporated into surgical residencies through didactics, role-playing and simulations, and apprenticeship to empathic attending role models. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lerman, Robert I.; Packer, Arnold
Youth transitions to rewarding careers remain a critical problem for America's current and future workforce. In Baltimore, where only one in five graduates of Baltimore City Public Schools matriculates to a four-year college and the unemployment rate for 16 to 19 year-olds is over 40 percent, opportunities to gain meaningful training and work…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore if and to what extent workplace identity can mediate the relationship between learning climate dimensions and job satisfaction in a group of apprentices. Design/methodology/approach: Data were gathered thanks to a non-profit organization devoted to vocational training. Participants (N 87) were…
Raluca Dania TODOR
Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.
McQuaid, Sara Dybris
On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...
Hansis, M L
The basis of evidence for hygiene rules implemented in hospitals is traditionally small. This is not only because there is little theoretical knowledge on the reciprocal influence between a single hygienic mistake/a single microbial input and the manifestation of a nosocomial infection. There are also not enough clinical studies, especially on complex hygiene questions, to determine whether special measures (e.g., septic rooms)can compensate for deficits in hygiene practice. Furthermore, it would be necessary to designate security buffers distinctly. In-house traditions are able to stabilize hygienic behavior in an excellent manner. They should be fostered and not disparaged as myths. Discussions of experts should not be conducted in public; that is disastrous for the everyday work of physicians in hospitals.
Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Sinyai, Clayton; Adams, Darrin
Despite the size and breadth of OSHA's Outreach Training program for construction, information on its impact on work-related injury rates is limited. In a 9-year dynamic cohort of 17,106 union carpenters in Washington State, the effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on workers' compensation claims rate was explored. Injury rates were calculated by training status overall and by carpenters' demographic and work characteristics using Poisson regression. OSHA Outreach Training resulted in a 13% non-significant reduction in injury claims rates overall. The protective effect was more pronounced for carpenters in their apprenticeship years, drywall installers, and with increasing time since training. In line with these observed effects and prior research, it is unrealistic to expect OSHA Outreach Training alone to have large effects on union construction workers' injury rates. Standard construction industry practice should include hazard awareness and protection training, coupled with more efficient approaches to injury control. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:45-57, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).
Does management in newly established factories using highly advanced technology meet special problems in recruitment and training of their workers? Are the traditional training systems supplying the skilled manpower required for running highly sophisticated plants? These were the basic questions asked when the present study was started in seven…
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...
Aila Pullinen. 2015. Mangghuer Embroidery: A Vanishing Tradition IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Visits were undertaken in the years 2001 and 2002 to Minhe Hui and Mangghuer (Tu) Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province, China to research and document Mangghuer embroidery. This research is summarized in terms of the history of Mangghuer embroidery, tools and materials, embroidery techniques, embr...
McNamara, John M; Swalm, Ricky L; Stearne, David J; Covassin, Tracey M
The purpose of this study was to determine how a traditional weight training class compared to nontraditional classes that were heavily laden with technology. Could students learn resistance exercises by watching video demonstrations over the Internet? Three university weight training classes, each lasting 16 weeks, were compared. Each class had the same curriculum and workout requirements but different attendance requirements. The online group made extensive use of the Internet and was allowed to complete the workouts on their own at any gym that was convenient for them. Seventy-nine college-aged students were randomized into 3 groups: traditional (n = 27), hybrid (n = 25), and online (n = 27). They completed pretest and posttest measures on upper-body strength (i.e., bench press), lower-body strength (i.e., back squat), and knowledge (i.e., written exam). The results indicated that all 3 groups showed significant improvement in knowledge (p students to attend class and may have resulted in significantly lower scores on the bench press (p technology can be used in a weight training class. If this limit is exceeded, some type of monitoring system appears necessary to ensure that students are actually completing their workouts.
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786
Ashok Kumar Panda
Full Text Available Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim′s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim′s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.
Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M; Xiong, Wen; Feng, Yanyu
An estimated 25% of the alcohol consumed in China is traditional unrecorded alcohol produced and distributed informally. Consequently there is concern about its safety and its contribution to public health risk. Little has been written about this type of alcohol in China. Researchers observed the manufacture of traditional bai jiu in a rural area of Hubei Province, Central China. Two hundred fifty-nine individuals were interviewed, either individually or in small groups, about their use of and attitudes toward bai jiu. Individuals who made or sold bai jiu were interviewed about local production, distribution, and sale. Key community leaders were asked about risks from local bai jiu production, sale, and use. All of the bai jiu makers followed the same basic traditional procedure. Most had learned their craft from a family member or by apprenticeship, and their product was sold to neighbors or nearby villagers. Bai jiu makers typically had a business license and a health certificate. The shops that bought and sold traditional bai jiu were family-run businesses that sold both traditional bai jiu and commercial alcohol to clientele within a close social network. Alcohol (all types) was consumed by 79.9% of interviewed villagers (89.7% of males, 50.0% of females). Of the 207 drinkers in the sample, 72.9% drank bai jiu, 59.4% drank beer, and 22.7% drank commercial spirits. Bai jiu was most often consumed at mealtimes. Bai jiu drinkers believed moderate drinking was healthy and that drinking improved the social atmosphere, and about one-third of them believed drinking too much could result in quarrels and family problems. The bai jiu business provided two sources of income for makers because spent grain from the distillation process could be fed to livestock. Production, sale, and use of traditional bai jiu occurred within the context of local traditions, values, customs, and social networks. The data did not suggest any significant issues related to contamination
Marian F. Byrka
Full Text Available The article examines the implementation of blended learning strategy in teacher training programs as an innovation in online learning. The blended learning idea comes from blending elements which use online technology with more traditional face-to-face teaching in the same course. The article analyses teacher training programs offered by Chernivtsi Regional Institute of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education. Additional data were gathered through a questionnaire administered to teachers who attended training courses. The characteristics of blended learning strategy, its benefits and limitations for teacher training are supported by a review of literature. The article closes with the comparison of curriculum components (content delivery, learner activities, materials, and required competences between traditional and blended learning teacher training programs. Having obvious benefits in teacher training programs, the implementation of blended learning strategy sets some additional requirements to a learner, as well as to course instructors and lectors.
Likesas, G; Zachopoulou, E
Research has shown that motivation for participating in physical education, particularly in traditional dances, has decreased dramatically. The aim of this research was to examine whether a music and movement program would increase pleasure and intrinsic motivation of students in elementary education while teaching them Greek traditional dances. 232 students were divided into two groups, a trained group of 135 participants (72 boys, 63 girls) and a control group of 97 (53 boys, 44 girls). The trained group was taught using the music and movement teaching model of traditional dances. The control group was taught using the instructional or guided teaching method of traditional Greek dances. To measure effectiveness of the two methods was accomplished by the completion of McAuley's Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. Analysis of scores showed use of music and movement education had a positive effect on intrinsic motivation for dancing and active participation of students, especially of the trained boys' group.
A SAT-based Instructor Training Course was developed and implemented at NVTC. The duration of the initial course is 3 weeks and 2 weeks for annual refresher course. NVTC has had much experience with this Instructor Training Course generating the following lessons-learned: SAT implementation needs to be supported by plant management; age of instructors; developments of training materials and conducting training at the same time; knowledge and use of the PC; English language skills; social transitioning from the NPP to the TC; motivation; workplace environment and conditions
Garcia, Kimberly; Dowling, Donna; Mettler, Gretchen
Guatemala's Maternal Mortality Rate is 65th highest in the world at 120 deaths per 100,000 births. Contributing to the problem is traditional birth attendants (TBAs) attend most births yet lack knowledge about obstetrical emergencies. Government trainings in existence since 1955 have not changed TBA knowledge. Government trainings are culturally insensitive because they are taught in Spanish with written material, even though most TBAs are illiterate and speak Mayan dialects. The purpose of the observational study was to evaluate the effect of an oral training, that was designed to be culturally sensitive in TBAs' native language, on TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies. one hundred ninety-one TBAs participated. The study employed a pretest-posttest design. A checklist was used to compare TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies before and after the training. the mean pretest score was 5.006±SD 0.291 compared to the mean posttest score of 8.549±SD 0.201. Change in knowledge was a P value of 0.00. results suggest an oral training that was designed to be culturally sensitive in the native language improved TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies. Future trainings should follow a similar format to meet the needs of illiterate audiences in remote settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Det, M.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Hoff, C.; Middel, B.; Pierie, J.P.
INtraoperative Video Enhanced Surgical procedure Training (INVEST) is a new training method designed to improve the transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedural training in the operating theater. Traditionally, the master-apprentice model (MAM) is used for procedural training